From Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy: “Neutrino produced in a cosmic collider far away”


From Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy

October 02, 2019

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Silke Britzen
Phone:+49 228 525-280
sbritzen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy,Bonn

Prof. Dr. Christian Fendt
Phone:+49 6221 528-387
fendt@mpia-hd.mpg.de.
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy,Heidelberg

Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
Dr. Norbert Junkes
Press and Public Outreach
Phone:+49 228 525-399
njunkes@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy,Bonn

Link between IceCube neutrino event and distant radio galaxy resolved

The neutrino event IceCube 170922A, detected at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole, appears to originate from the distant active galaxy TXS 0506+056, at a light travel distance of 3.8 billion light years. TXS 0506+056 is one of many active galaxies and it remained a mystery, why and how only this particular galaxy generated neutrinos so far.

An international team of researchers led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, studied high-resolution radio observations of the source between 2009 and 2018, before and after the neutrino event. The team proposes that the enhanced neutrino activity during an earlier neutrino flare and the single neutrino could have been generated by a cosmic collision within TXS 0506+056. The clash of jet material close to a supermassive black hole seems to have produced the neutrinos.

The results are published in Astronomy & Astrophysics, October 02, 2019.

1
TXS 0506+056. The neutrino event IceCube 170922A appears to originate in the interaction zone of the two jets.
© IceCube Collaboration, MOJAVE, S. Britzen, & M. Zajaček

On July 12, 2018, the IceCube collaboration announced the detection of the first high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, which could be traced back to a distant cosmic origin. While the cosmic origin of neutrinos had been suspected for quite some time, this was the first neutrino from outer space whose origin could be confirmed. The “home” of this neutrino is an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) – a galaxy with a supermassive black hole as central engine. An international team could now clarify the production mechanism of the neutrino and found an equivalent to a collider on Earth: a cosmic collision of jetted material.

AGN are the most energetic objects in our Universe. Powered by a supermassive black hole, matter is being accreted and streams of plasma (so-called jets) are launched into intergalactic space. BL Lac objects form a special class of these AGN, where the jet is directly pointing at us and dominating the observed radiation. The neutrino event IceCube-170922A appears to originate from the BL Lac object TXS 0506+056, a galaxy at a redshift of z=0.34, corresponding to a light travel distance of 3.8 billion light years. An analysis of archival IceCube data by the IceCube Collaboration had revealed evidence of an enhanced neutrino acitvity earlier, between September 2014 and March 2015.

Other BL Lac Objects show properties quite similar to those of TXS 0506+056. „It was a bit of a mystery, however, why only TXS 0506+056 has been identified as neutrino emitter“, explains Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR), the lead author of the paper. „We wanted to unravel what makes TXS 0506+056 special, to understand the neutrino creation process and to localize the emission site and studied a series of high resolution radio images of the jet.“

Much to their surprise, the researchers found an unexpected interaction between jet material in TXS 0506+056. While jet plasma is usually assumed to flow undisturbed in a kind of channel, the situation seems different in TXS 0506+056. The team proposes that the enhanced neutrino activity during the neutrino flare in 2014–2015 and the single EHE neutrino
IceCube-170922A could have been generated by a cosmic collision within the source.

This cosmic collision can be explained by new jet material clashing into older jet material. A strongly curved jet structure provides the proper set up for such a scenario. Another explanation involves the collision of two jets in the same source. In both scenarios, it is the collision of jetted material which generates the neutrino. Markus Böttcher from the North-West University in Potchefstroom (South Africa), a co-author of the paper, performed the calculations with regard to the radiation and particle emission. „This collision of jetted material is currently the only viable mechanism which can explain the neutrino detection from this source. It also provides us with important insight into the jet material and solves a long-standing question whether jets are leptonic, consisting of electrons and positrons, or hadronic, consisting of electrons and protons, or a combination of both. At least part of the jet material has to be hadronic – otherwise, we would not have detected the neutrino.“

In the course of the cosmic evolution of our Universe, collisions of galaxies seem to be a frequent phenomenon. Assuming that both galaxies contain central supermassive black holes, the galactic collision can result in a black hole pair at the centre. This black hole pair might eventually merge and produce the supermassive equivalent to stellar black hole mergers as detected in gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration.

AGN with double black holes at a small separation of only light years have been pursued for many years. However, they seem to be rare and difficult to identify. In addition to the collision of jetted material, the team also found evidence for a precession of the central jet of TXS 0506+056. According to Michal Zajaček from the Center for Theoretical Physics, Warsaw: „This precession can in general be explained by the presence of a supermassive black hole binary or the Lense-Thirring precession effect as predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The latter could also be triggered by a second, more distant black hole in the centre. Both scenarios lead to a wandering of the jet direction, which we observe.“

Christian Fendt from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg is amazed: „The closer we look at the jet sources the more complicated the internal structure and jet dynamics appears. While binary black holes produce a more complex outflow structure, their existence is naturally expected from the cosmological models of galaxy formation by galaxy mergers.”

Silke Britzen stresses the scientific potential of the findings: „It’s fantastic to understand the neutrino generation by studying the insides of jets. And it would be a breakthrough if our analysis had provided another candidate for a binary black hole jet source with two jets.“

It seems to be the first time that a potential collision of two jets on scales of a few light years has been reported and that the detection of a cosmic neutrino might be traced back to a cosmic jet-collision.

While TXS 0506+056 might not be representative of the class of BL Lac objects, this source could provide the proper setup for a repeated interaction of jetted material and the generation of neutrinos.

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Background Information:

U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is designed to observe the cosmos from deep within the South Pole ice.

IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration

Lunar Icecube

IceCube DeepCore annotated

IceCube PINGU annotated


DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated

Encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice, IceCube searches for nearly massless subatomic particles called neutrinos. These high-energy astronomical messengers provide information to probe the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars.

MOJAVE (Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments) is a long-term program to monitor radio brightness and polarization variations in jets associated with active galaxies visible in the northern sky. The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is a system of ten radio telescopes which are operated from Socorro, New Mexico. The ten radio antennas work together as an array using very long baseline interferometry.

NRAO/VLBA

A BL Lac Object is a special subclass of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). An AGN is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This luminosity is non-thermal and produced by accretion of matter close to a central black hole. The jet of a BL Lac Object is directed at the observer giving a unique radio emission spectrum.

Authors of the original paper in “Astronomy & Astrophysics” are Silke Britzen, Christian Fendt, Markus Böttcher, Michal Zajaček, Frederic Jaron, Ilya Pashchenko, Anabella Araudo, Vladimir Karas, and Omar Kurtanidze. Silke Britzen, the first author, and also Michal Zajaček and Frederic Jaron are affiliated to the MPIfR.

Besides MPIfR, affiliations of the authors include the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg, Germany), the Centre for Space Research (North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa), the I. Physikalisches Institut, (Universität Köln, Germany), the Center for Theoretical Physics, (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland), the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation (University of Bonn, Germany), the Astro Space Center, (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia), the Astronomical Institute and the Institute of Physics (Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic) and the Abastumani Observatory in Georgia.

See the full article here .

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MPIFR/Effelsberg Radio Telescope, Germany

The Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) is located in Bonn, Germany. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft).

By combining the already existing radio astronomy faculty of the University of Bonn led by Otto Hachenberg with the new Max Planck institute the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy was formed. In 1972 the 100-m radio telescope in Effelsberg was opened. The institute building was enlarged in 1983 and 2002.

The institute was founded in 1966 by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as the “Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie” (MPIfR).

The foundation of the institute was closely linked to plans in the German astronomical community to construct a competitive large radio telescope in (then) West Germany. In 1964, Professors Friedrich Becker, Wolfgang Priester and Otto Hachenberg of the Astronomische Institute der Universität Bonn submitted a proposal to the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk for the construction of a large fully steerable radio telescope.

In the same year the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk approved the funding of the telescope project but with the condition that an organization should be found, which would guarantee the operations. It was clear that the operation of such a large instrument was well beyond the possibilities of a single university institute.

Already in 1965 the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) decided in principle to found the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie. Eventually, after a series of discussions, the institute was officially founded in 1966.

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

According to its primary goal, the Max Planck Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014)[2] Max Planck Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

The Max Planck Institutes focus on excellence in research. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the Max Planck institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard, MIT, Stanford and the US NIH). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the Max Planck Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.