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  • richardmitnick 10:40 am on May 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Legacy Field. Image contains 265000 galaxies that stretch billions of years back in time., , , University of Connecticut, Yale University   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope : “Hubble Astronomers Assemble Wide View of the Evolving Universe” 

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope


    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    May 2, 2019
    Donna Weaver
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4493
    dweaver@stsci.edu

    Ray Villard
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4514
    villard@stsci.edu

    Garth Illingworth
    University of California, Santa Cruz; UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, California
    831-459-2843
    gdi@ucolick.org

    Bethany Downer
    ESA/Hubble, Public Information Officer
    Garching, Germany
    Email: bethany.downer@partner.eso.org

    Team led by UC Santa Cruz astronomer Garth Illingworth used 16 years of Hubble Space Telescope observations to create a new portrait of the distant universe.

    1
    Hubble Legacy Field. Image contains 265,000 galaxies that stretch billions of years back in time. Image credit: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth and D. Magee (University of California, Santa Cruz), K. Whitaker (University of Conneticut), R. Bouwens (Leiden University), P. Oesch (University of Geneva), and the Hubble Legacy Field Team.

    Astronomers have put together the largest and most comprehensive “history book” of galaxies into one single image, using 16 years’ worth of observations from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

    The deep-sky mosaic, created from nearly 7,500 individual exposures, provides a wide portrait of the distant universe, containing 265,000 galaxies that stretch back through 13.3 billion years of time to just 500 million years after the big bang. The faintest and farthest galaxies are just one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see. The universe’s evolutionary history is also chronicled in this one sweeping view. The portrait shows how galaxies change over time, building themselves up to become the giant galaxies seen in the nearby universe.

    This ambitious endeavor, called the Hubble Legacy Field, also combines observations taken by several Hubble deep-field surveys, including the eXtreme Deep Field (XDF), the deepest view of the universe. The wavelength range stretches from ultraviolet to near-infrared light, capturing the key features of galaxy assembly over time.

    “Now that we have gone wider than in previous surveys, we are harvesting many more distant galaxies in the largest such dataset ever produced by Hubble,” said Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, leader of the team that assembled the image.

    UCSC Lick Observatory, Mt Hamilton, in San Jose, California, Altitude 1,283 m (4,209 ft)

    “This one image contains the full history of the growth of galaxies in the universe, from their time as ‘infants’ to when they grew into fully-fledged ‘adults.’

    2
    This graphic shows close-up images of 15 galaxies from the 265,000 galaxies in the Hubble Legacy Field. The galaxies are scattered across time, from 550 million years ago to 13 billion years ago. The top panel of snapshots shows mature “adult” galaxies; the middle panel shows galaxies in their “teenage” years when they are growing and changing dramatically; and the bottom panel shows small, youthful galaxies. [Credits: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth and D. Magee (University of California, Santa Cruz), K. Whitaker (University of Connecticut), R. Bouwens (Leiden University), P. Oesch (University of Geneva), and the Hubble Legacy Field team] (This image was obtained from https://news.ucsc.edu/2019/05/hubble-legacy-field.html)

    No image will surpass this one until future space telescopes are launched. “We’ve put together this mosaic as a tool to be used by us and by other astronomers,” Illingworth added. “The expectation is that this survey will lead to an even more coherent, in-depth, and greater understanding of the universe’s evolution in the coming years.”

    The image yields a huge catalog of distant galaxies. “Such exquisite high-resolution measurements of the numerous galaxies in this catalog enable a wide swath of extragalactic study,” said catalog lead researcher Katherine Whitaker of the University of Connecticut, in Storrs. “Often, these kinds of surveys have yielded unanticipated discoveries which have had the greatest impact on our understanding of galaxy evolution.”

    Galaxies are the “markers of space,” as astronomer Edwin Hubble once described them a century ago. Galaxies allow astronomers to trace the expansion of the universe, offer clues to the underlying physics of the cosmos, show when the chemical elements originated, and enable the conditions that eventually led to the appearance of our solar system and life.

    Edwin Hubble looking through a 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson in Southern California, 1929 discovers the Universe is Expanding

    This wider view contains about 30 times as many galaxies as in the previous deep fields. The new portrait, a mosaic of multiple snapshots, covers almost the width of the full Moon. The XDF, which penetrated deeper into space than this wider view, lies in this region, but it covers less than one-tenth of the full Moon’s diameter. The Legacy Field also uncovers a zoo of unusual objects. Many of them are the remnants of galactic “train wrecks,” a time in the early universe when small, young galaxies collided and merged with other galaxies.

    Assembling all of the observations was an immense task. The image comprises the collective work of 31 Hubble programs by different teams of astronomers. Hubble has spent more time on this tiny area than on any other region of the sky, totaling more than 250 days, representing nearly three-quarters of a year.

    “Our goal was to assemble all 16 years of exposures into a legacy image,” explained Dan Magee, of the University of California, Santa Cruz, the team’s data processing lead. “Previously, most of these exposures had not been put together in a consistent way that can be used by any researcher. Astronomers can select the data in the Legacy Field they want and work with it immediately, as opposed to having to perform a huge amount of data reduction before conducting scientific analysis.”

    The image, along with the individual exposures that make up the new view, is available to the worldwide astronomical community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). MAST, an online database of astronomical data from Hubble and other NASA missions, is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.

    The Hubble Space Telescope has come a long way in taking ever deeper “core samples” of the distant universe. After Hubble’s launch in 1990, astronomers debated if it was worth spending a chunk of the telescope’s time to go on a “fishing expedition” to take a very long exposure of a small, seemingly blank piece of sky. The resulting Hubble Deep Field image in 1995 captured several thousand unseen galaxies in one pointing. The bold effort was a landmark demonstration and a defining proof-of-concept that set the stage for future deep field images. In 2002, Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys went even deeper to uncover 10,000 galaxies in a single snapshot.

    NASA Hubble Advanced Camera forSurveys

    Astronomers used exposures taken by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), installed in 2009, to assemble the eXtreme Deep Field snapshot in 2012.

    NASA/ESA Hubble WFC3

    Unlike previous Hubble cameras, the telescope’s WFC3 covers a broader wavelength range, from ultraviolet to near-infrared.

    This new image mosaic is the first in a series of Hubble Legacy Field images. The team is working on a second set of images, totaling more than 5,200 Hubble exposures, in another area of the sky. In the future, astronomers hope to broaden the multiwavelength range in the legacy images to include longer-wavelength infrared data and high-energy X-ray observations from two other NASA Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    NASA/Chandra X-ray Telescope

    The vast number of galaxies in the Legacy Field image are also prime targets for future telescopes. “This will really set the stage for NASA’s planned Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST),” Illingworth said.

    NASA/WFIRST

    “The Legacy Field is a pathfinder for WFIRST, which will capture an image that is 100 times larger than a typical Hubble photo. In just three weeks’ worth of observations by WFIRST, astronomers will be able to assemble a field that is much deeper and more than twice as large as the Hubble Legacy Field.”

    In addition, NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope will allow astronomers to push much deeper into the legacy field to reveal how the infant galaxies actually grew.

    NASA/ESA/CSA Webb Telescope annotated

    Webb’s infrared coverage will go beyond the limits of Hubble and Spitzer to help astronomers identify the first galaxies in the universe.

    For more information about the Hubble Legacy Field and Hubble telescope, visit http://www.nasa.gov/hubble.

    See the full HubbleSite article here .
    See the full ESA/Hubble article here .
    See the full UCSC article here .

    Related Links
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    NASA’s Hubble Portal
    Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST)
    Hubble Legacy Field (HLF) in MAST
    University of Connecticut’s Release
    Yale University’s Release


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 6:55 am on April 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New experiment dives into quantum physics in a liquid", , Kastler Brossel Laboratory in France, , , Superfluid liquid helium, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “New experiment dives into quantum physics in a liquid” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    April 18, 2019
    Jim Shelton

    1
    The space between two optical fibers (yellow) is filled wth liquid helium (blue). Laser light (red) is trapped in this space, and interacts with sound waves in the liquid (blue ripples). (Image credit: Harris Lab)

    For the first time, Yale physicists have directly observed quantum behavior in the vibrations of a liquid body.

    A great deal of ongoing research is currently devoted to discovering and exploiting quantum effects in the motion of macroscopic objects made of solids and gases. This new experiment opens a potentially rich area of further study into the way quantum principles work on liquid bodies.

    The findings come from the Yale lab of physics and applied physics professor Jack Harris, along with colleagues at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in France. A study about the research appears in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    “We filled a specially designed cavity with superfluid liquid helium,” Harris explained. “Then we use laser light to monitor an individual sound wave in the liquid helium. The volume of helium in which this sound wave lives is fairly large for a macroscopic object — equal to a cube whose sides are one-thousandth of an inch.”

    Harris and his team discovered they could detect the sound wave’s quantum properties: its zero-point motion, which is the quantum motion that exists even when the temperature is lowered to absolute zero; and its quantum “back-action,” which is the effect of a detector on the measurement itself.

    The co-first authors of the study are Yale postdoctoral fellows Alexey Shkarin and Anya Kashkanova. Additional authors are Charles Brown of Yale and Jakob Reichel, Sébastien Garcia, and Konstantin Ott of the Kastler Brossel Laboratory.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:10 pm on March 31, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New studies confirm existence of galaxies with almost no dark matter", , , , , , NGC1052-DF4, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “New studies confirm existence of galaxies with almost no dark matter” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    March 29, 2019
    Jim Shelton

    1
    A photo of the DF2 galaxy (Image credit: NASA, ESA, and P. van Dokkum [Yale University])

    A Yale-led team of researchers is doubling down on its earlier finding of a galaxy with almost no dark matter.

    In 2018, the researchers published their original study about galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 — DF2 for short — the first known galaxy to contain little or no dark matter. The finding was highly significant because it showed that dark matter is not always associated with traditional matter on a galactic scale. It also ruled out several theories that said dark matter is not a substance but a manifestation of the laws of gravity on a cosmic scale.

    Invisible dark matter typically dominates the makeup of galaxies. Finding an object without dark matter was unprecedented and led to a good deal of debate within the scientific community.

    “If there’s one object, you always have a little voice in the back of your mind saying, ‘but what if you’re wrong?’” said team leader Pieter van Dokkum, the Sol Goldman Family Professor of Astronomy at Yale. “Even though we did all the checks we could think of, we were worried that nature had thrown us for a loop and had conspired to make something look really special whereas it was really something more mundane.”

    Now, a pair of new studies appearing in The Astrophysical Journal Letters supports the team’s initial finding.

    “The fact that we’re seeing something that’s just completely new is what’s so fascinating,” said Yale graduate student Shany Danieli, who first spotted the galaxy about two years ago. “No one knew that such galaxies existed, and the best thing in the world for an astronomy student is to discover an object, whether it’s a planet, a star, or a galaxy, that no one knew about or even thought about.”

    Danieli is the lead author of one of the new studies, Still Missing Dark Matter: KCWI High-resolution Stellar Kinematics of NGC1052-DF2 . It confirms the team’s initial observations of DF2, using more precise measurements from the W.M. Keck Observatory’s Keck Cosmic Web Imager. The researchers found that the stars inside the galaxy are moving at a speed consistent with the mass of the galaxy’s normal matter. If there were dark matter in DF2, the stars would be moving much faster.

    Van Dokkum is lead author of the other new study, A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter in the NGC 1052 Group which details the discovery of a second galaxy devoid of dark matter. That galaxy is named DF4.

    “Discovering a second galaxy with very little to no dark matter is just as exciting as the initial discovery of DF2,” van Dokkum said. “This means the chances of finding more of these galaxies are now higher than we previously thought. Since we have no good ideas for how these galaxies are formed, I hope these discoveries will encourage more scientists to work on this puzzle.”

    Both DF2 and DF4 are part of a relatively new class of galaxies called ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). They are as large as the Milky Way but have between 100 to 1,000 times fewer stars. This makes them appear fluffy and translucent — and difficult to observe.

    Ironically, the lack of dark matter in these UDGs strengthens the case for dark matter, the researchers say. It proves that dark matter is a substance that is not coupled with normal matter, since they can be found separately.

    In addition to van Dokkum and Danieli, team members include Roberto Abraham of the University of Toronto, Aaron Romanowsky of San Jose State University, and Charlie Conroy of Harvard.

    Danieli is leading a wide area survey with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array — a telescope designed by van Dokkum — to look for more examples in a systematic way, then observe candidates again using the Keck telescopes.


    U Toronto Dunlap Dragonfly telescope Array at its home at high-altitude observing location New Mexico Skies hosting facility at 7300′ altitude

    Keck Observatory, operated by Caltech and the University of California, Maunakea Hawaii USA, 4,207 m (13,802 ft)

    Keck Cosmic Web Imager on Keck 2 schematic


    Keck Cosmic Web Imager on Keck 2

    “We hope to next find out how common these galaxies are and whether they exist in other areas of the universe,” Danieli said. “We want to find more evidence that will help us understand how the properties of these galaxies work with our current theories. Our hope is that this will take us one step further in understanding one of the biggest mysteries in our universe — the nature of dark matter.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
    • mpc755 11:45 am on April 1, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Dark matter is a supersolid that fills ’empty’ space, strongly interacts with ordinary matter and is displaced by ordinary matter. What is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity.

      The supersolid dark matter displaced by a galaxy pushes back, causing the stars in the outer arms of the galaxy to orbit the galactic center at the rate in which they do.

      Displaced supersolid dark matter is curved spacetime.

      The reason for the mistaken notion the galaxy is missing dark matter is that the galaxy is so diffuse that it doesn’t displace the supersolid dark matter outward and away from it to the degree that the dark matter is able to push back and cause the stars far away from the galactic center to speed up.

      It’s not that there is no dark matter connected to and neighboring the visible matter. It’s that the galaxy has not coalesced enough to displace the supersolid dark matter to such an extent that it forms a halo around the galaxy.

      A galaxy’s halo is not a clump of dark matter traveling with the galaxy. A galaxy’s halo is displaced supersolid dark matter.

      Like

  • richardmitnick 12:02 pm on March 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Cubesat Bouchet Low-Earth Alpha/Beta Space Telescope (BLAST), Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Undergraduate team from YUAA chosen by NASA to launch BLAST CubeSat to study cosmic rays” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    1

    March 22, 2019

    A team from the Yale Undergraduate Aerospace Association (YUAA) that is currently in residence at Wright Lab to build a CubeSat research satellite to detect cosmic rays has been chosen by NASA as one of 16 teams across the country whose CubeSats will be flown into space as auxiliary payloads on space missions planned to launch in 2020, 2021 and 2022.

    2
    YUAA team members in the Wright Lab clean room. Photo credit: Yale Wright Laboratory/James Nikkel

    It will be the first ever Yale undergraduate endeavor to launch a spacecraft, forging the path for even more ambitious space-based projects by Yale undergraduates in the future.

    According to the NASA press release, the YUAA project, called Bouchet Low-Earth Alpha/Beta Space Telescope (BLAST), “is a scientific investigation mission to map the distribution of galactic cosmic radiation across the night sky. The satellite will identify and count alpha particles and beta particles in the rays, and measure the radiation energy around Earth. BLAST will contribute to the ongoing search for the origins and nature of these rays, which will provide insight into the origins of the universe.”

    This semester, the YUAA team is transitioning from R&D and preparation work to prototyping and final construction work on the satellite. In January 2019, the team began using one of Wright Lab’s clean rooms to conduct tests on launch-ready components, such as the altitude control systems. The team will also use the facility for final assembly of the satellite. In addition, the Wright Lab community is available to the team for advice and guidance about the project during their residency here.

    The YUAA CubeSat project is an undergraduate-run project, currently in its 4th year. Led in previous years by Betsy Li ’18, Michael van der Linden ’19, and Kathan Roberts ’20, the project is currently led by Keshav Raghavan ’21. The team is receiving extra guidance and assistance from Senior Engineers Milo Brandt and YUAA co-president Andrew Krzywosz. Project Seconds are Claire Laffan ’21 (Alpha/Beta Detector Payload), Michael Linden ’21 (Power and Solar Systems), Annie Polish ’21 (Radio Communications), Wright Lab undergraduate Lukas Baker ’21 (Mechanical Design; Sensing and Control), and Jackson Petty ’21 (Computer Systems and Programming). Senior research scientist and CEID Design Mentor Larry Wilen serves as the faculty mentor for the project as a whole and Wright Lab Associate Director for Instrumentation and Education James Nikkel is providing additional mentorship to the team at Wright Lab.

    According to the YUAA website, “CubeSats are miniature satellites first developed by California Polytechnic State University and Stanford University in 1999. Intended as a standard, inexpensive design that can easily fit alongside larger satellites aboard launch vehicles, the CubeSat model has given student groups, hobbyist organizations, and research teams operating with limited funding or experience unprecedented access to space. CubeSats are built from a modular structure of 10x10x10cm cubes (hence the name), and feature a wide variety of commercially available off-the-shelf components designed to fit the structure from various manufacturers. Since the program’s adoption, hundreds of universities, companies, and research teams have followed the design standard and successfully launched their own CubeSats conducting space exploration, scientific research, and technology development. “

    External link:
    http://yaleaerospace.com/cubesat2/

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:33 pm on March 11, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , How bright can the radiation from a single molecule be? How quickly can a hot body cool off? And what materials should one choose to maximize these effects?, , , The findings could open the way for brighter imaging techniques improved solar-power technologies and the efficient conversion of heat to electricity., This “new global optimum” is expected to help scientists understand the potential for light-matter interaction for any material unlocking the future development of promising practical applications, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Yale physicists light the way for new technology discoveries” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    March 11, 2019
    Jon Atherton

    1

    Enshrined by the laws of Austrian physicists Josef Stefan and Ludwig Boltzmann in the late 19th Century, scientists have long understood the general principles of heat-energy transfer between the sun and planet Earth.

    But at much closer separations, where photons can effectively “tunnel” between two bodies, the maximum rate and size at which two objects – one hot, one cold – can transfer heat has remained unknown.

    From their emerging field of near-field nanophotonics, a group of Yale scientists have taken a new step in advancing the ‘Stefan-Boltzmann law’ by creating a mathematical framework to identify the upper bounds of light interactions and radiative energy transfer.

    Their findings could open the way for brighter imaging techniques, improved solar-power technologies, and the efficient conversion of heat to electricity.

    Writing in the journal Physical Review X, scholars at the Yale Energy Sciences Institute set out to answer fundamental questions: how bright can the radiation from a single molecule be? How quickly can a hot body cool off? And what materials should one choose to maximize these effects?

    To understand spontaneous emissions in the “near field,” where radiating sources are close to structured materials, graduate student Hyungki Shim developed mathematical techniques to strip away the complex dynamics in these large design spaces, revealing instead the key physical principles constraining optical response.

    Alongside summer student Lingling Fan, MIT professor Steven Johnson, and the study’s senior author Owen Miller, an assistant professor in the Department of Applied Physics, the scholars developed the first singular metric to measure light interactions.

    In the race to discover new two dimensional materials to power technology innovations, this “new global optimum” is expected to help scientists understand the potential for light-matter interaction for any material, unlocking the future development of promising practical applications.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:49 am on March 1, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Yale researchers create a ‘universal entangler’ for new quantum tech", Potential uses in quantum computing and cryptography and quantum communications, , , The entangling mechanism is called an exponential-SWAP gate, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Yale researchers create a ‘universal entangler’ for new quantum tech” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    February 27, 2019
    Jim Shelton

    One of the key concepts in quantum physics is entanglement, in which two or more quantum systems become so inextricably linked that their collective state can’t be determined by observing each element individually. Now Yale researchers have developed a “universal entangler” that can link a variety of encoded particles on demand.

    The discovery represents a powerful new mechanism with potential uses in quantum computing, cryptography, and quantum communications. The research is led by the Yale laboratory of Robert Schoelkopf and appears in the journal Nature.

    Quantum calculations are accomplished with delicate bits of data called qubits, which are prone to errors. To implement faithful quantum computation, scientists say, they need “logical” qubits whose errors can be detected and rectified using quantum error correction codes.

    “We’ve shown a new way of creating gates between logically-encoded qubits that can eventually be error-corrected,” said Schoelkopf, the Sterling Professor of Applied Physics and Physics at Yale and director of the Yale Quantum Institute. “It’s a much more sophisticated operation than what has been performed previously.”

    The entangling mechanism is called an exponential-SWAP gate. In the study, researchers demonstrated the new technology by deterministically entangling encoded states in any chosen configurations or codes, each housed in two otherwise isolated, 3D superconducting microwave cavities.

    1
    Yale researchers have created a way to entangle a variety of encoded particles on demand.

    “This universal entangler is critical for robust quantum computation,” said Yvonne Gao, co-first author of the study. “Scientists have invented a wealth of hardware-efficient, quantum error correction codes — each one cleverly designed with unique characteristics that can be exploited for different applications. However, each of them requires wiring up a new set of tailored operations, introducing a significant hardware overhead and reduced versatility.”

    The universal entangler mitigates this limitation by providing a gate between any desired input states. “We can now choose any desired codes or even change them on the fly without having to re-wire the operation,” said co-first author Brian Lester.

    The discovery is just the latest step in Yale’s quantum research work. Yale scientists are at the forefront of efforts to develop the first fully useful quantum computers and have done pioneering work in quantum computing with superconducting circuits.

    Additional authors of the study are Kevin Chou, Luigi Frunzio, Michel Devoret, Liang Jiang, and Steven Girvin. The research was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:18 pm on February 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Engineers Without Borders-Yale, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Students hone engineering, teamwork skills by tackling real-world projects” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    February 12, 2019
    Adam Gaber

    1
    The Engineers Without Borders-Yale team helps local officials in Naitolia, Tanzania survey the top of existing embankment dam. Left to right: Erasto, Tula Ngasala, Ndesa, a Naitolia official, Annabelle Pan, and Patrick Hong.

    Yale University continuously leverages the power of partnerships and global networks to solve problems around the world. The work of the Yale chapter of Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB-Yale) is a perfect example of how such an approach can create and foster a shared future with the global community, according to Dave Sacco ’81, a civil engineer who has served as EWB-Yale’s professional mentor since the club formed more than 15 years ago.

    “EWB participants enjoy a unique experience by applying theoretical constructs they learn in the classroom to actual, real-world practices and hands-on experiences in solving problems,” said Sacco. “Engineering is a place where science encounters physical challenges and people’s needs, and that’s what students discover by participating in an EWB project. They learn firsthand not only the value of close partnership in working with others to tackle a problem but in the process are exposed to the technical, financial, cultural, and social aspects of engineering. It’s a deep, real-world experience.”

    Durga Thakral ’12, a former EWB-Yale member, agrees with Sacco, citing her time working for the organization as the most life-changing experience of her undergraduate education.

    “The camaraderie built among participants with the common goals of putting book-learning principles into practice in the real world, making a sustainable impact, and, above all, doing good for humanity is truly amazing and was an unforgettable experience for me,” said Thakral. “Participation in the program also creates a closely connected community among all past, present, and future EWB-Yale members.”

    A registered undergraduate organization, EWB-Yale is one of about 300 university and professional chapters that comprise Engineers Without Borders USA, a non-profit humanitarian organization established to partner with developing communities worldwide to improve their quality of life. Work by EWB organizations involves the implementation of sustainable engineering projects while involving and training internationally responsible engineers and engineering students.

    2
    Annabelle Pan and Dave Sacco test soil compaction.

    Work conducted by EWB-Yale is funded by private donations, grants from corporate and NGO partners, and in-kind contributions from the communities in which Yale-EWB teams work. The organization originally began in 2003 by a group of undergraduates with the support of Bill Mitch, then an assistant professor of chemical and environmental engineering at Yale. It is comprised of numerous students from a wide variety of academic backgrounds, as well a professional mentor and a Yale faculty adviser.

    Since its establishment, EWB-Yale has engaged in close partnership with local communities, NGOs, university students, and other stakeholder groups to build the infrastructure necessary to create, repair, or expand clean, reliable water supplies in four different communities. It tackled its very first project in 2005-2006 in Honduras. where the group repaired an existing water system for the town of El Rosario. In 2007 the organization started working in Africa, spearheading an award-winning project in northwest Cameroon to create a water distribution system in the village of Kikoo, and later a similar distribution system in the neighboring village of Rohvitangitaa.

    “The intimate trust we’ve built with the community and the communication with local leaders arising from it allows us to execute a truly sustainable and effective project tailored to our partners’ actual needs, rather than just our preconceptions,” said Katrina White ’20, former EWB-Yale co-president and a contributing member of the organization since 2016.

    “The Yale chapter of Engineers Without Borders was one of the first groups I joined when I got to campus, and it was a defining part of my Yale experience,” said Glen Meyerowitz ’14. “Beyond the technical skills I learned through practice and application of theory, the greatest impact it had on my Yale education was learning to work as a team to collaborate and develop solutions to problems that impact real lives. From mentors and other students, I learned the critical importance of partnership and working with others as equals.”

    Another program alumni, Katherine Rostkowski ’07 agrees with White, adding, “EWB-Yale allowed me to see and better understand how what I was learning in the classroom could be applied in the real world for meaningful impact. The valuable experiences I gained as an undergrad contributing to EWB-Yale projects shaped my trajectory to pursuing a career in international development.”

    According to Jordan Peccia, the Thomas E. Golden Jr. professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and faculty adviser for EWB-Yale, the organization always takes an extremely collaborative approach when engaging in projects. Before project work even begins the organization reaches out to host country universities to generate interest and recruit local undergraduate students to its projects, where they work alongside Yale students.

    “The overall EWB experience enables students from different backgrounds and cultures to forge long-lasting friendships and connections,” said Peccia. “Yale students and students from host country universities gain valuable experience on the practical, construction side of engineering. But also learn something so much more valuable and rare: how to interact and work with different cultures on an engineering project. They get a first-hand look at the human and social implications of their engineering designs.”

    Annabelle Pan ’20, recent student co-president of EWB-Yale, said she believes maintaining a close relationship with the local community even after the project is completed to be vitally important.

    3
    Surveying the slope of the watershed. Left to right: Madison (Maddy) Shankle (Yale Undergrad), Annabelle Pan, Ndesa.

    “Often people join EWB expecting to practice applying their engineering background, their structural dynamics or fluid mechanics, to the real world. And that does constitute a portion of what we do. But Yale-EWB is so much more than engineering –– we are focused on thorough and thoughtful communication with the community at every step of the project,” said Pan. “For example, while we have now finished the bulk of construction for the Naitolia project, to ensure our work is sustainable and effectively meets the community’s expectations and needs, we will continue regular correspondence and visits there for the next two years.”

    The Naitolia project Pan references is the most recent project taken on by EWB-Yale that entails restoration of water infrastructure for the community of Naitolia in the Arusha region of Tanzania. In 1982 the citizens of Naitolia built a small embankment dam to capture seasonal rainfall that is stored for livestock use during the dry season. Unfortunately, in recent years, erosion severely damaged the embankment eventually causing a breach that rendered the pond unusable. Beginning in 2017 EWB-Yale has led a project to assess, restore, and strengthen the pond as a water source.

    In taking on the project, EWB-Yale is collaborating with numerous partners including the following:

    Village of Naitolia Water Management Committee
    NGOs: Tanzania Projects Partnership (affiliated with Michigan State University and the University of Dar Es Salaam), and the Water, Environment, Energy, and Sanitation (WEES) consultant firm
    The water department of the Monduli District Government
    Ardhi University

    “When I was working on the EWB proposal on behalf of the Naitolia village, it seemed impossible that our project could be picked up so quickly given how big it was, and so I was very excited when Yale-EWB stepped forward to start working with us,” said Dr. Tula Ngasala, Naitolia community representative. “It’s hard to believe the collaboration has advanced so quickly, and that it’s already nearly complete.”

    4
    Looking at GPS images of the pond watershed. Left to right: Mr. Shafuri (Mondouli District), Tula Ngasala (TPP), Naitolia officials, and Dave Sacco.

    In taking on projects, EWB-Yale makes a minimum five-year commitment. The group started the Naitolia project in 2017 and are committed to working with the community through 2022. To date, the pond is mostly constructed and is expected to fill during the fall and upcoming spring rainy seasons. This year the EWB-Yale team will assess how the pond is operating, continue excavating to expand the storage capacity and begin to assess the community’s well-fed water supply to identify ways to improve its output, reach, and reliability. The chapter will periodically conduct community meetings and household surveys within Naitolia to ensure that construction of the pond is providing appropriate health, educational, and economic benefits. Outreach and education efforts will focus on encouraging increased use of higher quality water supplies for human consumption while the pond provided an expanded water supply for livestock use.

    Yale undergraduate or graduate students interested in joining EWB-Yale (note: being an engineering student is not required) can visit the organization’s website, or contact Dave Sacco at dsacco@tpadesigngroup.com or Jordan Peccia at Jordan.peccia@yale.edu.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:27 pm on September 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Quantum gates, , , , Scientists Have Teleported And Measured a Quantum Gate in Real Time, Teleporting a special quantum operation between two locations, Yale University   

    From Yale University via Science Alert: “For The First Time, Scientists Have Teleported And Measured a Quantum Gate in Real Time” 

    Yale University bloc

    From Yale University

    via

    Science Alert

    6 SEP 2018
    MIKE MCRAE

    1
    (agsandrew/istock)

    Welcome to the future.

    Around 20 years ago, two computer scientists proposed a technique for teleporting a special quantum operation between two locations with the goal of making quantum computers more reliable.

    Now a team of researchers from Yale University have successfully turned their idea into reality, demonstrating a practical approach to making this incredibly delicate form of technology scalable.

    These physicists have developed a practical method for teleporting a quantum operation – or gate – across a distance and measuring its effect. While this feat has been done before, it’s never been done in real time. This paves the way for developing a process that can make quantum computing modular, and therefore more reliable.

    Unlike regular computers, which perform their calculations with states of reality called bits (on or off, 1 or 0), quantum computers operate with qubits – a strange state of reality we can’t wrap our heads around, but which taps into some incredibly useful mathematics.

    In classical computers, bits interact with operations called logic gates. Like the world’s smallest gladiatorial arena, two bits enter, one bit leaves. Gates come in different forms, selecting a winner depending on their particular rule.

    These bits, channelled through gates, form the basis of just about any calculation you can think of, as far as classical computers are concerned.

    But qubits offer an alternative unit to base algorithms on. More than just a 1 or a 0, they also provide a special blend of the two states. It’s like a coin held in a hand before you see whether it’s heads or tails.

    In conjunction with a quantum version of a logic gate, qubits can do what classical bits can’t. There’s just one problem – that indeterminate state of 1 and 0 turns into a definite 1 or 0 when it becomes part of a measured system.

    Worse still, it doesn’t take much to collapse the qubit’s maybe into a definitely, which means a quantum computer can become an expensive paperweight if those delicate components aren’t adequately hidden from their noisy environment.

    Right now, quantum computer engineers are super excited by devices that can wrangle just over 70 qubits – which is impressive, but quantum computers will really only earn their keep as they stock up on hundreds, if not thousands of qubits all hovering on the brink of reality at the same time.

    To make this kind of scaling a reality, scientists need additional tricks. One option would be to make the technology as modular as possible, networking smaller quantum systems into a bigger one in order to offset errors.

    But for that to work, quantum gates – those special operations that deal with the heavy lifting of qubits – also need to be shared.

    Teleporting information, such as a quantum gate, sounds pretty sci-fi. But we’re obviously not talking about Star Trek transport systems here.

    In reality it simply refers to the fact that objects can have their history entangled so that when one is measured, the other immediately collapses into a related state, no matter how far away it is.

    This has technically been demonstrated experimentally already [Physical Review Letters], but, until now, the process hasn’t been reliably performed and measured in real time, which is crucial if it’s to become part of a practical computer.

    “Our work is the first time that this protocol has been demonstrated where the classical communication occurs in real-time, allowing us to implement a ‘deterministic’ operation that performs the desired operation every time,” says lead author Kevin Chou.

    The researchers used qubits in sapphire chips inside a cutting-edge setup to teleport a type of quantum operation called a controlled-NOT gate. Importantly, by applying error-correctable coding, the process was 79 percent reliable.

    “It is a milestone toward quantum information processing using error-correctable qubits,” says principal investigator Robert Schoelkopf.

    It’s a baby step on the road to making quantum modules, but this proof-of-concept shows modules could still be the way to go in growing quantum computers to the scale we need.

    This research was published in Nature.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:17 pm on December 18, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A new approach for detecting planets in the Alpha Centauri system, , , , , , The findings are based on data coming in from a new wave of more advanced spectrographic instruments at observatories located in Chile, The search for habitable planets, There’s almost certain to be small rocky planets around Alpha Centauri A and B, Yale University   

    From Yale: “A new approach for detecting planets in the Alpha Centauri system” 

    Yale University bloc

    Yale University

    December 18, 2017
    Jim Shelton

    1
    (Illustration by Michael S. Helfenbein)

    Yale astronomers have taken a fresh look at the nearby Alpha Centauri star system and found new ways to narrow the search for habitable planets there.

    According to a study led by Professor Debra Fischer and graduate student Lily Zhao, there may be small, Earth-like planets in Alpha Centauri that have been overlooked. Meanwhile, the study ruled out the existence of a number of larger planets in the system that had popped up in previous models.

    “The universe has told us the most common types of planets are small planets, and our study shows these are exactly the ones that are most likely to be orbiting Alpha Centauri A and B,” said Fischer, a leading expert on exoplanets who has devoted decades of research to the search for an Earth analog.

    The new study appears in The Astronomical Journal. Co-authors are John Brewer and Matt Giguere of Yale and Bárbara Rojas-Ayala of Universidad Andrés Bello in Chile.

    The Alpha Centauri system is located 1.3 parsecs (24.9 trillion miles) from Earth, making it our closest neighboring system. It has three stars: Centauri A, Centauri B, and Proxima Centauri. Last year, the discovery of an Earth-like planet orbiting Proxima Centauri set off a new wave of scientific and public interest in the system.

    Centauris Alpha Beta Proxima 27, February 2012. Skatebiker

    “Because Alpha Centauri is so close, it is our first stop outside our solar system,” Fischer said. “There’s almost certain to be small, rocky planets around Alpha Centauri A and B.”

    The findings are based on data coming in from a new wave of more advanced spectrographic instruments at observatories located in Chile: CHIRON, a spectrograph built by Fischer’s team; HARPS, built by a team from Geneva; and UVES, part of the Very Large Telescope Array. “The precision of our instruments hasn’t been good enough, until now,” Fischer said.

    CTIO SMARTS 1.5 m reflector telesscope at La Serena, Chile, Altitude 2,207 m (7,241 ft)

    CHIRON spectrogaph at CTIO SMARTS 1.5-meter telescope at La Serena, Chile, Altitude 2,207 m (7,241 ft)


    ESO 3.6m telescope & HARPS at LaSilla, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT UVES

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    The researchers set up a grid system for the Alpha Centauri system and asked, based on the spectrographic analysis, “If there was a small, rocky planet in the habitable zone, would we have been able to detect it?” Often, the answer came back: “No.”

    Zhao, the study’s first author, determined that for Alpha Centauri A, there might still be orbiting planets that are smaller than 50 Earth masses. For Alpha Centauri B there might be orbiting planets than are smaller than 8 Earth masses; for Proxima Centauri, there might be orbiting planets that are less than one-half of Earth’s mass.

    In addition, the study eliminated the possibility of a number of larger planets. Zhao said this takes away the possibility of Jupiter-sized planets causing asteroids that might hit or change the orbits of smaller, Earth-like planets.

    “This is a very green study in that it recycles existing data to draw new conclusions,” said Zhao. “By using the data in a different way, we are able to rule out large planets that could endanger small, habitable worlds and narrow down the search area for future investigations.”

    This new information will help astronomers prioritize their efforts to detect additional planets in the system, the researchers said. Likewise, the continuing effort by Fischer and others to improve spectrographic technology will help identify and understand the composition of exoplanets.

    The study was funded in part by NASA and the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:39 pm on December 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "With this award Yale can help nurture an army of veteran scientists who will continue to serve their country by seeking answers to the biggest scientific questions of our time" Geha said, , , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Warrior-Scholar Project, , Yale University   

    From Yale: Women in STEM- “‘Million-Dollar Professor’ to build community of warrior-scholar scientists” Marla Geha 

    Yale University bloc

    Yale University

    December 13, 2017
    Jim Shelton
    james.shelton@yale.edu
    203-361-8332

    1
    Marla Geha

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) has named Marla Geha, professor of astronomy and physics, as one of its new HHMI Professors chosen for their extraordinary teaching, inspiration, and mentoring of the next generation of science students.

    Geha will receive $1 million over the next five years to make the science portion of the Warrior-Scholar Project for military veterans on the Yale campus a model for other Warrior-Scholar Project programs around the country. Geha has been active in the Warrior-Scholar Project for five years as an instructor and advisor.

    “Veterans represent a diverse and underserved undergraduate population,” Geha said. “With this award, Yale can help nurture an army of veteran scientists who will continue to serve their country by seeking answers to the biggest scientific questions of our time.”

    The Warrior-Scholar Project offers two-week college preparatory boot camps on university campuses, aimed at giving enlisted veterans the skills and confidence needed to succeed in college. The boot camps are led by enlisted veterans who already have made a successful transition into college, in collaboration with faculty and students from each host institution.

    Yale alumni Christopher Howell ’14, Jesse Reising ’11, and Nick Rugoff ’11 founded the Warrior-Scholar Project in 2012 at Yale.

    Initially the program focused on reading and writing skills. In 2016, Geha designed a science boot camp and successfully oversaw a pilot course at Yale.

    Geha proposes to “franchise” the science curriculum for universities across the United States, create a research fellowship program for Warrior-Scholar science alumni, and strengthen the community of Warrior-Scholar scientists by improving online alumni resources and organizing a biennial alumni conference.

    In her astrophysics research, Geha uses the world’s largest telescopes to study the smallest galaxies in the universe. Her work is focused on the least luminous known galaxies, studying how these galaxies formed and using them to understand the nature of dark matter and the underlying cosmology of the universe.

    Geha also is one of the lead members of the Satellites Around Galactic Analogs (SAGA) Survey, a project that will study satellite galaxies around 100 Milky Way “sibling” galaxies.

    Geha arrived at Yale in 2008 and has been a full professor since 2014. She earned a B.S. in applied and engineering physics from Cornell University and her PhD in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of California-Santa Cruz.

    Geha has received a number of honors, including Popular Science magazine’s Brilliant 10 young scientists in the country (2009), an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship (2010), and a John S. Guggenheim Fellowship (2015).

    The HHMI Professors Program provides grants to faculty members of leading research universities in the United States whose primary research and scholarship is aimed at advancing scientific discovery in the laboratory or the field. The program seeks to develop models for how scientists can engage in undergraduate education.

    “I know from personal experience that exceptional teachers and mentors can have a huge impact on what a student believes is possible to achieve,” said HHMI President Erin O’Shea. “The HHMI professors are exceptional scientists who will inspire new generations of students through their work in the classroom and in the lab.”

    HHMI created the program in 2002. In the last 15 years, 55 scientists have been appointed HHMI professors and have received grants to foster innovations in undergraduate science education.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
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