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  • richardmitnick 3:45 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Another current focus area is lasers which can be used to sharpen images by creating artificial stars in a technique called adaptive optics., Detectors are the key element of any astronomical instrument — they are like the eyes that see the light from the Universe., ESO’s Technology Development Programme, , Lasers in Adaptive Optics, , To avoid wasted efforts we tend to focus our work into themes for example detectors or adaptive optics.   

    From ESOblog: “Shaping the future” 

    ESO 50 Large

    From ESOblog

    1

    17 May 2019

    Pushing the limits of our knowledge about the Universe requires the constant development of new trailblazing technologies. We speak to Mark Casali, former Head of ESO’s Technology Development Programme to find out more about how ESO keeps itself at the cutting-edge of scientific research.

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    Mark Casali

    Q. Firstly, could you tell us about ESO’s Technology Development Programme?

    A. We are a team of about a dozen people developing new technology that enables ESO to reach its ambitious scientific goals. This means we work on concepts with a fairly long timeframe — looking into completely innovative techniques and developing technology for astronomical instruments that will exist in the future, rather than those that exist today.

    Technology takes a long time to emerge, so we can’t wait to develop it until we want to produce an instrument that does something specific. Rather we need to already have the technology in place before the instrument is developed, in order to speed up production.

    One question people often ask is how we decide what new technology to explore. Of course, there are always more brilliant ideas than funds available, but our research is science-driven, meaning that when developing new technology we always focus on things that will eventually enable us to do the most exciting science.

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    The main mirror of the Extremely Large Telescope is visible at the centre of this image. It consists of 798 segments that together form a mirror 39 metres wide.
    Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/ACe Consortium

    Q. What kind of new technology are you developing at the moment?

    A. To avoid wasted efforts, we tend to focus our work into themes, for example detectors or adaptive optics. This means that we solve many problems in a single area so that area can move forward. This is more efficient than investing in several different areas and making only a small amount of progress in each.

    Detectors are the key element of any astronomical instrument — they are like the eyes that see the light from the Universe. Many very good detectors exist commercially, but often it’s useful to have detectors with really specific properties. So we put a lot of effort into developing new detectors.

    Another current focus area is lasers, which can be used to sharpen images by creating artificial stars, in a technique called adaptive optics. We also develop new mirror technology, for example mirrors that can change shape to create sharper images.

    Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO_s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT, a major asset of the Adaptive Optics system

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    The Paranal engineer Gerhard Hüdepohl checks the huge camera attached at the Cassegrain focus of VISTA, directly below the cell of the main mirror. VISTA´s powerful eye is a 3-tonne camera containing 16 special detectors sensitive to infrared light with a combined total of 67 megapixels. It will have widest coverage of any astronomical near-infrared camera. VISTA is the largest telescope in the world dedicated to surveying the sky at near-infrared wavelengths. Credit: ESO

    Q. Do you develop all of this new technology here at ESO?

    A. We actually only do about half of the technology development in house, and the other half is contracted out to external industry, universities or institutes around Europe. The decision to work on projects internally or externally depends on factors like whether we have the relevant expertise within our small team.

    Working with external partners is really a collaboration from which both parties benefit. We gain expertise, as well as a good quality product, because industry usually provides well-engineered products that are reliable and don’t break down easily. Also working with industrial partners gives us access to expensive machinery that we wouldn’t be able to afford ourselves for a single project. On the other hand, we are really looking to develop cutting-edge technology, so when we fund a company to develop something new, they really get ahead of the pack and could be the only company to be producing a certain product commercially. It’s a win-win for all involved!

    Working with industrial, academic and institutional partners also allows us to support our Member States, providing them with a return on the money they invest in ESO. Our collaborations with external partners occur through calls to tender and typically last about two years.

    Q. And what about the other way around? Does technology developed within ESO ever go on to have commercial success?

    A. Occasionally, yes! Although we don’t have a specific department for technology transfer, it does happen organically every now and then.

    For example, a couple of years ago we created a special laser called a Raman fibre laser that is used to create an artificial laser guide star by exciting sodium atoms high up in Earth’s atmosphere. We then signed a license agreement with two commercial partners for them to use this novel laser technology.

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    ESO’s Raman fibre laser feeding the frequency-doubling Second Harmonic Generation unit,, which produces a 20W laser at 589 nm. The light is used to create an artificial laser guide star by exciting sodium atoms in the Earth’s atmosphere at 90 km altitude. ESO has signed an agreement to license its cutting-edge laser technology to two commercial partners, Toptica Photonics and MPB Communications. This marks the first time that ESO has transferred patented technology and know-how to the private sector, offering significant opportunities both for business and for ESO. Credit: ESO

    Q. The Technology Development Programme sounds like an interesting place to work. What experience do you have that made you a good fit to oversee such a department?

    A. After a PhD in astronomy and then a stint as a researcher, I got involved in telescope construction projects. I believe that this combination of scientific and technical understanding was really helpful in my role.

    I do agree that this is a great team to work in! Not only is it really interesting to bring ideas for revolutionary technology through to actual deliverables, but I also feel that it’s a very important part of ESO’s work. Without new and improved technology, we wouldn’t be able to continue to make new discoveries and remain at the forefront of astronomical research.

    Q. Isn’t ESO involved in the European Union’s ATTRACT initiative to develop new technology?

    A. ESO is indeed one of the partners in the ATTRACT consortium, which consists mostly of large European infrastructures like CERN and EMBL, as well as universities and some industrial partners. The consortium recently received funding from the European Commission to run a competition for ideas in detector and imaging technology. This could be applied to many different fields, for example detecting light for astronomical or medical applications, or imaging particles for particle physics applications.

    We received over 1200 technology development ideas, of which 170 will be awarded 100 000 euros each. After a year and a half of work on their projects, a few of these will receive funding for a scale-up project. Hopefully these will include some astronomy-related projects!

    Through ATTRACT, ESO is able to work with other big organisations to develop the European economy, and I believe that the initiative is improving lives by creating products, services, jobs and even new companies.

    Q. Is there anything else you’d like to mention?

    A. Two things. The first being that the future of technology development at ESO is very bright; it’s likely that our programme will be supported and continue to grow long into the future. The second is that anybody can look at the list of ESO-developed technologies online, which we keep updated so that the public can see where their money goes.

    See the full article here .


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    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    ESO VLT at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert, •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ),
    •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ),
    •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and
    •YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening star).
    elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo,


    ESO LaSilla
    ESO/Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT 4 lasers on Yepun


    ESO Vista Telescope
    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO NTT
    ESO/NTT at Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT Survey telescope
    VLT Survey Telescope at Cerro Paranal with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).


    ESO APEX
    APEX Atacama Pathfinder 5,100 meters above sea level, at the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert.

    Leiden MASCARA instrument, La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA cabinet at ESO Cerro la Silla located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey at Cerro Paranel, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO Speculoos telescopes four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes at ESO Paranal Observatory 2635 metres 8645 ft above sea level


    ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO ExTrA telescopes at Cerro LaSilla at an altitude of 2400 metres

     
  • richardmitnick 3:05 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ,   

    From CERN ATLAS: “Exploring the scientific potential of the ATLAS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC” 

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS another view Image Claudia Marcelloni ATLAS CERN


    CERN ATLAS New II Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY


    From CERN ATLAS

    17th May 2019

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    Display of a simulated HL-LHC collision event in an upgraded ATLAS detector. The event has an average of 200 collisions per particle bunch crossing. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    The High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is scheduled to begin colliding protons in 2026. This major improvement to CERN’s flagship accelerator will increase the total number of collisions in the ATLAS experiment by a factor of 10. To cope with this increase, ATLAS is preparing a complex series of upgrades including the installation of new detectors using state-of-the-art technology, the replacement of ageing electronics, and the upgrade of its trigger and data acquisition system.

    What discovery opportunities will be in reach for ATLAS with the HL-LHC upgrade? How precisely will physicists be able to measure properties of the Higgs boson? How deeply will they be able to probe Standard Model processes for signs of new physics? The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out and released dozens of studies to answer these questions – the results of which have been valuable input to discussions held this week at the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, in Granada, Spain.

    “Studying the discovery potential of the HL-LHC was a fascinating task associated with the ATLAS upgrades,” says Simone Pagan Griso, ATLAS Upgrade Physics Group co-convener­. “The results are informative not only to the ATLAS Collaboration but to the entire global particle-physics community, as they reappraise the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead of us.” Indeed, these studies set important benchmarks for forthcoming generations of particle physics experiments.

    Pagan Griso worked with Leandro Nisati, the ATLAS representative on the HL-LHC Physics Potential ‘Yellow Report’ steering committee, and fellow ATLAS Upgrade Physics Group co-convener, Sarah Demers, to coordinate these studies for the collaboration. “A CERN Yellow Report, with publication in its final form forthcoming, will combine ATLAS’ results with those from other LHC experiments, as well as input from theoretical physicists,” says Nisati.

    Estimating the performance of a machine that has not yet been built, which will operate under circumstances that have never been confronted, was a complex task for the ATLAS team. “We took two parallel approaches,” explains Demers. “For one set of analysis projections, we began with simulations of the challenging HL-LHC experimental conditions. These simulated physics events were then passed through custom software to show us how the particles would interact with an upgraded ATLAS detector. We then developed new algorithms to try to pick the physics signals from the challenging amount of background events.” Dealing with abundant background will be a common complication for HL-LHC operation.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 2:20 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Manipulating atoms one at a time with an electron beam", , Developing a method that can reposition atoms with a highly focused electron beam and control their exact location and bonding orientation., , Scanning transmission electron microscopes, Ultimately the goal is to move multiple atoms in complex ways.   

    From MIT News: “Manipulating atoms one at a time with an electron beam” 

    MIT News

    From MIT News

    May 17, 2019
    David L. Chandler

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    This diagram illustrates the controlled switching of positions of a phosphorus atom within a layer of graphite by using an electron beam, as was demonstrated by the research team. Courtesy of the researchers.

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    Microscope images are paired with diagrams illustrating the controlled movement of atoms within a graphite lattice, using an electron beam to manipulate the positions of atoms one a time. Courtesy of the researchers.

    New method could be useful for building quantum sensors and computers.

    The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control.

    Now, scientists at MIT, the University of Vienna, and several other institutions have taken a step in that direction, developing a method that can reposition atoms with a highly focused electron beam and control their exact location and bonding orientation. The finding could ultimately lead to new ways of making quantum computing devices or sensors, and usher in a new age of “atomic engineering,” they say.

    The advance is described today in the journal Science Advances, in a paper by MIT professor of nuclear science and engineering Ju Li, graduate student Cong Su, Professor Toma Susi of the University of Vienna, and 13 others at MIT, the University of Vienna, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and in China, Ecuador, and Denmark.

    “We’re using a lot of the tools of nanotechnology,” explains Li, who holds a joint appointment in materials science and engineering. But in the new research, those tools are being used to control processes that are yet an order of magnitude smaller. “The goal is to control one to a few hundred atoms, to control their positions, control their charge state, and control their electronic and nuclear spin states,” he says.

    While others have previously manipulated the positions of individual atoms, even creating a neat circle of atoms on a surface, that process involved picking up individual atoms on the needle-like tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and then dropping them in position, a relatively slow mechanical process. The new process manipulates atoms using a relativistic electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), so it can be fully electronically controlled by magnetic lenses and requires no mechanical moving parts. That makes the process potentially much faster, and thus could lead to practical applications.

    Custom-designed scanning transmission electron microscope at Cornell University by David Muller/Cornell University

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    MIT scanning transmission electron microscope

    Using electronic controls and artificial intelligence, “we think we can eventually manipulate atoms at microsecond timescales,” Li says. “That’s many orders of magnitude faster than we can manipulate them now with mechanical probes. Also, it should be possible to have many electron beams working simultaneously on the same piece of material.”

    “This is an exciting new paradigm for atom manipulation,” Susi says.

    Computer chips are typically made by “doping” a silicon crystal with other atoms needed to confer specific electrical properties, thus creating “defects’ in the material — regions that do not preserve the perfectly orderly crystalline structure of the silicon. But that process is scattershot, Li explains, so there’s no way of controlling with atomic precision where those dopant atoms go. The new system allows for exact positioning, he says.

    The same electron beam can be used for knocking an atom both out of one position and into another, and then “reading” the new position to verify that the atom ended up where it was meant to, Li says. While the positioning is essentially determined by probabilities and is not 100 percent accurate, the ability to determine the actual position makes it possible to select out only those that ended up in the right configuration.

    Atomic soccer

    The power of the very narrowly focused electron beam, about as wide as an atom, knocks an atom out of its position, and by selecting the exact angle of the beam, the researchers can determine where it is most likely to end up. “We want to use the beam to knock out atoms and essentially to play atomic soccer,” dribbling the atoms across the graphene field to their intended “goal” position, he says.

    “Like soccer, it’s not deterministic, but you can control the probabilities,” he says. “Like soccer, you’re always trying to move toward the goal.”

    In the team’s experiments, they primarily used phosphorus atoms, a commonly used dopant, in a sheet of graphene, a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The phosphorus atoms end up substituting for carbon atoms in parts of that pattern, thus altering the material’s electronic, optical, and other properties in ways that can be predicted if the positions of those atoms are known.

    Ultimately, the goal is to move multiple atoms in complex ways. “We hope to use the electron beam to basically move these dopants, so we could make a pyramid, or some defect complex, where we can state precisely where each atom sits,” Li says.

    This is the first time electronically distinct dopant atoms have been manipulated in graphene. “Although we’ve worked with silicon impurities before, phosphorus is both potentially more interesting for its electrical and magnetic properties, but as we’ve now discovered, also behaves in surprisingly different ways. Each element may hold new surprises and possibilities,” Susi adds.

    The system requires precise control of the beam angle and energy. “Sometimes we have unwanted outcomes if we’re not careful,” he says. For example, sometimes a carbon atom that was intended to stay in position “just leaves,” and sometimes the phosphorus atom gets locked into position in the lattice, and “then no matter how we change the beam angle, we cannot affect its position. We have to find another ball.”

    Theoretical framework

    In addition to detailed experimental testing and observation of the effects of different angles and positions of the beams and graphene, the team also devised a theoretical basis to predict the effects, called primary knock-on space formalism, that tracks the momentum of the “soccer ball.” “We did these experiments and also gave a theoretical framework on how to control this process,” Li says.

    The cascade of effects that results from the initial beam takes place over multiple time scales, Li says, which made the observations and analysis tricky to carry out. The actual initial collision of the relativistic electron (moving at about 45 percent of the speed of light) with an atom takes place on a scale of zeptoseconds — trillionths of a billionth of a second — but the resulting movement and collisions of atoms in the lattice unfolds over time scales of picoseconds or longer — billions of times longer.

    Dopant atoms such as phosphorus have a nonzero nuclear spin, which is a key property needed for quantum-based devices because that spin state is easily affected by elements of its environment such as magnetic fields. So the ability to place these atoms precisely, in terms of both position and bonding, could be a key step toward developing quantum information processing or sensing devices, Li says.

    “This is an important advance in the field,” says Alex Zettl, a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, who was not involved in this research. “Impurity atoms and defects in a crystal lattice are at the heart of the electronics industry. As solid-state devices get smaller, down to the nanometer size scale, it becomes increasingly important to know precisely where a single impurity atom or defect is located, and what are its atomic surroundings. An extremely challenging goal is having a scalable method to controllably manipulate or place individual atoms in desired locations, as well as predicting accurately what effect that placement will have on device performance.”

    Zettl says that these researchers “have made a significant advance toward this goal. They use a moderate energy focused electron beam to coax a desirable rearrangement of atoms, and observe in real-time, at the atomic scale, what they are doing. An elegant theoretical treatise, with impressive predictive power, complements the experiments.”

    Besides the leading MIT team, the international collaboration included researchers from the University of Vienna, the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Aarhus University in Denmark, National Polytechnical School in Ecuador, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Sichuan University in China. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Army Research Office through MIT’s Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, the Austrian Science Fund, the European Research Council, the Danish Council for Independent Research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 1:29 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , RNA messages in the cell drive function, , Today there is no medical treatment for autism.   

    From The Conversation: “New autism research on single neurons suggests signaling problems in brain circuits” 

    Conversation
    From The Conversation

    1
    Artist impression of neurons communicating in the brain. whitehoune/Shutterstock.com

    May 17, 2019
    Dmitry Velmeshev

    Autism affects at least 2% of children in the United States – an estimated 1 in 59. This is challenging for both the patients and their parents or caregivers. What’s worse is that today there is no medical treatment for autism. That is in large part because we still don’t fully understand how autism develops and alters normal brain function.

    One of the main reasons it is hard to decipher the processes that cause the disease is that it is highly variable. So how do we understand how autism changes the brain?

    Using a new technology called single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we analyzed the chemistry inside specific brain cells from both healthy people and those with autism and identified dramatic differences that may cause this disease. These autism-specific differences could provide valuable new targets for drug development.

    I am a neuroscientist in the lab of Arnold Kreigstein, a researcher of human brain development at the University of California, San Francisco. Since I was a teenager, I have been fascinated by the human brain and computers and the similarities between the two. The computer works by directing a flow of information through interconnected electronic elements called transistors. Wiring together many of these small elements creates a complex machine capable of functions from processing a credit card payment to autopiloting a rocket ship. Though it is an oversimplification, the human brain is, in many respects, like a computer. It has connected cells called neurons that process and direct information flow – a process called synaptic transmission in which one neuron sends a signal to another.

    When I started doing science professionally, I realized that many diseases of the human brain are due to specific types of neurons malfunctioning, just like a transistor on a circuit board can malfunction either because it was not manufactured properly or due to wear and tear.

    RNA messages in the cell drive function

    Every cell in any living organism is made of the same types of biological molecules. Molecules called proteins create cellular structures, catalyze chemical reactions and perform other functions within the cell.

    Two related types of molecules – DNA and RNA – are made of sequences of just four basic elements and used by the cell to store information. DNA is used for hereditary long-term information storage; RNA is a short-lived message that signals how active a gene is and how much of a particular protein the cell needs to make. By counting the number of RNA molecules carrying the same message, researchers can get insights into the processes happening inside the cell.

    When it comes to the brain, scientists can measure RNA inside individual cells, identify the type of brain cell and and analyze the processes taking place inside it – for instance, synaptic transmission. By comparing RNA analyses of brain cells from healthy people not diagnosed with any brain disease with those done in patients with autism, researchers like myself can figure out which processes are different and in which cells.

    Until recently, however, simultaneously measuring all RNA molecules in a single cell was not possible. Researchers could perform these analyses only from a piece of brain tissue containing millions of different cells. This was complicated further because it was possible to collect these tissue samples only from patients who have already died.

    New tech pinpoints neurons affected in autism

    However, recent advances in technology allowed our team to measure RNA that is contained within the nucleus of a single brain cell. The nucleus of a cell contains the genome, as well as newly synthesized RNA molecules. This structure remains intact ever after the death of a cell and thus can be isolated from dead (also called postmortem) brain tissue.

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    Neurons in the upper (left) and deep layers of the human developing cortex. Chen & Kriegstein, 2015 Science/American Association for the Advancement of Science, CC BY-SA

    By analyzing single cellular nuclei from this postmortem brain of people with and without autism, we profiled the RNA within 100,000 single brain cells of many such individuals.

    Comparing RNA in specific types of brain cells between the individuals with and without autism, we found that some specific cell types are more altered than others in the disease.

    In particular, we found [Science]that certain neurons called upper-layer cortical neurons that exchange information between different regions of the cerebral cortex have an abnormal number of RNA-encoding proteins located at the synapse – the points of contacts between neurons where signals are transmitted from one nerve cell to another. These changes were detected in regions of the cortex vital for higher-order cognitive functions, such as social interactions.

    This suggests that synapses in these upper-layer neurons are malfunctioning, leading to changes in brain functions. In our study, we showed that upper-layer neurons had very different quantities of certain RNA compared to the same cells in healthy people. That was especially true in autism patients who suffered from the most severe symptoms, like not being able to speak.

    4
    New results suggest that the synapse formed by neurons in the upper layers of the cerebral cortex are not functioning correctly. CI Photos/Shutterstock.com

    Glial cells are also affected in autism

    In addition to neurons that are directly responsible for synaptic communication, we also saw changes in the RNA of other non-neuronal cells – called glia. Glia play important roles in regulating the behavior of neurons, including how they send and receive messages via the synapse. These may also play an important role in causing autism.

    So what do these findings mean for future medical treatment of autism?

    From these results, I and my colleagues understand that the same parts of the synaptic machinery which are critical for sending signals and transmitting information in the upper-layer neurons might be broken in many autism patients, leading to abnormal brain function.

    If we can repair these parts, or fine-tune neuronal function to a near-normal state, it might offer dramatic relief of symptoms for the patients. Studies are underway to deliver drugs and gene therapy to specific cell types in the brain, and many scientists including myself believe such approaches will be indispensable for future treatments of autism.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 1:03 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Reversing traditional plasma shaping provides greater stability for fusion reactions.   

    From MIT News: “Steering fusion’s ‘D-turn'” 

    MIT News

    From MIT News

    May 17, 2019
    Paul Rivenberg | Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    1
    Cross sections of pressure profiles are shown in two different tokamak plasma configurations (the center of the tokamak doughnut is to the left of these). The discharges have high pressure in the core (yellow) that decreases to low pressure (blue) at the edge. Researchers achieved substantial high-pressure operation of reverse-D plasmas at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility.

    Image: Alessandro Marinoni/MIT PSFC

    Research scientist Alessandro Marinoni shows that reversing traditional plasma shaping provides greater stability for fusion reactions.

    Trying to duplicate the power of the sun for energy production on earth has challenged fusion researchers for decades. One path to endless carbon-free energy has focused on heating and confining plasma fuel in tokamaks, which use magnetic fields to keep the turbulent plasma circulating within a doughnut-shaped vacuum chamber and away from the walls. Fusion researchers have favored contouring these tokamak plasmas into a triangular or D shape, with the curvature of the D stretching away from the center of the doughnut, which allows plasma to withstand the intense pressures inside the device better than a circular shape.

    Led by research scientists Alessandro Marinoni of MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) and Max Austin, of the University of Texas at Austin, researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility have discovered promising evidence that reversing the conventional shape of the plasma in the tokamak chamber can create a more stable environment for fusion to occur, even under high pressure. The results were recently published in Physical Review Letters and Physics of Plasmas.

    3
    DIII-D National Fusion Facility. General Atomics

    Marinoni first experimented with the “reverse-D” shape, also known as “negative triangularity,” while pursuing his PhD on the TCV tokamak at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.

    4
    The Tokamak à configuration variable (TCV, literally “variable configuration tokamak”) is a Swiss research fusion reactor of the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne. Its distinguishing feature over other tokamaks is that its torus section is three times higher than wide. This allows studying several shapes of plasmas, which is particularly relevant since the shape of the plasma has links to the performance of the reactor. The TCV was set up in November 1992.

    The TCV team was able to show that negative triangularity helps to reduce plasma turbulence, thus increasing confinement, a key to sustaining fusion reactions.

    “Unfortunately, at that time, TCV was not equipped to operate at high plasma pressures with the ion temperature being close to that of electrons,” notes Marinoni, “so we couldn’t investigate regimes that are directly relevant to fusion plasma conditions.”

    Growing up outside Milan, Marinoni developed an interest in fusion through an early passion for astrophysical phenomena, hooked in preschool by the compelling mysteries of black holes.

    “It was fascinating because black holes can trap light. At that time I was just a little kid. As such, I couldn’t figure out why the light could be trapped by the gravitational force exerted by black holes, given that on Earth nothing like that ever happens.”

    As he matured he joined a local amateur astronomy club, but eventually decided black holes would be a hobby, not his vocation.

    “My job would be to try producing energy through nuclear fission or fusion; that’s the reason why I enrolled in the nuclear engineering program in the Polytechnic University of Milan.”

    After studies in Italy and Switzerland, Marinoni seized the opportunity to join the PSFC’s collaboration with the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego, under the direction of MIT professor of physics Miklos Porkolab. As a postdoc, he used MIT’s phase contrast imaging diagnostic to measure plasma density fluctuations in DIII-D, later continuing work there as a PSFC research scientist.

    Max Austin, after reading the negative triangularity results from TCV, decided to explore the possibility of running similar experiments on the DIII-D tokamak to confirm the stabilizing effect of negative triangularity. For the experimental proposal, Austin teamed up with Marinoni and together they designed and carried out the experiments.

    “The DIII-D research team was working against decades-old assumptions,” says Marinoni. “It was generally believed that plasmas at negative triangularity could not hold high enough plasma pressures to be relevant for energy production, because of macroscopic scale Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) instabilities that would arise and destroy the plasma. MHD is a theory that governs the macro-stability of electrically conducting fluids such as plasmas. We wanted to show that under the right conditions the reverse-D shape could sustain MHD stable plasmas at high enough pressures to be suitable for a fusion power plant, in some respects even better than a D-shape.”

    While D-shaped plasmas are the standard configuration, they have their own challenges. They are affected by high levels of turbulence, which hinders them from achieving the high pressure levels necessary for economic fusion. Researchers have solved this problem by creating a narrow layer near the plasma boundary where turbulence is suppressed by large flow shear, thus allowing inner regions to attain higher pressure. In the process, however, a steep pressure gradient develops in the outer plasma layers, making the plasma susceptible to instabilities called edge localized modes that, if sufficiently powerful, would expel a substantial fraction of the built-up plasma energy, thus damaging the tokamak chamber walls.

    DIII-D was designed for the challenges of creating D-shaped plasmas. Marinoni praises the DIII-D control group for “working hard to figure out a way to run this unusual reverse-D shape plasma.”

    The effort paid off. DIII-D researchers were able to show that even at higher pressures, the reverse-D shape is as effective at reducing turbulence in the plasma core as it was in the low-pressure TCV environment. Despite previous assumptions, DIII-D demonstrated that plasmas at reversed triangularity can sustain pressure levels suitable for a tokamak-based fusion power plant; additionally, they can do so without the need to create a steep pressure gradient near the edge that would lead to machine-damaging edge localized modes.

    Marinoni and colleagues are planning future experiments to further demonstrate the potential of this approach in an even more fusion-power relevant magnetic topology, based on a “diverted” tokamak concept. He has tried to interest other international tokamaks in experimenting with the reverse configuration.

    “Because of hardware issues, only a few tokamaks can create negative triangularity plasmas; tokamaks like DIII-D, that are not designed to produce plasmas at negative triangularity, need a significant effort to produce this plasma shape. Nonetheless, it is important to engage the fusion community worldwide to more fully establish the data base on the benefits of this shape.”

    Marinoni looks forward to where the research will take the DIII-D team. He looks back to his introduction to tokamak, which has become the focus of his research.

    “When I first learned about tokamaks I thought, ‘Oh, cool! It’s important to develop a new source of energy that is carbon free!’ That is how I ended up in fusion.”

    This research is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science’s Fusion Energy Sciences, using their DIII-D National Fusion Facility.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 12:13 pm on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CosmoGAN Neural Network to Study Dark Matter", , , , , , , , New deep learning network,   

    From insideHPC: “CosmoGAN Neural Network to Study Dark Matter” 

    From insideHPC

    May 18, 2019
    Rich Brueckner

    As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially. From facilities such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument to supercomputers like Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Cori system at NERSC, they are on a quest to collect, simulate, and analyze increasing amounts of data that can help explain the nature of things we can’t see, as well as those we can.

    Why opt for GANs instead of other types of generative models? Performance and precision, according to Mustafa.

    “From a deep learning perspective, there are other ways to learn how to generate convergence maps from images, but when we started this project GANs seemed to produce very high-resolution images compared to competing methods, while still being computationally and neural network size efficient,” he said.

    “We were looking for two things: to be accurate and to be fast,” added co-author Zaria Lukic, a research scientist in the Computational Cosmology Center at Berkeley Lab. “GANs offer hope of being nearly as accurate compared to full physics simulations.”

    The research team is particularly interested in constructing a surrogate model that would reduce the computational cost of running these simulations. In the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology paper, they outline a number of advantages of GANs in the study of large physics simulations.

    “GANs are known to be very unstable during training, especially when you reach the very end of the training and the images start to look nice – that’s when the updates to the network can be really chaotic,” Mustafa said. “But because we have the summary statistics that we use in cosmology, we were able to evaluate the GANs at every step of the training, which helped us determine the generator we thought was the best. This procedure is not usually used in training GANs.”

    Using the CosmoGAN generator network, the team has been able to produce convergence maps that are described by – with high statistical confidence – the same summary statistics as the fully simulated maps. This very high level of agreement between convergence maps that are statistically indistinguishable from maps produced by physics-based generative models offers an important step toward building emulators out of deep neural networks.

    1
    Weak lensing convergence maps for the ΛCDM cosmological model. Randomly selected maps from validation dataset (top) and GAN-generated examples (bottom).

    Weak gravitational lensing NASA/ESA Hubble

    Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion of the Universe, Big Bang-Inflation (timeline of the universe) Date 2010 Credit: Alex Mittelmann Cold creation


    NERSC Cray Cori II supercomputer at NERSC at LBNL, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science

    LBNL/DESI spectroscopic instrument on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory starting in 2018

    NOAO/Mayall 4 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA, Altitude 2,120 m (6,960 ft)

    Toward this end, gravitational lensing is one of the most promising tools scientists have to extract this information by giving them the ability to probe both the geometry of the universe and the growth of cosmic structure.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    Gravitational lensing distorts images of distant galaxies in a way that is determined by the amount of matter in the line of sight in a certain direction, and it provides a way of looking at a two-dimensional map of dark matter, according to Deborah Bard, Group Lead for the Data Science Engagement Group at NERSC.

    “Gravitational lensing is one of the best ways we have to study dark matter, which is important because it tells us a lot about the structure of the universe,” she said. “The majority of matter in the universe is dark matter, which we can’t see directly, so we have to use indirect methods to study how it is distributed.”

    But as experimental and theoretical datasets grow, along with the simulations needed to image and analyze this data, a new challenge has emerged: these simulations are increasingly – even prohibitively – computationally expensive. So computational cosmologists often resort to computationally cheaper surrogate models, which emulate expensive simulations. More recently, however, “advances in deep generative models based on neural networks opened the possibility of constructing more robust and less hand-engineered surrogate models for many types of simulators, including those in cosmology,” said Mustafa Mustafa, a machine learning engineer at NERSC and lead author on a new study that describes one such approach developed by a collaboration involving Berkeley Lab, Google Research, and the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

    A variety of deep generative models are being investigated for science applications, but the Berkeley Lab-led team is taking a unique tack: generative adversarial networks (GANs). In a paper published May 6, 2019 in Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology, they discuss their new deep learning network, dubbed CosmoGAN, and its ability to create high-fidelity, weak gravitational lensing convergence maps.

    “A convergence map is effectively a 2D map of the gravitational lensing that we see in the sky along the line of sight,” said Bard, a co-author on the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology paper. “If you have a peak in a convergence map that corresponds to a peak in a large amount of matter along the line of sight, that means there is a huge amount of dark matter in that direction.”

    The Advantages of GANs

    “The huge advantage here was that the problem we were tackling was a physics problem that had associated metrics,” Bard said. “But with our approach, there are actual metrics that allow you to quantify how accurate your GAN is. To me that is what is really exciting about this – how these kinds of physics problems can influence machine learning methods.”

    Ultimately such approaches could transform science that currently relies on detailed physics simulations that require billions of compute hours and occupy petabytes of disk space – but there is considerable work still to be done. Cosmology data (and scientific data in general) can require very high-resolution measurements, such as full-sky telescope images.

    “The 2D images considered for this project are valuable, but the actual physics simulations are 3D and can be time-varying ?and irregular, producing a rich, web-like structure of features,” said Wahid Bhmiji, a big data architect in the Data and Analytics Services group at NERSC and a co-author on the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology paper. “In addition, the approach needs to be extended to explore new virtual universes rather than ones that have already been simulated – ultimately building a controllable CosmoGAN.”

    “The idea of doing controllable GANs is essentially the Holy Grail of the whole problem that we are working on: to be able to truly emulate the physical simulators we need to build surrogate models based on controllable GANs,” Mustafa added. “Right now we are trying to understand how to stabilize the training dynamics, given all the advances in the field that have happened in the last couple of years. Stabilizing the training is extremely important to actually be able to do what we want to do next.”

    See the full article here .

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    Founded on December 28, 2006, insideHPC is a blog that distills news and events in the world of HPC and presents them in bite-sized nuggets of helpfulness as a resource for supercomputing professionals. As one reader said, we’re sifting through all the news so you don’t have to!

    If you would like to contact me with suggestions, comments, corrections, errors or new company announcements, please send me an email at rich@insidehpc.com. Or you can send me mail at:

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  • richardmitnick 9:41 am on May 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Mission control 'saves science'", , , , , , ESA’s Earth Explorer Swarm satellites   

    From European Space Agency: “Mission control ‘saves science'” 

    ESA Space For Europe Banner

    From European Space Agency

    1
    Earth observation missions

    17 May 2019

    Every minute, ESA’s Earth observation satellites gather dozens of gigabytes of data about our planet – enough information to fill the pages on a 100-metre long bookshelf. Flying in low-Earth orbits, these spacecraft are continuously taking the pulse of our planet, but it’s teams on the ground at ESA’s Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany, that keep our explorers afloat.

    3
    ESOC Main Control Room in Darmstadt, Germany

    From flying groups of spacecraft in complex formations to dodging space debris and navigating the ever-changing conditions in space known as space weather, ESA’s spacecraft operators ensure we continue to receive beautiful images and vital data on our changing planet.

    Get in formation

    Many Earth observation satellites travel in formation. For example, the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite follows behind the Suomi-NPP satellite (from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Flying in a loose trailing formation, they observe parts of our planet in quick succession and monitor rapidly evolving situations. Together they can also cross-validate instruments on board as well as the data acquired.

    ESA Copernicus Sentinel-5P

    NOAA Suomi-NPP satellite via NASA Goddard

    ESA’s Earth Explorer Swarm satellites are another example of complex formation flying.

    ESA/Swarm

    On a mission to provide the best ever survey of Earth’s geomagnetic field, they are made up of three identical satellites flying in what is called a constellation formation.

    Swarm’s individual satellites operate together under shared control in a synchronised manner, accomplishing the same objective of one giant – and more expensive – satellite.

    “Formation flying has all the challenges of flying many single spacecraft, except with the added complexity that we need to maintain a regular distance between all of these high-speed and high-tech eyes on Earth,” explains Jose Morales Santiago, ESA’s Head of the Earth Observation Mission Operations Division.

    “Every decision we make, every command we send, has to be the right one for each spacecraft – particularly when it comes to manoeuvres. These must be planned properly so that they do not endanger companion satellites, while keeping a consistent configuration across the formation.”

    Saving Science

    Last year, ESA’s Earth observation missions performed a total of 28 ‘collision avoidance manoeuvres’. These manoeuvres saw operators send the orders to a spacecraft to get out of the way of an oncoming piece of space debris.

    An impact with a fast-moving piece of space junk has the potential to destroy an entire satellite and in the process create even more debris. As a spacecraft ‘swerves’ to avoid collision, science instruments may need to be turned off to ensure their safety and avoid being contaminated by the thrusting engine.

    Teams at mission control consider how to keep Europe’s fleet of Earth observers safe while maximising the vital work they are able to do. Recently, they came up with an ingenious concept to ‘save science’ during such manoeuvres of the Sentinel-5P satellite.

    The Sentinel team quickly realised that during a collision avoidance manoeuvre they would have to suspend science collection for almost a day, because of the emergency firing of the thrusters.

    4
    Sentinel control room at ESA’s operation centre in Darmstadt, Germany.

    “That’s a lot of data to miss out on. As the amount of space debris is currently increasing, this would be something we would need to do more and more often,” explains Pierre Choukroun, Sentinel-5P Spacecraft Operations Engineer, who came up with the fix.

    “So we designed and validated a new on-board function to enhance the spacecraft’s autonomy, such that the science data loss is reduced to a bare minimum. We are very much looking forward to securing more data for the science community in the near future!”

    With this new strategy, the science instruments on Sentinel-5P would be shut off for around on hour compared with an entire day!

    Sun protection

    As if dodging bits of space debris weren’t enough for Europe’s Earth explorers, they also have to navigate the turbulent weather conditions in space.

    Space weather refers to the environmental conditions around Earth due to the dynamic nature of our Sun. The constant mood swings of our star influence the functioning and reliability of our satellites in space, as well as infrastructure on the ground.

    When the Sun is particularly active, it adds extra energy to Earth’s atmosphere, changing the density of the air at low-Earth orbits. Increased energy in the atmosphere means that satellites in this region experience more ‘drag’ – a force that acts in the opposite direction to the motion of the spacecraft, causing it to decrease in altitude.

    Operators need this information to know when to perform manoeuvres to “boost” the satellite’s speed in order to counter drag and keep it in its proper orbit.

    5
    Space Weather Phenomena

    This drag effect also changes the speed and position of space debris around Earth, meaning our understanding of the debris environment needs to be constantly updated in light of changing space weather.

    “While Earth observation satellites monitor the weather on Earth, we have to stay aware of the changing weather in space,” says Thomas Ormston, Spacecraft Operations Engineer at ESA.

    “This is vital because understanding atmospheric drag is fundamental to predicting when we will be threatened by space debris and determining when and how big our spacecraft manoeuvres need to be to keep delivering great science to our users.”

    Space weather also impacts communication between ground stations and satellites due to changes in the upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, during solar events. Because of this, satellite operators avoid critical satellite operations like manoeuvres or updates of the on board software during periods of high solar activity.

    Find out more about Earth observation at ESA here, and catch up on all the latest information from this year’s Living Planet Symposium at http://www.esa.int/livingplanet.

    See the full article here .


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    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

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  • richardmitnick 2:15 pm on May 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Bacteria-killing viruses – bacteriophages, , Cholera outbreaks occur worldwide, In regions of the world lacking clean water and proper sanitation 2.5 billion people are at risk., , , Phages are very specific and infect only their particular host species of bacteria., Phages infect and kill multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria just as well as drug-sensitive ones., Phages provide immediate protection., Potential weapons to fight bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics   

    From The Conversation: “Viruses to stop cholera infections – the viral enemy of deadly bacteria could be humanity’s friend” 

    Conversation
    From The Conversation

    May 17, 2019

    Andrew Camilli
    Professor of Molecular Biology & Microbiology, Tufts University

    Minmin Yen
    Research Associate of Molecular Microbiology, Tufts University

    1

    In the latest of a string of high-profile cases in the U.S., a cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses successfully treated a cystic fibrosis [Nature Biotechnology] patient suffering from a deadly infection caused by a pathogen that was resistant to multiple forms of antibiotics.

    Curing infections is great, of course. But what about using these bacteria-killing viruses – bacteriophages – to prevent infections in the first place? Could this work for some diseases? Although using viruses to prevent infections caused by bacterial infections might seem counterintuitive, in the case of bacteriophages: “The enemy of my enemy is my friend.”

    Discovered a little more than 100 years ago [BMC], bacteriophages, or phages, are generating renewed interest as potential weapons to fight bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics – the so-called superbugs. Although the recent phage therapy has been focused on the treatment of sick patients, preventing infection stops a disease before it begins, keeping people healthy and preventing the spread of the germ to others.

    We are microbiologists [Nature Communications] who study cholera because this ancient disease continues to thrive and can have a devastating impact on communities and entire countries. The Camilli lab has been focused on the disease for over two decades. We are interested in developing vaccines and phage products to prevent cholera from sickening people and triggering outbreaks.

    3
    This cholera patient is drinking oral rehydration solution in order to counteract his cholera-induced dehydration. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Image Library

    Cholera outbreaks occur worldwide

    In the case of cholera, which is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, prevention is preferred because it spreads like wildfire once it strikes a community. When this bacterial pathogen is ingested, it inhabits the small intestine, where it releases a potent toxin that triggers vomiting and watery diarrhea, which cause severe dehydration. The vomiting and diarrhea encourage the spread of the pathogen within households and contaminate local water sources. Left untreated, cholera kills 40% of its victims, sometimes within hours of the onset of symptoms. Fortunately, death can be largely prevented by prompt rehydration of cholera victims.

    In regions of the world lacking clean water and proper sanitation, 2.5 billion people are at risk, and the CDC estimates that there are up to 4 million cholera cases per year. New epidemics such as the recent massive epidemic in Yemen which has so far sickened over 1.2 million people and the outbreak in Mozambique are often the consequence of humanitarian crises. War and natural disasters often cause shortages of clean water and impact the poorest and most vulnerable communities.

    Cholera is highly transmissible in the community and within households. During outbreaks, an estimated 80% of cases are believed to result from rapid transmission within households, presumably occurring through contamination of household food, water or surfaces with diarrhea or vomit from the initial cholera victim.

    Family members typically experience cholera symptoms themselves two to three days after the initial household member became sick. Thus, the people in the most danger are usually siblings and loved ones taking care of the sick person. There is currently no approved medical intervention to immediately protect household members from contracting cholera when it strikes a household. Vaccines for cholera require at least 10 days to take effect, and thus miss the mark in this emergency situation.

    Prevention of cholera using phages

    To address this need, we developed a cocktail of phages to be taken orally each day by household members prior to, or soon after, exposure to Vibrio cholerae to protect them from contracting the disease. We believe the phages should remain in the intestinal tract long enough to serve as a shield against the incoming cholera bacteria. Although this has only been proven in animal models of cholera, we hope that the phage cocktail will work similarly in humans. There are three advantages to using phages in this manner.

    First, phages provide immediate protection. By acting fast, phages can eliminate the cholera bacteria from the gut in a targeted manner. That is important because cholera kills quickly.

    Second, phages infect and kill multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria just as well as drug-sensitive ones. This is crucial since the cholera bacteria have become multi-drug resistant [ALJM] in many parts of the world due to widespread antibiotic use [The Lancet].

    Third, in contrast to antibiotics, which kill bacteria indiscriminately, phages are very specific and infect only their particular host species of bacteria. Thus, when using phages against a pathogen, they will not disrupt the good bacteria residing in and on our patients’ bodies which are part of the microbiome. In research in our lab phages, called ICP1, ICP2 and ICP3, which we are using, kill only Vibrio cholerae and should not disrupt the good bacteria in the intestinal tract. This is important because our good bacteria are essential for defending the body against other pathogens and vital for our general nutrition and health.

    4
    People fill buckets with water from a well that is alleged to be contaminated water with the bacterium Vibrio cholera, on the outskirts of Yemen. Yemen’s raging two-year conflict has served as an incubator for lethal cholera. AP Photo/Hani Mohammed

    From test tube to product

    In collaboration with international researchers, we have been studying the cholera bacteria and its phages for over two decades at Tufts University, trying to uncover the details of how cholera spreads and how phages might affect its spread. The use of phages for prevention of cholera transmission was a natural outcome of this research, but by no means was it straightforward.

    Development of our phage product required finding phages that kill Vibrio cholerae in the intestinal tract, having intimate knowledge of how the phages infect the bacteria and discovering how the bacteria become resistant to the phages and how this affects their virulence.

    Our goal now is to test the phage cocktail in people during a cholera epidemic. Specifically, we need to determine if it is effective at preventing cholera transmission to family members in households where cholera strikes.

    In this day and age, we need to change the paradigm of relying entirely on antibiotics to treat infections and develop other types of antimicrobial solutions. It’s time to bring phages in from the cold, and utilize them both for treating multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and in the prevention of infections.

    See the full article here .

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    Our team of professional editors work with university and research institute experts to unlock their knowledge for use by the wider public.
    Access to independent, high quality, authenticated, explanatory journalism underpins a functioning democracy. Our aim is to promote better understanding of current affairs and complex issues. And hopefully allow for a better quality of public discourse and conversation.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:53 pm on May 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Long March-3C lofts Beidou-2G8 (GEO-8)", , , , BeiDou-3 satellite,   

    From NASA Spaceflight: “Long March-3C lofts Beidou-2G8 (GEO-8)” 

    NASA Spaceflight

    From NASA Spaceflight

    May 17, 2019
    Rui C. Barbosa

    1
    A new navigation satellite was successfully launched by China on Friday. The launch of Beidou-2G8 (GEO-8) took place from the LC2 Launch Complex of the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Sichuan province, using the Long March-3C/G2 (Y16) launch vehicle. Launch time was 15:48 UTC.

    Also designated Beidou-45, the satellite is part of the GEO component of the 2nd phase of the Chinese Beidou (Compass) satellite navigation system, using both geostationary satellites and satellites in intermediate orbits.
    The satellites are based on the DFH-3B Bus. This bus has a payload increased to 450 kg and payload power to 4,000 W.

    The spacecraft feature a phased array antenna for navigation signals and a laser retroreflector and additionally deployable S/L-band and C-band antennas. With a launch mass of 4,600 kg, spacecraft dimensions are noted to be 2.25 by 1.0 by 1.22 meters.

    Previous Beidou satellites were orbited on November 18, 2018, with a Long March-3B/YZ-1 launch vehicle launching the Beidou-3M17 (Beidou-42) and Beidou-3M18 (Beidou-43) satellites, and on April 20, 2019, with a Long March-3B/G2 orbiting the Beidou-3IGSO-1 (Beidou-44). Both launches took place from Xichang. The previous Beidou-2G satellite, Beidou-2G7 (Beidou-23), was launch on June 12, 2016.

    The Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been independently constructed, developed and operated by China taking into account the needs of the country’s national security, economic and social development. As a space infrastructure of national significance, BDS provides all-time, all-weather and high-accuracy positioning, navigation and timing services to global users.

    2
    Render of a BeiDou-3 satellite by J. Huart.

    A new navigation satellite was successfully launched by China on Friday. The launch of Beidou-2G8 (GEO-8) took place from the LC2 Launch Complex of the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Sichuan province, using the Long March-3C/G2 (Y16) launch vehicle. Launch time was 15:48 UTC.

    Also designated Beidou-45, the satellite is part of the GEO component of the 2nd phase of the Chinese Beidou (Compass) satellite navigation system, using both geostationary satellites and satellites in intermediate orbits.
    The satellites are based on the DFH-3B Bus. This bus has a payload increased to 450 kg and payload power to 4,000 W.

    The spacecraft feature a phased array antenna for navigation signals and a laser retroreflector and additionally deployable S/L-band and C-band antennas. With a launch mass of 4,600 kg, spacecraft dimensions are noted to be 2.25 by 1.0 by 1.22 meters.

    Previous Beidou satellites were orbited on November 18, 2018, with a Long March-3B/YZ-1 launch vehicle launching the Beidou-3M17 (Beidou-42) and Beidou-3M18 (Beidou-43) satellites, and on April 20, 2019, with a Long March-3B/G2 orbiting the Beidou-3IGSO-1 (Beidou-44). Both launches took place from Xichang. The previous Beidou-2G satellite, Beidou-2G7 (Beidou-23), was launch on June 12, 2016.

    The Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been independently constructed, developed and operated by China taking into account the needs of the country’s national security, economic and social development. As a space infrastructure of national significance, BDS provides all-time, all-weather and high-accuracy positioning, navigation and timing services to global users.

    Along with the development of the BDS service capability, related products have been widely applied in communication, marine fishery, hydrological monitoring, weather forecasting, surveying, mapping and geographic information, forest fire prevention, time synchronization for communication systems, power dispatching, disaster mitigation and relief, emergency search and rescue, and other fields.

    Navigation satellite systems are public resources shared by the whole globe, and multi-system compatibility and interoperability have become a trend. China applies the principle that “BDS is developed by China, and dedicated to the world”, serving the development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and actively pushing forward international cooperation related to BDS.

    As BDS joins hands with other navigation satellite systems, China will work with all other countries, regions and international organizations to promote global satellite navigation development and make BDS further serve the world and benefit mankind.

    China started to explore a path to develop a navigation satellite system suitable for its national conditions, and gradually formulated a three-step development strategy: completing the construction of BDS-1 and provide services to the whole country by the end of 2000; completing the construction of BDS-2 and provide services to the Asia-Pacific region by the end of 2012; and to complete the construction of BDS-3 and provide services worldwide around 2020 with a constellation of 27 MEOs plus 5 GEOs and the existing 3 IGSOs satellites of the regional system. CNSS would provide global navigation services, similarly to the GPS, GLONASS or Galileo systems.

    The Beidou Phase III system includes the migration of its civil Beidou 1 or B1 signal from 1561.098 MHz to a frequency centered at 1575.42 MHz – the same as the GPS L1 and Galileo E1 civil signals – and its transformation from a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation to a multiplexed binary offset carrier (MBOC) modulation similar to the future GPS L1C and Galileo’s E1.

    The Phase II B1 open service signal uses QPSK modulation with 4.092 megahertz bandwidth centered at 1561.098 MHz.

    The current Beidou constellation spacecraft are transmitting open and authorized signals at B2 (1207.14 MHz) and an authorized service at B3 (1268.52 MHz).

    Real-time, stand-alone Beidou horizontal positioning accuracy was classed as better than 6 meters (95 percent) and with a vertical accuracy better than 10 meters (95 percent).

    The development of the CZ-3C started in February 1999. The rocket has a liftoff mass of 345,000 kg, sporting structure functions to withstand the various internal and external loads on the launch vehicle during transportation, hoisting and flight.

    The rocket structure also combines all sub-systems together and is composed of two strap-on boosters, a first stage, a second stage, a third stage and payload fairing.

    The first two stages, as well as the two strap-on boosters, use hypergolic (N2O4/UDMH) fuel while the third stage uses cryogenic (LOX/LH2) fuel. The total length of the CZ-3C is 54.838 meters, with a diameter of 3.35 meters on the core stage and 3.00 meters on the third stage.

    On the first stage, the CZ-3C uses a DaFY6-2 engine with a 2961.6 kN thrust and a specific impulse of 2556.2 Ns/kg. The first stage diameter is 3.35 m and the stage length is 26.972 m.

    Each strap-on booster is equipped with a DaFY5-1 engine with a 704.4 kN thrust and a specific impulse of 2556.2 Ns/kg. The strap-on booster diameter is 2.25 m and the strap-on booster length is 15.326 m.

    The second stage is equipped with a DaFY20-1 main engine (742 kN / 2922.57 Ns/kg) and four DaFY21-1 vernier engines (11.8 kN / 2910.5 Ns/kg each). The second stage diameter is 3.35 m and the stage length is 9.470 m.

    The third stage is equipped with two YF-75 engines developing 78.5 kN each and with a specific impulse of 4312 Ns/kg. The fairing diameter of the CZ-3C is 4.00 meters and has a length of 9.56 meters.

    The Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in the Sichuan Province, south-western China and is the country’s launch site for geosynchronous orbital launches.

    Equipped with two launch pads (LC2 and LC3), the center has a dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site.

    6

    The Command and Control Centre is located seven kilometers south-west of the launch pad, providing flight and safety control during launch rehearsal and launch.

    Other facilities on the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre are the Launch Control Centre, propellant fuelling systems, communications systems for launch command, telephone and data communications for users, and support equipment for meteorological monitoring and forecasting.

    The first launch from Xichang took place at 12:25UTC on January 29, 1984, when the Chang Zheng-3 (Y-1) was launched the Shiyan Weixing (14670 1984-008A) communications satellite into orbit.

    What’s next for China in 2019?

    Two days after the launch of Beidou-45, a Long March-4C launch vehicle will orbit the Yaogan Weixing-33 mission from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. This will probably be a SAR military mission similar to previous ones launched from Taiyuan. Launch is scheduled for May 22.

    In late May we may assist to the launch of the first fist of the private Jielong-1 carrying four satellites and on the first days of June the first launch of the private Shuang Quxian-1 carrying seven satellites. Both launches will take place from the Jiuquan Satellites Launch Center that will also be the launch site for the launch of the next generation recoverable satellite – Shijian-19 – at the end of June. The launch will be made using a Long March-2D launch vehicle.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    NASA Spaceflight , now in its eighth year of operations, is already the leading online news resource for everyone interested in space flight specific news, supplying our readership with the latest news, around the clock, with editors covering all the leading space faring nations.

    Breaking more exclusive space flight related news stories than any other site in its field, NASASpaceFlight.com is dedicated to expanding the public’s awareness and respect for the space flight industry, which in turn is reflected in the many thousands of space industry visitors to the site, ranging from NASA to Lockheed Martin, Boeing, United Space Alliance and commercial space flight arena.

    With a monthly readership of 500,000 visitors and growing, the site’s expansion has already seen articles being referenced and linked by major news networks such as MSNBC, CBS, The New York Times, Popular Science, but to name a few.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:14 pm on May 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
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    From AAS NOVA: “Focus on SOFIA: HAWC+” 

    AASNOVA

    From AAS NOVA

    17 May 2019
    Susanna Kohler

    1
    This composite, false-color image shows the starburst galaxy Messier 82 as seen by Kitt Peak Observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and SOFIA. The magnetic field detected by SOFIA, shown as streamlines, appears to be dragged along by the winds flowing from the poles of this galaxy. [NASA/SOFIA/E. Lopez-Rodriguez/Spitzer/J. Moustakas et al.]

    Kitt Peak National Observatory of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers 55 mi west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    In December, AAS Nova Editor Susanna Kohler had the opportunity to fly aboard the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This week we’re taking a look at that flight, as well as some of the recent science the observatory produced and published in an ApJ Letters Focus Issue.

    3
    The HAWC+ instrument mounted on the SOFIA telescope. [NASA]

    Meet HAWC+

    HAWC+ is a one-of-a-kind instrument: it’s the only currently operating astronomical camera that takes images in far-infrared light. HAWC+ observes in the 50-μm to 240-μm range at high angular resolution, affording us a detailed look at low-temperature phenomena, like the early stages of star and planet formation.

    In addition to the camera, HAWC+ also includes a polarimeter, which allows the instrument to measure the alignment of incoming light waves produced by dust emission. By observing this far-infrared polarization, HAWC+ can produce detailed maps of otherwise invisible celestial magnetic fields. The insight gained with HAWC+ spans an incredible range of astronomical sources, from nearby star-forming regions to the large-scale environments surrounding other galaxies.

    4
    Artist’s conception of Cygnus A, surrounded by the torus of dust and debris with jets launching from its center. Magnetic fields are illustrated trapping dust near the supermassive black hole at the galaxy’s core. [NASA/SOFIA/Lynette Cook]

    Some Recent HAWC+ Science

    Cygnus A is the closest and most powerful radio-loud active galactic nucleus. At its heart, a supermassive black hole is actively accreting material, producing enormous jets — but this core is difficult to learn about, because it is heavily shrouded by dust.

    In a recent study led by Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez (SOFIA Science Center; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan), a team of scientists has used HAWC+ to observe the polarized infrared emission from aligned dust grains in the dusty torus surrounding Cygnus A’s core. Lopez-Rodriguez and collaborators find that a coherent dusty and magnetic field structure dominates the infrared emission around the nucleus, suggesting that magnetic fields confine the torus and funnel the dust in to accrete onto the supermassive black hole.

    Messier 82 and NGC 253 are two nearby starburst galaxies — galaxies with a high rate of star formation. Such galaxies often have strong outflowing galactic winds, which are thought to contribute to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium with both heavy elements and magnetic fields.

    A study led by Terry Jay Jones (University of Minnesota) uses HAWC+ to map out the magnetic field geometry in the disk and central regions of these two galaxies. M82 shows the most spectacular results, revealing clear evidence for a massive polar outflow that drags the magnetic field vertically away from the disk along with entrained gas and dust.

    4
    SOFIA/HAWC+ 89 μm detection of the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy J1429-0028. Right: false-color composite image of J1429-0028 from Hubble and Keck. [Ma et al. 2018]

    A study led by Jingzhe Ma (University of California, Irvine) presents the HAWC+ detection of the distant, gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy HATLAS J1429-0028. This beautiful system consists of an edge-on foreground disk galaxy and a nearly complete Einstein ring of an ultraluminous infrared background galaxy. What causes this background galaxy to shine so brightly in infrared wavelengths? The HAWC+ observations suggest it’s not due to emission from an active galactic nucleus; instead, this galaxy is likely powered purely by star formation.

    5
    The G 9 region, as represented by the Digital Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The cyan polygon represents the SOFIA HAWC+ coverage of the filamentary dark cloud GF 9. The yellow diamond marks the YSO GF 9-2. [Clemens et al. 2018]

    In a recent study examining the geometry of magnetic fields surrounding sites of massive star formation, Dan Clemens (Boston University) and collaborators obtained HAWC+ observations of a young stellar object (YSO) embedded in a molecular cloud. The polarimetric measurements of HAWC+ revealed the magnetic field configuration around the YSO, the dense core that hosts it, and the clumpy filamentary dark cloud that surrounds it, GF 9.

    Surprisingly, the observations show a remarkably uniform magnetic field threading the entire region, from the outer, diffuse cloud edge all the way down to the smallest scales of the YSO surroundings. These results contradict some models of how cores and YSOs form, providing important information that will help us better understand this process.

    Citation

    ApJL Focus issue:
    Focus on New Results from SOFIA

    HAWC+ articles:
    “The Highly Polarized Dusty Emission Core of Cygnus A,” Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez et al. 2018 ApJL 861 L23. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aacff5
    “SOFIA Far-infrared Imaging Polarimetry of M82 and NGC 253: Exploring the Supergalactic Wind,” Terry Jay Jones et al. 2019 ApJL 870 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf8b9
    “SOFIA/HAWC+ Detection of a Gravitationally Lensed Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.03,” Jingzhe Ma et al. 2018 ApJ 864 60. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a0
    “Magnetic Field Uniformity Across the GF 9-2 YSO, L1082C Dense Core, and GF 9 Filamentary Dark Cloud,” Dan P. Clemens et al. 2018 ApJ 867 79. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aae2af

    Related Journal Articles

    Polarized Mid-infrared Synchrotron Emission in the Core of Cygnus A doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/81
    The Emission and Distribution of Dust of the Torus of NGC 1068 doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabd7b
    Subaru Spectroscopy and Spectral Modeling of Cygnus A doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/6
    SOFIA/HAWC+ Detection of a Gravitationally Lensed Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.03 doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a0
    The Spitzer View of FR I Radio Galaxies: On the Origin of the Nuclear Mid-Infrared Continuum doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/891
    Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of High-redshift 3CRR Sources doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/717/2/766

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    1

    AAS Mission and Vision Statement

    The mission of the American Astronomical Society is to enhance and share humanity’s scientific understanding of the Universe.

    The Society, through its publications, disseminates and archives the results of astronomical research. The Society also communicates and explains our understanding of the universe to the public.
    The Society facilitates and strengthens the interactions among members through professional meetings and other means. The Society supports member divisions representing specialized research and astronomical interests.
    The Society represents the goals of its community of members to the nation and the world. The Society also works with other scientific and educational societies to promote the advancement of science.
    The Society, through its members, trains, mentors and supports the next generation of astronomers. The Society supports and promotes increased participation of historically underrepresented groups in astronomy.
    The Society assists its members to develop their skills in the fields of education and public outreach at all levels. The Society promotes broad interest in astronomy, which enhances science literacy and leads many to careers in science and engineering.

    Adopted June 7, 2009

     
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