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  • richardmitnick 3:24 pm on April 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , TRIUMF   

    From TRIUMF: “Baartman scores touchdown in magnet design” 

    TRIUMF

    Thursday, 23. April 2015
    Kyla Shauer and Jacqueline Wightman, Communications Assistants

    For years labs all over the world have been using a quadrupole magnet design that works perfectly on paper – that is, in two dimensional space – but less than perfectly in three dimensional reality. These quadrupoles were designed in the 1970s to be used in particle accelerators, and the design has not changed much since. Rick Baartman, head of the Beam Physics group at TRIUMF, re-evaluated the problem and came up with a new and improved quadrupole design.

    Quadrupoles are four-poled magnets with alternating north and south poles. They are used to focus a beam of charged particles and guide it down the beam line. To create a given force on the charged particle beam, quadrupoles can be long and weak or short and strong. It is well known in the particle accelerator community that the shorter your quadrupole magnet, the more efficiently and accurately it works. This is because quadrupoles are made of steel, so they are subject to a lagging effect called “hysteresis.” This effect is more pronounced with weaker magnets, so the quadrupoles should be as short as possible.

    Previous to Rick’s breakthrough, TRIUMF, like many labs all over the world, used a design that was basically derived from the 2-dimensional one, but truncated in the third dimension (See Fig. 2). Engineers knew the ends should be rounded to minimize the non-intended, non-linear field, but the exact optimal shape was unknown.

    Baartman found a key formula in a 1972 Russian paper by Derevjankin [1]. Using Mathematica™ software, he made calculations based on this formula, and found that for the shortest quadrupoles, the poles should ideally look like four American footballs connected end to end in a ring (see Figure 3). However, a “good enough” shape is spherical – just the middle part of the football (see Fig. 4). “I found the way to shape the ends so that you get minimal error from the non-intended field,” says Baartman. “It starts from a complicated idea, but the eventual product is very simple.”

    Baartman’s derivation works well for both long and short quadrupoles; in the long case, the poles are not spherical, but are curved in the beam direction rather than straight.

    Baartman sent his calculations to Buckley Systems Ltd, a manufacturer of precision electromagnets, who perfected his solution using more detailed magnetic field calculations. Buckley manufactured 70 magnets for TRIUMF using Baartman’s new design, and 40 have already been installed in the ARIEL e-linac.

    Triumf ARIEL LINAC
    ARIEL

    Congratulations Rick Baartman on this breakthrough achievement!

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Photos, from top to bottom: 1. Rick Baartman; 2. Example of non-ideal (truncated) magnet shape; 3. Optimal magnet shape; 4. Magnets with new design, built by Buckley; 5. New quadrupoles installed in the e-linac tunnel

    Baartman’s paper
    [1] G. Derevjankin, Zh. Tkh. Fiz. (USSR) 42, 1178 (1972)

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition
    Triumf Campus
    Triumf Campus
    World Class Science at Triumf Lab, British Columbia, Canada
    Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics
    Member Universities:
    University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, Carleton University, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, Université de Montréal, Simon Fraser University,
    Queen’s University, University of Toronto, University of Victoria, York University. Not too shabby, eh?

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  • richardmitnick 2:14 pm on March 10, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , TRIUMF, Women in Science   

    From TRIUMF: “Women Accelerating Science” A Great Piece, a Great Celebration 

    TRIUMF

    March 10, 2015
    Jacqueline Wightman and Christopher Zaworski

    For International Women’s Day, we’re celebrating the women at TRIUMF! They are engineers, physicists, chemists, surveyors, operators, designers, technicians…and we’ve highlighted just a few:

    1
    Angela is an accelerator operations coordinator. With a background in nuclear medicine from BCIT, Angela now monitors the performance of our 500 MeV cyclotron particle accelerator, the largest cyclotron in the world. She also trains and coordinates the group of operators who work in the main cyclotron control room.

    2
    Julia first came to Canada two months ago to join us at TRIUMF on the TITAN project. She has a background in chemistry from the Phillips-University of Marburg in Germany, where she studied nuclear chemistry and super heavy elements. As part of the TITAN project, she’ll be taking high precision mass measurements and studying neutron rich isotopes.

    3
    Kathleen has a degree in chemistry and previously worked as a radiochemist. Now she operates the 500 MeV cyclotron and peripheral devices from the Main Control Room, making sure the proton beams make it down the beamlines to our experiments.

    4
    As production assistant for the ATLAS group, Shadi participates in all of the steps of assembly graphite coating, and quality assurance and control of cathode boards. Although she’s working with us at TRIUMF, the cathode boards are made for the LHC muon detection chambers in Geneva, Switzerland.

    5
    Erin is a co-op student at TRIUMF from the University of Waterloo, where she studies physics, mathematics and astronomy. She is working on TRIUMF’s Next Enriched Xenon Observatory project, which will observe neutrino-less double beta decays once it is built. Erin is testing a xenon flash lamp that will be used to simulate the conditions of a 175nm environment when collecting data on the various photo-detector candidates.

    6
    Fiona is a Radiation Protection Technician/Surveyor. As a technician, Fiona is responsible for ensuring that the TRIUMF site is safe for the hundreds of people who work in it. Armed with Geiger counters, dosimeters and radiation PPE, Fiona can be found all around the TRIUMF laboratory making sure that it is safe for both the people who work at TRIUMF and the general public that come to visit.

    7
    Ania is a nuclear physicist who has been working on the TITAN experiment here at TRIUMF since the fall of 2011. Using TITAN, Ania studies the reactions inside stars, the nuclear structure of atoms and tests the Standard Model of particle physics. While Ania likes to claim that it is the ion trap within TITAN that does all the work, Ania’s research in double beta decay and the fundamental symmetries of nature is no less impressive.

    8
    Katerina has been a postdoc at TRIUMF for just over a year working on the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM) experiment. A nEDM measurement is important to particle physics and cosmology, since it will help scientists to explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe and understand how the Universe evolved after the Big Bang. Her main focus is on the development of the high voltage setup for the nEDM experiment, which is expected to start taking data within the next couple of years.

    3
    Vicky has a background in nuclear chemistry, and is part of the team that developed a cyclotron-based method of producing commercial quantities of the most widely used medical isotope for medical imaging, technetium-99m (Tc-99m). As a radiochemist, Vicky has been working with solid targets for many years, particularly with refractory-metals and liquid-metal targets.

    10
    Originally from Italy, Sonia got her PhD in Physics at the Gutenberg University in Germany and studied in Mainz before joining us at TRIUMF in 2008. Now she studies the properties of nuclei as well as their influence in astrophysics. Her long term goal is the development of an ab-initio description of nuclei, starting from modern inter-nucleon forces.

    11
    Anadi is a particle physicist at TRIUMF and part of one of the supersymmetry (SUSY) working groups in the ATLAS collaboration at CERN. At the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC), bunches of protons are smashed together at the highest energy ever achieved in accelerators. Anadi analyzes the data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and searches for SUSY, a new symmetry of nature that could address the remaining open questions in the standard model of particles and fields, including the origin of the unknown Dark Matter in the Universe.

    12
    Isabel has been a research scientist at TRIUMF for the past ten years working on the ATLAS experiment. Her current focus is completing commissioning of the infrastructure at TRIUMF for building graphite-coated cathode planes for thin-gap chambers in the New Small Wheel of the upgraded ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, to be installed during the 2018 LHC shutdown. She is also involved in ATLAS computing, helping out with user support for the TRIUMF Tier-1 Centre, as well as searching for supersymmetric particles. She will be heading to CERN for two years this summer for the LHC Run-2 startup.

    13
    Iris studied chemistry at the University of Mainz in Germany before getting her PhD in astrophysics at the University of Besel, Switzerland. She joined TRIUMF almost two years ago to measure the properties of neutron-rich isotopes, which are created in TRIUMF’s ISAC facility. Pictured here hard at work in the office, once experiments are back up and running she’ll spend more time at the GRIFFIN (Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei) and DESCANT (DEuterated Scintillator Array for Neutron Tagging) detectors.

    14
    Lia joined TRIUMF in 2008 after sixteen years at Jefferson Lab, where she worked first as a staff scientist and later as the Director of the Center for Advanced Studies of Accelerators. Lia designs, builds and operates accelerators that are used to study the most fundamental questions of nature and have numerous societal applications. At TRIUMF she is responsible for several accelerators used to further research in nuclear and particle physics and materials science, as well as create rare isotopes used in medical imaging and therapy. She is a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), serves on numerous advisory panels world-wide, and is past chair of the APS Division of Particles and Beams. In 2013 Lia was awarded the Minerva Foundation Women in Science Award for Community Leadership and Excellence.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    Triumf Campus
    Triumf Campus
    World Class Science at Triumf Lab, British Columbia, Canada
    Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics
    Member Universities:
    University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, Carleton University, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, Université de Montréal, Simon Fraser University,
    Queen’s University, University of Toronto, University of Victoria, York University. Not too shabby, eh?

    Associate Members:
    University of Calgary, McMaster University, University of Northern British Columbia, University of Regina, Saint Mary’s University, University of Winnipeg, How bad is that !!

     
  • richardmitnick 3:00 pm on November 22, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , TRIUMF   

    From Triumf: “LHCb Experiment Confirms TRIUMF Prediction” 

    On Wednesday, November 19th, the LHCb collaboration at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) announced the discovery of two new particles in the baryon family. The particles, known as the Xi_b’- and Xi_b*-, were predicted to exist by the quark model but had never been seen before.

    CERN LHCb New
    LHCb at CERN

    Randy Lewis, York University, and Richard Woloshyn (photographed), TRIUMF, submitted a paper together in 2009, “Bottom baryons from a dynamical lattice QCD simulation,” in which the masses of Xi_b’- and Xi_b* were predicted. This paper, among the eight theoretical papers cited in the LHCb collaboration report submitted to the Physical Review Letters, offered the LHCb researchers a light in the path of discovery.

    rw
    Richard Woloshyn

    “Theoretical and experimental physics complement each other in an important way,” said Petr Navratil, Head of Theory Department at TRIUMF. “Richard’s work illustrates how theoretical predictions motivate experimental efforts. Experimental results then provide feedback to improve the theoretical understanding.”

    The new particles are baryons made from three quarks bound together by the strong force. The types of quarks are different, though: the new Xib particles both contain one beauty (b), one strange (s), and one down (d) quark. Thanks to the heavyweight b quarks, the baryons are more than six times as massive as the proton. But the particles are more than just the sum of their parts: their mass also depends on how they are configured. Each of the quarks has an attribute called “spin“. In the Xi_b’- state, the spins of the two lighter quarks point in opposite directions, whereas in the Xi_b*- state they are aligned. This difference makes the Xi_b*- a little heavier.

    “Nature was kind and gave us two particles for the price of one,” said
    Matthew Charles of the CNRS’s LPNHE laboratory at Paris VI University.

    “The Xi_b’- is very close in mass to the sum of its decay products: if it had been just a little lighter, we wouldn’t have seen it at all using the decay signature that we were looking for.”

    “This is a very exciting result. Thanks to LHCb’s excellent hadron identification, which is unique among the LHC experiments, we were able to separate a very clean and strong signal from the background,” said Steven Blusk from Syracuse University in New York. “It demonstrates once again the sensitivity and how precise the LHCb detector is.”

    “I am happy that LHCb cites our work and that it appears on the broader stage, ” said Richard Woloshyn, “It shows the work we do here at TRIUMF and in Canada is important.”

    As well as the masses of these particles, the LHCb team studied their relative production rates, their widths – a measure of how unstable they are – and other details of their decays. The results match up with predictions based on the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). QCD is part of the Standard Model of particle physics, the theory that describes the fundamental particles of matter, how they interact and the forces between them.

    sm
    The Standard Model of elementary particles, with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    “Our approach was based directly on QCD. These results give us confidence and show that the theory is adequate to deal with any measurement and to predict the outcomes of experiments,” said Richard.

    “This success is a reminder of TRIUMF’s leadership role in theoretical physics. Richard has been using the computational method called lattice QCD to make important contributions for many years, and I am one of several people who learned lattice QCD by spending time at TRIUMF with Richard,” said Randy Lewis.

    Richard admits that when he first saw the InterActions news release he did not expect it to be related to one of his theoretical ‘discoveries’ and set it aside to read later. It wasn’t until he saw the CBC headline, “New subatomic particles predicted by Canadians found at CERN” that he knew of his part in the discovery.

    See the full article here..

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Triumf Campus
    Triumf Campus

    World Class Science at Triumf Lab, British Columbia, Canada
    Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics
    Member Universities:
    University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, Carleton University, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, Université de Montréal, Simon Fraser University,
    Queen’s University, University of Toronto, University of Victoria, York University. Not too shabby, eh?

    Associate Members:
    University of Calgary, McMaster University, University of Northern British Columbia, University of Regina, Saint Mary’s University, University of Winnipeg, How bad is that !!

     
  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on September 15, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , TRIUMF   

    From Triumf: “Postdoc Publishes Theory Breakthrough” 


    Triumf Lab

    15 September 2014
    Nick Leach, Outreach Assistant

    The basic interaction between the constituents of an atomic nucleus (‘nucleons‘ means neutrons or protons) has been well understood for decades; however, the interaction’s strength has meant that calculations for all but the very simplest nuclear systems (e.g. the deuteron = 1 proton + 1 neutron) were initially too complex to do from basic principles, necessitating various approximation methods to make reliable predictions. Nonetheless, theoretical groups worldwide have persevered in their attempts at establishing reliable “ab initio” techniques, and much progress has been made in describing ever-larger nuclei starting from the fundamental nucleon forces. TRIUMF theorists have been at the forefront of many of these advances.

    neu
    The quark structure of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

    pro
    The quark structure of the proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

    Recently, scientists from TRIUMF and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) published a paper in the prestigious Physical Review Letters outlining a technique which for the first time enables researchers to analyze systems of three nuclear clusters in relative motion while treating the individual nucleons as fundamental components interacting by accurate nucleon-nucleon interactions. The work by the Theory postdoc Carolina Romero-Redondo and Petr Navratil (Theory Department, TRIUMF) in conjunction with Sofia Quaglioni and Guillaume Hupin (LLNL) has produced the first successful ab initio analysis describing energy states in the He-6 nucleus (2 protons + 4 neutrons).

    chart

    cr
    Carolina Romero-Redondo

    He-6 is an exotic nucleus that can be described as a three-cluster “halo” nucleus – a tightly bound He-4 core orbited by two neutrons. Part of what makes this particular nucleus so fascinating is that though the trio are bound together when all three bodies are present, removing just one renders the whole structure unstable. These are known as “Borromean” nuclei, after the similarly named Borromean rings, which exhibit a similar all-or-nothing structure. The He-6 nucleus is difficult to study experimentally and as such its energy spectrum is not yet firmly established. Excitingly, the results by Romero-Redondo, et al. are consistent with recent experiments, correctly identifying some known energy states (‘resonances’). They also predict new energy states and do not find others (e.g. low-energy “1-“ state) predicted by other formalisms.

    In the future, this new approach will be applied to study systems such as H-5 as a 3H+n+n trio, and Li-11 as a 9Li+n+n configuration.

    Having completed her term at TRIUMF, Carolina will continue her innovative research on three-cluster systems at her new appointment at LLNL.

    Congratulations to Romero-Redondo and her colleagues for this excellent contribution!

    See the full article here.

    World Class Science at Triumf Lab, British Columbia, Canada
    Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics
    Member Universities:
    University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, Carleton University, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, Université de Montréal, Simon Fraser University,
    Queen’s University, University of Toronto, University of Victoria, York University. Not too shabby, eh?

    Associate Members:
    University of Calgary, McMaster University, University of Northern British Columbia, University of Regina, Saint Mary’s University, University of Winnipeg, How bad is that !!
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  • richardmitnick 4:08 pm on January 21, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From Quantum Diaries: Byron Jennings “The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics” 

    Byron Jennings is simply amazing. You can follow his blog here. Looks like one needs to go backwards, through his archive, one post at a time; but it is worth it. I doubt that there are many scientists who can write with the articulate elegance of Bryan Jennings. Here is the introduction to his latest post.

    bj
    Byron Jennings

    January 20th, 2012

    “When I first started dabbling in the dark side and told people I was working on the philosophy of science, the most common response from my colleagues was: Oh the foundations of quantum mechanics? Actually not. For the most part, I find the foundations of quantum mechanics rather boring. Perhaps that is because my view of science has a strong instrumentalist tinge, but the foundations of quantum mechanics have always seemed to me to be trying to fit a quantum reality into a classical framework; the proverbial triangular peg in an hexagonal hole. Take wave-particle duality for example. Wave and particles are classical idealizations. The classical point particle does not exist, even within the context of classical mechanics. It should come as no surprise that when the classical framework breaks down, the concepts from classical mechanics are no longer valid. What quantum mechanics is telling us is only that the classical concepts of waves and particles are no longer valid. Interesting, but nothing to get excited about.”

    And, here is Byron’s concluding of this subject.

    So what is the interpretation of quantum mechanics? An important part seems to be that wave functions are the information the observer has on the quantum system, and is not a property of the quantum system alone. If you do not like that, well there is always instrumentalism, i.e. shut up and calculate.

    See the full post here.

    Participants in Quantum Diaries:

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    Brookhaven Lab

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  • richardmitnick 4:31 pm on December 17, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , TRIUMF   

    From Byron Jennings, TRIUMF via Quantum Diaries: “Can Science Answer the ‘Why’ Question?” 

    Byron Jennings is one of the finest and most thoughtful writers we have.

    i1
    Byron Jennings

    “The development of science is often portrayed as a conflict between science and religion, between the natural and the supernatural. But it was equally, if not more so, a conflict with Aristotelian concepts: a change from Aristotle’s emphasis on why to a dominant role for how. To become the mainstream, science had to overcome resistance, first and foremost, from the academic establishment and only secondarily from the church. The former, represented by the disciples of Aristotle and the scholastic tradition, was at least as vociferous in condemning Galileo as the latter. Galileo, starting from when he was a student and for most of his career, was in conflict with the natural philosophers. (I decline to call them scientists.) His conflict with the church was mostly towards the end of his career, after he was fifty and more seriously when he was nearing seventy. The church itself even relied on the opinions of the natural philosophers to justify condemning the idea the earth moved. In the end science and Galileo’s successors won out and Aristotle’s natural philosophy was vanquished: the stationary earth, the perfect heavens (circular planetary orbits and perfectly spherical planets), nature abhorring a vacuum, the prime mover and so on. For most of these it is so long and good riddance. So why do philosophers still spend so much time studying Aristotle? I really don’t know.”

    See Byron’s full post here.

    Participants in Quantum Diaries:

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  • richardmitnick 12:47 pm on December 3, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , TRIUMF   

    From Byron Jenning of Triumf at Quantum Diaries: “The Trouble with Particle Physics” 

    bj

    “What is the current trouble with particle physics? That’s an easy one: a paucity of new experimental results that challenge the status quo. In contrast, in the past twenty years, cosmology has surged ahead, fueled by the new results from COBE, WMAP, Hubble, and other novel devices. Yet that field may now also be reaching the point of diminishing returns. Without new experimental results any field stagnates. But before addressing this in more detail let’s look at some other suggested problems with particle physics.” Which Byron does quite well.

    See the full post here.

    Participants in Quantum Diaries:

    Fermilab

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    US/LHC Blog


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