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  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on August 2, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN LHC,   

    Don Lincoln of FNAL: LHC Computing – Video 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    The LHC is the world’s highest energy particle accelerator and scientists use it to record an unprecedented amount of data. This data is recorded in electronic format and it requires an enormous computational infrastructure to convert the raw data into conclusions about the fundamental rules that govern matter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln gives us a sense of just how much data is involved and the incredible computer resources that makes it all possible.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles

    LHC at CERN

    See the full article here.

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:00 pm on July 30, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN LHC, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “One Higgs is the loneliest number” 

    Symmetry

    July 30, 2015.
    Katie Elyce Jones

    Physicists discovered one type of Higgs boson in 2012. Now they’re looking for more.

    1

    When physicists discovered the Higgs boson in 2012, they declared the Standard Model of particle physics complete; they had finally found the missing piece of the particle puzzle.

    2
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    And yet, many questions remain about the basic components of the universe, including: Did we find the one and only type of Higgs boson? Or are there more?

    A problem of mass

    The Higgs mechanism gives mass to some fundamental particles, but not others. It interacts strongly with W and Z bosons, making them massive. But it does not interact with particles of light, leaving them massless.

    These interactions don’t just affect the mass of other particles, they also affect the mass of the Higgs. The Higgs can briefly fluctuate into virtual pairs of the particles with which it interacts.

    Scientists calculate the mass of the Higgs by multiplying a huge number—related to the maximum energy for which the Standard Model applies—with a number related to those fluctuations. The second number is determined by starting with the effects of fluctuations to force-carrying particles like the W and Z bosons, and subtracting the effects of fluctuations to matter particles like quarks.

    While the second number cannot be zero because the Higgs must have some mass, almost anything it adds up to, even at very small numbers, makes the mass of the Higgs gigantic.

    But it isn’t. It weighs about 125 billion electronvolts; it’s not even the heaviest fundamental particle.

    “Having the Higgs boson at 125 GeV is like putting an ice cube into a hot oven and it not melting,” says Flip Tanedo, a theoretical physicist and postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Irvine.

    A lightweight Higgs, though it makes the Standard Model work, doesn’t necessarily make sense for the big picture. If there are multiple Higgses—much heavier ones—the math determining their masses becomes more flexible.

    “There’s no reason to rule out multiple Higgs particles,” says Tim Tait, a theoretical physicist and professor at UCI. “There’s nothing in the theory that says there shouldn’t be more than one.”

    The two primary theories that predict multiple Higgs particles are Supersymmetry and compositeness.

    Supersymmetry standard model
    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    Supersymmetry

    Popular in particle physics circles for tying together all the messy bits of the Standard Model, Supersymmetry predicts a heavier (and whimsically named) partner particle, or “sparticle,” for each of the known fundamental particles. Quarks have squarks and Higgs have Higgsinos.

    “When the math is re-done, the effects of the particles and their partner particles on the mass of the Higgs cancel each other out and the improbability we see in the Standard Model shrinks and maybe even vanishes,” says Don Lincoln, a physicist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model—the supersymmetric model that most closely aligns with the current Standard Model—predicts four new Higgs particles in addition to the Higgs sparticle, the Higgsino.

    While Supersymmetry is maybe the most popular theory for exploring physics beyond the Standard Model, physicists at the LHC haven’t seen any evidence of it yet. If Supersymmetry exists, scientists will need to produce more massive particles to observe it.

    “Scientists started looking for Supersymmetry five years ago in the LHC,” says Tanedo. “But we don’t really know where they will find it: 10 TeV? 100 TeV?”

    Compositeness

    The other popular theory that predicts multiple Higgs bosons is compositeness. The composite Higgs theory proposes that the Higgs boson is not a fundamental particle but is instead made of smaller particles that have not yet been discovered.

    “You can think of this like the study of the atom,” says Bogdan Dobrescu, a theoretical physicist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. “As people looked closer and closer, they found the proton and neutron. They looked closer again and found the ‘up’ and ‘down’ quarks that make up the proton and neutron.”

    Composite Higgs theories predict that if there are more fundamental parts to the Higgs, it may assume a combination of masses based on the properties of these smaller particles.

    The search for composite Higgs bosons has been limited by the scale at which scientists can study given the current energy levels at the LHC.

    On the lookout

    Physicists will continue their Higgs search with the current run of the LHC.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    At 60 percent higher energy, the LHC will produce Higgs bosons more frequently this time around. It will also produce more top quarks, the heaviest particles of the Standard Model. Top quarks interact energetically with the Higgs, making them a favored place to start picking at new physics.

    Whether scientists find evidence for Supersymmetry or a composite Higgs (if they find either), that discovery would mean much more than just an additional Higgs.

    “For example, finding new Higgs bosons could affect our understanding of how the fundamental forces unify at higher energy,” Tait says.

    “Supersymmetry would open up a whole ‘super’ world out there to discover. And a composite Higgs might point to new rules on the fundamental level beyond what we understand today. We would have new pieces of the puzzle to look at it.”

    See the full article here.

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:13 am on July 28, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN LHC, , , ,   

    From Discovery: “LHC Keeps Bruising ‘Difficult to Kill’ Supersymmetry” 

    Discovery News
    Discovery News

    Jul 27, 2015
    AFP

    1

    In a new blow for the futuristic “supersymmetry” theory of the universe’s basic anatomy, experts reported fresh evidence Monday of subatomic activity consistent with the mainstream Standard Model of particle physics.

    New data from ultra high-speed proton collisions at Europe’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) showed an exotic particle dubbed the “beauty quark” behaves as predicted by the Standard Model, said a paper in the journal Nature Physics.

    2
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Previous attempts at measuring the beauty quark’s rare transformation into a so-called “up quark” had yielded conflicting results. That prompted scientists to propose an explanation beyond the Standard Model — possibly supersymmetry.

    2

    But the latest observations were “entirely consistent with the Standard Model and removes the need for this hypothesis” of an alternative theory, Guy Wilkinson, leader of LHC’s “beauty experiment” told AFP.

    “It would of course have been very exciting if we could show that there was something wrong with the Standard Model — I cannot deny that would have been sensational,” he said.

    The Standard Model is the mainstream theory of all the fundamental particles that make up matter, and the forces that govern them.

    But the model has weaknesses: it doesn’t explain dark matter or dark energy, which jointly make up 95 percent of the universe. Nor is it compatible with Einstein’s theory of general relativity — the force of gravity as we know it does not seem to work at the subatomic quantum scale.

    Supersymmetry, SUSY for short, is one of the alternatives proposed for explaining these inconsistencies, postulating the existence of a heavier “sibling” for every particle in the universe.

    This may also explain dark matter and dark energy.

    ‘Many-Headed Monster’

    But no proof of supersymmetric twins has been found at the LHC, which has observed all the particles postulated by the Standard Model — including the long-sought Higgs boson, which confers mass to matter.

    Supersymmetry predicts the existence of at least five types of Higgs boson, but only one, believed to be the Standard Model Higgs, has so far been found.

    Wilkinson said it was “too soon” to write off supersymmetry.

    “It is very difficult to kill supersymmetry: it is a many-headed monster,” he said.

    But “if nothing is seen in the next couple of years, supersymmetry would be in a much harder situation. The number of true believers would drop.”

    Quarks are the most basic particles, building blocks of protons and neutrons, which in turn are found in atoms.

    There are six types of quarks — the most common are the “up” and “down” quarks, while the others are called “charm”, “strange”, “beauty” and “top.”

    The beauty quark, heavier than up and down quarks, can shift shape, and usually takes the form of a charm quark when it does.

    Much more rarely, it morphs into an up quark. Wilkinson’s team have now measured — for the first time — how often that happens.

    “We are delighted because it is the sort of measurement nobody thought was possible at the LHC,” he said. It had been thought that an even more powerful machine would be needed.

    The revamped LHC, a facility of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), was restarted in April after a two-year revamp to boost its power from eight to 13, potentially 14, teraelectronvolts (TeV).

    “If you expect Earth-shattering news from the new run, it’s a bit early,” CERN director-general Rolf Heuer told journalists in Vienna Monday at a conference of the European Physical Society.

    “The main harvest will come in the years to come, so you have to stay tuned.”

    So far, the new run at 13 TeV has re-detected all the Standard Model particles except for the Higgs boson, but Heuer insisted: “We are sure that it is there.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 7:53 am on July 28, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN LHC, , ,   

    From CERN: “The latest results from the LHC experiments are presented in Vienna” 

    CERN New Masthead

    27 Jul 2015
    NO Writer Credit

    The world particle-physics community has convened in Vienna for the 2015 European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP2015), where the latest results in the field are being presented and discussed. These include the first results from Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN1, which are being presented for the very first time, less than two months after the experiments started to take data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV, following a two-year long shutdown.

    “It is much too early to expect any discovery, we will have to be patient,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “Nevertheless, the LHC experiments have already recorded 100 times more data for the summer conferences this year than they had around the same time after the LHC started up at 7 TeV in 2010. We can sense a fantastic pioneering spirit as the physicists are looking at completely new data at an unexplored energy.”

    As for any machine exploring a new energy frontier, operators at the LHC face many challenges on a daily basis. Since the start of Run 2, they have been gradually increasing the intensity of the LHC’s two beams, which travel in opposite directions around the 27-kilometre ring at almost the speed of light. The LHC has run at the record high energy with each beam containing up to 476 bunches of 100 billion protons, delivering collisions every 50 nanoseconds. In the coming days, the intensity should increase further with a new rhythm of 25 nanoseconds. After a planned technical stop in early September, the teams will also be able to increase the number of bunches with the goal of reaching more than 2000 bunches per beam by the end of 2015.

    “During the hardware-commissioning phase, we have learnt to manage carefully the huge energy stored in the magnets. Now with beam commissioning we have to learn progressively how to store and handle the beam energy,” said CERN Director of Accelerators and Technology Frédérick Bordry. “Our goal for 2015 is to reach the nominal performance of the LHC at 13 TeV so as to exploit its potential from 2016 to 2018.”

    The LHC has already delivered over 10 thousand billion collisions to the large experiments since the start of Run 2. This has allowed the LHC collaborations to measure a full suite of detector performance parameters that demonstrate the readiness of the experiments for discovery physics and precision measurements. The next step was to confirm the Standard Model at the new energy of 13 TeV. After only a few weeks of data taking, the experiments have now “rediscovered” all of the known fundamental particles, apart from the so-called Higgs boson, for which more data are still required. The collaborations are thus ready to test the Standard Model at 13 TeV and the hope is to find evidence of new physics beyond this well-established theory.

    At the EPS-HEP2015 conference, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations presented the first measurements at 13 TeV on the production of charged strongly-interacting particles (hadrons). CMS has already submitted this result for publication (link is external) – the first for the new energy region. Such measurements are important in understanding the basic production mechanism for hadrons.

    The LHC experiments have also made the first measurements of cross-sections at 13 TeV. Cross-sections are quantities related to the probability for particles to interact, and their measurement is essential for identifying any new phenomena. For example, ATLAS has measured the cross-section for the production of pairs of top quarks and antiquarks, which is some three times higher at 13 TeV than at the energy of Run 1.

    In addition, the conference is providing the opportunity for all of the LHC experiments to present many new or final results from the first run at the LHC. These include searches for dark matter, supersymmetric and other exotic particles, as well as new precision measurements of Standard Model processes.

    1
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    In this respect, one highlight in Vienna is the presentation for the first time at an international conference of the recent discovery by the LHCb experiment of a new class of particles known as pentaquarks (see press release). LHCb also published today in Nature Physics a result confirming that a certain decay involving the weak force happens with beauty quarks having a “left-handed” spin. This result is consistent with the Standard Model, in contrast with previous measurements that allowed for a right-handed contribution.

    In other highlights from Run 1, the ALICE and LHCb experiments have new results on long-range correlations in proton–lead collisions. The latest measurements show that the so-called “ridges” seen in the most violent collisions span across even larger longitudinal distances. In Run 2 data, ATLAS reported that the near-side ridge is seen in 13 TeV proton–proton collisions, with characteristics very similar to those observed by CMS in Run 1.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 1:56 pm on July 9, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN LHC, , Network Computing, ,   

    From Symmetry: “More data, no problem” 

    Symmetry

    July 09, 2015
    Katie Elyce Jones

    Scientists are ready to handle the increased data of the current run of the Large Hadron Collider.

    1
    Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    Physicist Alexx Perloff, a graduate student at Texas A&M University on the CMS experiment, is using data from the first run of the Large Hadron Collider for his thesis, which he plans to complete this year.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    When all is said and done, it will have taken Perloff a year and a half to conduct the computing necessary to analyze all the information he needs—not unusual for a thesis.

    But had he used the computing tools LHC scientists are using now, he estimates he could have finished his particular kind of analysis in about three weeks. Although Perloff represents only one scientist working on the LHC, his experience shows the great leaps scientists have made in LHC computing by democratizing their data, becoming more responsive to popular demand and improving their analysis software.

    A deluge of data

    Scientists estimate the current run of the LHC could create up to 10 times more data than the first one. CERN already routinely stores 6 gigabytes (or 6 billion units of digital information) per second, up from 1 gigabyte per second in the first run.

    The second run of the LHC is more data-intensive because the accelerator itself is more intense: The collision energy is 60 percent greater, resulting in “pile-up” or more collisions per proton bunch. Proton bunches are also injected into the ring closer together, resulting in more collisions per second.

    On top of that, the experiments have upgraded their triggers, which automatically choose which of the millions of particle events per second to record. The CMS trigger will now record more than twice as much data per second as it did in the previous run.

    Had CMS and ATLAS scientists relied only on adding more computers to make up for the data hike, they would likely have needed about four to six times more computing power in CPUs and storage than they used in the first run of the LHC.

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    To avoid such a costly expansion, they found smarter ways to share and analyze the data.

    Flattening the hierarchy

    Over a decade ago, network connections were less reliable than they are today, so the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid was designed to have different levels, or tiers, that controlled data flow.

    All data recorded by the detectors goes through the CERN Data Centre, known as Tier-0, where it is initially processed, then to a handful of Tier-1 centers in different regions across the globe.

    CERN DATA Center
    One view of the Cern Data Centre

    During the last run, the Tier-1 centers served Tier-2 centers, which were mostly the smaller university computing centers where the bulk of physicists do their analyses.

    “The experience for a user on Run I was more restrictive,” says Oliver Gutsche, assistant head of the Scientific Computing Division for Science Workflows and Operations at Fermilab, the US Tier-1 center for CMS*. “You had to plan well ahead.”

    Now that the network has proved reliable, a new model “flattens” the hierarchy, enabling a user at any ATLAS or CMS Tier-2 center to access data from any of their centers in the world. This was initiated in Run I and is now fully in place for Run II.

    Through a separate upgrade known as data federation, users can also open a file from another computing center through the network, enabling them to view the file without going through the process of transferring it from center to center.

    Another significant upgrade affects the network stateside. Through its Energy Sciences Network, or ESnet, the US Department of Energy increased the bandwidth of the transatlantic network that connects the US CMS and ATLAS Tier-1 centers to Europe. A high-speed network, ESnet transfers data 15,000 times faster than the average home network provider.

    Dealing with the rush

    One of the thrilling things about being a scientist on the LHC is that when something exciting shows up in the detector, everyone wants to talk about it. The downside is everyone also wants to look at it.

    “When data is more interesting, it creates high demand and a bottleneck,” says David Lange, CMS software and computing co-coordinator and a scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. “By making better use of our resources, we can make more data available to more people at any time.”

    To avoid bottlenecks, ATLAS and CMS are now making data accessible by popularity.

    “For CMS, this is an automated system that makes more copies when popularity rises and reduces copies when popularity declines,” Gutsche says.

    Improving the algorithms

    One of the greatest recent gains in computing efficiency for the LHC relied on the physicists who dig into the data. By working closely with physicists, software engineers edited the algorithms that describe the physics playing out in the LHC, thereby significantly improving processing time for reconstruction and simulation jobs.

    “A huge amount of effort was put in, primarily by physicists, to understand how the physics could be analyzed while making the computing more efficient,” says Richard Mount, senior research scientist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory who was ATLAS computing coordinator during the recent LHC upgrades.

    CMS tripled the speed of event reconstruction and halved simulation time. Similarly, ATLAS quadrupled reconstruction speed.

    Algorithms that determine data acquisition on the upgraded triggers were also improved to better capture rare physics events and filter out the background noise of routine (and therefore uninteresting) events.

    “More data” has been the drumbeat of physicists since the end of the first run, and now that it’s finally here, LHC scientists and students like Perloff can pick up where they left off in the search for new physics—anytime, anywhere.

    *While not noted in the article, I believe that Brookhaven National Laboratory is the Tier 1 site for Atlas in the United States.

    See the full article here.

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 9:05 am on June 4, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN LHC, , , , ,   

    From DOE via FNAL: “U.S. joins the world in a new era of research at the Large Hadron Collider” 

    FNAL Home

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    The following news release about the restart of the Large Hadron Collider is being issued by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. scientists working on the LHC. Fermilab serves as the U.S. hub for the CMS experiment at the LHC and the roughly 1,000 U.S. scientists who work on that experiment, including about 100 Fermilab employees. Fermilab is a Tier 1 computing center for LHC data and hosts a Remote Operations Center to process and analyze that data. Read more information about Fermilab’s role in the CMS experiment and the LHC. See a list of Fermilab scientists who can speak about the LHC.

    1
    One of the first collisions in the CMS detector at the record-high energy of 13 TeV, taken during testing for the second run of the Large Hadron Collider in late May. Image: CMS/CERN

    New LHC data gives researchers from around the world their best chance yet to study the Higgs boson and search for dark matter and new particles.

    Today scientists at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European research facility, started recording data from the highest-energy particle collisions ever achieved on Earth.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    This new proton collision data, the first recorded since 2012, will enable an international collaboration of researchers that includes more than 1,700 U.S. physicists to study the Higgs boson, search for dark matter and develop a more complete understanding of the laws of nature.

    “Together with collaborators from around the world, scientists from roughly 100 U.S. universities and laboratories are exploring a previously unreachable realm of nature,” said James Siegrist, the U.S. Department of Energy’s associate director of science for high-energy physics. “We are very excited to be part of the international community that is pushing the boundaries of our knowledge of the universe.”

    The Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, reproduces conditions similar to those that existed immediately after the big bang. In 2012, during the LHC’s first run, scientists discovered the Higgs boson—a fundamental particle that helps explain why certain elementary particles have mass. U.S. scientists represent about 20 percent and 30 percent, respectively, of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, the two international teams that co-discovered the Higgs boson. Hundreds of U.S. scientists played vital roles in the Higgs discovery and will continue to study its remarkable properties.

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    Scientists will use this new LHC data to pin down properties of the Higgs boson and search for new physics and phenomena such as dark matter particles—an invisible form of matter that makes up 25 percent of the entire mass and energy of the universe. Physicists will also endeavor to answer questions such as: Why is there more matter than antimatter? Why is the Higgs boson so light? Are there additional types of Higgs particles? What did matter look like immediately after the big bang?

    NSF-funded researchers at ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are investigating some of nature’s most fundamental properties at collision energies never before explored.

    CERN LHCb New II
    LHCb

    The potential for transformative discoveries is profound,” said Denise Caldwell, NSF’s division director for physics. “We eagerly look forward to LHC operation at almost twice the energy of any other particle accelerator on Earth.”

    The LHC was turned off in early 2013, and engineers spent two years preparing the machine to collide particles at a much higher energy and intensity. During the shutdown, U.S. scientists and their international collaborators installed several new components in the four LHC detectors. These components, together with other upgrades, will allow physicists to record more information about the particles produced during the high-energy collisions.

    These upgrades included a new detector in the heart of the ATLAS experiment, several new muon detectors on the outer shell of the CMS experiment, a new calorimeter inside the ALICE experiment and an innovative new data sorting system for the LHCb experiment.

    CERN ALICE New II
    ALICE

    U.S. scientists played vital roles in the design and instrumentation of these new systems and will operate several of the detector components throughout the next three years of data collection.

    Once collected at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, the new LHC data travels the globe. New fiber optic cables recently installed by the U.S. Department of Energy bring the data to computers and data centers at 18 U.S. institutions, which provide 35 percent of the worldwide computing power for the CMS experiment and 23 percent for the ATLAS experiment.

    The upgraded LHC will also generate data at a much faster rate. Scientists predict they will match the amount of data generated throughout the collider’s first three-year run within the next five months, eventually accumulating 10 times more data by the end of 2017. These collisions will also produce Higgs bosons 25 percent faster and will increase the chances of seeing other theoretical particles, such as those predicted for supersymmetry, by over 40 percent.

    “The first three-year run of the LHC, which culminated with major discovery in July 2012, was only the start of our journey. It is time for new physics!” said CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. “We have seen first data beginning to flow. Let’s see what they will reveal to us about how our universe works.”

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. It has its headquarters in Geneva. At present, its Member States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Romania is a Candidate for Accession. Serbia is an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Union, JINR and UNESCO have Observer Status.

    The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, its budget is $7.3 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 11,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

    See the full article here.

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:10 pm on June 3, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN LHC,   

    From Don Lincoln of FNAL: Video -“The LHC Experiments” 

    The Large Hadron Collider or LHC is the world’s biggest particle accelerator, but it can only get particles moving very quickly. To make measurements, scientists must employ particle detectors. There are four big detectors at the LHC: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln introduces us to these detectors and gives us an idea of each one’s capabilities.

    Watch, enjoy, learn.

    See the full article here.

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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  • richardmitnick 9:55 am on May 29, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “Major work to ready the LHC experiments for Run 2″ 

    CERN New Masthead

    29 May 2015
    Corinne Pralavorio

    1
    A magnet is lowered through the ALICE cavern for work on the Large Hadron Collider during Long Shutdown 1 (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    2
    Installation of a new layer of pixels in the ATLAS tracker (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN)

    3
    The installation of the new pixel luminosity telescope in the CMS detector (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    4
    The reinstallation of the beam pipe in the LHCb detector (Image: LHCb)

    Next week, the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be back in action, taking data for the accelerator’s second run. The experiments were shut down two years ago for maintenance and refurbishment in preparation for collisions at the higher energy of 13 teraelectronvolts (TeV).

    Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) saw hundreds of collaboration members working in and around the experiment caverns on improvements to the detectors. Four of these detectors – ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb – are enormous, sophisticated machines measuring up to 40 metres long and 20 metres long and made up of dozens of subdetectors, themselves composed of millions of sensitive sensors. Each subdetector is designed to determine the characteristics of one or more types of particle emerging from the particle collisions. These subdetectors include trackers, which reveal the paths of charged particles, and calorimeters, which measure the energy of some particles. All the data collected is grouped and analysed with a view to understanding what happened at the moment of collision. During the second run, up to one billion proton collisions could occur every second in the detectors. Most of the collisions do not yield interesting results and given the enormous quantities of data generated, it can’t all be logged. The trigger system therefore sorts the collisions, keeping just the most interesting events – several hundred per second. The data-acquisition system then records the data and sends it to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid to be analysed by physicists. During the long shutdown, all these systems were verified and some were renovated or upgraded. Below is an overview of the main work projects that took place in the detector caverns ahead of the big restart.

    ALICE

    This experiment, which studies quark-gluon plasma – the matter present in the first moments of the universe’s existence – made improvements to most of its 19 subdetectors. One of these was the electromagnetic calorimeter, which measures the energy of the electrons, positrons and photons produced by the collisions. Its range of detection was extended with the addition of the new di-jet calorimeter. Modules were also added to other subdetectors, and tens of kilometres of cables were replaced as part of a complete overhaul of the electrical infrastructure. In terms of computing, ALICE doubled its data-logging capacity with improvements to the trigger and data-acquisition systems carried out by the collaboration’s IT experts.

    ATLAS

    The ATLAS detector can now see even better, thanks to a fourth layer of pixels in its pixel tracker, the subdetector closest to the collisions and whose function is to reconstruct the particle trajectories. Improvements were also made to the muon detectors and calorimeters, as well as to the entire basic infrastructure (including the electrical power supply and the cooling systems). Sections of the beam pipe, in which the protons circulate and collide, were replaced to reduce the background noise in the detector. With new, more efficient trigger and data-acquisition systems, ATLAS is ready to log more data than before: it will be capable of recording a thousand events every second – more than double its capacity during Run 1. In addition, an improvement plan to upgrade the simulation, reconstruction and data-analysis software used by physicists to conduct their research was carried out.

    CMS

    The CMS collaboration carried out important work on its tracker so that it can function at lower temperatures: it was fitted with a new leak-tightness system and a refurbished cooling system. The central section of the beam tube, where the collisions take place, was replaced with a tube of a smaller diameter to allow a new pixel tracker to be installed during the next long shutdown. A brand-new subdetector, the pixel luminosity telescope, was installed on either side of the detector and will enhance the experiment’s ability to measure luminosity (a measure of the number of collisions produced in the experiment). New muon chambers were installed and the hadron calorimeter, which measures the energy of particles containing quarks, was fitted with upgraded photodetectors. Last but not least, the trigger system was improved and the software and computing systems underwent a significant overhaul to reduce the time needed to produce analysis datasets.

    LHCb

    LHCb, the experiment that investigates beauty particles, added a HeRSChel detector along the beam line in order to identify rare processes in which particles are observed inside the detector but not along the beam line itself. The experiment’s beam pipe was also replaced, as was the pipe’s supporting structure, which is now lighter and more “transparent”. The experiments are constantly striving to achieve transparency as the detectors must detect without influencing the results, for example by intercepting particles that they’re not supposed to stop or by altering the trajectories.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 8:28 am on May 22, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN LHC, , , ,   

    From CERN: “First images of collisions at 13 TeV” 

    CERN New Masthead

    21 May 2015
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    1
    Test collisions continue today at 13 TeV in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to prepare the detectors ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, MOEDAL and TOTEM for data-taking, planned for early June (Image: LHC page 1)

    Last night, protons collided in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the record-breaking energy of 13 TeV for the first time. These test collisions were to set up systems that protect the machine and detectors from particles that stray from the edges of the beam.

    A key part of the process was the set-up of the collimators. These devices which absorb stray particles were adjusted in colliding-beam conditions. This set-up will give the accelerator team the data they need to ensure that the LHC magnets and detectors are fully protected.

    Today the tests continue. Colliding beams will stay in the LHC for several hours. The LHC Operations team will continue to monitor beam quality and optimisation of the set-up.

    This is an important part of the process that will allow the experimental teams running the detectors ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, MOEDAL and TOTEM to switch on their experiments fully. Data taking and the start of the LHC’s second run is planned for early June.

    2
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the ALICE detector (Image: ALICE)

    3
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the CMS detector (Image: CMS)

    4
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the ATLAS detector (Image: ATLAS)

    5
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the LHCb detector (Image: LHCb)

    6
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the TOTEM detector (Image: TOTEM)

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 10:59 am on May 20, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN LHC, , ,   

    From Nature: “Billion-dollar particle collider gets thumbs up” 

    Nature Mag
    Nature

    19 May 2015
    Edwin Cartlidge

    1
    Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York is a potential host for the Electron-Ion Collider. Brookhaven National Laboratory/CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

    A machine that would allow scientists to peer deeper than ever before into the atomic nucleus is a big step closer to being built. A high-level panel of nuclear physicists is expected to endorse the proposed Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) in a report scheduled for publication by October. It is unclear how long construction would take.

    The panel is the [DOE] Nuclear Science Advisory Committee, or NSAC, which produces regular ten-year plans for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation. Its latest plan is still being finalized, but NSAC’s long-range planning group “strongly recommended” construction of the EIC at a meeting last month, says NSAC member Abhay Deshpande, a nuclear physicist at Stony Brook University in New York. The EIC will almost certainly be formally endorsed in the NSAC report, he says. It must then be approved by the DOE, but most projects backed by the expert panel have come to fruition, he says.

    The collider would allow unprecedented insights into how protons and neutrons are built up from quarks and the particles that act between them, known as gluons.

    The current leading facilities for studying quark–gluon matter are the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.

    BNL RHIC Campus
    BNL RHIC
    BNL RHIC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    CERN LHC

    These facilities smash protons and heavy ions together to recreate the energetic conditions of the early Universe, when quarks and gluons existed as a plasma rather than in atomic nuclei. The EIC would collide point-like electrons with either protons or heavy ions, generating collisions that have a similarly high energy but are more precise and so can be used to study subatomic particles in detail.

    In particular, the EIC would be ideal for studying an exotic state of matter that is made up entirely of gluons. The machine should also solve a puzzle about the proton that has baffled physicists for nearly 30 years. The proton has a quantum-mechanical property called spin, but, strangely, the spins of its three constituent quarks add up to only about one-third of its own spin. The EIC would determine what makes up the difference: options include the spin of the proton’s gluons, the angular momentum of its quarks or of the gluons from their orbital motion, or a mixture of all three.

    “Until we have the EIC, there are huge areas of nuclear physics that we are not going to make progress in,” says Donald Geesaman, a nuclear physicist at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, and the chair of NSAC.

    The machine would not be built from scratch. One option is to add an electron-beam facility to RHIC — a plan that is estimated to cost about US$1 billion and would depend on some as-yet-unproven technologies. Another is to add an ion accelerator and new collider rings to the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility [CEBAF] at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, which would cost about $1.5 billion.

    Jlab CEBAF
    CEBAF at JLab

    Deshpande hopes that the DOE will give the collider the thumbs up within a year of the NSAC plan’s publication. Two or three more years would be needed to finalize the competing bids and choose one, meaning that construction could start in about 2020 and be completed five years later, he says.

    Others say that this outlook is too rosy. The 2008 financial crisis led to a drop in science funding that forced NSAC to review its 2007 ten-year plan. A specially formed subcommittee concluded in 2013 that RHIC would have to shut down if funding for the DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics remained flat over the following five years. In fact, those funds have grown slightly, keeping RHIC in business, but the scare led to a more cautious approach this time around, says Geesaman. He points out that when the DOE and the National Science Foundation commissioned the ten-year plan, they specified that NSAC should consider what US physicists could achieve if funding remained flat, as well as how much support they would need to maintain a “world-leadership position”.

    Robert McKeown, deputy director for science at the Jefferson lab, thinks that limited funds might delay the start up of the EIC until at least 2030. And Michael Lubell, director of public affairs at the American Physical Society, questions whether it is feasible for the EIC to be built by the United States alone. He notes that the $1.5-billion Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment became an international project [DUNE managed by FNAL] after a slimmed-down $600-million version failed to pass scientific muster. “It is hard to see how to do this unless you get international buy-in,” he says.

    Deshpande thinks that the United States can go it alone. But he notes that collaborations at CERN and in China are also developing plans for electron–ion colliders and that the three groups are already exchanging ideas.

    See the full article here.

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    Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public.

     
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