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  • richardmitnick 10:05 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Galaxy changes classification as jet changes direction", , , , , PBC J2333.9-2343 has been reclassified as a radio galaxy with a blazar at its centre., PBC J2333.9-2343 located 656 844 372 light years away has now been classified as a giant radio galaxy that is 4 million light years across and happens to have a blazar in its core.,   

    From The Royal Astronomical Society (UK): “Galaxy changes classification as jet changes direction” 

    From The Royal Astronomical Society (UK)


    Media Contacts
    Gurjeet Kahlon
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Mob: +44 (0)7802 877 700

    Dr Robert Massey
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Mob: +44 (0)7802 877699

    Makarena Estrella Pacheco
    Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS)

    Science Contacts
    Dr Lorena Hernández-García
    Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS) and University of Valparaiso

    Dr Francesca Panessa
    Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology (INAF-IAPS)

    Dr Gabriele Bruni
    Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology (INAF-IAPS)

    This artist’s concept shows a “feeding,” or active, supermassive black hole with a jet streaming outward at nearly the speed of light. Not all black holes have jets, but when they do, the jets can be pointed in any direction. If a jet happens to shine at Earth, the object is called a blazar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

    A team of international astronomers have discovered a galaxy that has changed classification due to unique activity within its core. The galaxy, named PBC J2333.9-2343, was previously classified as a radio galaxy, but the new research has revealed otherwise. The work is published in MNRAS [below].

    PBC J2333.9-2343 located 656 844 372 light years away has now been classified as a giant radio galaxy that is 4 million light years across and happens to have a blazar in its core; a blazar is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with a relativistic jet (a jet travelling close to the speed of light) directed towards an observer. Blazars are very high energy objects and are considered to be one of the most powerful phenomena in the Universe. The research has revealed that in PBC J2333.9-2343, the jet changed its direction drastically by an angle of up to 90 degrees, going from being in the plane of the sky, perpendicular to our line of sight, to pointing directly towards us.

    A blazar jet is made of elemental charged particles like electrons or protons that move at velocities close to the speed of light. These move in circles around a strong magnetic field, causing the emission of radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In PBC J2333.9-2343, the jet is thought to originate from or close to the supermassive black hole in its centre.

    With the jet pointing in our direction, the emission is strongly enhanced and can easily exceed that coming from the rest of the galaxy. This in turn drives high-intensity flares stronger than those coming from other radio galaxies, thus changing its categorization.

    A coloured image using the z/i/g filters taken from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) PS1, a system for wide-field astronomical imaging developed and operated by the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. The galaxy PBC J2333.9-2343 is located at the centre of the image. The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai’i.

    The orientation of the jets to us determines how a galaxy is classified. When two jets point towards the plane of the sky, they are classified as a radio galaxy, but if one of the jets points towards us, then the AGN of the galaxy is known as a blazar. With jets in the plane of the sky and one directed at us, PBC J2333.9-2343 has been reclassified as a radio galaxy with a blazar at its centre.

    Changes in the direction of jets have been described in the past, for example with X-shaped radio galaxies. This is the first time that such a phenomenon has been observed where it does not suggest the presence of two different phases of jet activity from its morphology observed at radio frequencies – the direction change appears to have taken place in the same nuclear outburst originating from the AGN.

    To find out more about this mysterious galaxy, astronomers had to observe it across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. PBC J2333.9-2343 was observed with radio, optical, infrared, x-ray, ultraviolet and gamma ray telescopes. Data was obtained from the German 100m-Radio Telescope Effelsberg at the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy, the 1.3m-SMARTS optical telescope, and the Penn State Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory.

    The team then compared the properties of PBC J2333.9-2343 with large samples of blazars and non-blazar galaxies provided by the ALeRCE (Automatic Learning for the Rapid Classification of Events) project in Chile with data from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS).

    Using the observational data, the team concluded that this galaxy has a bright blazar in the centre, with two lobes in the outer areas of the jet. The lobes that are observed are related to the old jets and are no longer being fed by the emission from the nucleus, so these lobes are relics of past radio activity. The AGN no longer drives the lobes as seen in typical radio galaxies.

    The team do not yet know what caused the drastic change in direction of the jets. They speculate that it could have been a merging event with another galaxy or any other relatively large object, or a strong burst of activity in the galactic nucleus after a dormant period.

    Dr Lorena Hernández-García, lead author of the paper and researcher at the Millenium Institute of Astrophysics, says “We started to study this galaxy as it showed peculiar properties. Our hypothesis was that the relativistic jet of its supermassive black hole had changed its direction, and to confirm that idea we had to carry out a lot of observations.”

    She adds, “The fact that we see the nucleus is not feeding the lobes anymore means that they are very old. They are the relics of past activity, whereas the structures located closer to the nucleus represent younger and active jets.”


    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Royal Astronomical Society is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. Its headquarters are in Burlington House, on Piccadilly in London. The society has over 4,000 members (“Fellows”), most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK.

    The society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, and the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The Royal Astronomical Society publishes the scientific journals MNRAS and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics.

    The Royal Astronomical Society maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognizes achievement in Astronomy and Geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of The Royal Astronomical Society. The Royal Astronomical Society is the UK adhering organization to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council.

    The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were ‘gentleman astronomers’ rather than professionals. It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women.

    One of the major activities of the RAS is publishing refereed journals. It publishes two primary research journals, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society [MNRAS] in astronomy and (in association with The German Geophysical Society [Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft e.V. ](DE)]) the Geophysical Journal International in geophysics. It also publishes the magazine A&G which includes reviews and other articles of wide scientific interest in a ‘glossy’ format. The full list of journals published (both currently and historically) by the RAS, with abbreviations as used for the NASA ADS bibliographic codes is:

    Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (MmRAS): 1822–1977[3]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS): Since 1827
    Geophysical Supplement to Monthly Notices (MNRAS): 1922–1957
    Geophysical Journal (GeoJ): 1958–1988
    Geophysical Journal International (GeoJI): Since 1989 (volume numbering continues from GeoJ)
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society (QJRAS): 1960–1996
    Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G): Since 1997 (volume numbering continues from QJRAS)

    Associated groups

    The RAS sponsors topical groups, many of them in interdisciplinary areas where the group is jointly sponsored by another learned society or professional body:

    The Astrobiology Society of Britain (UK) (with The NASA Astrobiology Institute)
    The Astroparticle Physics Group (with The Institute of Physics – London (UK))
    The Astrophysical Chemistry Group (with The Royal Society of Chemistry)
    The British Geophysical Association (with The Geological Society of London (UK).
    The Magnetosphere Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial group (UK)
    The UK Planetary Forum
    The UK Solar Physics group

  • richardmitnick 9:34 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Discovery of relativistic jets blowing bubbles in the central region of the Teacup Galaxy", , , , ,   

    From IAC-The Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias] (ES): “Discovery of relativistic jets blowing bubbles in the central region of the Teacup Galaxy” 

    From IAC-The Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias] (ES)

    Anelise Audibert

    Cristina Ramos Almeida

    The compact radio jet in the center of the Teacup galaxy blows a lateral turbulent wind in the cold dense gas, as predicted by the simulations. Credit: M. Meenakshi/ D. Mukherjee/ A. Audibert/HST/ ALMA/ VLA.

    A study led by Anelise Audibert, a researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), reveals a process that explains the peculiar morphology of the central region of the Teacup galaxy, a massive quasar located 1.3 billion light-years away from us. This object is characterized by the presence of expanding gas bubbles produced by winds emanating from its central supermassive black hole. The study confirms that a compact jet, only visible at radio waves, is altering the shape and increasing the temperature of the surrounding gas, blowing bubbles that expand laterally. These findings, based on observations from the ALMA telescope in Chile and hydrodynamical simulations, are published today in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters [below].

    When matter falls into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies, it unleashes enormous amounts of energy and is called an active galactic nuclei (or AGN). A fraction of AGN release part of this energy as jets that are detectable in radio wavelengths that travel at velocities close to light speed. While the jet travels across the galaxy, it collides with the clouds and gas around it and in some cases may push this material away in the form of winds. However, which conditions preferentially trigger these winds to blow out the gas from galaxies are still poorly understood.

    The effect of jets impacting the content of the galaxies, like the stars, dust, and gas, plays an important role in how galaxies evolve in the Universe. The most powerful radio jets, hosted in ´radio-loud’ galaxies, are responsible for drastically changing the fate of galaxies because they heat the gas, preventing new star formation and galaxy growth. Computer simulations of relativistic jets piercing into disky galaxies predict that jets alter the shape of the surrounding gas by blowing bubbles as they penetrate further into the galaxy. One of the key elements in the simulations that make the jets efficient in driving winds is the angle between the gaseous disk and the jet’s direction of propagation. Surprisingly, less powerful jets, like the ones in ‘radio-quiet’ galaxies, are able to inflict more damage on the surrounding medium than the very powerful ones.

    An international scientific team, led by the IAC researcher Anelise Audibert, discovered an ideal case in which to study the interaction of the radio jet with the cold gas around a massive quasar: the Teacup galaxy. The Teacup is a radio-quiet quasar located 1.3 billion light years from us and its nickname comes from the expanding bubbles seen in the optical and radio images, one of which is shaped like the handle of a teacup. In addition, the central region (around 3300 light-years in size) harbors a compact and young radio jet that has a small inclination relative to the galaxy disk.

    Effects on star formation

    Using observations performed in the Chilean desert with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the team was able to characterize with an unprecedented level of detail the cold, dense gas in the central part of the Teacup. In particular, they detected the emission of carbon monoxide molecules that can only exist under certain conditions of density and temperature. Based on these observations, the team found that the compact jet, despite its low power, is not only clearly disrupting the distribution of the gas and heating it, but also accelerating it in an unusual way.

    The team expected to detect extreme conditions in the impacted regions along the jet, but when they analyzed the observations, they found that the cold gas is more turbulent and warmer in the directions perpendicular to the jet propagation. “This is caused by the shocks induced by the jet-driven bubble, which heats up and blows the gas in its lateral expansion”, explains A. Audibert “Supported by the comparison with computer simulations, we believe that the orientation between the cold gas disk and the jet is a crucial factor in efficiently driving these lateral winds”, she adds.

    “It was previously believed that low-power jets had a negligible impact on the galaxy, but works like ours show that, even in the case of radio-quiet galaxies, jets can redistribute and disrupt the surrounding gas, and this will have an impact on the galaxy’s ability to form new stars”, says Cristina Ramos Almeida, an IAC researcher and co-author of the study.

    The next step is to observe a larger sample of radio-quiet quasars with MEGARA, an instrument installed on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC or Grantecan).

    The observations will help us to understand the impact of the jets on the more tenuous and hot gas, and to measure changes in star formation caused by winds. This is one of the goals of the QSOFEED project, developed by an international team led by C. Ramos Almeida at the IAC, whose aim is to discover how winds from supermassive black holes affect the galaxies that host them.

    Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    IAC-The Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias] (ES) operates two astronomical observatories in the Canary Islands:

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma
    Teide Observatory on Tenerife.

    The Instituto de Astrofísica the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).

    Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma (ES) at an altitude of 2400m.

    The seeing statistics at ORM make it the second-best location for optical and infrared astronomy in the Northern Hemisphere, after Mauna Kea Observatory Hawai’i.

    Mauna Kea Observatories Hawai’i altitude 4,213 m (13,822 ft).

    The site also has some of the most extensive astronomical facilities in the Northern Hemisphere; its fleet of telescopes includes the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias [below], the world’s largest single-aperture optical telescope as of July 2009; the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (IT) (ES) [below] a 3.58-meter Italian telescope; the William Herschel Telescope (second largest in Europe) [below], and the adaptive optics corrected Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope [below].

    Gran Telescopio Canarias [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias ](ES) sited on a volcanic peak 2,267 metres (7,438 ft) above sea level.

    Isaac Newton Group 4.2 meter William Herschel Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands(ES), 2,396 m (7,861 ft).

    The Swedish 1m Solar Telescope SST at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on La Palma Spain, Altitude 2,360 m (7,740 ft).

    The observatory was established in 1985, after 15 years of international work and cooperation of several countries with the Spanish island hosting many telescopes from Britain, The Netherlands, Spain, and other countries. The island provided better seeing conditions for the telescopes that had been moved to Herstmonceux by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, including the 98 inch aperture Isaac Newton Telescope (the largest reflector in Europe at that time). When it was moved to the island it was upgraded to a 100-inch (2.54 meter), and many even larger telescopes from various nations would be hosted there.

    Tiede Observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands (ES)

    Teide Observatory [Observatorio del Teide], IAU code 954, is an astronomical observatory on Mount Teide at 2,390 metres (7,840 ft), located on Tenerife, Spain. It has been operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias since its inauguration in 1964. It became one of the first major international observatories, attracting telescopes from different countries around the world because of the good astronomical seeing conditions. Later the emphasis for optical telescopes shifted more towards Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma.

  • richardmitnick 9:06 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Billions of tonnes of ice lost from Antarctic Ice sheet", , , , , Scientists have calculated that the fastest changing Antarctic region - the Amundsen Sea Embayment - has lost more than 3000 billion tonnes of ice over a 25-year period.,   

    From The University of Leeds (UK): “Billions of tonnes of ice lost from Antarctic Ice sheet” 

    U Leeds bloc

    From The University of Leeds (UK)

    David Lewis


    Scientists have calculated that the fastest changing Antarctic region - the Amundsen Sea Embayment - has lost more than 3000 billion tonnes of ice over a 25-year period.  

    If all the lost ice was piled on London, it would stand over 2 km tall - or 7.4 times the height of the Shard. If it were to cover Manhattan, it would stand at 61 km – or 137 Empire State Buildings placed on top of one another. 

    Twenty major glaciers form the Amundsen Sea Embayment in West Antarctica, which is more than four times the size of the UK, and they play a key role in contributing to the level of the world’s oceans.  

     So much water is held in the snow and ice, that if it were to all to drain into the sea, global sea levels could increase by more than one metre.  

    The research, led by Dr Benjamin Davison at the University of Leeds, calculated the “mass balance” of the Amundsen Sea Embayment. This describes the balance between mass of snow and ice gain due to snowfall and mass lost through calving, where icebergs form at the end of a glacier and drift out to sea.

    When calving happens faster than the ice is replaced by snowfall, then the Embayment loses mass overall and contributes to global sea level rise. Similarly, when snowfall supply drops, the Embayment can lose mass overall and contribute to sea level rise.

    The results show that West Antarctica saw a net decline of 3,331 billion tonnes of ice between 1996 and 2021, contributing over nine millimetres to global sea levels.  Changes in ocean temperature and currents are thought to have been the most important factors driving the loss of ice. 

    Dr Davison, a Research Fellow at the Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science at Leeds, said: “The 20 glaciers in West Antarctica have lost an awful lot of ice over the last quarter of a century and there is no sign that the process is going to reverse anytime soon although there were periods where the rate of mass loss did ease slightly. 

    “Scientists are monitoring what is happening in the Amundsen Sea Embayment because of the crucial role it plays in sea-level rise. If ocean levels were to rise significantly in future years, there are communities around the world who would experience extreme flooding.” 

    The research has been published in the scientific journal Nature Communications [below].

    Iceberg floating from the Amundsen Sea Embayment. ULeeds.

    Extreme snowfall events 

    Using climate models that show how air currents move around the world, the scientists identified that the Amundsen Sea Embayment had experienced several extreme snowfall events over the 25-year study period. 

    These would have resulted in periods of heavy snowfall and periods of very little snowfall or a “snow drought”. 

    The researchers factored these extreme events into their calculations. Surprisingly, they found that these events contributed up to half of the ice change at certain times, and therefore played a key role in the contribution the Amundsen Sea Embayment was making to sea level rise during certain time periods.  

    For example, between 2009 and 2013, the models revealed a period of a persistent snow drought. The lack of snowfall starved the ice sheet and caused it to lose ice, therefore contributing about 25% more to sea level rise than in years of average snowfall. 

    In contrast, during the winters of 2019 and 2020 there was very heavy snowfall. The scientists estimated that this heavy snowfall mitigated the sea level contribution from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, reducing it to about half of what it would have been in an average year.  

    Dr Davison said: “Changes in ocean temperature and circulation appear to be driving the long-term, large-scale changes in West Antarctica ice sheet mass.  We absolutely need to research those more because they are likely to control the overall sea level contribution from West Antarctica.  

    “However, we were really surprised to see just how much periods of extremely low or high snowfall could affect the ice sheet over two to five-year periods – so much so that we think they could play an important, albeit secondary role, in controlling rates of West Antarctic ice loss.” 

    Dr Pierre Dutrieux, a scientist at the British Antarctic Survey and co-author of the study, added: “Ocean temperature changes and glacial dynamics appear strongly connected in this part of the world, but this work highlights the large variability and unexpected processes by which snowfall also plays a direct role in modulating glacier mass.”

    New glacier named

    The ice loss from the region over the past 25 years has seen the retreat of the Pine Island Glacier,  also known as PIG.

    As it retreated, one of its tributary glaciers became detached from the main glacier and rapidly accelerated. As a result, the tributary glacier has now been named by the UK Antarctic Place-names Committee, Piglet Glacier, so that it can be unambiguously located and identified by future studies.  

    Dr Anna Hogg, one of the authors of the paper and Associate Professor at the Institute of Climate and Atmospheric Science at Leeds, said: “As well as shedding new light on the role of extreme snowfall variability on ice sheet mass changes, this research also provides new estimates of how quickly this important region of Antarctica is contributing to sea level rise.  

    “Satellite observations have showed that the newly named Piglet Glacier accelerated its ice speed by 40%, as the larger PIG retreated to its smallest extent since records began.”  

    Satellites such as the Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellite, which uses sensors that ‘see’ through cloud even during the long Polar night, have transformed our ability to monitor remote regions. 

    It is essential to have frequent measurements of change in ice speed and iceberg calving, so that we can monitor the incredibly rapid change taking place in Antarctica. 

    Nature Communications
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Leeds Campus

    The University of Leeds is a public research university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It was established in 1874 as the Yorkshire College of Science. In 1884 it merged with the Leeds School of Medicine (established 1831) and was renamed Yorkshire College. It became part of the federal Victoria University in 1887, joining Owens College (which became The University of Manchester (UK)) and University College Liverpool (which became The University of Liverpool (UK)). In 1904 a royal charter was granted to the University of Leeds by King Edward VII.

    The university has 36,330 students, the 5th largest university in the UK (out of 169). From 2006 to present, the university has consistently been ranked within the top 5 (alongside the University of Manchester, The Manchester Metropolitan University (UK), The University of Nottingham (UK) and The University of Edinburgh (SCT)) in the United Kingdom for the number of applications received. Leeds had an income of £751.7 million in 2020/21, of which £130.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university has financial endowments of £90.5 million (2020–21), ranking outside the top ten British universities by financial endowment.

    Notable alumni include current Leader of the Labour Party Keir Starmer, former Secretary of State Jack Straw, former co-chairman of the Conservative Party Sayeeda Warsi, Piers Sellers (NASA astronaut) and six Nobel laureates.

    The university’s history is linked to the development of Leeds as an international centre for the textile industry and clothing manufacture in the United Kingdom during the Victorian era. The university’s roots can be traced back to the formation of schools of medicine in English cities to serve the general public.

    Before 1900, only six universities had been established in England and Wales: The University of Oxford (UK) (founded c. 1096–1201), The University of Cambridge (UK) (c. 1201), The University of London (UK) (1836), The University of Durham (UK) (1837), Victoria University (UK) (1880), and The University of Wales Trinity Saint David[ Prifysgol Cymru Y Drindod Dewi Sant](WLS) (1893).

    The Victoria University was established in Manchester in 1880 as a federal university in the North of England, instead of the government elevating Owens College to a university and grant it a royal charter. Owens College was the sole college of Victoria University from 1880 to 1884; in 1887 Yorkshire College was the third to join the university.

    Leeds was given its first university in 1887 when the Yorkshire College joined the federal Victoria University on 3 November. The Victoria University had been established by royal charter in 1880; Owens College being at first the only member college. Leeds now found itself in an educational union with close social cousins from Manchester and Liverpool.

    Unlike Owens College, the Leeds campus of the Victoria University had never barred women from its courses. However, it was not until special facilities were provided at the Day Training College in 1896 that women began enrolling in significant numbers. The first female student to begin a course at the university was Lilias Annie Clark, who studied Modern Literature and Education.

    The Victoria (Leeds) University was a short-lived concept, as the multiple university locations in Manchester and Liverpool were keen to establish themselves as separate, independent universities. This was partially due to the benefits a university had for the cities of Liverpool and Manchester whilst the institutions were also unhappy with the practical difficulties posed by maintaining a federal arrangement across broad distances. The interests of the universities and respective cities in creating independent institutions was further spurred by the granting of a charter to the University of Birmingham in 1900 after lobbying from Joseph Chamberlain.

    Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, the then newly formed University of Liverpool began the fragmentation of the Victoria University by being the first member to gain independence. The University of Leeds soon followed suit and had been granted a royal charter as an independent body by King Edward VII by 1904.

    The Victoria University continued after the break-up of the group, with an amended constitution and renamed as the Victoria University of Manchester (though “Victoria” was usually omitted from its name except in formal usage) until September 2004. On 1 October 2004 a merger with the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology was enacted to form The University of Manchester.

    In December 2004, financial pressures forced the university’s governing body (the Council) to decide to close the Bretton campus. Activities at Bretton were moved to the main university campus in the summer of 2007 (allowing all Bretton-based students to complete their studies there). There was substantial opposition to the closure by the Bretton students. The university’s other satellite site, Manygates in Wakefield, also closed, but Lifelong Learning and Healthcare programmes are continuing on a new site next to Wakefield College.

    In May 2006, the university began re-branding itself to consolidate its visual identity to promote one consistent image. A new logo was produced, based on that used during the centenary celebrations in 2004, to replace the combined use of the modified university arms and the Parkinson Building, which has been in use since 2004. The university arms will still be used in its original form for ceremonial purposes only. Four university colours were also specified as being green, red, black and beige.

    Leeds provides the local community with over 2,000 university student volunteers. With 8,700 staff employed in 2019-20, the university is the third largest employer in Leeds and contributes around £1.23bn a year to the local economy – students add a further £211m through rents and living costs.

    The university’s educational partnerships have included providing formal accreditation of degree awards to The Leeds Arts University (UK) and The Leeds Trinity University (UK), although the latter now has the power to award its own degrees. The College of the Resurrection, an Anglican theological college in Mirfield with monastic roots, has, since its inception in 1904, been affiliated to the university, and ties remain close. The university is also a founding member of The Northern Consortium (UK).

    In August 2010, the university was one of the most targeted institutions by students entering the UCAS clearing process for 2010 admission, which matches undersubscribed courses to students who did not meet their firm or insurance choices. The university was one of nine The Russell Group Association(UK) universities offering extremely limited places to “exceptional” students after the universities in Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Edinburgh and Oxford declared they would not enter the process due to courses being full to capacity.

    On 12 October 2010, The Refectory of the Leeds University Union hosted a live edition of the Channel 4 News, with students, academics and economists expressing their reaction to the Browne Review, an independent review of Higher Education funding and student finance conducted by John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley. University of Leeds Vice-Chancellor and Russell Group chairman Michael Arthur participated, giving an academic perspective alongside current vice-chancellor of The Kingston University (UK) and former Pro Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Education at the University of Leeds, Sir Peter Scott. Midway through the broadcast a small group of protesters against the potential rise of student debt entered the building before being restrained and evacuated.

    In 2016, The University of Leeds became University of the Year 2017 in The Times and The Sunday Times’ Good University Guide. The university has risen to 13th place overall, which reflects impressive results in student experience, high entry standards, services and facilities, and graduate prospects.

    In 2018, the global world ranking of the University of Leeds is No.93. There are currently 30,842 students are studying in this university. The average tuition fee is 12,000 – US$14,000.


    Many of the academic departments have specialist research facilities, for use by staff and students to support research from internationally significant collections in university libraries to state-of-the-art laboratories. These include those hosted at the Institute for Transport Studies, such as the University of Leeds Driving Simulator which is one of the most advanced worldwide in a research environment, allowing transport researchers to watch driver behaviour in accurately controlled laboratory conditions without the risks associated with a live, physical environment.

    With extensive links to the St James’s University Hospital through the Leeds School of Medicine, the university operates a range of high-tech research laboratories for biomedical and physical sciences, food and engineering – including clean rooms for bionanotechnology and plant science greenhouses. The university is connected to Leeds General Infirmary and the institute of molecular medicine based at St James’s University Hospital which aids integration of research and practice in the medical field.

    The university also operate research facilities in the aviation field, with the Airbus A320 flight simulator. The simulator was devised with an aim to promote the safety and efficiency of flight operations; where students use the simulator to develop their reactions to critical situations such as engine failure, display malfunctioning and freak weather.

    In addition to these facilities, many university departments conduct research in their respective fields. There are also various research centres, including Leeds University Centre for African Studies.

    Leeds was ranked joint 19th (along with The University of St Andrews (SCT)) amongst multi-faculty institutions in the UK for the quality (GPA) of its research and 10th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework.

    Between 2014-15, Leeds was ranked as the 10th most targeted British university by graduate employers, a two place decrease from 8th position in the previous 2014 rankings.

    The 2021 The Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked Leeds as 153rd in the world. The university ranks 84th in the world in the CWTS Leiden Ranking. Leeds is ranked 91st in the world (and 15th in the UK) in the 2021 QS World University Rankings.

    The university won the biennially awarded Queen’s Anniversary Prize in 2009 for services to engineering and technology. The honour being awarded to the university’s Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) which for over forty years has been a world leader in transport teaching and research.

    The university is a founding member of The Russell Group Association(UK), comprising the leading research-intensive universities in the UK, as well as the N8 Group for research collaboration, The Worldwide Universities Network (UK), The Association of Commonwealth Universities (UK), The European University Association (EU), The White Rose University Consortium (UK), the Santander Network and the CDIO Initiative. It is also affiliated to The Universities (UK). The Leeds University Business School holds the ‘Triple Crown’ of accreditations from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Association of MBAs and the European Quality Improvement System.

  • richardmitnick 8:23 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New possibilities in the theoretical prediction of particle interactions", , , Calabi-Yau geometries, , During the interaction of subatomic particles something special happens: Any number of additional particles can temporarily pop in and out of existence., Feynman integrals, , , , ,   

    From The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz] (DE): “New possibilities in the theoretical prediction of particle interactions” 

    From The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz] (DE)

    Professor Dr. Stefan Weinzierl
    Theoretical High Energy Physics (THEP)
    Institute of Physics and
    PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence
    Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
    55099 Mainz
    phone: +49 6131 39-25579

    How does the world look like at the smallest scales? This is a question scientists are trying to answer in particle collider experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland.

    To compare the results of these experiments, theoretical physicists need to provide more and more precise predictions based on our current model for the interactions of fundamental particles, the so-called standard model. A key ingredient in these predictions are so called Feynman integrals. Recently, a team of the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), consisting of Dr. Sebastian Pögel, Dr. Xing Wang and Prof. Dr. Stefan Weinzierl, developed a method to efficiently compute a new class of these Feynman integrals, associated to Calabi-Yau geometries. This research is now published in the renowned Physical Review Letters [below] and opens the path to high-precision theoretical predictions of particle interactions and to a better understanding of the elegant mathematical structure underpinning the world of particle physics.

    “During the interaction of subatomic particles something special happens: Any number of additional particles can temporarily pop in and out of existence”, explained Professor Stefan Weinzierl. “When making theoretical predictions of such interactions, the more of these additional particles are taken into account, the more precise the computation will be to the real result.” Feynman integrals are mathematical objects which describe this effect, summing in effect all possible ways particles can appear and immediately disappear again.

    Calabi-Yau geometries: An interplay of mathematics and physics

    An important property determining the complexity of a Feynman integral is its geometry. Many of the simplest Feynman integrals have the geometry of a sphere or a torus, which is the mathematical term for a donut shape. Such integrals are nowadays well understood. However, there are entire families of geometries, so-called Calabi-Yau geometries, which are generalizations of the donut case to higher dimensions. These have proven to be a rich field of research in pure mathematics and have found extensive application in string theory in the last decades. In recent years, it was discovered that many Feynman integrals are associated to Calabi-Yau geometries, too. However, due to the complexity of the geometry, the efficient evaluation of such integrals has remained a challenge.

    In their recent publication, Dr. Sebastian Pögel, Dr. Xing Wang, and Professor Stefan Weinzierl present a method that allows them to tackle integrals of Calabi-Yau geometries. They studied a simple family of Calabi-Yau Feynman integrals, so-called banana integrals.

    Feynman graph of a banana intergral (ill./©: Weinzierl group)

    The name is derived from the Feynman graph. Thereby they could find for the first time a so-called “epsilon-factorized form” for these integrals. This form allows to quickly evaluate the integral to nearly arbitrary precision, making them accessible for future experimental predictions predictions.

    “It opens the door to a wide variety of hitherto unreachable Feynman integrals,” said Dr. Xing Wang. According to Dr. Sebastian Pögel, this is a nice example of how pure mathematics feeds into phenomenological predictions for high-energy experiments. “We are grateful to our colleagues in mathematics, and in particular to the group of Professor Duco van Straten, as we built on their work and now were able to achieve this exciting result”, Professor Stefan Weinzierl summarized.

    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz] (DE) is a public research university in Mainz, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, named after the printer Johannes Gutenberg since 1946. With approximately 32,000 students (2018) in about 100 schools and clinics, it is among the largest universities in Germany. Starting on 1 January 2005 the university was reorganized into 11 faculties of study.

    The university is a member of the German U15, a coalition of fifteen major research-intensive and leading medical universities in Germany. The Johannes Gutenberg University is considered one of the most prestigious universities in Germany.

    The university is part of the IT-Cluster Rhine-Main-Neckar. The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, The Goethe University Frankfurt(DE) and The Technische Universität Darmstadt(DE) together form the Rhine-Main-Universities [Rhein-Main Universitäten](DE)(RMU).

    The first University of Mainz goes back to the Archbishop of Mainz, Prince-elector and Reichserzkanzler Adolf II von Nassau. At the time, establishing a university required papal approval and Adolf II initiated the approval process during his time in office. The university, however, was first opened in 1477 by Adolf’s successor to the bishopric, Diether von Isenburg. In 1784 the University was opened up for Protestants and Jews (curator Anselm Franz von Betzel). It fastly became one of the largest Catholic universities in Europe with ten chairs in theology alone. In the confusion after the establishment of the Mainz Republic of 1792 and its subsequent recapture by the Prussians, academic activity came to a gradual standstill. In 1798 the university became active again under French governance, and lectures in the department of medicine took place until 1823. Only the faculty of theology continued teaching during the 19th century, albeit as a theological Seminary (since 1877 “College of Philosophy and Theology”).

    The current Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz was founded in 1946 by the French occupying power. In a decree on 1 March the French military government implied that the University of Mainz would continue to exist: the University shall be “enabled to resume its function”. The remains of anti-aircraft warfare barracks erected in 1938 after the remilitarization of the Rhineland during the Third Reich served as the university’s first buildings and are still in use today.

    The continuation of academic activity between the old university and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, in spite of an interruption spanning over 100 years, is contested. During the time up to its reopening only a seminary and midwifery college survived.

    In 1972, the effect of the 1968 student protests began to take a toll on the University’s structure. The departments (Fakultäten) were dismantled and the University was organized into broad fields of study (Fachbereiche). Finally in 1974 Peter Schneider was elected as the first president of what was now a “constituted group-university” institute of higher education. In 1990 Jürgen Zöllner became University President yet spent only a year in the position after he was appointed Minister for “Science and Advanced Education” for the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. As the coordinator for the SPD’s higher education policy, this furloughed professor from the Institute for Physiological Chemistry played a decisive role in the SPD’s higher education policy and in the development of Study Accounts.

  • richardmitnick 7:39 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Semiconductor lattice marries electrons and magnetic moments", , , , , , , , , The Kavli Institute, The Kondo impurity problem is now well understood but the Kondo lattice problem – one with a regular lattice of magnetic moments instead of random magnetic impurities – is much more complicated., The team set out to address what is known as the Kondo effect named after Japanese theoretical physicist Jun Kondo.   

    From The Kavli Institute At Cornell University Via “The Chronicle”: “Semiconductor lattice marries electrons and magnetic moments” 

    From The Kavli Institute


    The College of Arts and Sciences



    The College of Engineering


    Cornell University


    “The Chronicle”

    David Nutt

    A model system created by stacking a pair of monolayer semiconductors is giving physicists a simpler way to study confounding quantum behavior, from heavy fermions to exotic quantum phase transitions.

    The group’s paper is published March 15 in Nature [below]. The lead author is postdoctoral fellow Wenjin Zhao in the Kavli Institute at Cornell.

    The project was led by Kin Fai Mak, professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences, and Jie Shan, professor of applied and engineering physics in Cornell Engineering and in A&S, the paper’s co-senior authors. Both researchers are members of the Kavli Institute; they came to Cornell through the provost’s Nanoscale Science and Microsystems Engineering (NEXT Nano) initiative .

    A transmission electron microscope image shows the moiré lattice of molybdenum ditelluride and tungsten diselenide.
    Yu-Tsun Shao and David Muller/Provided.

    The team set out to address what is known as the Kondo effect, named after Japanese theoretical physicist Jun Kondo. About six decades ago, experimental physicists discovered that by taking a metal and substituting even a small number of atoms with magnetic impurities, they could scatter the material’s conduction electrons and radically alter its resistivity.

    That phenomenon puzzled physicists, but Kondo explained it with a model that showed how conduction electrons can “screen” the magnetic impurities, such that the electron spin pairs with the spin of a magnetic impurity in opposite directions, forming a singlet.

    While the Kondo impurity problem is now well understood, the Kondo lattice problem – one with a regular lattice of magnetic moments instead of random magnetic impurities – is much more complicated and continues to stump physicists. Experimental studies of the Kondo lattice problem usually involve intermetallic compounds of rare earth elements, but these materials have their own limitations.

    “When you move all the way down to the bottom of the Periodic Table, you end up with something like 70 electrons in an atom,” Mak said. “The electronic structure of the material becomes so complicated. It is very difficult to describe what’s going on even without Kondo interactions.”

    The researchers simulated the Kondo lattice by stacking ultrathin monolayers of two semiconductors: molybdenum ditelluride, tuned to a Mott insulating state, and tungsten diselenide, which was doped with itinerant conduction electrons. These materials are much simpler than bulky intermetallic compounds, and they are stacked with a clever twist. By rotating the layers at a 180-degree angle, their overlap results in a moiré lattice pattern that traps individual electrons in tiny slots, similar to eggs in an egg carton.

    This configuration avoids the complication of dozens of electrons jumbling together in the rare earth elements. And instead of requiring chemistry to prepare the regular array of magnetic moments in the intermetallic compounds, the simplified Kondo lattice only needs a battery. When a voltage is applied just right, the material is ordered into forming a lattice of spins, and when one dials to a different voltage, the spins are quenched, producing a continuously tunable system.

    “Everything becomes much simpler and much more controllable,” Mak said.

    The researchers were able to continuously tune the electron mass and density of the spins, which cannot be done in a conventional material, and in the process they observed that the electrons dressed with the spin lattice can become 10 to 20 times heavier than the “bare” electrons, depending on the voltage applied.

    The tunability can also induce quantum phase transitions whereby heavy electrons turn into light electrons with, in between, the possible emergence of a “strange” metal phase, in which electrical resistance increases linearly with temperature. The realization of this type of transition could be particularly useful for understanding the high-temperature superconducting phenomenology in copper oxides.

    “Our results could provide a laboratory benchmark for theorists,” Mak said. “In condensed matter physics, theorists are trying to deal with the complicated problem of a trillion interacting electrons. It would be great if they don’t have to worry about other complications, such as chemistry and material science, in real materials. So they often study these materials with a ‘spherical cow’ Kondo lattice model. In the real world you cannot create a spherical cow, but in our material now we’ve created one for the Kondo lattice.”

    Co-authors include doctoral students Bowen Shen and Zui Tao; postdoctoral researchers Kaifei Kang and Zhongdong Han; and researchers from the National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan.

    The research was primarily supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.


    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Cornell University College of Engineering is a division of Cornell University that was founded in 1870 as the Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts. It is one of four private undergraduate colleges at Cornell that are not statutory colleges.

    It currently grants bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in a variety of engineering and applied science fields, and is the third largest undergraduate college at Cornell by student enrollment. The college offers over 450 engineering courses, and has an annual research budget exceeding US$112 million.

    The College of Engineering was founded in 1870 as the Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts. The program was housed in Sibley Hall on what has since become the Arts Quad, both of which are named for Hiram Sibley, the original benefactor whose contributions were used to establish the program. The college took its current name in 1919 when the Sibley College merged with the College of Civil Engineering. It was housed in Sibley, Lincoln, Franklin, Rand, and Morse Halls. In the 1950s the college moved to the southern end of Cornell’s campus.

    The college is known for a number of firsts. In 1889, the college took over electrical engineering from the Department of Physics, establishing the first department in the United States in this field. The college awarded the nation’s first doctorates in both electrical engineering and industrial engineering. The Department of Computer Science, established in 1965 jointly under the College of Engineering and the College of Arts and Sciences, is also one of the oldest in the country.

    For many years, the college offered a five-year undergraduate degree program. However, in the 1960s, the course was shortened to four years for a B.S. degree with an optional fifth year leading to a masters of engineering degree. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Cornell offered a Master of Nuclear Engineering program, with graduates gaining employment in the nuclear industry. However, after the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, employment opportunities in that field dimmed and the program was dropped. Cornell continued to operate its on-campus nuclear reactor as a research facility following the close of the program. For most of Cornell’s history, Geology was taught in the College of Arts and Sciences. However, in the 1970s, the department was shifted to the engineering college and Snee Hall was built to house the program. After World War II, the Graduate School of Aerospace Engineering was founded as a separate academic unit, but later merged into the engineering college.

    Cornell Engineering is home to many teams that compete in student design competitions and other engineering competitions. Presently, there are teams that compete in the Baja SAE, Automotive X-Prize (see Cornell 100+ MPG Team), UNP Satellite Program, DARPA Grand Challenge, AUVSI Unmanned Aerial Systems and Underwater Vehicle Competition, Formula SAE, RoboCup, Solar Decathlon, Genetically Engineered Machines, and others.

    Cornell’s College of Engineering is currently ranked 12th nationally by U.S. News and World Report, making it ranked 1st among engineering schools/programs in the Ivy League. The engineering physics program at Cornell was ranked as being No. 1 by U.S. News and World Report in 2008. Cornell’s operations research and industrial engineering program ranked fourth in nation, along with the master’s program in financial engineering. Cornell’s computer science program ranks among the top five in the world, and it ranks fourth in the quality of graduate education.

    The college is a leader in nanotechnology. In a survey done by a nanotechnology magazine Cornell University was ranked as being the best at nanotechnology commercialization, 2nd best in terms of nanotechnology facilities, the 4th best at nanotechnology research and the 10th best at nanotechnology industrial outreach.

    Departments and schools

    With about 3,000 undergraduates and 1,300 graduate students, the college is the third-largest undergraduate college at Cornell by student enrollment. It is divided into twelve departments and schools:

    School of Applied and Engineering Physics
    Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering
    Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering
    Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
    School of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    Department of Computer Science
    Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering
    Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
    School of Operations Research and Information Engineering
    Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
    Department of Systems Engineering

    The College of Arts and Sciences is a division of Cornell University. It has been part of the university since its founding, although its name has changed over time. It grants bachelor’s degrees, and masters and doctorates through affiliation with the Cornell University Graduate School. Its major academic buildings are located on the Arts Quad and include some of the university’s oldest buildings. The college offers courses in many fields of study and is the largest college at Cornell by undergraduate enrollment.

    Originally, the university’s faculty was undifferentiated, but with the founding of the Cornell Law School in 1886 and the concomitant self-segregation of the school’s lawyers, different departments and colleges formed.

    Initially, the division that would become the College of Arts and Sciences was known as the Academic Department, but it was formally renamed in 1903. The College endowed the first professorships in American history, musicology, and American literature. Currently, the college teaches 4,100 undergraduates, with 600 full-time faculty members (and an unspecified number of lecturers) teaching 2,200 courses.

    The Arts Quad is the site of Cornell’s original academic buildings and is home to many of the college’s programs. On the western side of the quad, at the top of Libe Slope, are Morrill Hall (completed in 1866), McGraw Hall (1872) and White Hall (1868). These simple but elegant buildings, built with native Cayuga bluestone, reflect Ezra Cornell’s utilitarianism and are known as Stone Row. The statue of Ezra Cornell, dating back to 1919, stands between Morrill and McGraw Halls. Across from this statue, in front of Goldwin Smith Hall, sits the statue of Andrew Dickson White, Cornell’s other co-founder and its first president.

    Lincoln Hall (1888) also stands on the eastern face of the quad next to Goldwin Smith Hall. On the northern face are the domed Sibley Hall and Tjaden Hall (1883). Just off of the quad on the Slope, next to Tjaden, stands the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, designed by I. M. Pei. Stimson Hall (1902), Olin Library (1959) and Uris Library (1892), with Cornell’s landmark clocktower, McGraw Tower, stand on the southern end of the quad.

    Olin Library replaced Boardman Hall (1892), the original location of the Cornell Law School. In 1992, an underground addition was made to the quad with Kroch Library, an extension of Olin Library that houses several special collections of the Cornell University Library, including the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections.

    Klarman Hall, the first new humanities building at Cornell in over 100 years, opened in 2016. Klarman houses the offices of Comparative Literature and Romance Studies. The building is connected to, and surrounded on three sides by, Goldwin Smith Hall and fronts East Avenue.

    Legends and lore about the Arts Quad and its statues can be found at Cornelliana.

    The College of Arts and Sciences offers both undergraduate and graduate (through the Graduate School) degrees. The only undergraduate degree is the Bachelor of Arts. However, students may enroll in the dual-degree program, which allows them to pursue programs of study in two colleges and receive two different degrees. The faculties within the college are:

    Africana Studies and Research Center*
    American Studies
    Asian-American Studies
    Asian Studies
    Biology (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences)
    Biology & Society Major (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Human Ecology)
    Chemistry and Chemical Biology
    China and Asia-pacific Studies
    Cognitive Studies
    College Scholar Program (frees up to 40 selected students in each class from all degree requirements and allows them to fashion a plan of study conducive to achieving their ultimate intellectual goals; a senior thesis is required)
    Comparative Literature
    Computer Science (with the College of Engineering)
    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Engineering)
    Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
    German Studies
    History of Art
    Human Biology
    Independent Major
    Information Science (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and College of Engineering)
    Jewish Studies
    John S. Knight Institute for Writing in the Disciplines
    Latin American Studies
    Latino Studies
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies
    Medieval Studies
    Modern European Studies Concentration
    Near Eastern Studies
    Religious Studies
    Romance Studies
    Science and Technology Studies
    Society for the Humanities
    Theatre, Film, and Dance
    Visual Studies Undergraduate Concentration

    *Africana Studies was an independent center reporting directly to the Provost until July 1, 2011.

    KIC creates new techniques to image and dynamically control nanoscale systems and uses these techniques to push the frontiers of nanoscale science. KIC’s measurement-oriented mission complements the existing strengths at Cornell in nanofabrication (CNF, NNIN), nanoscale materials (CCMR), and mission-oriented centers (CNS, CABES, CESI, NBTC).

    Open to all members of the Cornell nano community, KIC funds small, innovative teams to develop cross-cutting approaches to science at the boundaries of nanoscale imaging, manipulation, and control. These come in two types: Fellow Projects and Instrumentation Projects. They will typically involve faculty both within and outside KIC. High-risk and high-reward projects are strongly encouraged.

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and The Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through The State University of New York (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.


    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.


    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States.

    Cornell is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are The Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation , accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building.

    Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico(US) until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico].

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As a National Science Foundation center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer.

    In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Engineering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation.

    During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States.

    Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider (JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider (JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

    The Kavli Institute at Cornell (KIC) is devoted to the development and utilization of next-generation tools for exploring the nanoscale world.

    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

  • richardmitnick 1:39 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Global warming kills forests by restricting tree transpiration", 119 million hectares have burned to the ground over the past 20 years as fires occur more frequently and with greater intensity., , , , , , Forests are a crucial ally in the fight against climate change. They capture and store over half of the carbon that’s emitted worldwide., Forests are a vital food source for around a billion people and countless animals., Forests cover some four billion hectares of land or nearly 31% of the Earth’s surface., Oak trees hold up well in hotter drier climates whereas beech trees – quite common at central-European latitudes – will probably disappear or migrate to the north., The data clearly show that tree mortality is increasing at an exponential rate., The direct effects of the more frequent and intense droughts and the lastingly higher temperatures are now easily visible in tree health., , The UN estimates that 10 million hectares of forestland disappear each year due to deforestation and a further 35 million are destroyed by insects., UN International Day of Forests on 21 March is the perfect opportunity to showcase some of the important forest research being done at EPFL.   

    From The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] (CH): “Global warming kills forests by restricting tree transpiration” 

    From The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] (CH)

    Sarah Perrin


    UN International Day of Forests on 21 March is the perfect opportunity to showcase some of the important forest research being done at EPFL. For instance, one recent study found that the changes in relative humidity caused by higher temperatures are having a significant impact on trees.

    “The data clearly show that tree mortality is increasing at an exponential rate,” says Prof. Charlotte Grossiord, the head of EPFL’s Plant Ecology Research Laboratory (PERL)*. No stranger to forest health, she’s studying the mechanisms behind forest ecosystems and how they’re responding to climate change. This year, 21 March will mark not only the first day of spring but also the 11th annual UN International Day of Forests – an occasion to shine the spotlight on Grossiord’s research. A study she published recently in Journal of Applied Ecology [below] shows that the lower relative humidity resulting from higher temperatures is disrupting trees’ natural transpiration process, putting many species at risk.
    *Part of the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC).

    Forests cover some four billion hectares of land, or nearly 31% of the Earth’s surface. To underscore the essential role they play and build awareness about the urgent need to protect them, the UN introduced an annual forest day in 2012. This year’s theme is “Forests and Health.” Forests are a vital food source for around a billion people and countless animals. They serve as a natural barrier to disease transmission between animals and humans, and are home to thousands of plants used as the basis for drug treatments – or that could hold the keys to drug treatments of the future.

    What’s more, forests are a crucial ally in the fight against climate change. They capture and store over half of the carbon that’s emitted worldwide in their soil and vegetation, are a breeding ground for biodiversity, and operate as natural filters in the water cycle.

    NASA | A Year in the Life of Earth’s CO2.
    This video shows the role that trees play in the global carbon cycle. When trees shed their leaves and enter a dormant state in the fall, they stop capturing CO2 (in red), which leads to a sharp increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    However, the UN estimates that 10 million hectares – the equivalent of around 14 million soccer fields – of forestland disappear each year due to deforestation, and a further 35 million are destroyed by insects. According to Global Forest Watch, 119 million hectares have burned to the ground over the past 20 years as fires occur more frequently and with greater intensity. In addition to this lost tree cover, scientists are also worried about forest health.

    A birch tree attacked by bark beetles. ©iStock.

    “The direct effects of the more frequent and intense droughts and the lastingly higher temperatures are now easily visible in tree health,” says Grossiord. The hotter, dryer climate is making life a struggle for trees, as reflected in their prematurely yellow leaves and dried-out branches, for example – turning them into easy prey for insects (such as the bark beetles common in Europe) and fungi.

    Grossiord and her research group are meticulously studying all these phenomena. They’ve set up a 1.2-hectare site in Valais Canton where they compare the health of trees subject to the full impact of droughts with those that have been watered regularly over the past 20-plus years.

    Lately, her research group has been looking specifically at the consequences of changes in relative humidity levels caused by higher temperatures. “This is having an important effect on trees, but until now it hasn’t really been studied,” says Grossiord. “These changes are causing worrying atmospheric droughts which are directly impacting tree transpiration and temperatures. All that can eventually pose a threat to their survival.”

    Air at higher temperatures can hold more water vapor, but the recent series of droughts means there’s less water in forest ecosystems. As a result, the gap between the amount of vapor that air can contain and the amount it actually does contain – what’s called the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) – is increasing. “The rising VPD is bringing us closer to desert-like conditions than to tropical-forest ones, and can explain the swift deterioration in the health of many trees,” says Grossiord.

    Pressured to transpire: drought, heat and forests.

    Strength in diversity

    Plants protect themselves from heat and drought by closing their stoma, or the pores on leaves that enable gas exchange with the air and, crucially, that allow plants to absorb the CO2 they need to live. With their stoma closed, trees can neither take in CO2 effectively nor carry water up to their leaves. They become weakened and eventually die. “We saw a striking example of this during the record heat wave that swept through the western US and Canada in summer 2021,” explains Grossiord. “Temperatures reached nearly 50°C and trees turned brown in the space of just a few hours. When it gets too hot, plants stop conducting photosynthesis and perform only respiration, meaning they release CO2 into the air.”

    That said, some species are more resistant than others to warm temperatures and can better adapt. Oak trees, for example, hold up well in hotter, drier climates, whereas beech trees – quite common at central-European latitudes – will probably disappear or migrate to the north. “That’s why plant diversity and interaction are so important in a forest, and it’s another focus area for our research at PERL,” says Grossiord. “That’s also why single-species crops are so problematic. They’re much more likely to be wiped out in the event of extreme weather or a parasite infection, since all the plants respond in the same way.”

    In light of both the faster aging process – with growing seasons getting shorter and shorter – and the galloping tree mortality rates, forest ecosystems might eventually become unable to play their essential role. We’re already seeing signs of this in Switzerland and the rest of Europe, but what about elsewhere in the world? “It’s hard to quantify this process on a global scale because in many regions, we don’t have enough data or reliable information sources,” says Grossiord. “But we’re seeing that forests in general are becoming younger. That’s due partly to industrial forest plantations – like eucalyptus – but also to extreme weather events that tend to kill older, more vulnerable trees first.” Unfortunately, older trees are also the ones with the highest carbon-storage capacity.

    Assisted migration

    So what can we do to protect the world’s forests? According to Grossiord, it’s simple: we need to halt deforestation, take better care of existing forests, and reduce our carbon emissions, which are the source of the problem. “Even if we plant new trees, we can’t expect plants to absorb all the carbon that we’ll emit if we continue along the current trajectory,” says Grossiord. “Climate change will reduce forests’ absorption capacity, and newly planted trees can never replace natural forests, whose complex ecosystems have evolved over hundreds or even thousands of years.”

    One idea that warrants further study, in her view, is assisted migration. That involves importing species that are more resistant and acclimated to warmer climates. “If the trees that form our existing tree cover disappear within the next 30 years and we don’t import new species from southern regions, we could simply end up with no more forests,” she says. “But any form of assisted migration should be done in a carefully thought-out manner with an emphasis on diversity.”

    Journal of Applied Ecology

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    EPFL bloc

    EPFL campus

    The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] (CH) is a research institute and university in Lausanne, Switzerland, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering. It is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, and it has three main missions: education, research and technology transfer.

    The QS World University Rankings ranks EPFL(CH) 14th in the world across all fields in their 2020/2021 ranking, whereas Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks EPFL(CH) as the world’s 19th best school for Engineering and Technology in 2020.

    EPFL(CH) is located in the French-speaking part of Switzerland; the sister institution in the German-speaking part of Switzerland is The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH). Associated with several specialized research institutes, the two universities form The Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles Polytechniques Fédérales] (CH) which is directly dependent on the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research. In connection with research and teaching activities, EPFL(CH) operates a nuclear reactor CROCUS; a Tokamak Fusion reactor; a Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer; and P3 bio-hazard facilities.

    ETH Zürich, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne](CH), and four associated research institutes form The Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles polytechniques fédérales] (CH) with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects.

    The roots of modern-day EPFL(CH) can be traced back to the foundation of a private school under the name École Spéciale de Lausanne in 1853 at the initiative of Lois Rivier, a graduate of the École Centrale Paris (FR) and John Gay the then professor and rector of the Académie de Lausanne. At its inception it had only 11 students and the offices were located at Rue du Valentin in Lausanne. In 1869, it became the technical department of the public Académie de Lausanne. When the Académie was reorganized and acquired the status of a university in 1890, the technical faculty changed its name to École d’Ingénieurs de l’Université de Lausanne. In 1946, it was renamed the École polytechnique de l’Université de Lausanne (EPUL). In 1969, the EPUL was separated from the rest of the University of Lausanne and became a federal institute under its current name. EPFL(CH), like ETH Zürich (CH), is thus directly controlled by the Swiss federal government. In contrast, all other universities in Switzerland are controlled by their respective cantonal governments. Following the nomination of Patrick Aebischer as president in 2000, EPFL(CH) has started to develop into the field of life sciences. It absorbed the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC) in 2008.

    In 1946, there were 360 students. In 1969, EPFL(CH) had 1,400 students and 55 professors. In the past two decades the university has grown rapidly and as of 2012 roughly 14,000 people study or work on campus, about 9,300 of these being Bachelor, Master or PhD students. The environment at modern day EPFL(CH) is highly international with the school attracting students and researchers from all over the world. More than 125 countries are represented on the campus and the university has two official languages, French and English.


    EPFL is organized into eight schools, themselves formed of institutes that group research units (laboratories or chairs) around common themes:

    School of Basic Sciences
    Institute of Mathematics
    Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
    Institute of Physics
    European Centre of Atomic and Molecular Computations
    Bernoulli Center
    Biomedical Imaging Research Center
    Interdisciplinary Center for Electron Microscopy
    MPG-EPFL Centre for Molecular Nanosciences and Technology
    Swiss Plasma Center
    Laboratory of Astrophysics

    School of Engineering

    Institute of Electrical Engineering
    Institute of Mechanical Engineering
    Institute of Materials
    Institute of Microengineering
    Institute of Bioengineering

    School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    Institute of Architecture
    Civil Engineering Institute
    Institute of Urban and Regional Sciences
    Environmental Engineering Institute

    School of Computer and Communication Sciences

    Algorithms & Theoretical Computer Science
    Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
    Computational Biology
    Computer Architecture & Integrated Systems
    Data Management & Information Retrieval
    Graphics & Vision
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Information & Communication Theory
    Programming Languages & Formal Methods
    Security & Cryptography
    Signal & Image Processing

    School of Life Sciences

    Bachelor-Master Teaching Section in Life Sciences and Technologies
    Brain Mind Institute
    Institute of Bioengineering
    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research
    Global Health Institute
    Ten Technology Platforms & Core Facilities (PTECH)
    Center for Phenogenomics
    NCCR Synaptic Bases of Mental Diseases

    College of Management of Technology

    Swiss Finance Institute at EPFL
    Section of Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship
    Institute of Technology and Public Policy
    Institute of Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship
    Section of Financial Engineering

    College of Humanities

    Human and social sciences teaching program

    EPFL Middle East

    Section of Energy Management and Sustainability

    In addition to the eight schools there are seven closely related institutions

    Swiss Cancer Centre
    Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM)
    Centre for Advanced Modelling Science (CADMOS)
    École Cantonale d’art de Lausanne (ECAL)
    Campus Biotech
    Wyss Center for Bio- and Neuro-engineering
    Swiss National Supercomputing Centre

  • richardmitnick 12:51 pm on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fiber 'barcodes' can make clothing labels that last", At the University of Michigan Brian Iezzi the was investigating ways to improve textile recyclability. His work focuses on applying photonics to fiber-based devices., Having a way to easily identify fabric types and sort them as they’re coming through could help make recycling processes scale up., In 2022 Massachusetts became the first state to enact a law banning the disposal of textiles in the trash aiming to up recycling percentages., In the United States an estimated 15 million tons of textiles end up in landfills or are burned every year., MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the University of Michigan offer a new way to label fabrics: weaving fibers with engineered reflectivity into them. This fiber is only reflective under certain infrared ligh, One such photonics device is called a structural-color fiber-a type of photonic fiber first developed at MIT more than 20 years ago., The fiber works like an optical barcode to identify a product., , ,   

    From The Lincoln Laboratory At The Massachusetts Institute of Technology And The University of Michigan: “Fiber ‘barcodes’ can make clothing labels that last” 

    From The Lincoln Laboratory


    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology


    U Michigan bloc

    The University of Michigan

    Kylie Foy | MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    At Lincoln Laboratory’s Defense Fabric Discovery Center, Erin Doran demonstrates how reflective fibers can be woven into textiles. Such fibers could function as indelible, scannable labels to easily sort fabrics for recycling. Photo: Glen Cooper.

    In the United States, an estimated 15 million tons of textiles end up in landfills or are burned every year. This waste, amounting to 85 percent of the textiles produced in a year, is a growing environmental problem. In 2022, Massachusetts became the first state to enact a law banning the disposal of textiles in the trash, aiming to up recycling percentages.

    But recycling textiles isn’t always easy. Those that can’t be resold as-is are sent to facilities to be sorted by fabric type. Sorting by hand is labor intensive, made harder by worn-out or missing labels. More advanced techniques that analyze a fabric’s chemistry often aren’t precise enough to identify materials in fabric blends, which make up most clothing.

    To improve this sorting process, a team from MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the University of Michigan offer a new way to label fabrics: by weaving fibers with engineered reflectivity into them. This fiber is only reflective under certain infrared light. Depending on the wavelengths of light that the fiber reflects when scanned, recyclers would know which type of fabric the fiber represents. In essence, the fiber works like an optical barcode to identify a product.

    “Having a way to easily identify fabric types and sort them as they’re coming through could help make recycling processes scale up. We want to find ways to identify materials for another use after the life cycle of the garment,” says Erin Doran, a co-author of the team’s study, which was recently published in Advanced Materials Technologies [below].

    Pulling threads

    Doran is a textile specialist at the Defense Fabric Discovery Center (DFDC) at Lincoln Laboratory. There, she works with researchers in the Advanced Materials and Microsystems Group to make “fabrics of the future” by integrating fibers ingrained with tiny electronics and sensors.

    At the University of Michigan Brian Iezzi the study’s lead author was investigating ways to improve textile recyclability. His work in U-Michigan’s Shtein Lab focuses on applying photonics to fiber-based devices. One such device is called a structural-color fiber, a type of photonic fiber first developed at MIT more than 20 years ago by Professor Yoel Fink’s research team. It’s one area of expertise today at the DFDC.

    Brian Iezzi the study’s lead author investigating ways to improve textile recyclability.

    “It’s a fiber that acts like a perfect mirror,” says DFDC researcher Bradford Perkins, a co-author of the study. “By layering certain materials, you can design this mirror to reflect specific wavelengths. In this case, you’d want reflections at wavelengths that stand out from the optical signatures of the other materials in your fabric, which tend to be dark because common fabric materials absorb infrared radiation.”

    The fiber starts out as a block of polymer called a preform. The team carefully constructed the preform to contain more than 50 alternating layers of acrylic and polycarbonate. The preform is then heated and pulled like taffy from the top of a tower. Each layer ends up being less than a micron thick, and in combination produce a fiber that is the same size as a conventional yarn in fabric.

    While each individual layer is clear, the pairing of the two materials reflects and absorbs light to create an optical effect that can look like color. It’s the same effect that gives butterfly wings their rich, shimmering colors.

    “Butterfly wings are one example of structural color in nature,” says co-author Tairan Wang, also from Lincoln Laboratory. “When you look at them very closely, they’re really a sheath of material with nanostructured patterns that scatter light, similar to what we’re doing with the fibers.”

    By controlling the speed at which the fibers are drawn, researchers can “tune” them to reflect and absorb specific, periodic ranges of wavelengths — creating a unique optical barcode in each fiber. This barcode can then be assigned to corresponding fabric types, one symbolizing cotton, for example, and another polyester. The fibers would be woven into fabrics when the fabrics are manufactured, before being put to use in a garment and eventually recycled.

    Unlike the eye-catching designs of butterfly wings, the fibers are not meant to be showy. “They would make up less than a few percent of the fabric. Nobody would be able to tell that they’re there until they had an infrared detector,” Perkins says.

    A detector could be adapted from the kind used to sort plastics in the recycling industry, the researchers say. Those detectors similarly use infrared sensing to identify the unique optical signatures of different polymers.

    Trying it on in the future

    Today, the team has applied for patent protection on their technology, and Iezzi is evaluating ways to move toward commercialization. The fibers produced in this study are still slightly thick relative to clothing fibers, so thinning them more while retaining their reflectivity at the desired wavelengths is a continued area of research.

    Another avenue to explore is making the fibers more akin to sewing thread. This way, they could be sewn into a garment in cases when weaving them into a certain fabric type could affect its look or feel.

    The researchers are also thinking about how structural-color fibers could help tackle other environmental problems in the textile industry, like toxic waste from dyes. One could imagine using such fibers to make fabrics that are inherently imbued with color that never fades.

    “It’s important for us to consider recyclability as the electronic-textile market expands, too. This idea can open avenues for recovering chips and metals during the textile recycling process.” Doran says. “Sustainability is a big part of the future, and it’s been exciting to collaborate on this vision.”

    Advanced Materials Technologies

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.


    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

    The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense federally funded research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security. Research and development activities focus on long-term technology development as well as rapid system prototyping and demonstration. Its core competencies are in sensors, integrated sensing, signal processing for information extraction, decision-making support, and communications. These efforts are aligned within ten mission areas. The laboratory also maintains several field sites around the world.

    The laboratory transfers much of its advanced technology to government agencies, industry, and academia, and has launched more than 100 start-ups.

    At the urging of the United States Air Force, the Lincoln Laboratory was created in 1951 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as part of an effort to improve the U.S. air defense system. Primary advocates for the creation of the laboratory were two veterans of the World War II-era MIT Radiation Laboratory, physicist and electrical engineer Ivan A. Getting and physicist Louis Ridenour.

    The laboratory’s inception was prompted by the Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee’s 1950 report that concluded the United States was unprepared for the threat of an air attack. Because of MIT’s management of the Radiation Laboratory during World War II, the experience of some of its staff on the Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee, and its proven competence in advanced electronics, the Air Force suggested that MIT could provide the research needed to develop an air defense that could detect, identify, and ultimately intercept air threats.

    James R. Killian, the president of MIT, was not eager for MIT to become involved in air defense. He asked the United States Air Force if MIT could first conduct a study to evaluate the need for a new laboratory and to determine its scope. Killian’s proposal was approved, and a study named Project Charles (for the Charles River that flows past MIT) was carried out between February and August 1951. The final Project Charles report stated that the United States needed an improved air defense system and unequivocally supported the formation of a laboratory at MIT dedicated to air defense problems.

    This new undertaking was initially called Project Lincoln and the site chosen for the new laboratory was on the Laurence G. Hanscom Field (now Hanscom Air Force Base), where the Massachusetts towns of Bedford, Lexington and Lincoln meet. A Project Bedford (on antisubmarine warfare) and a Project Lexington (on nuclear propulsion of aircraft) were already in use, so Major General Putt, who was in charge of drafting the charter for the new laboratory, decided to name the project for the town of Lincoln.

    Since MIT Lincoln Laboratory’s establishment, the scope of the problems has broadened from the initial emphasis on air defense to include programs in space surveillance, missile defense, surface surveillance and object identification, communications, cyber security, homeland protection, high-performance computing, air traffic control, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The core competencies of the laboratory are in sensors, information extraction (signal processing and embedded computing), communications, integrated sensing, and decision support, all supported by a strong advanced electronic technology activity.

    Lincoln Laboratory conducts research and development pertinent to national security on behalf of the military services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and other government agencies. Projects focus on the development and prototyping of new technologies and capabilities. Program activities extend from fundamental investigations, through simulation and analysis, to design and field testing of prototype systems. Emphasis is placed on transitioning technology to industry.

    The work of Lincoln Laboratory revolves around a comprehensive set of mission areas:

    Space Control
    Air, Missile, and Maritime Defense Technology
    Communication Systems
    Cyber Security and Information Sciences
    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems and Technology
    Advanced Technology
    Tactical Systems
    Homeland Protection
    Air Traffic Control

    Lincoln Laboratory also undertakes work for non-DoD agencies such as programs in space lasercom and space science as well as environmental monitoring for NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

    MIT Seal

    USPS “Forever” postage stamps celebrating Innovation at MIT.

    Massachusettes Institute of Technology-Haystack Observatory Westford, Massachusetts, USA, Altitude 131 m (430 ft).


    The Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL)

    The Kavli Institute For Astrophysics and Space Research

    MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science

    The MIT Media Lab

    The MIT School of Engineering

    The MIT Sloan School of Management



    Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, Massachusetts Institute of Technology adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength. It is frequently regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

    As of December 2020, 97 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 80 Marshall Scholars, 3 Mitchell Scholars, 22 Schwarzman Scholars, 41 astronauts, and 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force have been affiliated with The Massachusetts Institute of Technology . The university also has a strong entrepreneurial culture and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded many notable companies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a member of the Association of American Universities.

    Foundation and vision

    In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a “Conservatory of Art and Science”, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by John Albion Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, on April 10, 1861.

    Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia , wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that:

    “The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.”

    The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.

    Early developments

    Two days after The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT’s first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions “to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes” and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst ). In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was informally called “Boston Tech”. The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.

    The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these “Boston Tech” years, Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot’s repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College’s Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.

    In 1916, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT’s move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a one-mile-long (1.6 km) tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The neoclassical “New Technology” campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious “Mr. Smith”, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.6 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.

    Curricular reforms

    In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms “renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering”. Unlike Ivy League schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding. The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.

    Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology that “the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school”, a “partly unjustified” perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology‘s involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper’s Instrumentation Laboratory; the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind; and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton. By the end of the war, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology became the nation’s largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.

    These activities affected The Massachusetts Institute of Technology profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of “any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute” to match the return to peacetime, remembering the “academic tranquility of the prewar years”, though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.

    In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s defense research. In this period Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to “greater strength and unity” after these times of turmoil. However six Massachusetts Institute of Technology students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT’s role in military research and its suppression of these protests. (Richard Leacock’s film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.)

    In the 1980s, there was more controversy at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s research for the military has included work on robots, drones and ‘battle suits’.

    Recent history

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman’s GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the MIT OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 Massachusetts Institute of Technology classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new “backlot” buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center. Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School’s eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.

    In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its “MITx” program, for a modest fee. The “edX” online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous “Harvardx” initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier’s memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to “an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology community and in all aspects of his life”. The announcement further stated that “Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness”.

    In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new Schwarzman College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion.

    The Caltech/MIT Advanced aLIGO was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation .

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. Gravitational waves were detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017. Weiss, who is also a Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO.

    The mission of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the twenty-first century. We seek to develop in each member of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.

  • richardmitnick 11:53 am on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New Study Provides First Comprehensive Look at Oxygen Loss on Coral Reefs", A new study is providing an unprecedented examination of oxygen loss on coral reefs around the globe under ocean warming., As ocean temperature increases the seawater can hold less oxygen while the biological demand for oxygen will increase exacerbating nighttime hypoxia., As the researchers expected oxygen was lowest in the early morning at all locations and highest in the mid-afternoon as a result of nighttime respiration and daytime photosynthesis respectively., At night when there is no sunlight there is no oxygen production and everything on the reef is respiring—breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide., , During the day when primary producers on the reef have sunlight they photosynthesize and produce oxygen., Historically hypoxia has been defined by a very specific concentration cutoff of oxygen in the water—less than two milligrams of oxygen per liter., More research is needed to better understand the biological impacts on tropical corals and coral reefs., More than 84 percent of the reefs in this study experienced “weak to moderate” hypoxia and 13 percent experienced “severe” hypoxia at some point during the data collection period., Pezner and colleagues used autonomous sensor data to explore oxygen variability and hypoxia exposure at 32 diverse reef sites across 12 locations., Scripps Oceanography scientists and collaborators provide first-of-its-kind assessment of hypoxia-low oxygen levels- across 32 coral reef sites around the world., The analysis was led by Ariel Pezner while she was a PhD student at Scripps Oceanography., The authors found that low oxygen levels are already happening in some reef habitats now and are expected to get worse if ocean temperatures continue to warm due to climate change., The overall decline of oxygen content across the world’s oceans and coastal waters has been well documented but hypoxia on coral reefs has been relatively underexplored., The SCOOBY lab and partners collected most of the data in an effort to characterize seawater chemistry and reef metabolism in different coral reef environments., ,   

    From The Scripps Institution of Oceanography At The University of California-San Diego : “New Study Provides First Comprehensive Look at Oxygen Loss on Coral Reefs” 

    From The Scripps Institution of Oceanography


    The University of California-San Diego

    Brittany Hook

    Scripps Oceanography scientists and collaborators provide first-of-its-kind assessment of hypoxia-low oxygen levels- across 32 coral reef sites around the world.

    Coral reefs at a study site off Taiping Island, South China Sea. Photo: Yi Bei Liang.

    A new study is providing an unprecedented examination of oxygen loss on coral reefs around the globe under ocean warming. Led by researchers at UC San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography and a large team of national and international colleagues, the study captures the current state of hypoxia—or low oxygen levels—at 32 different sites, and reveals that hypoxia is already pervasive on many reefs.

    The overall decline of oxygen content across the world’s oceans and coastal waters—a process known as ocean deoxygenation—has been well documented, but hypoxia on coral reefs has been relatively underexplored. Oxygen loss in the ocean is predicted to threaten marine ecosystems globally, though more research is needed to better understand the biological impacts on tropical corals and coral reefs.

    The study, published March 16 in the journal Nature Climate Change [below], is the first to document oxygen conditions on coral reef ecosystems at this scale.

    Members of Scripps Oceanography’s SCOOBY Lab check on an instrument at Dongsha Atoll in 2018. Pictured left to right: Ariel Pezner, Travis Courtney, and Samuel Kekuewa. Research at this site was done in collaboration with National Sun Yat-sen University and National Taiwan Ocean University. Photo: Andreas Andersson.

    “This study is unique because our lab worked with a number of collaborators to compile this global oxygen dataset especially focused on coral reefs—no one has really done that on a global scale before with this number of datasets,” said marine scientist Ariel Pezner, now a postdoctoral fellow at the Smithsonian Marine Station in Florida. “We were surprised to find that a lot of coral reefs are already experiencing what we would define as hypoxia today under current conditions.”

    The authors found that low oxygen levels are already happening in some reef habitats now, and are expected to get worse if ocean temperatures continue to warm due to climate change. They also used models of four different climate change scenarios to show that projected ocean warming and deoxygenation will substantially increase the duration, intensity, and severity of hypoxia on coral reefs by the year 2100.

    The analysis was led by Pezner while she was a PhD student at Scripps Oceanography, where she worked in the Scripps Coastal and Open Ocean BiogeochemistrY Research (SCOOBY) lab alongside biogeochemist Andreas Andersson.

    Pezner and colleagues used autonomous sensor data to explore oxygen variability and hypoxia exposure at 32 diverse reef sites across 12 locations in waters off Japan, Hawaii, Panama, Palmyra, Taiwan, and elsewhere. Many of the datasets were collected using SeapHOx sensors, instruments originally developed by the lab of Scripps Oceanography researcher Todd Martz. These and other autonomous sensors were deployed in different coral reef habitats, where they measured temperature, salinity, pH, and oxygen levels every 30 minutes.

    The SCOOBY lab and partners collected most of the data in an effort to characterize seawater chemistry and reef metabolism in different coral reef environments. The international partners were instrumental in facilitating research logistics and access to many study sites. Several contributors also shared data from their own studies. At Scripps Oceanography, the Martz Lab, Smith Lab, and Tresguerres Lab all made significant contributions to the study.

    Historically, hypoxia has been defined by a very specific concentration cutoff of oxygen in the water—less than two milligrams of oxygen per liter—a threshold that was determined in the 1950s. The researchers note that one universal threshold may not be applicable for all environments or all reefs or all ecosystems, and they explored the possibility of four different hypoxia thresholds: weak (5 mg/L), mild (4 mg/L), moderate (3 mg/L), and severe hypoxia (2 mg/L).

    Based on these thresholds, they found that more than 84 percent of the reefs in this study experienced “weak to moderate” hypoxia and 13 percent experienced “severe” hypoxia at some point during the data collection period.

    New Study Examines Oxygen Loss on Coral Reefs.
    A new study led by Scripps Oceanography scientists, alumni, and colleagues is providing an unprecedented examination of oxygen loss on coral reefs around the globe under ocean warming.

    As the researchers expected, oxygen was lowest in the early morning at all locations and highest in the mid-afternoon as a result of nighttime respiration and daytime photosynthesis, respectively. During the day when primary producers on the reef have sunlight, they photosynthesize and produce oxygen, said Pezner. But at night, when there is no sunlight, there is no oxygen production and everything on the reef is respiring—breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide—resulting in a less oxygenated environment, and sometimes a dip into hypoxia.

    This is a normal process, said Andersson, the study’s senior author, but as ocean temperature increases, the seawater can hold less oxygen while the biological demand for oxygen will increase, exacerbating this nighttime hypoxia.

    “Imagine that you’re a person who is used to sea-level conditions, and then every night you have to go to sleep somewhere in the Rocky Mountains, where the air has less oxygen. This is similar to what these corals are experiencing at nighttime and in the early morning when they experience hypoxia,” said Andersson. “And in the future, if the duration and intensity of these hypoxic events gets worse, then it might be like sleeping on Mount Everest every night.”

    The researchers found that as global temperatures continue to rise and marine heat waves become more frequent and severe, low oxygen conditions on coral reefs are likely to become more common. Using projections adopted from climate models, the team calculated that by the year 2100, the total number of hypoxic observations on these reefs will increase under all warming scenarios, ranging from an increase of 13 to 42 percent under one scenario to 97 to 287 percent under a more extreme scenario relative to now.

    A SeapHOx instrument deployed by the team on a coral reef off Okinawa, Japan. Sensors on the instrument measured temperature, salinity, pH, and oxygen levels every 30 minutes. Research at this site was done in collaboration with the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. Photo: Max Rintoul.

    The researchers said that continued and additional oxygen measurements on coral reefs over different seasons and longer time scales will be “imperative” for establishing baseline conditions, tracking potential hypoxic events, and better predicting future impacts on reef ecology, health, and function.

    “Baseline oxygen conditions varied widely among our reef habitats, suggesting that a singular definition of ‘hypoxia’ may not be reasonable for all environments,” said Pezner. “Determining which thresholds are relevant will be important moving forward in making predictions about how reefs might change under warming and oxygen loss.”

    This research was funded mainly by the National Science Foundation, and Pezner’s graduate studies were supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a Philanthropic Educational Organization (P.E.O.) International Scholar Award.

    This study involved a total of 22 authors representing 14 different research organizations and universities including UC San Diego; University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez; NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; National Taiwan Ocean University; Georgia Southern University; University of Montana; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; National Sun Yat-sen University; Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology; Sea Education Association; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute; National Taiwan University; and the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Nature Climate Change

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    A department of The University of California-San Diego, The Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the oldest, largest, and most important centers for ocean, earth and atmospheric science research, education, and public service in the world.

    Research at Scripps encompasses physical, chemical, biological, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans, Earth, and planets. Scripps undergraduate and graduate programs provide transformative educational and research opportunities in ocean, earth, and atmospheric sciences, as well as degrees in climate science and policy and marine biodiversity and conservation.

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography was founded in 1903 as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, an independent biological research laboratory. It was proposed and incorporated by a committee of the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, led by local activist and amateur malacologist Fred Baker, together with two colleagues. He recruited University of California Zoology professor William Emerson Ritter to head up the proposed marine biology institution, and obtained financial support from local philanthropists E. W. Scripps and his sister Ellen Browning Scripps. They fully funded the institution for its first decade. It began institutional life in the boathouse of the Hotel del Coronado located on San Diego Bay. It re-located in 1905 to the La Jolla area on the head above La Jolla Cove, and finally in 1907 to its present location.

    In 1912 Scripps became incorporated into The University of California and was renamed the “Scripps Institution for Biological Research.” Since 1916, measurements have been taken daily at its pier. The name was changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography in October 1925. During the 1960s, led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography director Roger Revelle, it formed the nucleus for the creation of The University of California-San Diego on a bluff overlooking Scripps Institution.

    The Old Scripps Building, designed by Irving Gill, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1982. Architect Barton Myers designed the current Scripps Building for the Institution of Oceanography in 1998.
    Research programs
    The institution’s research programs encompass biological, physical, chemical, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans and land. Scripps also studies the interaction of the oceans with both the atmospheric climate and environmental concerns on terra firma. Related to this research, Scripps offers undergraduate and graduate degrees.

    Today, the Scripps staff of 1,300 includes approximately 235 faculty, 180 other scientists and some 350 graduate students, with an annual budget of more than $281 million. The institution operates a fleet of four oceanographic research vessels.

    R/V Robert Gordon Sproul

    R/V Roger Revelle

    R/V Sally Ride

    C/R/V Bob and Betty Beyster

    The Integrated Research Themes encompassing the work done by Scripps researchers are Biodiversity and Conservation, California Environment, Earth and Planetary Chemistry, Earth Through Space and Time, Energy and the Environment, Environment and Human Health, Global Change, Global Environmental Monitoring, Hazards, Ice and Climate, Instruments and Innovation, Interfaces, Marine Life, Modeling Theory and Computing, Sound and Light and the Sea, and Waves and Circulation.

    Organizational structure
    Scripps Oceanography is divided into three research sections, each with its own subdivisions:
    • Biology

    • Earth

    • Oceans & Atmosphere

    The University of California-San Diego is a public land-grant research university in San Diego, California. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, The University of California-San Diego is the southernmost of the ten campuses of the University of California, and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling 33,343 undergraduate and 9,533 graduate students. The University of California-San Diego occupies 2,178 acres (881 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres (466 ha). The University of California-San Diego is ranked among the best universities in the world by major college and university rankings.

    The University of California-San Diego consists of twelve undergraduate, graduate and professional schools as well as seven undergraduate residential colleges. It received over 140,000 applications for undergraduate admissions in Fall 2021, making it the second most applied-to university in the United States. The University of California-San Diego San Diego Health, the region’s only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals at The University of California-San Diego Medical Center, Hillcrest, Jacobs Medical Center, Moores Cancer Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center, Shiley Eye Institute, Institute for Genomic Medicine, Koman Family Outpatient Pavilion and various express care and urgent care clinics throughout San Diego.

    The University of California-San Diego operates 19 organized research units as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives. The University of California-San Diego is also closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as The Salk Institute, the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, and The Scripps Research Institute. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, The University of California-San Diego spent $1.354 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2019, ranking it 6th in the nation.

    The University of California-San Diego is considered one of the country’s “Public Ivies”. The University of California-San Diego faculty, researchers, and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes as well as three Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, and three Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to The National Academy of Engineering, 70 to The National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 110 to The American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


    When the Regents of the University of California originally authorized The University of California-San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres (24 ha) of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres (220 ha) of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres (200 ha) on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle, then director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community’s exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups. This outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley.

    University of California President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California-San Diego. The city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, and the University of California approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor. Herbert York, first director of The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. York planned the main campus according to the “Oxbridge” model, relying on many of Revelle’s ideas.

    According to Kerr, “San Diego always asked for the best,” though this created much friction throughout the University of California system, including with Kerr himself, because The University of California-San Diego often seemed to be “asking for too much and too fast.” Kerr attributed The University of California-San Diego’s “special personality” to Scripps, which for over five decades had been the most isolated University of California unit in every sense: geographically, financially, and institutionally. It was a great shock to the Scripps community to learn that Scripps was now expected to become the nucleus of a new University of California campus and would now be the object of far more attention from both the university administration in Berkeley and the state government in Sacramento.

    The University of California-San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed “from the top down” in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter. The original authorization for The University of California-San Diego campus given by the University of California Regents in 1956 approved a “graduate program in science and technology” that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters’ approval.

    Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, and Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958. Maria Goeppert-Mayer, later the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960. The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

    By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, and new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, and the whole site was designated the First College, later renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year and was replaced by John Semple Galbraith. The undergraduate program accepted its first class of 181 freshman at Revelle College in 1964. Second College was founded in 1964, on the land deeded by the federal government, and named after environmentalist John Muir two years later. The University of California-San Diego School of Medicine also accepted its first students in 1966.

    Political theorist Herbert Marcuse joined the faculty in 1965. A champion of the New Left, he reportedly was the first protester to occupy the administration building in a demonstration organized by his student, political activist Angela Davis. The American Legion offered to buy out the remainder of Marcuse’s contract for $20,000; the Regents censured Chancellor William J. McGill for defending Marcuse on the basis of academic freedom, but further action was averted after local leaders expressed support for Marcuse. Further student unrest was felt at the university, as the United States increased its involvement in the Vietnam War during the mid-1960s, when a student raised a Viet Minh flag over the campus. Protests escalated as the war continued and were only exacerbated after the National Guard fired on student protesters at Kent State University in 1970. Over 200 students occupied Urey Hall, with one student setting himself on fire in protest of the war.

    Early research activity and faculty quality, notably in the sciences, was integral to shaping the focus and culture of the university. Even before The University of California-San Diego had its own campus, faculty recruits had already made significant research breakthroughs, such as the Keeling Curve, a graph that plots rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and was the first significant evidence for global climate change; the Kohn–Sham equations, used to investigate particular atoms and molecules in quantum chemistry; and the Miller–Urey experiment, which gave birth to the field of prebiotic chemistry.

    Engineering, particularly computer science, became an important part of the university’s academics as it matured. University researchers helped develop The University of California-San Diego Pascal, an early machine-independent programming language that later heavily influenced Java; the National Science Foundation Network, a precursor to the Internet; and the Network News Transfer Protocol during the late 1970s to 1980s. In economics, the methods for analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH), and with common trends (co-integration) were developed. The University of California-San Diego maintained its research intense character after its founding, racking up 25 Nobel Laureates affiliated within 50 years of history; a rate of five per decade.

    Under Richard C. Atkinson’s leadership as chancellor from 1980 to 1995, The University of California-San Diego strengthened its ties with the city of San Diego by encouraging technology transfer with developing companies, transforming San Diego into a world leader in technology-based industries. He oversaw a rapid expansion of the School of Engineering, later renamed after Qualcomm founder Irwin M. Jacobs, with the construction of the San Diego Supercomputer Center and establishment of the computer science, electrical engineering, and bioengineering departments. Private donations increased from $15 million to nearly $50 million annually, faculty expanded by nearly 50%, and enrollment doubled to about 18,000 students during his administration. By the end of his chancellorship, the quality of The University of California-San Diego graduate programs was ranked 10th in the nation by The National Research Council.

    The University of California-San Diego continued to undergo further expansion during the first decade of the new millennium with the establishment and construction of two new professional schools — the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Rady School of Management—and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, a research institute run jointly with University of California-Irvine. The University of California-San Diego also reached two financial milestones during this time, becoming the first university in the western region to raise over $1 billion in its eight-year fundraising campaign in 2007 and also obtaining an additional $1 billion through research contracts and grants in a single fiscal year for the first time in 2010. Despite this, due to the California budget crisis, the university loaned $40 million against its own assets in 2009 to offset a significant reduction in state educational appropriations. The salary of Pradeep Khosla, who became chancellor in 2012, has been the subject of controversy amidst continued budget cuts and tuition increases.

    On November 27, 2017, The University of California-San Diego announced it would leave its longtime athletic home of the California Collegiate Athletic Association, an NCAA Division II league, to begin a transition to Division I in 2020. At that time, it would join the Big West Conference, already home to four other UC campuses (Davis, Irvine, Riverside, Santa Barbara). The transition period would run through the 2023–24 school year. The university prepared to transition to NCAA Division I competition on July 1, 2020.


    Applied Physics and Mathematics

    The Nature Index lists The University of California-San Diego as 6th in the United States for research output by article count in 2019. In 2017, The University of California-San Diego spent $1.13 billion on research, the 7th highest expenditure among academic institutions in the U.S. The university operates several organized research units, including the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), the Center for Drug Discovery Innovation, and the Institute for Neural Computation. The University of California-San Diego also maintains close ties to the nearby Scripps Research Institute and Salk Institute for Biological Studies. In 1977, The University of California-San Diego developed and released the University of California-San Diego Pascal programming language. The university was designated as one of the original national Alzheimer’s disease research centers in 1984 by the National Institute on Aging. In 2018, The University of California-San Diego received $10.5 million from The DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration to establish the Center for Matters under Extreme Pressure (CMEC).

    The University of California-San Diego founded The San Diego Supercomputer Center in 1985, which provides high performance computing for research in various scientific disciplines. In 2000, The University of California-San Diego partnered with The University of California-Irvine to create the Qualcomm Institute, which integrates research in photonics, nanotechnology, and wireless telecommunication to develop solutions to problems in energy, health, and the environment.

    The University of California-San Diego also operates the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the largest centers of research in earth science in the world, which predates the university itself. Together, SDSC and SIO, along with funding partner universities California Institute of Technology, San Diego State University, and The University of California-Santa Barbara, manage the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network.

  • richardmitnick 10:28 am on March 21, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Cosmic coding", Argonne and Berkeley laboratories teams have developed a pair of the world’s most powerful cosmological simulation codes and are ready to translate observational data into new insights., , , , Both codes are key components of the DOE Exascale Computing Project’s (ECP) ExaSky program., Computational Cosmology, , Dark matter particles’ exact nature is yet a mystery as is the cosmic conundrum linked to dark energy., HACC and Nyx were born about 15 years ago with the common goal of creating state-of-the-art highly scalable codes that run on any supercomputing platform., Starting in early 2025 Rubin in northern Chile will record the entire visible southern sky every few days for a decade., , The codes and telescopes focus on understanding how dark matter and dark energy shape cosmic structure and dynamics., The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and the Vera C. Rubin Observatory will map cosmic structure in unprecedented detail., , , , The HACC team collaborates closely with the Rubin Observatory., The Nyx team is working most closely with DESI., The Nyx {LBNL] and HACC [ANL] codes, The simulations produce synthetic skies-virtual versions of what a telescope will see-that let astronomers plan and test observing strategies., The standard explanation for the cosmic web is the λCDM (lambda cold dark matter) model.   

    From The DOE’s “ASCR Discovery”: “Cosmic coding” 

    From The DOE’s “ASCR Discovery”


    The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Argonne National Laboratory computational cosmologists help astronomers turn observation into insight.

    An artist’s composite of images from Nyx-generated cosmic web simulations, showing dense filaments of matter surrounded by vast voids representing a span of hundreds of millions of light years. The image graces the cabinets of the Perlmutter supercomputer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s (Berkeley Lab) National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) . Image courtesy of NERSC/Berkeley Lab.

    Two new Department of Energy-sponsored telescopes, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and the Vera C. Rubin Observatory, will map cosmic structure in unprecedented detail.

    At the DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory and the DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, teams have developed a pair of the world’s most powerful cosmological simulation codes and are ready to translate the telescopes’ tsunami of observational data into new insights.

    “Our job is to provide the theoretical backdrop to these observations,” says Zarija Lukić, a computational cosmologist at LBNL’s Cosmology Computing Center. “You cannot infer much from observations alone about the structure of the universe without also having a set of powerful simulations producing predictions for different physical parameters.”

    Lukić is a lead developer of Nyx, named after the Greek goddess of night. For more than a decade the Nyx group has collaborated with the hardware/hybrid accelerated cosmology code, or HACC, team at Argonne, co-led by computational cosmologist Katrin Heitmann, who is also the principal investigator for an Office of Science SciDAC-5 project in High Energy Physics (HEP) that will continue to advance code development. (See sidebar, About SciDAC.)

    With a computing time grant from the ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC), the Nyx and HACC teams are fine-tuning their codes, readying them to tease out cosmic details from incoming DESI and Rubin Observatory data.

    The codes and telescopes focus on understanding how dark matter and dark energy shape cosmic structure and dynamics. Matter in the universe is unevenly distributed. Astronomers see a cosmic web, a vast tendril-like network of dense regions of gas and galaxies interspersed with low-density voids.

    The standard explanation for the cosmic web is the Lambda-CDM (cold dark matter) model.

    It posits that the cosmos’ total mass and energy is composed of 68% dark energy, 27% dark matter and only about 5% visible, or baryonic, matter – the stars, planets and us.

    Dark matter particles’ exact nature is yet a mystery as is another cosmic conundrum linked to dark energy: “What causes the accelerated expansion of the universe?” asks Heitmann, leader of Argonne’s Cosmological Physics and Advanced Computing group.

    Heitmann’s HACC team collaborates closely with the Rubin Observatory’s Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) observing campaign. Starting in early 2025 Rubin in northern Chile will record the entire visible southern sky every few days for a decade, tracking the movement of billions of galaxies in the low-redshift, or nearby, universe. This will produce unprecedented amounts of data: six million gigabytes per year.

    The incoming deluge doesn’t deter Heitmann. The HACC team won an award at the SC19 high-performance computing conference for a record-breaking transfer of almost three petabytes of data to generate virtual universes on the DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Summit supercomputer.

    The simulations produce synthetic skies-virtual versions of what a telescope will see-that let astronomers plan and test observing strategies.

    “Our simulations are geared toward supporting the large observational surveys that are coming online,” says Heitmann, who’s also a spokesperson for LSST’s Dark Energy Science Collaboration. “They are large cosmic volume with very high resolution and there are only a handful of such stimulations currently available in the world.”

    In 2019, the HACC team used the largest ALCC allocation ever – the entire Argonne Mira supercomputer for several months – to produce a synthetic sky for both the DESI and Vera Rubin teams to use when testing their observation strategies.

    The Nyx team is working most closely with DESI, which began collecting data in 2022. Located at the Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona, DESI’s four-year spectroscopic observing campaign will map the cosmos’ large-scale structure across time using its 5,000-eye fiber-optic robotic telescope.

    It will observe about 30 million pre-selected galaxies and quasars across a third of the night sky.

    As part of this, DESI will observe about 840,000 distant, or high redshift, quasars, three times as many as previous surveys collected. Quasars are astoundingly bright objects – thousands of times as bright as an entire galaxy. As their light travels between the quasar and Earth, some wavelengths are absorbed by neutral hydrogen gas present in the intergalactic medium between distant galaxies. Thus, the quasar’s distinctive light fingerprint, known as the Lyman-alpha forest, maps intergalactic hydrogen distribution.

    Statistically analyzing and modeling hundreds of thousands of DESI Lyman-alpha forest spectra will provide unprecedented constraints on the mass and properties of candidate dark matter particles, says Lukić, whose LBNL post-doctoral colleague, Solène Chabanier, leads the working group focused on this problem.

    Nyx has a strong track record of modeling these spectra to better understand cosmic structure. For example, for a 2017 Science paper, the group used Nyx simulations and Lyman-alpha forest observations to identify gas distribution smoothness in the intergalactic medium.

    HACC and Nyx were born about 15 years ago with the common goal of creating state-of-the-art, highly scalable codes that run on any supercomputing platform, capitalizing on new generations of DOE supercomputers. Both codes are key components of the DOE Exascale Computing Project’s (ECP) ExaSky program, which is scheduled to conclude at the end of this year. HEP and ASCR, as part of SciDAC-5, will to develop the codes.

    What makes Nyx and HACC a great tag team is that they use very different mathematical approaches to hydrodynamics, Lukić says – how the codes model elements such as pressure, temperature and baryonic matter movement.

    Nyx uses adaptive mesh refinement, dividing space into a grid describing hydrodynamical properties – the fluidic forces – of baryons. The HACC code was originally developed for gravity-only simulations, but as part of the ECP, the HACC team added a particle-based, hydrodynamics component, which is a major component of the HEP-SciDAC collaboration.

    “LSST will go to smaller and smaller scales with its measurements and at these scales you have to understand what baryonic physics is doing to interpret the measurements,” Heitmann says.

    Equipping both codes with hydrodynamic models provides a unique ability to test observations, Lukić says. Part of the team’s ALCC allocation is to further test this congruence. “If two codes based on entirely different mathematical methodologies precisely agree on some observation, then you are much more confident that you’ve got the numerical component right.”

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ASCR Discovery is a publication of The U.S. Department of Energy

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy. The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.


    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.


    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
    Other major DOE facilities include:
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory
    Office of Fossil Energy
    Office of River Protection
    Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
    Y-12 National Security Complex
    Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository

    Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site

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