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  • richardmitnick 10:46 am on February 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A new PROSPECT for national security — via neutrinos", , , Detecting neutrinos near nuclear reactors., High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee., , PROSPECT studies electron antineutrinos being emitted from nuclear decays within the reactor., The goal is to detect a new form of matter — so-called “sterile antineutrinos.”, Yale University   

    Yale University: “A new PROSPECT for national security — via neutrinos” 

    From Yale University

    February 16, 2021 [Just now in social media.]

    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Written by Jim Shelton

    1
    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Credit: Genevieve Martin, Oak Ridge National Laboratory via Flickr/CC BY 2.0).

    Spotting neutrinos is a thrilling scientific endeavor in and of itself, but it may also be a matter of national security.

    Neutrinos — specifically, their corresponding partner, antineutrinos — are elusive, elementary particles that pass through most of the universe without being affected.

    One way that scientists have attempted to understand neutrinos is by devising sophisticated experiments to detect neutrinos near nuclear reactors. This is because neutrinos are known to be produced when radioactive material decays during a nuclear reaction.

    Initially, detectors had to be placed deep underground to reduce interference from cosmic radiation. Later, scientists developed detectors that could operate effectively above ground.

    As part of the neutrino detection and measurement process, physicists are able to trace the signature of certain neutrinos — which may also provide information valuable to nuclear safety, containment, and disposal. Refining this information, scientists say, might tell us about such things as whether a nuclear reactor is producing weapons-grade plutonium, where such production is occurring, and whether stored plutonium is being destroyed in accordance with a treaty.

    Today, as policymakers in the United States discuss the possibility of re-engaging in nuclear treaty talks with Iran and North Korea, one of the tools for monitoring nuclear activity could come from neutrino detector experiments — including one with some important Yale connections.

    Yale is a key partner in the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum (PROSPECT) experiment, a prominent neutrino detection collaboration located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee.

    PROSPECT studies electron antineutrinos being emitted from nuclear decays within the reactor. The goal is to detect a new form of matter — so-called “sterile antineutrinos.” More than 60 scientists from 10 universities and four national laboratories collaborate on PROSPECT.

    YaleNews spoke with Karsten Heeger, professor and chair of physics, director of the Wright Lab, and principal investigator for PROSPECT, about how the experiment may be able to provide a new tool for safeguarding nuclear reactors.

    This conversation has been edited and condensed.

    1
    Karsten Heeger

    What is the scientific connection between neutrino detection and the monitoring of another country’s nuclear program?

    What we have shown is we can not only detect that neutrinos are coming out of a reactor, but also what isotope the neutrinos are coming from. When nuclear reactors burn fuel, the isotopic composition changes. We can see the resulting change in the energy distribution of neutrinos coming out of the reactor. By making a precise measurement of the neutrino spectrum from a reactor, we can get a fingerprint of the isotopic composition inside the reactor. This of course is the key feature because then it allows you to ask the question, “Can you detect whether highly enriched fuel is being diverted for other purposes?” You can essentially study the burnup of nuclear fuel and the enrichment in a reactor.

    When did the nuclear safety aspect of neutrino detection emerge as a serious consideration?

    This is being looked at closely right now, but people have had the idea for quite a while. People have suggested placing the detector close to a reactor, essentially right next to the facility, or even inside the facility. But it was never clear whether the technology could be advanced enough to learn something meaningful from the reactors. Now we have shown this is possible and potential use cases are being studied.

    Why was it so difficult to gather meaningful information?

    Historically, neutrino detectors require a lot of shielding — what we call “overburden” — because neutrinos create such a faint signal and there is a lot of environmental background interference, including cosmic rays that come from the atmosphere. This has always been a limitation. When you want to make a measurement close to a reactor or next to a reactor, you’re bombarded with all of this environmental background noise.

    What the PROSPECT detector has demonstrated is that we can make a precise measurement of the neutrinos and energy that comes out of the reactor, even in the presence of these backgrounds. We have designed a detector with a novel detection liquid [a lithium-doped liquid scintillator] that allows us to pull out the neutrino signature with good confidence. Results from PROSPECT were recently published in the journal <a href="http://What the PROSPECT detector has demonstrated is that we can make a precise measurement of the neutrinos and energy that comes out of the reactor, even in the presence of these backgrounds. We have designed a detector with a novel detection liquid [a lithium-doped liquid scintillator] that allows us to pull out the neutrino signature with good confidence. Results from PROSPECT were recently published in the journal Physical Review D as an editor’s suggestion. Another important feature of PROSPECT is that it is room sized. It fits inside the reactor building. We’ve extrapolated that we could even put it on a truck and drive it up to a reactor.

    What is the likelihood that neutrino detection will play a role in nuclear monitoring in the short term?

    There have been some experimental efforts to pursue this and a current study is now trying to sort through these applications. But one thing we know is that organizations like the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) already have established tools for monitoring inside a reactor facility that are less expensive than neutrino detectors.

    So why pursue this avenue?

    I think it gives you the possibility of scientific engagement with other countries, which is something you can’t put a price tag on. So often, we wonder, “How do you engage with countries like North Korea?” There is monitoring you can do, but what you really want is to engage the technical and scientific community there. We can build a detector there for a scientific purpose next to a reactor facility and you actually start working with the scientific personnel there and build relationships. That gives you much more than what you learn from monitoring alone.

    Are you at all surprised that neutrino science has progressed to the point where it is being discussed in terms of national security?

    It took us 25 years to make the first measurement of a neutrino. People would have never thought even 20 years ago that it would be possible to make a precision measurement with a detector that isn’t deep underground. But we’ve seen amazing advancement. I think it’s accurate to say that neutrino physics has now reached a point of intersection between policy, societal impact, and fundamental science.

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest benefactor, Elihu Yale.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887.[11] Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of September 2019, the university’s assets include an endowment valued at $30.3 billion, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in North America. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Yale traces its beginnings to “An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School”, a would-be charter passed during a meeting in New Haven by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701. The Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon after, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather (nephew of Increase Mather), Rev. James Noyes II (son of James Noyes), James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, and Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell, located in Branford, Connecticut, to donate their books to form the school’s library. The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as “The Founders”.

    Originally known as the “Collegiate School”, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, who is today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth (now Clinton). The school moved to Saybrook and then Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to New Haven, Connecticut.

    Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, and the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as increasingly liberal, ecclesiastically lax, and overly broad in Church polity. The feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not.

    Naming and development

    1
    Coat of arms of the family of Elihu Yale, after whom the university was named in 1718

    In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony’s Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu “Eli” Yale, who had made a fortune in Madras while working for the East India Company overseeing its slave trading activities, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum of money at the time. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to “Yale College.” The name Yale is the Anglicized spelling of the Iâl, which the family estate at Plas yn Iâl, near the village of Llandegla, was called.

    Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals to donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science, philosophy and theology at the time. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke’s works and developed his original theology known as the “new divinity.” In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians, and joined the Church of England. They were ordained in England and returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and while he attempted to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library.

    Curriculum

    Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and is organized into a social system of residential colleges.

    Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the period—the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment—due to the religious and scientific interests of presidents Thomas Clap and Ezra Stiles. They were both instrumental in developing the scientific curriculum at Yale while dealing with wars, student tumults, graffiti, “irrelevance” of curricula, desperate need for endowment and disagreements with the Connecticut legislature.

    Serious American students of theology and divinity, particularly in New England, regarded Hebrew as a classical language, along with Greek and Latin, and essential for the study of the Hebrew Bible in the original words. The Reverend Ezra Stiles, president of the college from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language as a vehicle for studying ancient Biblical texts in their original language (as was common in other schools), requiring all freshmen to study Hebrew (in contrast to Harvard, where only upperclassmen were required to study the language) and is responsible for the Hebrew phrase אורים ותמים (Urim and Thummim) on the Yale seal. A 1746 graduate of Yale, Stiles came to the college with experience in education, having played an integral role in the founding of Brown University, in addition to having been a minister. Stiles’ greatest challenge occurred in July 1779 when British forces occupied New Haven and threatened to raze the college. However, Yale graduate Edmund Fanning, Secretary to the British General in command of the occupation, intervened and the college was saved. In 1803, Fanning was granted an honorary degree LL.D. for his efforts.

    Students

    As the only college in Connecticut from 1701 to 1823, Yale educated the sons of the elite. Punishable offenses for students included cardplaying, tavern-going, destruction of college property, and acts of disobedience to college authorities. During this period, Harvard was distinctive for the stability and maturity of its tutor corps, while Yale had youth and zeal on its side.

    The emphasis on classics gave rise to a number of private student societies, open only by invitation, which arose primarily as forums for discussions of modern scholarship, literature and politics. The first such organizations were debating societies: Crotonia in 1738, Linonia in 1753 and Brothers in Unity in 1768. While the societies no longer exist, commemorations to them can be found with names given to campus structures, like Brothers in Unity Courtyard in Branford College.

    19th century

    The Yale Report of 1828 was a dogmatic defense of the Latin and Greek curriculum against critics who wanted more courses in modern languages, mathematics, and science. Unlike higher education in Europe, there was no national curriculum for colleges and universities in the United States. In the competition for students and financial support, college leaders strove to keep current with demands for innovation. At the same time, they realized that a significant portion of their students and prospective students demanded a classical background. The Yale report meant the classics would not be abandoned. During this period, all institutions experimented with changes in the curriculum, often resulting in a dual-track curriculum. In the decentralized environment of higher education in the United States, balancing change with tradition was a common challenge because it was difficult for an institution to be completely modern or completely classical. A group of professors at Yale and New Haven Congregationalist ministers articulated a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Victorian culture. They concentrated on developing a person possessed of religious values strong enough to sufficiently resist temptations from within, yet flexible enough to adjust to the ‘isms’ (professionalism, materialism, individualism, and consumerism) tempting him from without. William Graham Sumner, professor from 1872 to 1909, taught in the emerging disciplines of economics and sociology to overflowing classrooms of students. Sumner bested President Noah Porter, who disliked the social sciences and wanted Yale to lock into its traditions of classical education. Porter objected to Sumner’s use of a textbook by Herbert Spencer that espoused agnostic materialism because it might harm students.

    Until 1887, the legal name of the university was “The President and Fellows of Yale College, in New Haven.” In 1887, under an act passed by the Connecticut General Assembly, Yale was renamed to the present “Yale University.”

    Sports and debate

    The Revolutionary War soldier Nathan Hale (Yale 1773) was the prototype of the Yale ideal in the early 19th century: a manly yet aristocratic scholar, equally well-versed in knowledge and sports, and a patriot who “regretted” that he “had but one life to lose” for his country. Western painter Frederic Remington (Yale 1900) was an artist whose heroes gloried in combat and tests of strength in the Wild West. The fictional, turn-of-the-20th-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel Stover at Yale (1911) questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school. Increasingly the students turned to athletic stars as their heroes, especially since winning the big game became the goal of the student body, and the alumni, as well as the team itself.

    Along with Harvard and Princeton, Yale students rejected British concepts about ‘amateurism’ in sports and constructed athletic programs that were uniquely American, such as football.[34] The Harvard–Yale football rivalry began in 1875. Between 1892, when Harvard and Yale met in one of the first intercollegiate debates[35] and 1909 (the year of the first Triangular Debate of Harvard, Yale and Princeton) the rhetoric, symbolism, and metaphors used in athletics were used to frame these early debates. Debates were covered on front pages of college newspapers and emphasized in yearbooks, and team members even received the equivalent of athletic letters for their jackets. There even were rallies sending off the debating teams to matches, but the debates never attained the broad appeal that athletics enjoyed. One reason may be that debates do not have a clear winner, as is the case in sports, and that scoring is subjective. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart.

    In 1909–10, football faced a crisis resulting from the failure of the previous reforms of 1905–06 to solve the problem of serious injuries. There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport. President Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate changes to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The big three had tried to operate independently of the majority, but changes did reduce injuries.

    Expansion

    Yale expanded gradually, establishing the Yale School of Medicine (1810), Yale Divinity School (1822), Yale Law School (1843), Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1847), the Sheffield Scientific School (1847), and the Yale School of Fine Arts (1869). In 1887, as the college continued to grow under the presidency of Timothy Dwight V, Yale College was renamed Yale University, with the name Yale College subsequently applied to the undergraduate college. The university would later add the Yale School of Music (1894), the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (founded by Gifford Pinchot in 1900), the Yale School of Public Health (1915), the Yale School of Nursing (1923), the Yale School of Drama (1955), the Yale Physician Associate Program (1973), the Yale School of Management (1976), and the Jackson School of Global Affairs which will open in 2022. It would also reorganize its relationship with the Sheffield Scientific School.

    Expansion caused controversy about Yale’s new roles. Noah Porter, moral philosopher, was president from 1871 to 1886. During an age of tremendous expansion in higher education, Porter resisted the rise of the new research university, claiming that an eager embrace of its ideals would corrupt undergraduate education. Many of Porter’s contemporaries criticized his administration, and historians since have disparaged his leadership. Levesque argues Porter was not a simple-minded reactionary, uncritically committed to tradition, but a principled and selective conservative. He did not endorse everything old or reject everything new; rather, he sought to apply long-established ethical and pedagogical principles to a rapidly changing culture. He may have misunderstood some of the challenges of his time, but he correctly anticipated the enduring tensions that have accompanied the emergence and growth of the modern university.

    20th century

    Behavioral sciences

    Between 1925 and 1940, philanthropic foundations, especially ones connected with the Rockefellers, contributed about $7 million to support the Yale Institute of Human Relations and the affiliated Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. The money went toward behavioral science research, which was supported by foundation officers who aimed to “improve mankind” under an informal, loosely defined human engineering effort. The behavioral scientists at Yale, led by President James R. Angell and psychobiologist Robert M. Yerkes, tapped into foundation largesse by crafting research programs aimed to investigate, then suggest, ways to control sexual and social behavior. For example, Yerkes analyzed chimpanzee sexual behavior in hopes of illuminating the evolutionary underpinnings of human development and providing information that could ameliorate dysfunction. Ultimately, the behavioral-science results disappointed foundation officers, who shifted their human-engineering funds toward biological sciences.

    Biology

    Slack (2003) compares three groups that conducted biological research at Yale during overlapping periods between 1910 and 1970. Yale proved important as a site for this research. The leaders of these groups were Ross Granville Harrison, Grace E. Pickford, and G. Evelyn Hutchinson, and their members included both graduate students and more experienced scientists. All produced innovative research, including the opening of new subfields in embryology, endocrinology, and ecology, respectively, over a long period of time. Harrison’s group is shown to have been a classic research school; Pickford’s and Hutchinson’s were not. Pickford’s group was successful in spite of her lack of departmental or institutional position or power. Hutchinson and his graduate and postgraduate students were extremely productive, but in diverse areas of ecology rather than one focused area of research or the use of one set of research tools. Hutchinson’s example shows that new models for research groups are needed, especially for those that include extensive field research.

    Medicine

    Milton Winternitz led the Yale School of Medicine as its dean from 1920 to 1935. Dedicated to the new scientific medicine established in Germany, he was equally fervent about “social medicine” and the study of humans in their culture and environment. He established the “Yale System” of teaching, with few lectures and fewer exams, and strengthened the full-time faculty system; he also created the graduate-level Yale School of Nursing and the Psychiatry Department and built numerous new buildings. Progress toward his plans for an Institute of Human Relations, envisioned as a refuge where social scientists would collaborate with biological scientists in a holistic study of humankind, unfortunately, lasted for only a few years before the opposition of resentful anti-Semitic colleagues drove him to resign.
    Faculty

    Before World War II, most elite university faculties counted among their numbers few, if any, Jews, blacks, women, or other minorities; Yale was no exception. By 1980, this condition had been altered dramatically, as numerous members of those groups held faculty positions. Almost all members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually.

    History and American studies

    The American studies program reflected the worldwide anti-Communist ideological struggle. Norman Holmes Pearson, who worked for the Office of Strategic Studies in London during World War II, returned to Yale and headed the new American studies program. Popular among undergraduates, the program sought to instill a sense of nationalism and national purpose. Also during the 1940s and 1950s, Wyoming millionaire William Robertson Coe made large contributions to the American studies programs at Yale University and at the University of Wyoming. Coe was concerned to celebrate the ‘values’ of the Western United States in order to meet the “threat of communism”.

    Women

    In 1793, Lucinda Foote passed the entrance exams for Yale College, but was rejected by the President on the basis of her gender. Women studied at Yale University as early as 1892, in graduate-level programs at the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

    In 1966, Yale began discussions with its sister school Vassar College about merging to foster coeducation at the undergraduate level. Vassar, then all-female and part of the Seven Sisters—elite higher education schools that historically served as sister institutions to the Ivy League when most Ivy League institutions still only admitted men—tentatively accepted, but then declined the invitation. Both schools introduced coeducation independently in 1969. Amy Solomon was the first woman to register as a Yale undergraduate; she was also the first woman at Yale to join an undergraduate society, St. Anthony Hall. The undergraduate class of 1973 was the first class to have women starting from freshman year; at the time, all undergraduate women were housed in Vanderbilt Hall at the south end of Old Campus.

    A decade into co-education, student assault and harassment by faculty became the impetus for the trailblazing lawsuit Alexander v. Yale. In the late 1970s, a group of students and one faculty member sued Yale for its failure to curtail campus sexual harassment by especially male faculty. The case was party built from a 1977 report authored by plaintiff Ann Olivarius, now a feminist attorney known for fighting sexual harassment, “A report to the Yale Corporation from the Yale Undergraduate Women’s Caucus.” This case was the first to use Title IX to argue and establish that the sexual harassment of female students can be considered illegal sex discrimination. The plaintiffs in the case were Olivarius, Ronni Alexander (now a professor at Kobe University, Japan), Margery Reifler (works in the Los Angeles film industry), Pamela Price (civil rights attorney in California), and Lisa E. Stone (works at Anti-Defamation League). They were joined by Yale classics professor John “Jack” J. Winkler, who died in 1990. The lawsuit, brought partly by Catharine MacKinnon, alleged rape, fondling, and offers of higher grades for sex by several Yale faculty, including Keith Brion, professor of flute and Director of Bands, Political Science professor Raymond Duvall (now at the University of Minnesota), English professor Michael Cooke, and coach of the field hockey team, Richard Kentwell. While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale’s Grievance Board and the Yale Women’s Center. In March 2011 a Title IX complaint was filed against Yale by students and recent graduates, including editors of Yale’s feminist magazine Broad Recognition, alleging that the university had a hostile sexual climate. In response, the university formed a Title IX steering committee to address complaints of sexual misconduct. Afterwards, universities and colleges throughout the US also established sexual harassment grievance procedures.

    Class

    Yale, like other Ivy League schools, instituted policies in the early 20th century designed to maintain the proportion of white Protestants from notable families in the student body (see numerus clausus), and was one of the last of the Ivies to eliminate such preferences, beginning with the class of 1970.

    Town–gown relations

    Yale has a complicated relationship with its home city; for example, thousands of students volunteer every year in a myriad of community organizations, but city officials, who decry Yale’s exemption from local property taxes, have long pressed the university to do more to help. Under President Levin, Yale has financially supported many of New Haven’s efforts to reinvigorate the city. Evidence suggests that the town and gown relationships are mutually beneficial. Still, the economic power of the university increased dramatically with its financial success amid a decline in the local economy.

    21st century

    In 2006, Yale and Peking University (PKU) established a Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing, an exchange program allowing Yale students to spend a semester living and studying with PKU honor students. In July 2012, the Yale University-PKU Program ended due to weak participation.

    In 2007 outgoing Yale President Rick Levin characterized Yale’s institutional priorities: “First, among the nation’s finest research universities, Yale is distinctively committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders.”

    In 2009, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair picked Yale as one location – the others are Britain’s Durham University and Universiti Teknologi Mara – for the Tony Blair Faith Foundation’s United States Faith and Globalization Initiative. As of 2009, former Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo is the director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and teaches an undergraduate seminar, “Debating Globalization”. As of 2009, former presidential candidate and DNC chair Howard Dean teaches a residential college seminar, “Understanding Politics and Politicians”. Also in 2009, an alliance was formed among Yale, University College London(UK), and both schools’ affiliated hospital complexes to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care—a growing field known as translational medicine. President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but “no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL”.

    In August 2013, a new partnership with the National University of Singapore led to the opening of Yale-NUS College in Singapore, a joint effort to create a new liberal arts college in Asia featuring a curriculum including both Western and Asian traditions.

    In 2020, in the wake of protests around the world focused on racial relations and criminal justice reform, the #CancelYale movement demanded that Elihu Yale’s name be removed from Yale University. Yale was president of the East India Company, a trading company that traded slaves as well as goods, and his singularly large donation led to Yale relying on money from the slave-trade for its first scholarships and endowments.

    In August 2020, the US Justice Department claimed that Yale discriminated against Asian and white candidates on the basis of their race. The university, however, denied the report. In early February 2021, under the new Biden administration, the Justice Department withdrew the lawsuit. The group, Students for Fair Admissions, known for a similar lawsuit against Harvard alleging the same issue, plans to refile the lawsuit.

    Yale alumni in Politics

    The Boston Globe wrote that “if there’s one school that can lay claim to educating the nation’s top national leaders over the past three decades, it’s Yale”. Yale alumni were represented on the Democratic or Republican ticket in every U.S. presidential election between 1972 and 2004. Yale-educated Presidents since the end of the Vietnam War include Gerald Ford, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, and major-party nominees during this period include Hillary Clinton (2016), John Kerry (2004), Joseph Lieberman (Vice President, 2000), and Sargent Shriver (Vice President, 1972). Other Yale alumni who have made serious bids for the Presidency during this period include Amy Klobuchar (2020), Tom Steyer (2020), Ben Carson (2016), Howard Dean (2004), Gary Hart (1984 and 1988), Paul Tsongas (1992), Pat Robertson (1988) and Jerry Brown (1976, 1980, 1992).

    Several explanations have been offered for Yale’s representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the 1960s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend William Sloane Coffin on many of the future candidates. Yale President Richard Levin attributes the run to Yale’s focus on creating “a laboratory for future leaders,” an institutional priority that began during the tenure of Yale Presidents Alfred Whitney Griswold and Kingman Brewster. Richard H. Brodhead, former dean of Yale College and now president of Duke University, stated: “We do give very significant attention to orientation to the community in our admissions, and there is a very strong tradition of volunteerism at Yale.” Yale historian Gaddis Smith notes “an ethos of organized activity” at Yale during the 20th century that led John Kerry to lead the Yale Political Union’s Liberal Party, George Pataki the Conservative Party, and Joseph Lieberman to manage the Yale Daily News. Camille Paglia points to a history of networking and elitism: “It has to do with a web of friendships and affiliations built up in school.” CNN suggests that George W. Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the “son and grandson of alumni”, and for a “member of a politically influential family”. New York Times correspondent Elisabeth Bumiller and The Atlantic Monthly correspondent James Fallows credit the culture of community and cooperation that exists between students, faculty, and administration, which downplays self-interest and reinforces commitment to others.

    During the 1988 presidential election, George H. W. Bush (Yale ’48) derided Michael Dukakis for having “foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard’s boutique”. When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis’ Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale’s reputation was “so diffuse, there isn’t a symbol, I don’t think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it” and said Yale did not share Harvard’s reputation for “liberalism and elitism”. In 2004 Howard Dean stated, “In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. Yale changed so much between the class of ’68 and the class of ’71. My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation”.

    Leadership

    The President and Fellows of Yale College, also known as the Yale Corporation, or board of trustees, is the governing body of the university and consists of thirteen standing committees with separate responsibilities outlined in the by-laws. The corporation has 19 members: three ex officio members, ten successor trustees, and six elected alumni fellows.

    Yale’s former president Richard C. Levin was, at the time, one of the highest paid university presidents in the United States. Yale’s succeeding president Peter Salovey ranks 40th.

    The Yale Provost’s Office and similar executive positions have launched several women into prominent university executive positions. In 1977, Provost Hanna Holborn Gray was appointed interim President of Yale and later went on to become President of the University of Chicago, being the first woman to hold either position at each respective school. In 1994, Provost Judith Rodin became the first permanent female president of an Ivy League institution at the University of Pennsylvania. In 2002, Provost Alison Richard became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. In 2003, the Dean of the Divinity School, Rebecca Chopp, was appointed president of Colgate University and later went on to serve as the President of the Swarthmore College in 2009, and then the first female chancellor of the University of Denver in 2014. In 2004, Provost Dr. Susan Hockfield became the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2004, Dean of the Nursing school, Catherine Gilliss, was appointed the Dean of Duke University’s School of Nursing and Vice Chancellor for Nursing Affairs. In 2007, Deputy Provost H. Kim Bottomly was named President of Wellesley College.

    Similar examples for men who’ve served in Yale leadership positions can also be found. In 2004, Dean of Yale College Richard H. Brodhead was appointed as the President of Duke University. In 2008, Provost Andrew Hamilton was confirmed to be the Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

    The university has three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools.

    Campus

    Yale’s central campus in downtown New Haven covers 260 acres (1.1 km2) and comprises its main, historic campus and a medical campus adjacent to the Yale–New Haven Hospital. In western New Haven, the university holds 500 acres (2.0 km2) of athletic facilities, including the Yale Golf Course. In 2008, Yale purchased the 17-building, 136-acre (0.55 km2) former Bayer HealthCare complex in West Haven, Connecticut, the buildings of which are now used as laboratory and research space. Yale also owns seven forests in Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire—the largest of which is the 7,840-acre (31.7 km2) Yale-Myers Forest in Connecticut’s Quiet Corner—and nature preserves including Horse Island.

    Yale is noted for its largely Collegiate Gothic campus as well as several iconic modern buildings commonly discussed in architectural history survey courses: Louis Kahn’s Yale Art Gallery and Center for British Art; Eero Saarinen’s Ingalls Rink and Ezra Stiles and Morse Colleges; and Paul Rudolph’s Art & Architecture Building. Yale also owns and has restored many noteworthy 19th-century mansions along Hillhouse Avenue, which was considered the most beautiful street in America by Charles Dickens when he visited the United States in the 1840s. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed the Yale campus as one of the most beautiful in the United States.

    Many of Yale’s buildings were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architecture style from 1917 to 1931, financed largely by Edward S. Harkness, including the Yale Drama School. Stone sculpture built into the walls of the buildings portray contemporary college personalities, such as a writer, an athlete, a tea-drinking socialite, and a student who has fallen asleep while reading. Similarly, the decorative friezes on the buildings depict contemporary scenes, like a policemen chasing a robber and arresting a prostitute (on the wall of the Law School), or a student relaxing with a mug of beer and a cigarette. The architect, James Gamble Rogers, faux-aged these buildings by splashing the walls with acid, deliberately breaking their leaded glass windows and repairing them in the style of the Middle Ages, and creating niches for decorative statuary but leaving them empty to simulate loss or theft over the ages. In fact, the buildings merely simulate Middle Ages architecture, for though they appear to be constructed of solid stone blocks in the authentic manner, most actually have steel framing as was commonly used in 1930. One exception is Harkness Tower, 216 feet (66 m) tall, which was originally a free-standing stone structure. It was reinforced in 1964 to allow the installation of the Yale Memorial Carillon.

    Other examples of the Gothic style are on the Old Campus by architects like Henry Austin, Charles C. Haight and Russell Sturgis. Several are associated with members of the Vanderbilt family, including Vanderbilt Hall; Phelps Hall; St. Anthony Hall (a commission for member Frederick William Vanderbilt); the Mason, Sloane and Osborn laboratories; dormitories for the Sheffield Scientific School (the engineering and sciences school at Yale until 1956) and elements of Silliman College, the largest residential college.

    The oldest building on campus, Connecticut Hall (built in 1750), is in the Georgian style. Georgian-style buildings erected from 1929 to 1933 include Timothy Dwight College, Pierson College, and Davenport College, except the latter’s east, York Street façade, which was constructed in the Gothic style to coordinate with adjacent structures.

    Interior of Beinecke Library

    The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, is one of the largest buildings in the world reserved exclusively for the preservation of rare books and manuscripts. The library includes a six-story above-ground tower of book stacks, filled with 180,000 volumes, that is surrounded by large translucent Vermont marble panels and a steel and granite truss. The panels act as windows and subdue direct sunlight while also diffusing the light in warm hues throughout the interior. Near the library is a sunken courtyard, with sculptures by Isamu Noguchi that are said to represent time (the pyramid), the sun (the circle), and chance (the cube). The library is located near the center of the university in Hewitt Quadrangle, which is now more commonly referred to as “Beinecke Plaza.”

    Alumnus Eero Saarinen, Finnish-American architect of such notable structures as the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Washington Dulles International Airport main terminal, Bell Labs Holmdel Complex and the CBS Building in Manhattan, designed Ingalls Rink, dedicated in 1959, as well as the residential colleges Ezra Stiles and Morse. These latter were modeled after the medieval Italian hill town of San Gimignano – a prototype chosen for the town’s pedestrian-friendly milieu and fortress-like stone towers. These tower forms at Yale act in counterpoint to the college’s many Gothic spires and Georgian cupolas.

    Yale’s Office of Sustainability develops and implements sustainability practices at Yale. Yale is committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 10% below 1990 levels by the year 2020. As part of this commitment, the university allocates renewable energy credits to offset some of the energy used by residential colleges. Eleven campus buildings are candidates for LEED design and certification. Yale Sustainable Food Project initiated the introduction of local, organic vegetables, fruits, and beef to all residential college dining halls. Yale was listed as a Campus Sustainability Leader on the Sustainable Endowments Institute’s College Sustainability Report Card 2008, and received a “B+” grade overall.

    Notable nonresidential campus buildings

    Notable nonresidential campus buildings and landmarks include Battell Chapel, Beinecke Rare Book Library, Harkness Tower, Ingalls Rink, Kline Biology Tower, Osborne Memorial Laboratories, Payne Whitney Gymnasium, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Sterling Hall of Medicine, Sterling Law Buildings, Sterling Memorial Library, Woolsey Hall, Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale Art & Architecture Building, and the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art in London.

    Yale’s secret society buildings (some of which are called “tombs”) were built both to be private yet unmistakable. A diversity of architectural styles is represented: Berzelius, Donn Barber in an austere cube with classical detailing (erected in 1908 or 1910); Book and Snake, Louis R. Metcalfe in a Greek Ionic style (erected in 1901); Elihu, architect unknown but built in a Colonial style (constructed on an early 17th-century foundation although the building is from the 18th century); Mace and Chain, in a late colonial, early Victorian style (built in 1823). (Interior moulding is said to have belonged to Benedict Arnold);Manuscript Society, King Lui-Wu with Dan Kniley responsible for landscaping and Josef Albers for the brickwork intaglio mural. Building constructed in a mid-century modern style; Scroll and Key, Richard Morris Hunt in a Moorish- or Islamic-inspired Beaux-Arts style (erected 1869–70); Skull and Bones, possibly Alexander Jackson Davis or Henry Austin in an Egypto-Doric style utilizing Brownstone (in 1856 the first wing was completed, in 1903 the second wing, 1911 the Neo-Gothic towers in rear garden were completed); St. Elmo, (former tomb) Kenneth M. Murchison, 1912, designs inspired by Elizabethan manor. Current location, brick colonial; and Wolf’s Head, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, erected 1923–1924, Collegiate Gothic.

    Relationship with New Haven

    Yale is the largest taxpayer and employer in the City of New Haven, and has often buoyed the city’s economy and communities. Yale, however has consistently opposed paying a tax on its academic property. Yale’s Art Galleries, along with many other university resources, are free and openly accessible. Yale also funds the New Haven Promise program, paying full tuition for eligible students from New Haven public schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:12 pm on February 23, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ultraluminous X-ray pulsar M51 ULX-7 inspected by researchers", Astronomers generally believe that due to their brightness most ULXs are black holes., , , , , M51 ULX-7 is a binary system with a period of approximately two days., Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths., Yale University   

    From Yale University via phys.org: “Ultraluminous X-ray pulsar M51 ULX-7 inspected by researchers” 

    From Yale University

    via


    phys.org

    February 23, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    X-ray light curve of M51 ULX-7 based on the 2018-2020 Swift/XRT monitoring of the region. Credit: Vasilopoulos et al., 2021.

    Using NASA’s Swift and Chandra space observatories, astronomers have investigated an ultraluminous X-ray pulsar known as M51 ULX-7.

    NASA Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory.

    NASA Chandra X-ray Space Telescope.

    The study, detailed in a paper published February 16 for The Astrophyscial Journal, sheds more light on the X-ray variability of this source.

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths. Although they are less luminous than active galactic nuclei, they are more consistently luminous than any known stellar process.

    Astronomers generally believe that due to their brightness, most ULXs are black holes. However, recent observations have found that some ULXs showcase coherent pulsations. These sources, known as ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars (ULXPs), are neutron stars typically less massive than black holes. The list of known ULPs is still relatively short; thus, studying objects of this class is essential for researchers exploring the universe in X-rays.

    M51 ULX-7 is a ULXP hosting a neutron star rotating with a spin period of about 2.8 seconds. It is a binary system with a period of approximately two days, exhibiting a super-orbital modulation with a period of some 38 to 39 days. A team of astronomers led by Georgios Vasilopoulos of Yale University took a closer look at the super-orbital and orbital variability of M51 ULX-7 by analyzing archival Chandra and Swift data.

    “We studied the variability of M51 ULX-7, the only ULXP with an orbit that can be continuously monitored by X-ray observatories,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.

    The observations show that M51 ULX-7 was in an extended low-flux state. The astronomers suppose that the observed state might be related to a propeller transition or it could indicate a variable super-orbital period like those in other accreting pulsars.

    Furthermore, the study detected periodic dips in the Chandra X-ray light curve of M51 ULX-7. They are associated with the binary orbital period. This is the first time when such dips have been identified in a ULXP.

    The astronomers added that the physical origin of these dips remains unclear; however, it suggests a configuration where the orbital plane of the binary system is closer to an edge-on orientation.

    The results suggest that the mass accretion rate in M51 ULX-7 is super-Eddington. The findings allowed the team to calculate that the binary orbit should change approximately 0.3 seconds per year.

    In concluding remarks, the authors of the paper noted that their research underlines the need for further studies of ULXPs, especially long-term monitoring of such sources.

    “From an observational point of view, it demonstrates the need for long monitoring observations of ULXPs and ULXs to identify and confirm the presence of features related to orbital modulation. Such combined efforts would help to develop a physically motivated, self-consistent model able to explore the central engines of ULXPs,” the scientists concluded.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest benefactor, Elihu Yale.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887.[11] Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of September 2019, the university’s assets include an endowment valued at $30.3 billion, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in North America. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Yale traces its beginnings to “An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School”, a would-be charter passed during a meeting in New Haven by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701. The Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon after, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather (nephew of Increase Mather), Rev. James Noyes II (son of James Noyes), James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, and Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell, located in Branford, Connecticut, to donate their books to form the school’s library. The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as “The Founders”.

    Originally known as the “Collegiate School”, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, who is today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth (now Clinton). The school moved to Saybrook and then Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to New Haven, Connecticut.

    Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, and the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as increasingly liberal, ecclesiastically lax, and overly broad in Church polity. The feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not.

    Naming and development

    1
    Coat of arms of the family of Elihu Yale, after whom the university was named in 1718

    In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony’s Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu “Eli” Yale, who had made a fortune in Madras while working for the East India Company overseeing its slave trading activities, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum of money at the time. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to “Yale College.” The name Yale is the Anglicized spelling of the Iâl, which the family estate at Plas yn Iâl, near the village of Llandegla, was called.

    Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals to donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science, philosophy and theology at the time. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke’s works and developed his original theology known as the “new divinity.” In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians, and joined the Church of England. They were ordained in England and returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and while he attempted to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library.

    Curriculum

    Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and is organized into a social system of residential colleges.

    Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the period—the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment—due to the religious and scientific interests of presidents Thomas Clap and Ezra Stiles. They were both instrumental in developing the scientific curriculum at Yale while dealing with wars, student tumults, graffiti, “irrelevance” of curricula, desperate need for endowment and disagreements with the Connecticut legislature.

    Serious American students of theology and divinity, particularly in New England, regarded Hebrew as a classical language, along with Greek and Latin, and essential for the study of the Hebrew Bible in the original words. The Reverend Ezra Stiles, president of the college from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language as a vehicle for studying ancient Biblical texts in their original language (as was common in other schools), requiring all freshmen to study Hebrew (in contrast to Harvard, where only upperclassmen were required to study the language) and is responsible for the Hebrew phrase אורים ותמים (Urim and Thummim) on the Yale seal. A 1746 graduate of Yale, Stiles came to the college with experience in education, having played an integral role in the founding of Brown University, in addition to having been a minister. Stiles’ greatest challenge occurred in July 1779 when British forces occupied New Haven and threatened to raze the college. However, Yale graduate Edmund Fanning, Secretary to the British General in command of the occupation, intervened and the college was saved. In 1803, Fanning was granted an honorary degree LL.D. for his efforts.

    Students

    As the only college in Connecticut from 1701 to 1823, Yale educated the sons of the elite. Punishable offenses for students included cardplaying, tavern-going, destruction of college property, and acts of disobedience to college authorities. During this period, Harvard was distinctive for the stability and maturity of its tutor corps, while Yale had youth and zeal on its side.

    The emphasis on classics gave rise to a number of private student societies, open only by invitation, which arose primarily as forums for discussions of modern scholarship, literature and politics. The first such organizations were debating societies: Crotonia in 1738, Linonia in 1753 and Brothers in Unity in 1768. While the societies no longer exist, commemorations to them can be found with names given to campus structures, like Brothers in Unity Courtyard in Branford College.

    19th century

    The Yale Report of 1828 was a dogmatic defense of the Latin and Greek curriculum against critics who wanted more courses in modern languages, mathematics, and science. Unlike higher education in Europe, there was no national curriculum for colleges and universities in the United States. In the competition for students and financial support, college leaders strove to keep current with demands for innovation. At the same time, they realized that a significant portion of their students and prospective students demanded a classical background. The Yale report meant the classics would not be abandoned. During this period, all institutions experimented with changes in the curriculum, often resulting in a dual-track curriculum. In the decentralized environment of higher education in the United States, balancing change with tradition was a common challenge because it was difficult for an institution to be completely modern or completely classical. A group of professors at Yale and New Haven Congregationalist ministers articulated a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Victorian culture. They concentrated on developing a person possessed of religious values strong enough to sufficiently resist temptations from within, yet flexible enough to adjust to the ‘isms’ (professionalism, materialism, individualism, and consumerism) tempting him from without. William Graham Sumner, professor from 1872 to 1909, taught in the emerging disciplines of economics and sociology to overflowing classrooms of students. Sumner bested President Noah Porter, who disliked the social sciences and wanted Yale to lock into its traditions of classical education. Porter objected to Sumner’s use of a textbook by Herbert Spencer that espoused agnostic materialism because it might harm students.

    Until 1887, the legal name of the university was “The President and Fellows of Yale College, in New Haven.” In 1887, under an act passed by the Connecticut General Assembly, Yale was renamed to the present “Yale University.”

    Sports and debate

    The Revolutionary War soldier Nathan Hale (Yale 1773) was the prototype of the Yale ideal in the early 19th century: a manly yet aristocratic scholar, equally well-versed in knowledge and sports, and a patriot who “regretted” that he “had but one life to lose” for his country. Western painter Frederic Remington (Yale 1900) was an artist whose heroes gloried in combat and tests of strength in the Wild West. The fictional, turn-of-the-20th-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel Stover at Yale (1911) questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school. Increasingly the students turned to athletic stars as their heroes, especially since winning the big game became the goal of the student body, and the alumni, as well as the team itself.

    Along with Harvard and Princeton, Yale students rejected British concepts about ‘amateurism’ in sports and constructed athletic programs that were uniquely American, such as football.[34] The Harvard–Yale football rivalry began in 1875. Between 1892, when Harvard and Yale met in one of the first intercollegiate debates[35] and 1909 (the year of the first Triangular Debate of Harvard, Yale and Princeton) the rhetoric, symbolism, and metaphors used in athletics were used to frame these early debates. Debates were covered on front pages of college newspapers and emphasized in yearbooks, and team members even received the equivalent of athletic letters for their jackets. There even were rallies sending off the debating teams to matches, but the debates never attained the broad appeal that athletics enjoyed. One reason may be that debates do not have a clear winner, as is the case in sports, and that scoring is subjective. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart.

    In 1909–10, football faced a crisis resulting from the failure of the previous reforms of 1905–06 to solve the problem of serious injuries. There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport. President Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate changes to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The big three had tried to operate independently of the majority, but changes did reduce injuries.

    Expansion

    Yale expanded gradually, establishing the Yale School of Medicine (1810), Yale Divinity School (1822), Yale Law School (1843), Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1847), the Sheffield Scientific School (1847), and the Yale School of Fine Arts (1869). In 1887, as the college continued to grow under the presidency of Timothy Dwight V, Yale College was renamed Yale University, with the name Yale College subsequently applied to the undergraduate college. The university would later add the Yale School of Music (1894), the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (founded by Gifford Pinchot in 1900), the Yale School of Public Health (1915), the Yale School of Nursing (1923), the Yale School of Drama (1955), the Yale Physician Associate Program (1973), the Yale School of Management (1976), and the Jackson School of Global Affairs which will open in 2022. It would also reorganize its relationship with the Sheffield Scientific School.

    Expansion caused controversy about Yale’s new roles. Noah Porter, moral philosopher, was president from 1871 to 1886. During an age of tremendous expansion in higher education, Porter resisted the rise of the new research university, claiming that an eager embrace of its ideals would corrupt undergraduate education. Many of Porter’s contemporaries criticized his administration, and historians since have disparaged his leadership. Levesque argues Porter was not a simple-minded reactionary, uncritically committed to tradition, but a principled and selective conservative. He did not endorse everything old or reject everything new; rather, he sought to apply long-established ethical and pedagogical principles to a rapidly changing culture. He may have misunderstood some of the challenges of his time, but he correctly anticipated the enduring tensions that have accompanied the emergence and growth of the modern university.

    20th century

    Behavioral sciences

    Between 1925 and 1940, philanthropic foundations, especially ones connected with the Rockefellers, contributed about $7 million to support the Yale Institute of Human Relations and the affiliated Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. The money went toward behavioral science research, which was supported by foundation officers who aimed to “improve mankind” under an informal, loosely defined human engineering effort. The behavioral scientists at Yale, led by President James R. Angell and psychobiologist Robert M. Yerkes, tapped into foundation largesse by crafting research programs aimed to investigate, then suggest, ways to control sexual and social behavior. For example, Yerkes analyzed chimpanzee sexual behavior in hopes of illuminating the evolutionary underpinnings of human development and providing information that could ameliorate dysfunction. Ultimately, the behavioral-science results disappointed foundation officers, who shifted their human-engineering funds toward biological sciences.

    Biology

    Slack (2003) compares three groups that conducted biological research at Yale during overlapping periods between 1910 and 1970. Yale proved important as a site for this research. The leaders of these groups were Ross Granville Harrison, Grace E. Pickford, and G. Evelyn Hutchinson, and their members included both graduate students and more experienced scientists. All produced innovative research, including the opening of new subfields in embryology, endocrinology, and ecology, respectively, over a long period of time. Harrison’s group is shown to have been a classic research school; Pickford’s and Hutchinson’s were not. Pickford’s group was successful in spite of her lack of departmental or institutional position or power. Hutchinson and his graduate and postgraduate students were extremely productive, but in diverse areas of ecology rather than one focused area of research or the use of one set of research tools. Hutchinson’s example shows that new models for research groups are needed, especially for those that include extensive field research.

    Medicine

    Milton Winternitz led the Yale School of Medicine as its dean from 1920 to 1935. Dedicated to the new scientific medicine established in Germany, he was equally fervent about “social medicine” and the study of humans in their culture and environment. He established the “Yale System” of teaching, with few lectures and fewer exams, and strengthened the full-time faculty system; he also created the graduate-level Yale School of Nursing and the Psychiatry Department and built numerous new buildings. Progress toward his plans for an Institute of Human Relations, envisioned as a refuge where social scientists would collaborate with biological scientists in a holistic study of humankind, unfortunately, lasted for only a few years before the opposition of resentful anti-Semitic colleagues drove him to resign.
    Faculty

    Before World War II, most elite university faculties counted among their numbers few, if any, Jews, blacks, women, or other minorities; Yale was no exception. By 1980, this condition had been altered dramatically, as numerous members of those groups held faculty positions. Almost all members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually.

    History and American studies

    The American studies program reflected the worldwide anti-Communist ideological struggle. Norman Holmes Pearson, who worked for the Office of Strategic Studies in London during World War II, returned to Yale and headed the new American studies program. Popular among undergraduates, the program sought to instill a sense of nationalism and national purpose. Also during the 1940s and 1950s, Wyoming millionaire William Robertson Coe made large contributions to the American studies programs at Yale University and at the University of Wyoming. Coe was concerned to celebrate the ‘values’ of the Western United States in order to meet the “threat of communism”.

    Women

    In 1793, Lucinda Foote passed the entrance exams for Yale College, but was rejected by the President on the basis of her gender. Women studied at Yale University as early as 1892, in graduate-level programs at the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

    In 1966, Yale began discussions with its sister school Vassar College about merging to foster coeducation at the undergraduate level. Vassar, then all-female and part of the Seven Sisters—elite higher education schools that historically served as sister institutions to the Ivy League when most Ivy League institutions still only admitted men—tentatively accepted, but then declined the invitation. Both schools introduced coeducation independently in 1969. Amy Solomon was the first woman to register as a Yale undergraduate; she was also the first woman at Yale to join an undergraduate society, St. Anthony Hall. The undergraduate class of 1973 was the first class to have women starting from freshman year; at the time, all undergraduate women were housed in Vanderbilt Hall at the south end of Old Campus.

    A decade into co-education, student assault and harassment by faculty became the impetus for the trailblazing lawsuit Alexander v. Yale. In the late 1970s, a group of students and one faculty member sued Yale for its failure to curtail campus sexual harassment by especially male faculty. The case was party built from a 1977 report authored by plaintiff Ann Olivarius, now a feminist attorney known for fighting sexual harassment, “A report to the Yale Corporation from the Yale Undergraduate Women’s Caucus.” This case was the first to use Title IX to argue and establish that the sexual harassment of female students can be considered illegal sex discrimination. The plaintiffs in the case were Olivarius, Ronni Alexander (now a professor at Kobe University, Japan), Margery Reifler (works in the Los Angeles film industry), Pamela Price (civil rights attorney in California), and Lisa E. Stone (works at Anti-Defamation League). They were joined by Yale classics professor John “Jack” J. Winkler, who died in 1990. The lawsuit, brought partly by Catharine MacKinnon, alleged rape, fondling, and offers of higher grades for sex by several Yale faculty, including Keith Brion, professor of flute and Director of Bands, Political Science professor Raymond Duvall (now at the University of Minnesota), English professor Michael Cooke, and coach of the field hockey team, Richard Kentwell. While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale’s Grievance Board and the Yale Women’s Center. In March 2011 a Title IX complaint was filed against Yale by students and recent graduates, including editors of Yale’s feminist magazine Broad Recognition, alleging that the university had a hostile sexual climate. In response, the university formed a Title IX steering committee to address complaints of sexual misconduct. Afterwards, universities and colleges throughout the US also established sexual harassment grievance procedures.

    Class

    Yale, like other Ivy League schools, instituted policies in the early 20th century designed to maintain the proportion of white Protestants from notable families in the student body (see numerus clausus), and was one of the last of the Ivies to eliminate such preferences, beginning with the class of 1970.

    Town–gown relations

    Yale has a complicated relationship with its home city; for example, thousands of students volunteer every year in a myriad of community organizations, but city officials, who decry Yale’s exemption from local property taxes, have long pressed the university to do more to help. Under President Levin, Yale has financially supported many of New Haven’s efforts to reinvigorate the city. Evidence suggests that the town and gown relationships are mutually beneficial. Still, the economic power of the university increased dramatically with its financial success amid a decline in the local economy.

    21st century

    In 2006, Yale and Peking University (PKU) established a Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing, an exchange program allowing Yale students to spend a semester living and studying with PKU honor students. In July 2012, the Yale University-PKU Program ended due to weak participation.

    In 2007 outgoing Yale President Rick Levin characterized Yale’s institutional priorities: “First, among the nation’s finest research universities, Yale is distinctively committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders.”

    In 2009, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair picked Yale as one location – the others are Britain’s Durham University and Universiti Teknologi Mara – for the Tony Blair Faith Foundation’s United States Faith and Globalization Initiative. As of 2009, former Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo is the director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and teaches an undergraduate seminar, “Debating Globalization”. As of 2009, former presidential candidate and DNC chair Howard Dean teaches a residential college seminar, “Understanding Politics and Politicians”. Also in 2009, an alliance was formed among Yale, University College London(UK), and both schools’ affiliated hospital complexes to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care—a growing field known as translational medicine. President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but “no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL”.

    In August 2013, a new partnership with the National University of Singapore led to the opening of Yale-NUS College in Singapore, a joint effort to create a new liberal arts college in Asia featuring a curriculum including both Western and Asian traditions.

    In 2020, in the wake of protests around the world focused on racial relations and criminal justice reform, the #CancelYale movement demanded that Elihu Yale’s name be removed from Yale University. Yale was president of the East India Company, a trading company that traded slaves as well as goods, and his singularly large donation led to Yale relying on money from the slave-trade for its first scholarships and endowments.

    In August 2020, the US Justice Department claimed that Yale discriminated against Asian and white candidates on the basis of their race. The university, however, denied the report. In early February 2021, under the new Biden administration, the Justice Department withdrew the lawsuit. The group, Students for Fair Admissions, known for a similar lawsuit against Harvard alleging the same issue, plans to refile the lawsuit.

    Yale alumni in Politics

    The Boston Globe wrote that “if there’s one school that can lay claim to educating the nation’s top national leaders over the past three decades, it’s Yale”. Yale alumni were represented on the Democratic or Republican ticket in every U.S. presidential election between 1972 and 2004. Yale-educated Presidents since the end of the Vietnam War include Gerald Ford, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, and major-party nominees during this period include Hillary Clinton (2016), John Kerry (2004), Joseph Lieberman (Vice President, 2000), and Sargent Shriver (Vice President, 1972). Other Yale alumni who have made serious bids for the Presidency during this period include Amy Klobuchar (2020), Tom Steyer (2020), Ben Carson (2016), Howard Dean (2004), Gary Hart (1984 and 1988), Paul Tsongas (1992), Pat Robertson (1988) and Jerry Brown (1976, 1980, 1992).

    Several explanations have been offered for Yale’s representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the 1960s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend William Sloane Coffin on many of the future candidates. Yale President Richard Levin attributes the run to Yale’s focus on creating “a laboratory for future leaders,” an institutional priority that began during the tenure of Yale Presidents Alfred Whitney Griswold and Kingman Brewster. Richard H. Brodhead, former dean of Yale College and now president of Duke University, stated: “We do give very significant attention to orientation to the community in our admissions, and there is a very strong tradition of volunteerism at Yale.” Yale historian Gaddis Smith notes “an ethos of organized activity” at Yale during the 20th century that led John Kerry to lead the Yale Political Union’s Liberal Party, George Pataki the Conservative Party, and Joseph Lieberman to manage the Yale Daily News. Camille Paglia points to a history of networking and elitism: “It has to do with a web of friendships and affiliations built up in school.” CNN suggests that George W. Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the “son and grandson of alumni”, and for a “member of a politically influential family”. New York Times correspondent Elisabeth Bumiller and The Atlantic Monthly correspondent James Fallows credit the culture of community and cooperation that exists between students, faculty, and administration, which downplays self-interest and reinforces commitment to others.

    During the 1988 presidential election, George H. W. Bush (Yale ’48) derided Michael Dukakis for having “foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard’s boutique”. When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis’ Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale’s reputation was “so diffuse, there isn’t a symbol, I don’t think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it” and said Yale did not share Harvard’s reputation for “liberalism and elitism”. In 2004 Howard Dean stated, “In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. Yale changed so much between the class of ’68 and the class of ’71. My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation”.

    Leadership

    The President and Fellows of Yale College, also known as the Yale Corporation, or board of trustees, is the governing body of the university and consists of thirteen standing committees with separate responsibilities outlined in the by-laws. The corporation has 19 members: three ex officio members, ten successor trustees, and six elected alumni fellows.

    Yale’s former president Richard C. Levin was, at the time, one of the highest paid university presidents in the United States. Yale’s succeeding president Peter Salovey ranks 40th.

    The Yale Provost’s Office and similar executive positions have launched several women into prominent university executive positions. In 1977, Provost Hanna Holborn Gray was appointed interim President of Yale and later went on to become President of the University of Chicago, being the first woman to hold either position at each respective school. In 1994, Provost Judith Rodin became the first permanent female president of an Ivy League institution at the University of Pennsylvania. In 2002, Provost Alison Richard became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. In 2003, the Dean of the Divinity School, Rebecca Chopp, was appointed president of Colgate University and later went on to serve as the President of the Swarthmore College in 2009, and then the first female chancellor of the University of Denver in 2014. In 2004, Provost Dr. Susan Hockfield became the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2004, Dean of the Nursing school, Catherine Gilliss, was appointed the Dean of Duke University’s School of Nursing and Vice Chancellor for Nursing Affairs. In 2007, Deputy Provost H. Kim Bottomly was named President of Wellesley College.

    Similar examples for men who’ve served in Yale leadership positions can also be found. In 2004, Dean of Yale College Richard H. Brodhead was appointed as the President of Duke University. In 2008, Provost Andrew Hamilton was confirmed to be the Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

    The university has three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools.

    Campus

    Yale’s central campus in downtown New Haven covers 260 acres (1.1 km2) and comprises its main, historic campus and a medical campus adjacent to the Yale–New Haven Hospital. In western New Haven, the university holds 500 acres (2.0 km2) of athletic facilities, including the Yale Golf Course. In 2008, Yale purchased the 17-building, 136-acre (0.55 km2) former Bayer HealthCare complex in West Haven, Connecticut, the buildings of which are now used as laboratory and research space. Yale also owns seven forests in Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire—the largest of which is the 7,840-acre (31.7 km2) Yale-Myers Forest in Connecticut’s Quiet Corner—and nature preserves including Horse Island.

    Yale is noted for its largely Collegiate Gothic campus as well as several iconic modern buildings commonly discussed in architectural history survey courses: Louis Kahn’s Yale Art Gallery and Center for British Art; Eero Saarinen’s Ingalls Rink and Ezra Stiles and Morse Colleges; and Paul Rudolph’s Art & Architecture Building. Yale also owns and has restored many noteworthy 19th-century mansions along Hillhouse Avenue, which was considered the most beautiful street in America by Charles Dickens when he visited the United States in the 1840s. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed the Yale campus as one of the most beautiful in the United States.

    Many of Yale’s buildings were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architecture style from 1917 to 1931, financed largely by Edward S. Harkness, including the Yale Drama School. Stone sculpture built into the walls of the buildings portray contemporary college personalities, such as a writer, an athlete, a tea-drinking socialite, and a student who has fallen asleep while reading. Similarly, the decorative friezes on the buildings depict contemporary scenes, like a policemen chasing a robber and arresting a prostitute (on the wall of the Law School), or a student relaxing with a mug of beer and a cigarette. The architect, James Gamble Rogers, faux-aged these buildings by splashing the walls with acid, deliberately breaking their leaded glass windows and repairing them in the style of the Middle Ages, and creating niches for decorative statuary but leaving them empty to simulate loss or theft over the ages. In fact, the buildings merely simulate Middle Ages architecture, for though they appear to be constructed of solid stone blocks in the authentic manner, most actually have steel framing as was commonly used in 1930. One exception is Harkness Tower, 216 feet (66 m) tall, which was originally a free-standing stone structure. It was reinforced in 1964 to allow the installation of the Yale Memorial Carillon.

    Other examples of the Gothic style are on the Old Campus by architects like Henry Austin, Charles C. Haight and Russell Sturgis. Several are associated with members of the Vanderbilt family, including Vanderbilt Hall; Phelps Hall; St. Anthony Hall (a commission for member Frederick William Vanderbilt); the Mason, Sloane and Osborn laboratories; dormitories for the Sheffield Scientific School (the engineering and sciences school at Yale until 1956) and elements of Silliman College, the largest residential college.

    The oldest building on campus, Connecticut Hall (built in 1750), is in the Georgian style. Georgian-style buildings erected from 1929 to 1933 include Timothy Dwight College, Pierson College, and Davenport College, except the latter’s east, York Street façade, which was constructed in the Gothic style to coordinate with adjacent structures.

    Interior of Beinecke Library

    The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, is one of the largest buildings in the world reserved exclusively for the preservation of rare books and manuscripts. The library includes a six-story above-ground tower of book stacks, filled with 180,000 volumes, that is surrounded by large translucent Vermont marble panels and a steel and granite truss. The panels act as windows and subdue direct sunlight while also diffusing the light in warm hues throughout the interior. Near the library is a sunken courtyard, with sculptures by Isamu Noguchi that are said to represent time (the pyramid), the sun (the circle), and chance (the cube). The library is located near the center of the university in Hewitt Quadrangle, which is now more commonly referred to as “Beinecke Plaza.”

    Alumnus Eero Saarinen, Finnish-American architect of such notable structures as the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Washington Dulles International Airport main terminal, Bell Labs Holmdel Complex and the CBS Building in Manhattan, designed Ingalls Rink, dedicated in 1959, as well as the residential colleges Ezra Stiles and Morse. These latter were modeled after the medieval Italian hill town of San Gimignano – a prototype chosen for the town’s pedestrian-friendly milieu and fortress-like stone towers. These tower forms at Yale act in counterpoint to the college’s many Gothic spires and Georgian cupolas.

    Yale’s Office of Sustainability develops and implements sustainability practices at Yale. Yale is committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 10% below 1990 levels by the year 2020. As part of this commitment, the university allocates renewable energy credits to offset some of the energy used by residential colleges. Eleven campus buildings are candidates for LEED design and certification. Yale Sustainable Food Project initiated the introduction of local, organic vegetables, fruits, and beef to all residential college dining halls. Yale was listed as a Campus Sustainability Leader on the Sustainable Endowments Institute’s College Sustainability Report Card 2008, and received a “B+” grade overall.

    Notable nonresidential campus buildings

    Notable nonresidential campus buildings and landmarks include Battell Chapel, Beinecke Rare Book Library, Harkness Tower, Ingalls Rink, Kline Biology Tower, Osborne Memorial Laboratories, Payne Whitney Gymnasium, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Sterling Hall of Medicine, Sterling Law Buildings, Sterling Memorial Library, Woolsey Hall, Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale Art & Architecture Building, and the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art in London.

    Yale’s secret society buildings (some of which are called “tombs”) were built both to be private yet unmistakable. A diversity of architectural styles is represented: Berzelius, Donn Barber in an austere cube with classical detailing (erected in 1908 or 1910); Book and Snake, Louis R. Metcalfe in a Greek Ionic style (erected in 1901); Elihu, architect unknown but built in a Colonial style (constructed on an early 17th-century foundation although the building is from the 18th century); Mace and Chain, in a late colonial, early Victorian style (built in 1823). (Interior moulding is said to have belonged to Benedict Arnold);Manuscript Society, King Lui-Wu with Dan Kniley responsible for landscaping and Josef Albers for the brickwork intaglio mural. Building constructed in a mid-century modern style; Scroll and Key, Richard Morris Hunt in a Moorish- or Islamic-inspired Beaux-Arts style (erected 1869–70); Skull and Bones, possibly Alexander Jackson Davis or Henry Austin in an Egypto-Doric style utilizing Brownstone (in 1856 the first wing was completed, in 1903 the second wing, 1911 the Neo-Gothic towers in rear garden were completed); St. Elmo, (former tomb) Kenneth M. Murchison, 1912, designs inspired by Elizabethan manor. Current location, brick colonial; and Wolf’s Head, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, erected 1923–1924, Collegiate Gothic.

    Relationship with New Haven

    Yale is the largest taxpayer and employer in the City of New Haven, and has often buoyed the city’s economy and communities. Yale, however has consistently opposed paying a tax on its academic property. Yale’s Art Galleries, along with many other university resources, are free and openly accessible. Yale also funds the New Haven Promise program, paying full tuition for eligible students from New Haven public schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:30 pm on February 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Science climate change and Arctic amplification", , , , Mary-Louise Timmermans, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Science climate change and Arctic amplification” 

    From Yale University

    February 12, 2021
    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Written by Jim Shelton

    1
    © stock.adobe.com.

    As the world seeks solutions to the global climate crisis, many eyes are turning north — to the Arctic Ocean.

    Climate scientists say Arctic regions are a key indicator of the changes that have already occurred worldwide and those yet to come. The Arctic has already warmed at least 3 degrees C in the past 50 years, more than most other parts of the world. Openings in the ocean ice pack are allowing the sun to directly warm the waters there, causing a warming feedback within the region’s ice cover.

    Mary-Louise Timmermans, the Damon Wells Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, is a leading investigator of the dynamics and variability of the Arctic Ocean, sea ice, and climate. YaleNews spoke with Timmermans, who recently gave a presentation about her research to a Yale Planetary Solutions Project symposium, about the role Arctic regions play in addressing climate change.

    1
    Mary-Louise Timmermans

    Why have Arctic regions become such a focal point for climate change?

    A number of reasons. The loss of Arctic sea ice is now really well documented by satellites. This general trend of less sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean with each passing summer is a striking picture of ongoing climate change. The iconic images of polar bears straddling small ice floes are dramatic symbolism for our changing planet, and this also resonates with the public.

    Changes in the Arctic are big. Scientists even have a term for it: Arctic amplification. If we look at global maps of air temperature changes since pre-industrial times, they show a lot of warming everywhere. But these temperature increases are twice as large in the Arctic compared with other regions. That’s where the term “amplification” comes from.

    How much do we know about the causes of such dramatic warming in the Arctic, compared with other parts of the world?

    The answer to this question is very complicated and is an area of active research. It involves relationships between the sea ice, ocean, atmosphere, and land. One simple mechanism relates to the fact that sea ice is much more reflective than the ocean. So as we lose sea ice, less of the sun’s energy is reflected back to space, and more is absorbed, leading to warming. The oceans play a role too. The warmer ocean waters can stick around in the Arctic after summer is over.

    There are added complications that relate to different cloud patterns that arise over sea ice-covered regions versus those that have no sea ice. And clouds can either trap heat or reflect solar energy back to space. And these changes in the atmosphere can have larger scale influence and affect how much atmospheric heat is being transported to the Arctic from the rest of the world. There are many open questions and complicated factors to tease out.

    What are the challenges of gathering information and finding answers in this region?

    The harsh, extremely cold weather throughout most of the year, as well as 24-hour winter darkness, coupled with the presence of sea-ice make data collection difficult. Even in summer, it’s expensive and logistically challenging to mount ice-breaker expeditions, which can require navigationally tricky transits through the Northwest Passage, for example.

    What sorts of relevant information and mechanisms do we still not know, or fully understand?

    There are parts of the Arctic that we can’t get to easily, and that we can’t sample autonomously with drifting buoys. These include the broad shallow ocean regions of the continental shelves, which change rapidly depending on the season and have energetic ocean currents. We have very little information about these regions in winter, for example, when they are completely inaccessible. For this reason, we don’t fully understand how they work, and we also can’t pin down how they’re changing.

    We’re also lacking observations where the land meets the ocean, including wetland regions and changing river inflows, for example. So in general, the coastal boundaries of the Arctic Ocean basin are notoriously under-sampled. To some extent, these problems are geopolitical with many different exclusive economic zones, and data sharing between nations that is often deficient.

    How much more change do you expect to see in the Arctic climate over the next 10 to 20 years?

    There’s no reason to expect the Arctic won’t continue to undergo substantial changes over the coming years and decades. With every passing year, the Arctic Ocean is generally showing warmer temperatures, and lower sea-ice extents. While there are regional patterns of air and ocean temperature changes that show year-to-year fluctuations, the overall theme of a warming Arctic continues. Along with reduced sea ice, we’ll see other changes like bigger waves, continued coastal erosion, and possibly increased storminess. Here I’m only talking about changes to the physical system. A whole host of ecosystem changes are also underway in this interconnected system.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:14 am on January 27, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Rethinking the fundamental way electrons interact in superconducting quantum materials", , Coulomb’s law- which holds that opposite charges attract and like charges repel., Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), , Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Rethinking the fundamental way electrons interact in superconducting quantum materials” 

    From Yale University

    January 26, 2021
    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu,
    203-436-2643

    Jim Shelton, writer

    1

    Scientists have discovered a new twist to one of the fundamental interactions underpinning the physical world — the interplay of energy between electrons in a solid material.

    It’s the interaction between electrons that is at the heart of superconductivity, the ability of a material to move an electrical current with zero resistance. To achieve this, these superconductors must be cooled to very low temperatures — typically about minus 423 degrees Fahrenheit. Understanding electron interactions, scientists say, may help them create a new generation of superconducting quantum materials that function at higher, easier-to-manage temperatures.

    “For decades the dream has been to make high-temperature superconductors that operate at as high as room temperature, but there is much we still don’t understand about superconductivity,” said Eduardo H. da Silva Neto, an assistant professor of physics at Yale and corresponding author of a new study that looked at how electrons interact in copper-based materials.

    The study is published in the journal Nature Communications.

    In examining electron interactions in copper oxides, the researchers paid close attention to a fundamental law of physics known as Coulomb’s law, which holds that opposite charges attract and like charges repel.

    What they discovered was surprising. Using a method called resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), they found that electrons within copper oxides create fluctuating waves of electrical charge that emanate not just in two directions — something scientists have observed over the past decade — but in all directions.

    “While charge density waves are usually oriented along the crystal axes — the lines we use to understand the arrangement of atoms in a crystal — we found that for a brief period of time they can rotate into another direction and come back, creating new structures from which novel properties can emerge,” said da Silva Neto, who is a faculty member of Yale’s Energy Sciences Institute at West Campus.

    The implication, the researchers said, is that electrons in a solid material can interact in a way that bends Coulomb’s law. In some cases, the presence of the atoms in the solid could even cause electrons with the same electrical charge to attract rather than repel.

    “Nobody saw this coming,” said co-author Alex Frano, an assistant professor of physics at the University of California-San Diego. “The Coulomb interaction governs most of the physical phenomena we have ever experienced.”

    The researchers said this new information gives them a “fingerprint” of how Coulomb’s law works in solid quantum materials and higher-temperature superconductors. “Overall, we’re providing a new paradigm to think about charge order, superconductivity, and electron interactions in quantum materials,” da Silva Neto said.

    The first author of the study is Fabio Boschini, previously at the University of British Columbia and now an assistant professor at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique in Canada.

    Other co-authors include researchers from the University of California-San Diego, the University of British Columbia (CA), the Max Planck Institute in Germany, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, Canadian Light Source, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, and the University of California-Davis.

    The implication, the researchers said, is that electrons in a solid material can interact in a way that bends Coulomb’s law. In some cases, the presence of the atoms in the solid could even cause electrons with the same electrical charge to attract rather than repel.

    “Nobody saw this coming,” said co-author Alex Frano, an assistant professor of physics at the University of California-San Diego. “The Coulomb interaction governs most of the physical phenomena we have ever experienced.”

    The researchers said this new information gives them a “fingerprint” of how Coulomb’s law works in solid quantum materials and higher-temperature superconductors. “Overall, we’re providing a new paradigm to think about charge order, superconductivity, and electron interactions in quantum materials,” da Silva Neto said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on January 19, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Going with the grains to explain a fundamental tectonic force", , , Tiny mineral grains — squeezed and mixed over millions of years — set in motion the chain of events that plunge massive tectonic plates deep into the Earth’s interior., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Going with the grains to explain a fundamental tectonic force” 

    From Yale University

    January 18, 2021
    Science contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Writer
    Jim Shelton

    1
    Mylonite is a fine-grained, compact metamorphic rock produced by dynamic recrystallization of the constituent minerals resulting in a reduction of the grain size of the rock. Credit: Wikipedia.

    A new study suggests that tiny, mineral grains — squeezed and mixed over millions of years — set in motion the chain of events that plunge massive tectonic plates deep into the Earth’s interior.

    The theory, proposed by Yale scientists David Bercovici and Elvira Mulyukova, may provide an origin story for subduction, one of the most fundamental forces responsible for the dynamic nature of the planet.

    The study appears in the PNAS.

    Subduction occurs when one tectonic plate slides underneath another plate and then sinks into the Earth’s mantle. Its role in major geological processes is immense: It is the main engine for tectonic motion. It builds mountains, triggers earthquakes, forms volcanoes, and drives the geologic carbon cycle.

    The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in 1996, USGS.

    Yet researchers have been uncertain about what initiates subduction.

    “Why Earth even has subduction, unlike other terrestrial planets as far as we know, is a mystery,” said Bercovici, Yale’s Frederick William Beinecke Professor and chair of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

    “Mantle rock near the surface that has cooled for hundreds of millions of years has two competing effects,” he said. “While it’s gotten colder and heavier and wants to sink, it’s also gotten stiffer and doesn’t want to sink. The stiffening effect should win out, as it does on most planets, but on Earth, for some reason, it doesn’t.”

    2
    A conceptual sketch of the ocean basin setting for the new model. Inset images from a computer model show mineral fraction, grain size, and weakness. Credit: Elvira Mulyukova and David Bercovici.

    According to the theoretical model developed by Bercovici and Mulyukova, a research scientist at Yale, subduction may initiate at the margins between Earth’s sea floor and continents.

    The model shows that tectonic stresses in an oceanic plate cause its mineral grains to mix with each other, become damaged, and eventually shrink. Over a period of approximately 100 million years, this process weakens the oceanic plate and makes it susceptible to vertical shear and bending — which are associated with the start of subduction.

    “The real bottleneck for tectonic plate activity on a terrestrial planet is how fast its massive, rocky layers can deform,” said Mulyukova. “The rocks can deform only as fast as their tiny mineral grains allow. Our model explains how these changes in mineral grains can dramatically weaken the rock and make subduction possible on a planet like Earth.”

    This research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on January 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Insights & Outcomes- A deep dive into oceans and proteins", , , , Finding the on/off switch in a protein sensor, Making waves in habitability, , Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Insights & Outcomes- A deep dive into oceans and proteins” 

    From Yale University

    January 15, 2021

    1
    Credit: Eri Griffin.

    This month, Insights & Outcomes is going deep — into ancient oceans, proteins within human cells, and the Earth’s mantle.

    As always, you can find more science and medicine research news on YaleNews’ Science & Technology and Health & Medicine pages.

    Finding the on/off switch in a protein sensor

    Human cells are equipped with a corrective program that can be quickly activated when their protein-making machinery misfires and produces misshapen proteins. However, when the program does not shut down in a timely manner it can lead to the death of cells and health problems such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. New findings by Yale researchers identify how the sensor that controls this crucial on-off switch works. Led by Malaiyalam Mariappan, associate professor of cell biology, the researchers found that when protein folding errors are detected, a protein complex called IRE1 is activated; once the errors are corrected, IRE1 turns off. The researchers discovered a part of this protein complex is responsible for shutting down the program and that when it malfunctions can trigger cell death. Targeting this part of the IRE1 complex could lead to new drug treatments for Type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and even infections such as the virus that causes COVID-19, the researchers report in the journal Cell Reports.

    Charting carbon’s deep-Earth travels

    Scientists are learning more about the geological conveyor belt that hauls carbon deep into the Earth’s mantle — namely, the process of subduction, which occurs when tectonic plates meet and one plate slides under another and sinks steeply over a period of millions of years.

    In a new study in Nature Communications, researchers found that much of the carbon exits the conveyor belt earlier than previously thought — at depths of about 50 to 60 kilometers. Because carbon at these depths is likely to be returned to the atmosphere via volcanoes, the Earth’s mantle may expel more carbon than it takes in via subduction over a period of millions to billions of years, the researchers say. “The deep-Earth CO2 fluxes calculated in the paper can influence the global carbon cycle on million-to-billion-year timescales,” said Jay Ague, the Henry Barnard Davis Memorial Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, who co-authored the study with former Yale Ph.D. student Emily Stewart, who is now at the California Institute of Technology. These emissions, however, are dwarfed by the amounts of carbon spewed into the atmosphere by human activities, Ague said.

    Making waves in habitability

    A fundamental question in Earth science centers on habitability: What conditions allowed life to develop on the planet? Many scientists define habitability as the conditions that allow water to exist on the planetary surface for billions of years. A new study in the journal Progress in Earth and Planetary Science suggests that something else is necessary for habitability — water circulation.

    The authors of the study, including Yale professors Shun Karato and Jeffrey Park of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, extended a model proposed in 2003 by Karato and Yale’s David Bercovici. They showed that global water circulation has an important control over the stability of ocean mass and suggested there is a self-regulating mechanism at work across the planet’s mantle transition zone, a depth of about 400 to 700 kilometers. The new model predicts there are plumes of water-rich material within that zone that carry a large amount of deeper water to the earth’s surface, particularly in continents surrounded by old oceans. “This paper provides a key new idea to explain why oceans on Earth have maintained their nearly constant volume, despite known, vigorous interactions with Earth’s interior,” Karato said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:39 am on January 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Hopping electrons help re-route harmful diseases", A long-standing question of how electrons travel far through a protein., A new escape route that acts to defuse these ticking time bombs – a wire made up of chains of amino acids that are present in a third of all proteins., , , , , Scientists at Yale have devised a novel way to identify the underlying mechanism that relieves oxidative stress as part of so-called biochemical reduction-oxidation (or “redox”) reactions., The team discovered electrons “hopping” over distances greater than a thousand times further than previously observed., When our usual disposal mechanisms fail the accumulated electrons can produce the kind of toxic event that causes many diseases including cancer., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Hopping electrons help re-route harmful diseases” 

    From Yale University

    December 29, 2020
    Jon Atherton

    1

    The simple act of breathing is among the most familiar ways we convert nutrients to energy – inhaling molecules of oxygen and harmlessly breathing out unwanted material.

    But when our usual disposal mechanisms fail, the accumulated electrons can produce the kind of toxic event that causes many diseases, including cancer.

    Studying life processes like an electronic circuit, scientists at Yale’s West Campus have devised a novel
    way to identify the underlying mechanism that relieves oxidative stress as part of so-called biochemical reduction-oxidation (or “redox”) reactions.

    Published in PNAS, the researchers found a new escape route that acts to defuse these ticking time bombs – a wire made up of chains of amino acids that are present in a third of all proteins.

    “We know these ring-shaped amino acid chains contribute to making proteins more robust. But we also found that the same chains can behave as electron wires,” said graduate student and primary author Catharine Shipps.

    Overcoming challenges that have hampered past protein conductivity studies, the team used a 4-electrode technique to measure electron flow in individual protein crystals.

    Although electrons had previously been observed “tunneling” through proteins, the team discovered electrons “hopping” over distances greater than a thousand times further than previously observed.

    “We are answering a long-standing question of how electrons travel far through a protein,” said senior author Nikhil Malvankar, assistant professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at the Yale Microbial Science Institute.

    The findings have implications for a wide range of applications such as artificial photosynthesis and the design of new biomedical materials.

    Ray Kelly and Peter Dahl modeled electron flow under the guidance of Victor Batista of the Yale Energy Sciences Institute. Michael Sawaya from the David Eisenberg group in UCLA provided protein crystals. Other authors were Yale’s Sophia Yi, Dennis Vu and UCLA’s David Boyer and Calina Glynn.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:06 pm on January 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ancient Earth may have birthed islands of life", Charles Darwin’s notion of “warm little ponds.”, Early Earth was a “water world” covered by deep oceans before the first continents poked their way to the surface. In such a world Darwin’s shallow warm ponds simply didn’t exist., Earth science, Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Ancient Earth may have birthed islands of life” 

    From Yale University

    January 4, 2021

    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Written by Jim Shelton

    1
    Credit: Michael S. Helfenbein.

    Islands jutting up from the world’s oceans provided environmental conditions necessary for early life to flourish, a new study co-authored by a Yale scientist suggests.

    Significantly, the finding offers important evidence supporting one of the most popular ideas about the origins of life on Earth — Charles Darwin’s notion of “warm little ponds.”

    Earth scientists Jun Korenaga of Yale University and Juan Carlos Rosas of the Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education in Mexico describe their new theory in the Jan. 4 online edition of the journal Nature Geoscience.

    In his writings, Darwin hypothesized that life began when shallow, warm ponds of water allowed essential biomolecules to concentrate and undergo polymerization reactions. Many scientists believe that if such ponds existed in abundance, or if they existed over a long period of time, it is possible that life emerged from a series of these chemical reactions.

    Yet there was a problem when applying this theory. The early Earth was a “water world,” covered by deep oceans long before the first continents poked their way to the surface. In such a world, Darwin’s shallow, warm ponds simply didn’t exist.

    Korenaga and Rosas say they may have the answer.

    The researchers developed a theoretical model for the likely topography of Earth’s sea floor during the Archean eon, which lasted from 4,000 million years ago until 2,500 million years ago.

    Their model found that a higher amount of internal heating in the Earth’s mantle than what exists today may have halted certain ongoing geophysical processes — creating a shallowing of ocean basins in some parts of the world. In this scenario, the researchers said, volcanic island chains and oceanic plateaus may have remained above sea level for hundreds of millions of years.

    “This is a very exciting finding for solid Earth science as well as prebiotic chemistry,” said Korenaga, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at Yale.

    Earth’s internal heating comes from the decay of radioactive elements such as uranium. Because these elements disappear over time, there would have been more of them during the Archeon eon. Korenaga said this would mean there was greater internal heating in the past.

    “My earlier collaboration with Jeffrey Bada, a world expert on prebiotic chemistry at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, tempted me to look into the influence of this well-known fact of sea-floor topography in the past, which had never been explored before,” Korenaga said. “Juan and I were surprised when we first saw our results, but in hindsight, it actually makes sense.”

    Korenaga said he hopes the study will motivate further investigations into the dynamic nature of Earth’s early landscape and its implications for the origin and evolution of life.

    Grants from NASA and the National Science Foundation supported the research.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:32 am on December 21, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Storm front: Yale center helps Bridgeport plan for climate threats", , , Community engagement is a hallmark of the Yale Urban Design Workshop’s approach to solving infrastructure problems in a manner that enhances quality of life for local stakeholders., Development on coastal wetlands has made Bridgeport more vulnerable to the effects of climate change., , Two projects - One: creation of a stormwater park on the South End’s westside. The other: a surge barrier will be built along the eastside., Yale University, Yale Urban Design Workshop (YUDW)   

    From Yale University: “Storm front: Yale center helps Bridgeport plan for climate threats” 

    From Yale University

    December 16, 2020

    Media Contact
    Bess Connolly
    elizabeth.connolly@yale.edu
    203-432-1324

    Written by Mike Cummings

    1
    Development on coastal wetlands has made Bridgeport more vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including rising sea levels. As part of the Resilient Bridgeport project, the Yale Urban Design Workshop has helped develop a comprehensive strategy to guide the city in preventing flooding and adapting to climate change. Credit: Waggonner & Ball.

    On Oct. 29, 2012, a storm surge from Hurricane Sandy swamped the South End of Bridgeport, Connecticut, inundating the city’s low-lying neighborhoods. Just one year earlier, Tropical Storm Irene flooded the same area, damaging homes, businesses, and public spaces.

    And in the face of a changing climate, the coastal city can expect to get battered by such extreme weather events frequently in the coming decades.

    Today, two projects aim to reduce flood risk in the South End and strengthen the area’s resilience to these climate threats. One features the creation of a stormwater park on the South End’s westside that will slow runoff, improve drainage, and provide an attractive public park. In the other, a surge barrier will be built along the eastside that will be incorporated into the streetscape and, in places, provide new greenspace.

    The Yale Urban Design Workshop (YUDW), a community design center affiliated with the Yale School of Architecture, is involved in both projects.

    The YUDW is part of a multi-disciplinary team of architects, engineers, urban planners, and landscape designers collaborating on Resilient Bridgeport, a state-led effort to protect the city’s vulnerable neighborhoods from chronic flooding and promote long-term prosperity, which includes the two pilot projects.

    “Resilient Bridgeport establishes a vision for the city that is vibrant, safe and flexible, with new opportunities for development and recreation,” said Andrei Harwell, YUDW’s director of design and its project manager for Resilient Bridgeport. “At its heart, it’s an attempt to create an innovate framework to help the city meet the challenges of climate change and rising sea levels while enhancing neighborhoods and community life.”

    In Sandy’s aftermath, the YUDW joined a host of partners in helping Connecticut secure $10 million from the federal Rebuild by Design (RBD) competition, a program that promoted innovative solutions to the consequences of climate change in states hit by the powerful storm. After the funding was received, the Resilient Bridgeport team — including New Orleans-based Waggonner & Ball Architecture/Environment and the Dutch engineering firm Arcadis — was assembled. The funding paid for the creation of a resiliency strategic plan and the pilot project featuring the stormwater park.

    Partly on the strength of the ideas presented in the plan, the state received an additional $56 million from the federal National Disaster Resilience Competition. (That competition was similar to the RBD, but broadened to include all 50 states.) “It was the top-rated application nationally,” Harwell said.

    This additional money is funding the barrier project, which is the larger and more ambitious of the two pilot projects.

    2
    Community engagement is a hallmark of the Yale Urban Design Workshop’s approach to solving infrastructure problems in a manner that enhances quality of life for local stakeholders. This photo shows the Resilient Bridgeport team meeting with stakeholders in the South End about project designs in July 2016. Credit: Waggonner & Ball.

    The YUDW, which was founded in 1992 and includes School of Architecture faculty, postdoctoral associates, and student fellows, serves as urban design consultants and helps promote engagement between Bridgeport stakeholders and the Resilient Bridgeport team.

    “The YUDW team brings a couple of attributes to the table that you don’t get from a typical consultancy,” said David Kooris, who managed the project for the state while serving as director of resilience for the Department of Housing. “They bring innovative and unconstrained thinking to design challenges and throw new ideas into the mix.

    “They research best practices across the globe and have their finger on the pulse of cutting-edge ideas in a way a typical consultant might not.”

    It’s not just about preventing flooding

    The Yale workshop team also has demonstrated a strong commitment to engaging with the affected communities, said Kooris, who lectures at the Yale School of the Environment. “They’re able to engage the community in a meaningful and impactful way because of the trust that they engender from neighborhood stakeholders,” he said.

    That kind of engagement is a signature of the YUDW, said Alan Plattus, professor of architecture and the workshop’s founding director.

    “We approach design as a form of community organizing, bringing together often underserved communities around opportunities to build something useful that improves their lives,” said Plattus, who initiated the YUDW’s involvement in Resilient Bridgeport. “If there is anything innovative about our approach, it’s not only the community engagement, but also the recognition that the measures you design will be different in different circumstances depending on the challenges and the opportunities.”

    The focus on flexibility and community input is evident in the two projects, which are intended to improve quality of life in the South End beyond simply preventing flooding.

    The barrier project will construct a berm that wraps around the eastside, including the University of Bridgeport’s campus, and connect to Seaside Park, a crescent-shaped waterfront park designed by renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead.

    “Imagine trying to weave this wall through this neighborhood,” Harwell said. “Lots of problems arise. How do you prevent the neighborhood being cut off from the waterfront and people being cut off from each other?”

    3
    The YUDW is involved in two pilot projects in Bridgeport’s South End: The one to the left includes construction of a storm water park that will slow and drain surface runoff during heavy rains and function as a neighborhood park. The project to the right will create a berm intended to prevent flooding from storm surge. Credit: YUDW.

    The design team solved these problems by rendering the barrier as a linear park, placing public greenspace atop the wall to create a new landscape. The barrier will become an extension of Seaside Park and serve as a pedestrian quad for the university, Harwell explained.

    Drainage systems will be installed to move stormwater over the surge barrier and empty it into Long Island Sound through Seaside Park, diverting it from the city’s combined stormwater and sewage system.

    The stormwater park will be located adjacent to the former site of Marina Village, a public housing complex that was plagued by flooding. A separate construction project is replacing Marina Village with a mixed-income housing development. The runoff from the new complex and surrounding streets will flow into the park where it will be collected before being pumped into Long Island Sound, keeping it out of the sewer system. When it’s not raining, the space will function as a city park with places for children to play and spaces for family barbecues.

    “One of our goals at the YUDW is to ensure that any investment in infrastructure, such as the surge barrier and stormwater park, produces multiple benefits for the neighborhood through its design,” said Harwell. “We can’t afford to build expensive infrastructure that does only one thing.”

    The projects don’t seek to hide infrastructure, but to make it visible in a way that makes its utility apparent both in mitigating flood risk and providing new green space, Plattus pointed out.

    “We try to use design to take those big infrastructure projects down to a level where the community can see a tangible benefit from them and don’t feel like they’re getting bulldozed,” he said.

    Environmental reviews for the projects have been completed and construction on both should begin soon. While they represent just two of the many solutions presented in the Resilient Bridgeport strategic plan, they provide an example for other coastal cities in New England for developing systems to address flooding and climate change-related issues that accounts for the community and surrounding ecology, Harwell said.

    Resilient Bridgeport has also provided student fellows with rich opportunities to work with an internationally recognized design team — and to address systemic problems exacerbated by climate change.

    “For me, the most challenging aspect of the Resilient Bridgeport Project was incorporating all the various constraints of the project into a clear design concept; preserving the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Seaside Park, and incorporating the northeast rail corridor, while proposing new interventions that would not only protect the South End but also improve the urban environment and provide well-designed public spaces,” said Jared Abraham ’16 M. Arch, who was a postgraduate fellow at the YUDW from May 2016 to August 2018.

    The experience opened his eyes to the importance of listening to local stakeholders, he said.

    “Because of the scale of the proposed intervention, it was necessary that we engage local residents and businesses to ensure that our design proposal would be a real asset to the community,” said Abraham, currently a design associate at Wendell Burnette Architects in Phoenix.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:06 am on December 21, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Learning by Doing" is a free introductory series of online science videos geared for elementary and middle school students launched this week., "Make rain in a jar? Repel pepper with a finger? That’s ‘Learning by Doing’', , , Finding fun science experiments that can be conducted safely and affordably at home — while also conveying important scientific concepts — isn’t easy., MIT’s Full STEAM Ahead group which has developed resources for online teaching and learning., Our goal is to curate 100 experiments in the coming months., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Make rain in a jar? Repel pepper with a finger? That’s ‘Learning by Doing’’ 

    From Yale University

    December 18, 2020
    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Written by Jim Shelton

    1
    A screenshot from the Learning by Doing website.

    As any parent homeschooling a young student knows all too well, finding fun science experiments that can be conducted safely and affordably at home — while also conveying important scientific concepts — isn’t easy.

    All too often, home experiments require the purchase of materials or supplies that families don’t have readily available. In other cases, the experiments don’t provide avenues for further reading or additional experimentation.

    Well, help is on the way, thanks to Yale’s Franke Program in Science and the Humanities, with an assist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Learning by Doing, a free, introductory series of online science videos geared for elementary and middle school students, launched this week. The Franke Program hopes to build a digital trove of experiments — with the help of kids themselves — by sparking the creativity of families who film their own videos and upload them to the site.

    “Our goal is to curate 100 experiments in the coming months,” said Yale astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan, director of the Franke Program. “I am deeply invested in the public understanding of science and inviting people to explore their creativity in fun ways to celebrate science.”

    Learning by Doing emerged from a contest the Franke Program had planned for spring 2020. Called Eureka!, that project would have invited the Yale community to submit short videos explaining a scientific concept in an innovative way, such as with a dance or a poem.

    Then the COVID-19 pandemic hit. It scuttled Eureka!, but Natarajan saw a new use for the idea of filming short science videos. In 2012, she’d written an op-ed for the Washington Post on the value of encouraging children to experience the singular joy of figuring out basic science — learning by doing — even if they never went on to become professional scientists. Perhaps, she thought, Eureka! could be adapted for youngsters.

    “The pandemic wreaked havoc on all our routines,” Natarajan said. “Many of our colleagues were struggling with teaching their children, who were doing their schoolwork remotely, while working from home themselves. I realized we could tweak Eureka! to respond to the new need to keep young children learning at home and enjoying it.”

    Natarajan enlisted help from Franke Program Assistant Director Ty Kamp, Yale graduate students (and Franke fellows) Madeleine Reinecke (Department of Psychology) and Liam Taylor (Ecology and Evolutionary Biology), doctoral student Clara Liao (Interdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine), and MIT graduate student Zahra Kanji. They helped create sample videos, set up a website and YouTube channel, and developed “explainer” materials for the experiments. Independent filmmaker Erin Macpherson edited and compiled the videos.

    Natarajan also consulted with MIT’s Full STEAM Ahead group, which has developed resources for online teaching and learning.

    “At MIT we seek to use technologies that expand the reach of our learning opportunities while maintaining or enhancing our focus on hand-on, minds-on learning,” said Eric Klopfer, professor and director of the Scheller Teacher Education Program and the Education Arcade at MIT.

    Kamp and her children conducted a pair of the “template” videos: one that demonstrates surface tension with black pepper, water, milk, and dishwashing liquid, and another that demonstrates condensation with hot water, ice, a measuring cup, and a glass jar.

    “Accessibility is a large part of this project,” Kamp said. “People are rightly concerned about the growing disparity in education, particularly at the early stages where inequities cascade to limiting opportunities later. We want to engage students to explore science in a way that isn’t passive.”

    Reinecke, a graduate student in psychology, made a Learning by Doing video that demonstrates the Stroop Effect — the idea that people take longer to process incongruent information — with a bowl, colored markers, and some strips of paper.

    The Learning by Doing website has a form through which participants can submit ideas for new videos. The project team will vet those ideas, offer help with video editing, and augment them with explainer material.

    “My own interest in science was stoked by early ‘flotation experiments,’ dunking myself and my toys in tubs of water stored for watering plants in our garden in Chennai, India,” Natarajan said. “Which toys floated, which ones sank, and why — this was my introduction to the joy of figuring things out. Before I knew it, I was hooked on science.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

     
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