Tagged: ZIKA Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 4:17 pm on July 25, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From U Southampton: “Study suggests 1.6 million childbearing women could be at risk of Zika virus infection” 

    U Southampton bloc

    University of Southampton

    25 July 2016
    No writer credit found

    1
    This map shows the predicted distribution of Aedis aegypti, the mosquito that carries Zika virus. The redder the area, the higher the probability. eLife. NPR

    Research by scientists in the US and UK has estimated that up to 1.65 million childbearing women in Central and South America could become infected by the Zika virus by the end of the first wave of the epidemic.

    Researchers from the WorldPop Project and Flowminder Foundation at the University of Southampton and colleagues from the University of Notre Dame and University of Oxford have also found that across Latin America and the Caribbean over 90 million infections could result from the initial stages of the spread of Zika.

    The team’s projections, detailed in the paper Model-based projections of Zika virus infections in childbearing women in the Americas and published in Nature Microbiology, also show that Brazil is expected to have the largest total number of infections (by more than three-fold), due to its size and suitability for transmission.

    The estimates reflect the sum of thousands of localised projections of how many people could become infected within every five x five km grid cell across Central and South America. Because the virus may not reach each corner of this region, or may do so slowly, the total figure of 1.65 million represents an upper limit estimate for the first wave of the epidemic.

    Geographer at the University of Southampton and WorldPop and Flowminder Director Professor Andrew Tatem comments: “It is difficult to accurately predict how many child-bearing women may be at risk from Zika because a large proportion of cases show no symptoms. This largely invalidates methods based on case data and presents a formidable challenge for scientists trying to understand the likely impact of the disease on populations.”

    In fact, an estimated 80 per cent of Zika infections don’t show symptoms and of those which do, some may be due to other viruses. Coupled with inconsistent case reporting and variable access to health care for different populations, these factors make case based data unreliable.

    However, this latest research has built a picture of the projected spread of the disease by examining its likely impact at very local levels –at a scale of five kilometres squared. The researchers have brought this local data together to model infection rates across the region.

    The team took into account disease patterns displayed in similar epidemics, along with other factors such as how the virus is transmitted (in this instance by mosquito), climate conditions and virus incubation periods. They also examined transmission behaviour in dengue and chikungunya viruses. Their projections for Zika are largely consistent with annual, region-wide estimates of 53 million infections by the dengue virus (2010), which has many similarities to Zika.

    Coupled with existing data on population, fertility, pregnancies, births and socio-economic conditions for the region, the team has been able to model the possible scale of the projected spread of the Zika virus and provide a detailed understanding of the places likely to be most affected – helping to inform which areas will need the most support in combatting the disease and helping sufferers.

    Professor Tatem adds: “These projections are an important early contribution to global efforts to understand the scale of the Zika epidemic, and provide information about its possible magnitude to help allow for better planning for surveillance and outbreak response, both internationally and locally.”

    Scientists are still investigating the potential link between microcephaly in babies and Zika.

    Notes for editors

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), defined as an “extraordinary event” that “potentially require[s] a coordinated international response”. This declaration acknowledges the high potential for Zika to establish across the Americas given that its dominant vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, are endophilic and occupy an exceptionally broad range. Concern underlying this rare WHO declaration also stems from an association between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and congenital microcephaly in their babies. Nearly 5,000 cases of microcephaly have been documented in areas experiencing Zika virus transmission, and there is widespread concern that these numbers could grow rapidly as the virus sweeps across the Americas.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    This project is directed by Dr. Alexander Perryman a senior researcher in the Freundlich lab, with extensive training in developing and applying computational methods in drug discovery and in the biochemical mechanisms of multi-drug-resistance in infectious diseases. He is a member of the Center for Emerging & Re-emerging Pathogens, in the Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, at the Rutgers University, New Jersey Medical School. Previously, he was a Research Associate in Prof. Arthur J. Olson’s lab at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), where he ran the day-to-day operations of the FightAIDS@Home project, the largest computational drug discovery project devoted to HIV/AIDS, which also runs on WCG. While in the Olson lab, he also designed, led, and ran the largest computational drug discovery project ever performed against malaria, the GO Fight Against Malaria project, also on WCG.

    Rutgers Seal

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Southampton campus

    The University of Southampton is a world-class university built on the quality and diversity of our community. Our staff place a high value on excellence and creativity, supporting independence of thought, and the freedom to challenge existing knowledge and beliefs through critical research and scholarship. Through our education and research we transform people’s lives and change the world for the better.

    Vision 2020 is the basis of our strategy.

    Since publication of the previous University Strategy in 2010 we have achieved much of what we set out to do against a backdrop of a major economic downturn and radical change in higher education in the UK.

    Vision 2020 builds on these foundations, describing our future ambition and priorities. It presents a vision of the University as a confident, growing, outwardly-focused institution that has global impact. It describes a connected institution equally committed to education and research, providing a distinctive educational experience for its students, and confident in its place as a leading international research university, achieving world-wide impact.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:30 pm on July 18, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From NYT: “New Utah Zika Case Baffles Health Officials” 

    New York Times

    The New York Times

    JULY 18, 2016
    SABRINA TAVERNISE

    1
    The mosquito that typically transmits Zika — the Aedes aegypti — does not usually range into northern Utah, but maps of the mosquito’s range can be unreliable and experts say it is theoretically possible that it has made it there. Credit Felipe Dana/Associated Press

    The Zika virus continues to surprise. On Monday, the Utah Department of Health reported that a new case had been diagnosed that did not appear to have been contracted through the two known sources of transmission: a mosquito bite or sexual contact.

    The patient, who has since fully recovered, was a “family contact” who helped care for an older man who had become infected with the virus after traveling abroad.

    The Zika virus is spread mostly by mosquitoes and has caused more than 1,500 cases of birth defects in newborns in Latin America, where it has spread rapidly, and even in the United States, mostly in pregnant women who traveled to countries where it is circulating. In the United States and its territories, there are several hundred pregnant women that have been infected with the Zika virus, with the largest concentration in Puerto Rico.

    The new case is something of a medical mystery: Zika is known to be transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and through sex, but neither seemed to be a plausible explanation for what happened in Utah.

    “We have found no evidence that mosquitoes here in Utah are transmitting the Zika virus,” said Dr. Angela Dunn, deputy state epidemiologist at the Utah Department of Health.

    Dr. Erin Staples of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which has a team on the ground in Utah, said the case was “unique. We’re learning something new about Zika every day.”

    The elderly man died in Salt Lake County in the northern part of the state in June. The man had Zika and his symptoms included a rash and fever, but he also had other ailments and it was unclear whether the virus contributed to his death.

    Local health workers had been trapping mosquitoes since last year, including most recently around the house of the man who died, but had found no Aedes aegypti. Joseph Conlon, technical adviser to the American Mosquito Control Association, said neither Aedes aegypti, nor a cousin — Aedes albopictus — are found in Salt Lake County.

    If it was not by a mosquito, how else might it have been transmitted?

    “This raises some interesting questions,” said Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist in Tennessee. “Was there a needle stick or injury? Or if not, possible contact with other bodily fluid like urine or saliva?”

    Zika has surprised scientists with its ability to be transmitted by sex — both from men to women, and, in a recent discovery in New York City, from women to men. But it is not known to be transmitted in any other way — without the help of a mosquito — so the Utah case is remarkable.

    The mosquito that transmits Zika — the Aedes aegypti — does not typically range into northern Utah, but maps of the mosquito’s range are unreliable and experts say it is theoretically possible that the bug exists there.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said it has a team on the ground in Utah. Those experts will help determine whether the virus was transmitted by mosquito.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 1:09 pm on June 30, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From Science Alert: “Two Zika vaccines are gearing up for human trials after success in mice” 

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    29 JUN 2016
    PETER DOCKRILL

    Scientists in the US and Brazil have developed two separate vaccine candidates that provide mice with complete protection from Zika virus after just a single injection.

    According to the researchers, this is the first time Zika vaccines have been reported successful in animal models, and the two candidates are now being readied for human trials.

    The research gives new life to hopes that we’ll someday soon have a safe and effective human vaccine to prevent the infectious spread of mosquito-borne Zika, which was declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organisation (WHO) earlier in the year.

    “To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Zika virus vaccine protection in an animal model,” said lead researcher Dan Barouch from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre at Harvard University in a press conference announcing the results.

    Barouch’s team, working together with researchers from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) and the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, tested a DNA vaccine based on a Zika virus strain isolated in Brazil, and a purified inactivated virus (PIV) vaccine based on a strain isolated in Puerto Rico.

    Mice given a single shot of either of the two vaccine candidates were exposed to Zika virus at four weeks after vaccination, and a separate group eight weeks after vaccination. In both experiments, the mice were shown to be immune from Zika, with the vaccines eliciting an antibody response that staved off infection.

    “This critical first step has informed our ongoing work in non-human primates and gives us early confidence that development of a protective Zika virus vaccine for humans is feasible,” said researcher Col. Nelson Michael from WRAIR, which is pushing ahead initially with the PIV vaccine and hopes to start human testing later in the year.

    Of course, there’s no guarantee that we’ll see the same results in humans as the researchers have found in mice – but the scientists remain hopeful.

    “We need to be cautious about extrapolating the results from mice to humans,” Barouch explained to the media. “But based on the robustness of the protection, the demonstration that antibodies protect and the similarity with other related viruses… these findings certainly raise optimism that the development of a safe and effective vaccine against Zika virus against humans may be successful.”

    The news follows last week’s announcement by US-based Inovio Pharmaceuticals that it had secured FDA approval to begin clinical trials of its own experimental Zika virus vaccine candidate, currently called GLS–5700.

    GLS–5700 will be tested in a trial involving 40 healthy people, expected to begin within just weeks. There’s also at least three other Zika vaccine candidates currently being developed and tested, including one by Indian company Bharat Biotech, another from French pharmaceutical company Sanofi SA, and one by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

    In light of the damage Zika is currently doing, we can only hope these vaccines become available as soon as is humanly possible.

    “The explosion of the current [Zika virus] outbreak and the devastating clinical consequences for foetuses in pregnant women who become infected demand the urgent development of a [Zika] vaccine,” said Barouch in a press release.

    “The effectiveness of these [two] vaccines, the clarity of the antibody protection and the similarity to successful vaccines that have developed for other flaviviruses provide substantial optimism for a clear path forward for the development of a safe and effective [Zika] vaccine for humans.”

    The findings are published in Nature.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 3:41 pm on June 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From SA: “List of Possible Zika Birth Defects Grows Longer” 

    Scientific American

    Scientific American

    June 24, 2016
    Dina Fine Maron

    The full scope of Zika-related birth defects may extend far beyond abnormally small heads and brain damage. Research to be presented next week at a teratology conference in San Antonio, Texas, suggests that serious joint problems, seizures, vision impairment, trouble feeding and persistent crying can be added to the list of risks from Zika exposure in the womb.

    The new findings confirm doctors’ concerns that even when Zika-exposed babies are born without microcephaly and appear largely normal at birth they can go on to have health issues including seizures and developmental delays that only become apparent in the weeks and months after birth. The new work also reinforces recent findings that suggest the type of outcomes the babies experience also varies by what trimester their mothers were in when they were exposed to Zika—with few cases of microcephaly when mothers were exposed during the third trimester.

    The research underscores the steep learning curve that scientists and officials face with this virus, which is transmitted through mosquito bites and sexual contact. Earlier studies chronicling apparent Zika-related damage had also hinted that doctors had much to learn about viral-driven birth defects. In March researchers published findings in the New England Journal of Medicine suggesting that 29 percent of pregnant women who tested positive for Zika had fetuses with abnormalities already apparent via ultrasound. The finding was particularly alarming because doctors knew many more central nervous system issues would likely only be recognizable months or even years after the child’s birth.

    Today it remains unclear exactly how many babies born to women infected with Zika during pregnancy will develop birth defects. But the new findings from Brazil do give a better sense of the breadth of obstacles Zika-affected families may face within the first year of their newborns’ lives.

    Brazilian researchers followed 83 infants born since August 2015 to mothers believed to have been infected with Zika. The study included families from eight states, mostly in Brazil’s northeast, where birth defects have soared. Because solid testing for Zika was not yet in place last fall, however, only 10 of the 83 mothers were confirmed as Zika-exposed through laboratory testing—a major caveat that applies to most current Zika-outcome studies. That reality leaves open the possibility that the birth defects could be due to other environmental or genetic factors. Still, about 70 percent of the mothers in this study remember experiencing a rash—a known Zika symptom—during their pregnancies, and the researchers eliminated other leading causes of the birth defects including certain toxic exposures and viral infections from cytomegalovirus.

    The Brazilian team found that about 10 percent of the 83 babies had knee or elbow joint limitations so severe that the infants cannot fully extend their arms or legs. Another 43 percent of the babies had less-pronounced joint problems that impeded finger or toe motion, or the babies had other limb abnormalities like clubfeet. And half of the babies had seizures and abnormal eye exams.

    This study reflects the situation of a relatively small study group—and only included babies with abnormalities. But it does provide some insights, including that birth defects may vary depending on what trimester the mother became infected with the virus. “These findings are in line with our findings about babies exposed to Zika in utero,” says Karin Nielsen-Saines, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist and senior author of the March NEJM research. Still, she cautioned that because this new study only includes babies with abnormalities it does not give a good snapshot of how common birth defects might really be among the Zika-exposed. “You might be missing children who are normal so you may skew your data toward abnormalities,” she says.

    Zika has ushered in a number of unwelcome surprises. It is the first insect-borne disease with a proven link to serious birth defects (vision problems have been linked to West Nile Virus but not yet causally verified). Yet infection with several other viruses during pregnancy—in particular toxoplasmosis, rubella or cytomegalovirus—can also lead to microcephaly, vision problems or hearing loss that may not be immediately apparent at birth, so viral-driven birth defects are not unprecedented. CVM and toxoplasmosis can also, rarely, lead to joint issues, says Dee Quinn, director of the Arizona branch of the nonprofit MotherToBaby and a senior genetic counselor on staff at the Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Arizona.

    The new Brazil findings on Zika also echo certain patterns related to those other viral infections. Notably, mothers infected with Zika late in their pregnancies tended to have babies with relatively less-serious side effects: The children more often had developmental delays including trouble sitting up, as well as seizures instead of microcephaly and significant brain calcifications, says Lavinia Schuler-Faccini, the president of the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics and the scientist presenting the findings next week. Still, that does not mean fetuses exposed during the third trimester are better off. Nielsen-Saines says that in her published work and in ongoing analysis she is seeing that such late exposure is more likely to lead to stillbirths.

    Pinning down more concrete answers about how common birth defects may be among pregnant women remains an arduous task, and scientists still do not know if other factors including genetics, exposure to other viruses or how women contracted the virus—via sex or mosquito bite—may play a role. Further complicating efforts to get a handle on the issue: according to the World Health Organization, more pregnant women infected with Zika are now aborting their fetuses.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Scientific American, the oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S., has been bringing its readers unique insights about developments in science and technology for more than 160 years.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:22 am on June 24, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From AAAS: “Zika infection may be worse in people already exposed to a common virus” 

    AAAS

    AAAS

    Jun. 23, 2016
    Gretchen Vogel

    1
    Larvae of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Adults of the species can spread both dengue and Zika viruses. Conrad Guatemala/Flickr

    A previous encounter with a disease that is rampant across Latin America could leave people more vulnerable to the Zika virus. Antibodies to dengue virus, a relative of Zika, can interfere with the immune system’s response to Zika and boost the virus’s ability to replicate, according to work in two independent labs. That may help explain why the complications of Zika virus infections have been more severe in South and Central America than in previous epidemics elsewhere.

    In some regions of Brazil, as many as 90% of people carry antibodies to dengue. Dengue viruses—there are four types—have an unusual relationship with the immune system. Antibodies that develop after an infection with one type don’t protect against infection with another type. Instead, the antibodies can actually help the second virus invade certain immune-system cells, where the virus readily replicates, making the infection worse. The phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and it helps explain why more severe cases of dengue—including a very dangerous condition called dengue hemorrhagic fever—tend to happen when a patient catches a second type of dengue.

    Scientists have wondered whether Zika virus, which is close enough to dengue to cloud the results of diagnostic tests that look for antibodies, might also be close enough to cause ADE. That could help explain why Zika, which has long been thought to cause only mild disease, has suddenly been blamed for causing much more severe symptoms in Brazil and elsewhere, including birth defects in babies infected in the womb and a temporary paralysis called Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    The first support for that theory came from a paper posted on the preprint server bioRxiv in April. Sharon Isern and Scott Michael of Florida Gulf Coast University in Fort Myers and their colleagues reported that both lab-grown antibodies to dengue and blood serum from dengue patients (which contains antibodies) dramatically boosted the replication of Zika virus in cells in the lab.

    Today, in a paper published online in Nature Immunology, an independent group at Imperial College London reports similar results, showing that a number of different antibodies to dengue virus react to Zika, but not strongly enough to neutralize the virus. Instead, when blood plasma from patients who had recovered from dengue was added to cell cultures infected with Zika, it increased the amount of virus in the cultures by as much as 100-fold.

    The data are persuasive, says Ernesto Marques, a public health expert at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. But clinical and epidemiology studies need to confirm that the effect plays a role in patients. There are cases of congenital Zika syndrome in babies and mothers that do not have antidengue antibodies, he notes, so although antidengue antibodies may increase the risk of a mother passing the virus to her fetus, the antibodies are not essential to cause birth defects. Studies that look for antibodies to dengue in Zika patients are complicated by the similarity of the viruses, notes Gavin Screaton, an immunologist at Imperial College London and an author on the Nature Immunology paper. “We desperately need” blood tests that can easily distinguish whether a patient has antibodies to dengue, Zika, or both, he says.

    Even if the findings are confirmed, there’s not much people who were previously infected with dengue can do to protect themselves except reduce the risk of mosquito bites, for instance by using repellent. But such precautions are already recommended for everyone in Zika-affected countries.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an international non-profit organization dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of all people.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon
    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 12:46 pm on June 23, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From Science Node: “Hacking Zika in the Lone Star state” 

    Science Node bloc
    Science Node

    25 May, 2016 [just put in social media]
    Jorge Salazar

    More than 50 data scientists, engineers, and UT Austin students joined forces at the Austin Zika Hackathon to use big data to fight the spread of Zika.

    Hackathon participants investigated ways to pool together different sets of data — outbreak reports, stagnant water sources, empty swimming pools and ponds that are potential mosquito breeding grounds, and even Facebook and Twitter feeds.

    The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) plans to store all the data on a new data-intensive supercomputer called Wrangler.

    Wrangler is one of the newest Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) supercomputing resources, and is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

    TACC Wrangler

    “We’re trying to collect these disparate pieces of data, and there’s not a good way for people to ask questions about that data — that’s the big problem,” says Ari Kahn, human translational genomics coordinator at TACC.

    Zika, a mosquito-borne disease that can cause fever and birth defects, threatens to spread to the United States. As of mid-May 2016, Mexico had reported 272 cases of Zika. The problem has grown so large that President Obama has requested $1.9 billion to halt the spread of Zika.

    The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is now ramping up collection of data that tracks Zika spread. But big gaps exist in linking different kinds of data, and that makes it tough for experts to predict where it will go next and what to do to prevent it.

    The Zika hackers formed groups and worked on creating demo projects based off of sample CDC and other data. One project developed a working tensor flow model that used machine learning to search through aerial images for pools of stagnant water, potential breeding ground for mosquitos that carry Zika.

    Another team developed a mobile app with nodes that would allow researchers to report developing cases of mosquito-borne illness. One demonstrated a way to map microcephaly occurrences in Brazil using an R maps interface to Leaflet. Another made headway into readying CDC data from Puerto Rico to layer with CIA Fact Book data for richer understanding of how Zika has progressed there.

    “The Zika Hackathon is about bringing awareness and building a platform that is repeatable, not just for the Zika virus data analysis,” says Zika Hackathon organizer Eddie Garcia, chief security architect at Cloudera. “Someone can take what we did here today and apply it to some other unknown outbreak. It’s really about getting people together, excited, bringing awareness, and building out a platform that is repeatable.”

    The Zika Hackathon brought together an emerging kind of scientist, a data scientist. Data scientists specialize both in translating information from many different sources into data that can be used together and in using new technologies by which knowledge can be extracted from today’s massive data collections.

    “There are three classes of work that get put under the umbrella of data science,” says data scientist Juliet Hougland of Cloudera. “1) Data scrubbing – getting data in the right format, in the right place — is a huge part of any job where you’re going to do something useful with that data. 2) Investigative analytics looks at historic data and doing interesting, useful analysis on it. 3) Operational analytics supports recommendation engines, fraud detection systems, and more.”

    At the hackathon, software developer David Walling of TACC’s Data Intensive Computing group spoke of his current research extracting rich data from ‘grey literature,’ unofficial records that can be images inside PDF files, a bane of data scientists. His work uses natural language processing techniques to map occurrences in the grey literature of a given species such as fish at specific locations and dates. Progress on this problem would translate well to getting more information for researchers about Zika.

    “If you can see where all the water sources are and then overlay how the reports of outbreaks are happening, then you can create a model for how it’s spreading and how it will spread in the future based on where the water sources are. Then maybe you can come up with some plans to offset that so the spreading doesn’t happen as fast or doesn’t happen at all,” Kahn says.

    The charitable arm of the data analytics company, Cloudera Cares, along with TACC and other local partners, are planning to hold quarterly hackathons as part of a larger planned project to use big data to battle Zika and other threats. The project will help prevent outbreaks from happening, and make it easier for researchers to get answers.

    To learn more about the Zika outbreak check these resources from the CDC, the World Health Organization, and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Science Node is an international weekly online publication that covers distributed computing and the research it enables.

    “We report on all aspects of distributed computing technology, such as grids and clouds. We also regularly feature articles on distributed computing-enabled research in a large variety of disciplines, including physics, biology, sociology, earth sciences, archaeology, medicine, disaster management, crime, and art. (Note that we do not cover stories that are purely about commercial technology.)

    In its current incarnation, Science Node is also an online destination where you can host a profile and blog, and find and disseminate announcements and information about events, deadlines, and jobs. In the near future it will also be a place where you can network with colleagues.

    You can read Science Node via our homepage, RSS, or email. For the complete iSGTW experience, sign up for an account or log in with OpenID and manage your email subscription from your account preferences. If you do not wish to access the website’s features, you can just subscribe to the weekly email.”

     
  • richardmitnick 10:26 am on June 22, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    Rutgers Professor Featured on Smithsonian Website 

    Rutgers University
    Rutgers University

    Rutgers professor, David S. Goodsell, was featured on the Smithsonian website for his watercolor and ink depictions of what it might look like when the Zika virus infects a cell.

    Source: Rutgers Professor Featured on Smithsonian Website

    2
    Depiction of Zika virus by Rutgers’ David S Goodsell

    Smithsonian.com

    June 21, 2016
    Marissa Fessenden

    Zika virus exploded onto the global stage last year when health officials began to suspect it could cause birth defects in babies. Like the Ebola epidemic in 2014, fear burgeoned quickly. The destruction wrought by the disease is profoundly unsettling, in part because the particles of contagion are invisible.

    To make something visible is to get a better handle on it, to make it more manageable. In March of this year, Michael Rossmann of Purdue University in Indiana and his colleagues mapped what Meghan Rosen for Science News described as the “bumpy, golf ball-shaped structure” of Zika. With the structure deduced, scientists now have a starting point to learn how the virus works and whether it can be stopped. Researchers will look for points in the structure that might offer up a target for a drug.

    In that vein, but with a more artistic twist, another scientist has painted an image of what it might look like when Zika infects a cell.

    David S. Goodsell’s watercolor depicts an area about 110 nanometers wide, reports Maggie Zackowitz for NPR. That’s almost 1,000 times smaller than the width of a typical human hair. In the painting, a pink sphere representing the virus has been sliced in half to reveal tangles of the viral genetic material. Fleshy protuberances on the virus’s surface grasp green towers embedded in a light green curve that seems to enclose a jumble of blue. The surface proteins of the virus are binding to receptors on the surface of a cell it will soon infect.

    Deadly viruses never looked so beautiful as they do under Goodsell’s brush. The molecular biologist with joint appointments at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California and Rutgers State University in New Jersey paints brightly colored and squishy-looking shapes resembling jellybeans, footballs and spaghetti that crowd and jumble together. As abstract images they are delightful, but Goodsell’s work is also firmly footed in science.

    The scientist-artist makes some educated guesses for his paintings. “Some of the objects and interactions are very well studied and others are not,” he explains. “The science is still a growing field.” But his expertise lets him wield the paintbrush with confidence.

    Visualizing the microscopic biological world first intrigued Goodsell in graduate school, when he relied on techniques such as x-ray crystallography to deduce the folds, twists and contortions of proteins and nucleic acids.

    Structure is key to giving molecules in cells their function, whether they are enzymes that cleave other molecules, RNA strands that instruct protein building or the fibers that support and shape tissues. Pockets in proteins offer up spots where other molecules can bind and catalyze or prevent reactions. When Rosalind Franklin succeeded in capturing the first picture of DNA, using x-ray crystallography, James Watson and Francis Crick were quickly able to deduce how unzipping the double helix could provide a template for replication of genetic material.

    “If you are standing outside an automobile and the hood is closed so you can’t see the engine, you have no idea how the machine works,” says Stephen K. Burley, a researcher who studies proteomics at Rutgers University. Cells themselves are tiny, complex machines, and understanding how they work or what parts and processes go awry under the influence of disease, requires a look under the hood.

    That’s why Goodsell needed to understand how molecules were shaped as well as how they fit together inside the cell.

    Computer graphics were just breaking into the research lab scene in the mid-1980s and giving scientists like Goodsell, now 55, an unprecedented look at the molecules they studied. But even the best programs struggled to show all the intricacies of a single molecule. “Objects the size of a protein were a real challenge,” he says. Visualizing multiple proteins and their place relative to cellular structures was beyond the hardware and software capabilities at the time.

    “I said to myself: What would it look like if we could blow up a portion of the cell and see the molecules?” Goodsell says. Without the high-powered computer graphic capabilities of today, he turned, quite literally, to the drawing board to piece together all the bits of knowledge about structure he could and create that image of the crowded interior of a cell. His goal was “to get back to looking at the big picture of science,” he says.

    The images he creates are meant to be scientific illustrations, to inspire researchers and the general public to think about the structures that underlay chemical reactions and cells’ functions.

    Typically, Goodsell spends a few hours digging through scientific literature to learn everything researchers know about the topic he wants to illustrate. Then, he draws up a big pencil sketch based on what he has learned. Carbon paper helps him transfer that sketch to watercolor paper. The molecules inside cells are often smaller than the wavelength of light, so a true view of a molecular landscape would be colorless, but Goodsell adds color and shading to help people interpret his paintings. The result is detailed views of molecular machinery at work.

    In an Ebola painting, for example, the virus looks like a huge worm rearing its head. The virus has stolen the components of a cell membrane from an infected cell, depicted in light purple, Goodsell writes for the online resource, the RCSB’s Protein Data Bank (PDB). Turquoise broccoli-heads stuccoing the outside of that membrane are glycoproteins, which can latch on to the surface of a host cell and pull the viral particle close enough that its genetic material (in yellow, protected by the green nucleoprotein) can be shoved inside. Those glycoproteins have been a major target for drugs to combat the virus.

    The painting won this year’s Wellcome Image Awards, a competition that draws experts in scientific illustration and visualization from the around the world.

    The Ebola painting and many other images by Goodsell live at the PDB, under the supervision of Burley, the repository’s director. The PDB holds more than 119,000 structures of proteins, RNA, DNA and other molecules. A few statistics demonstrate how important structure is for biologists: There are about 1.5 million downloads of detailed 3D structural information from the data bank every day. In the last four years, people from 191 of the 194 recognized independent states in the world have accessed the resource.

    In July, Goodsell will post his 200th “Molecule of the Month,” a series featuring his depictions of proteins and other molecules along with a written explanation of the structures’ function and importance.

    Goodsell’s work helps to educate high school students and others about the structures behind disease-causing particles and health conditions in the news. For the so-called PDB-101 series, his molecules help students better understand the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetes or lead poisoning. He has an upcoming large-scale painting that will cover the life cycle of the HIV virus.

    Even the experts can learn from Goodsell’s illustrations. Early on, he recalls going around the institute to ask his colleagues how crowded they thought a cell was. The estimates he got back were very dilute. Only when he pulled back to look at the big picture did it become obvious that cells are very dense and complex.

    “I’m not aware of many other people operating the way [Goodsell] does,” says Burley. Goodsell’s work unites artistic interpretation and scientific knowledge. “He is able to tell more of the story of the 3D structure by hand than you can with computer graphics. That, I think, is the real beauty of his work.”

    Goodsell’s work can be seen at the RCSB Protein Data Bank’s “Molecule of the Month” series and on his website. His website also provides more detail about some of the images in this article.

    See the full article here .

    The Rutgers WordPress entry is here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.
    Rutgersensis

     
  • richardmitnick 9:07 am on June 21, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From Science Alert: “The FDA just approved the first human trials of a Zika vaccine” 

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    21 JUN 2016
    PETER DOCKRILL

    1
    Luiscar74/Shutterstock.com

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the first human tests of an experimental Zika virus vaccine, the makers of the drug announced on Monday.

    Zika
    Depiction of Zika

    Called GLS–5700, the medication will be used in a clinical trial involving 40 healthy people, and represents the first major step towards ultimately immunising people against Zika – which was declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in February.

    “We are proud to have attained the approval to initiate the first Zika vaccine study in human volunteers,” said J. Joseph Kim, president and CEO of US-based Inovio Pharmaceuticals, which is developing the vaccine with South Korean partner, GeneOne Life Science. “We plan to dose our first subjects in the next weeks and expect to report phase 1 interim results later this year.”

    GLS–5700 works by stimulating the body’s immune system to defend itself against Zika. Synthetic fragments of viral DNA are injected into the skin, prompting the immune system’s T cells to generate antibodies to fight the infection.

    The news of the vaccine trial comes two months after the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the causative link between the infection and birth defects such as microcephaly, and represents the culmination of an intense nine months of vaccine development, during which global fears over Zika’s spread have only grown.

    “As of May 2016, 58 countries and territories reported continuing mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus,” said Kim. “[T]he incidences of viral infection and medical conditions caused by the virus are expanding, not contracting.”

    It’s worth pointing out that just because GLS–5700 has reached human testing, there’s no guarantee it will turn out to safely immunise people against Zika. The vaccine has been tested successfully in small and large animal models, but clinical trials in humans could take several years to demonstrate that the treatment is safe, and there’s no guarantee it will ultimately prove effective or make it through subsequent testing phases.

    But fortunately, GLS–5700 isn’t the only Zika vaccine candidate currently in development. An Indian company called Bharat Biotech is researching Zika vaccine development in animals, while French pharmaceutical company Sanofi SA is expected to begin human trials with one of its drugs later this year.

    In the US, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) says it’s expecting to shortly receive FDA approval to trial a separate vaccine candidate it developed itself, which would mean we could have two vaccines in human testing in a matter of weeks.

    Earlier in the month, scientists from the University of Texas Medical Centre published findings on how a protein called interferon-induced protein 3 could help reduce Zika’s ability to infect brain cells – although clinical trials may be a while away for that particular treatment.

    Even though there’s a huge amount of hurdles and potential roadblocks facing all of these vaccine trials, there’s reason to have hope.

    “Always, the first vaccine to go into clinical trial is important,” epidemiologist Anna Durbin from Johns Hopkins University, who is involved with the NIAID vaccine effort, told Jessica Glenza at The Guardian.

    “It means the FDA has reviewed it, and I’m sure is formulating questions and getting ready for additional candidates to submit their investigational drug applications,” she added. “It shows progress and momentum, and we just need to keep momentum going.”

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 6:15 am on June 18, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , ZIKA   

    From Science Alert: “There are now 234 pregnant women in the US with confirmed Zika virus” 

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    Zika
    Depiction of Zika

    17 JUN 2016
    JOSH HRALA

    Officials from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have confirmed that there are now 234 pregnant women in the continental US carrying the Zika virus – an infection spread by mosquito bites that can cause a devastating birth defect called microcephaly.

    Out of these women, there have been six “abnormalities” – three babies born with birth defects so far, and another three who died before birth – though officials did not say how many of the women have given birth in total, and how many are still pregnant.

    As Sabrina Tavernise from The New York Times points out, the report poses more questions than it gives answers. For example, without knowing the number of babies born, how do we make sense of the six abnormalities? Do these represent a large or small amount of the women infected?

    In response to those questions, one of CDC’s leaders on pregnancy and birth defects, Denise Jamieson, said that the newly released numbers are only the first in a series of updates that will provide more information.

    “We’re sort of in a hard place,” Jamieson told The New York Times. “We can’t provide a lot of information about where these women are in their pregnancy. We don’t want to inadvertently disclose information about difficult decisions these women are making about their pregnancies.”

    The CDC also hasn’t disclosed where any of these women were infected with the virus, or how they came in contact with it.

    So far, we do know that one of the babies was born was microcephaly – a birth defect that causes a baby’s brain to not fully develop during pregnancy, resulting them being born with an abnormally small head and cognitive complications.

    Jamieson said that the risk of an infected woman giving birth to a child with birth defects is around one to 15 percent. “Microcephalic babies are beginning to be born [in the US]” Jamieson said. “The disease seems to be very similar no matter where it is.”

    Though Zika virus can cause major health problems for pregnant women and their unborn children, the infection is usually pretty harmless for most healthy individuals. In fact, roughly 80 percent of those infected never know it. Usually, even if symptoms, such as fever and rash, appear, they only last a few weeks and rarely end in hospital visits.

    The virus was first discovered back in 1947 in monkeys, getting its name from the Zika Forest in Uganda where it was found. The first reported cases of Zika started to emerge in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.

    “Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented, although other cases were likely to have occurred and were not reported,” reports the CDC. “Because the symptoms of Zika are similar to those of many other diseases, many cases may not have been recognised.”

    The virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites, though men can sexually transmit the disease if they were recently infected before a sexual act. The CDC says that the best way to prevent contracting the illness is to avoid getting bitten in the first place, which is obviously easier said than done. To help with this, the CDC has a full list of prevention methods on their website.

    “What we’re seeing is a very consistent pattern underscoring the fact that Zika causes microcephaly and other severe brain abnormalities,” Jamieson told Lena H. Sun from The Washington Post. “This highlights the importance of preventing unintended pregnancies, avoiding mosquito bites and for pregnant women to avoid traveling to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.”

    Despite all of this bad news, scientists are working hard to combat the disease, with several vaccine candidates in development. Back in May, an international team of researchers created a tool that can diagnose Zika in just a 3 hours. So far, though, an effective treatment for pregnant women has remained out of sight.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP FIND A CURE FOR THE ZIKA VIRUS.

    There is a new project at World Community Grid [WCG] called OpenZika.
    Zika
    Image of the Zika virus

    Rutgers Open Zika

    WCG runs on your home computer or tablet on software from Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing [BOINC]. Many other scientific projects run on BOINC software.Visit WCG or BOINC, download and install the software, then at WCG attach to the OpenZika project. You will be joining tens of thousands of other “crunchers” processing computational data and saving the scientists literally thousands of hours of work at no real cost to you.

    WCGLarge
    WCG Logo New

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC WallPaper

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 4:47 pm on June 7, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ZIKA   

    From UCSD: “Building a defense against Zika” 

    UC San Diego bloc

    UC San Diego

    June 3, 2016
    Scott LaFee

    1
    Credit: UC San Diego

    On April 18, 1947, a monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest fell ill with a fever of 103 degrees Fahrenheit, 4 degrees higher than normal. “Rhesus No. 766” was part of a yellow fever virus study. Scientists took a blood sample. They conducted tests. The rhesus monkey had been stricken by something unknown. In time, the revealed virus would be named after the place where it was first discovered.

    But for decades to follow, the Zika virus would garner only sporadic and limited scientific attention. It was determined that the virus could infect humans, but symptoms—if there were any—appeared to be mild (fever, joint pain, rash) and passing. Zika wasn’t deemed a significant human health threat until a major outbreak occurred in the Yap Islands north of Australia in 2007, followed by another in French Polynesia in 2013. For the first time, the Zika virus was associated with serious symptoms, including life-threatening neurological disorders.

    2
    Zika virus. Credit: UC San Diego

    Last year, the virus spread to Brazil, which will host the Olympic Games in August. Thousands were infected, including pregnant women who subsequently gave birth to babies with microcephaly—a birth defect characterized by an undersized head and brain.

    Alarms sounded around the world. Reports of Zika cases began appearing elsewhere, including the United States and San Diego County. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Most cases outside endemic regions in Africa, Asia and South America are imported, borne by unsuspecting infected travelers, though Zika can also be sexually transmitted. No mosquito-transmitted Zika virus cases have been reported in the continental United States, but there have been cases reported in returning travelers.

    Seventy years after its discovery, Zika remains relatively—and alarmingly—unknown.

    But that’s changing fast—and some of the progress is being driven by researchers at UC San Diego Health.

    “UC San Diego is a hotbed of science that can be applied in a very productive way,” said Dr. Robert Schooley, professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases. “There are people here doing immunology who can characterize the immune response during an acute infection; in neurosciences who can characterize the impact of the virus on neural cells; who have been working on vaccines for HIV and are now turning their attention to this virus.”

    Indeed, last month in a pair of scholarly journals and in an international announcement, UC San Diego researchers working on Zika have grabbed headlines and public notice:

    3
    From left to right: Jair Siqueira-Neto, Alysson Muotri and Tariq Rana Credit: UC San Diego

    How Zika damages developing brain cells

    On May 6, writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell, a team led by senior study author Tariq Rana, professor of pediatrics in the School of Medicine, published the first explanation of how the Zika virus can damage developing brain cells. Using a 3-D, stem cell-based model of a first-trimester human brain, the team discovered that Zika activates TLR3, a molecule human cells normally use to defend against invading viruses. Rana and colleagues also showed that by inhibiting this mechanism damage by the virus was reduced, hinting of a possible therapeutic approach to mitigating the effects of prenatal Zika virus infections.

    “We all have an innate immune system that evolved specifically to fight off viruses, but here the virus turns that very same defense mechanism against us,” said Rana. “By activating TLR3, the Zika virus blocks genes that tell stem cells to develop into the various parts of the brain. The good news is that we have TLR3 inhibitors that can stop this from happening.”
    First experimental proof of Zika birth defects

    On May 11 in the journal Nature, Alysson Muotri, associate professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine departments of Pediatrics and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, with colleagues in Brazil, described the first “direct experimental proof” that the Brazilian strain of Zika virus can actually cause severe birth defects—previously only assumed based upon clinical observations and anecdotal evidence.

    Muotri and colleagues made their case conducting studies in mouse models, using human stem cells and in cerebral organoids – miniature, 3-D brains grown in vitro. Most telling: Infected pregnant mice gave birth to pups displaying not just undersized heads and brains, but overall stunted growth.

    “The data in mice also suggest that microcephaly is only the tip of the iceberg,” said Muotri. “The animals have extensive intra-uterine growth arrest, which essentially means poor fetal development in the womb. Media covering the Zika story have focused upon affected babies with small heads because such images are profoundly dramatic, but the true health impact is likely to be more widespread and devastating.”
    OpenZika

    And on May 19, the OpenZika project debuted, a collaboration by IBM’s World Community Grid and scientists in Brazil, UC San Diego and Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. The project allows anyone with a personal computer or Android device to download and run an app that automatically performs virtual experiments for participating scientists whenever the machines are idle, such as looking for compounds that could form the basis for new antiviral drugs. Currently, there is no vaccine or medicine to treat Zika virus.

    The project will screen more than 20 million compounds from existing databases against models of Zika protein structures with dramatically more speed than in a traditional lab. UC San Diego will play a key role when screening efforts identify promising candidates, said Jair Siqueira-Neto, assistant professor in the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, where leading-edge robotic equipment will test the candidates against the actual virus.

    “The best part of this project is that it’s truly ‘open’—we will share all of the data we gather with the research community and general public, further accelerating Zika virus research. What’s more, researchers not already participating in OpenZika are invited to submit proposals to receive free computing power to support additional Zika projects.”

    Rutgers Open Zika

    Zika

    Odds are some of those additional Zika projects will originate at UC San Diego.

    See the full article here .
    See the original blog post with WCG and Rutgers articles here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC San Diego Campus

    The University of California, San Diego (also referred to as UC San Diego or UCSD), is a public research university located in the La Jolla area of San Diego, California, in the United States.[12] The university occupies 2,141 acres (866 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres (466 ha).[13] Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and 6,300 graduate students. UC San Diego is one of America’s Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UC San Diego was ranked 8th among public universities and 37th among all universities in the United States, and rated the 18th Top World University by U.S. News & World Report ‘s 2015 rankings.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: