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  • richardmitnick 9:32 am on November 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Neuromarker for ADHD could improve diagnosis of the disorder", , , , For children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) timely intervention is key., , Yale researchers identified differences in brain structure and activity in children with ADHD that could serve as a more objective diagnostic tool in the future., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Neuromarker for ADHD could improve diagnosis of the disorder” 

    From Yale University

    11.23.22
    Mallory Locklear

    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    Yale researchers identified differences in brain structure and activity in children with ADHD that could serve as a more objective diagnostic tool in the future.

    1
    Illustration by Michael S. Helfenbein.

    For children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), timely intervention is key. But diagnoses typically rely on questionnaires and observations of a child’s behavior, which are subjective and can lead to delays in treatment.

    Yale researchers aim to establish a more objective measure of ADHD, and in a new study, they report an important step in that direction. Using brain imaging data from children with and without ADHD, they identified differences in brain structure and activity in children with ADHD that could serve as a neuromarker for the disorder.

    They will present their findings Nov. 27 at the Radiological Society of North America annual meeting.

    The subjectivity of ADHD assessments can cause children to be misdiagnosed or remain undiagnosed, explained Huang Lin, a research fellow at Yale School of Medicine and lead author of the study. Questionnaires given to a child’s parent or caregiver can be influenced by life events or stress, for example. The questionnaires also require caregivers to have spent a sufficient amount of time with the child, meaning children with less stable care may go undiagnosed. And as people age, they tend to show different symptoms, making diagnosis more difficult in older individuals.

    “When people get older, the hyperactivity aspect of the disorder is decreased,” said Lin. “That can make it more difficult to diagnose observationally, and without a diagnosis, people with ADHD may assume that what they’re experiencing is standard.”

    Lin and her colleagues used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, which includes nearly 12,000 children from across the United States. The participants joined the study at age 9 or 10; researchers will continue tracking their biological and behavioral development into young adulthood, which will yield new data over the next few years. The demographics of the study participants mirror those of the U.S. population.

    “That the study group is representative of the greater U.S. population means our findings will be generalizable to the U.S. population as well,” said Lin.

    The researchers conducted a whole-brain analysis using images that measured brain structure and function in 7,805 9- to 10-year-olds. They found that the frontal cortex of the brain — an area responsible for functions like impulse control, attention, and working memory — was thinner in children with ADHD than in those without the disorder. Brain networks related to memory processing, alertness, and auditory processing were also different in children with ADHD. Further, white matter, which is composed of nerve fibers that project from one part of the brain to another, was thinner in children with ADHD. This could have implications for how different brain regions communicate with each other.

    The pervasiveness of the differences was surprising, said Lin.

    “I expected some brain regions to stand out. But we saw a more overall change throughout the entire brain,” she said.

    The pattern the researchers uncovered was sufficiently stable across study participants that the research team used it to train a machine learning algorithm to predict who has ADHD based on brain images alone — meaning it holds promise as a diagnostic tool going forward, they said.

    “The algorithm still needs further validation,” said Lin. “But once it is ready for clinical use, combining this more objective measure with the assessments already in use could allow more children to be accurately diagnosed in the future.”

    The findings also emphasize that ADHD is not simply a disorder of behavior.

    “Externalized behavior is certainly a part of ADHD, but there’s also a neurological correlate,” said Sam Payabvash, assistant professor of radiology and biomedical imaging at Yale School of Medicine and senior author of the study. “Better understanding of the neurological component will help with diagnosis and treatment in the future.”

    It may also reduce the stigma attached to mental illness.

    “If you measured someone’s blood pressure and found it was high, nobody would question that it was a condition that should be addressed. But a lot of people question diagnoses of mental illness,” said Lin. “Being able to measure it like we can blood pressure could help address that stigma.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:20 am on November 22, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Going to the ‘femoral head’ of the class to explain dinosaur evolution", A new study by Yale paleontologists charts the radical evolutionary changes to the thigh bones of dinosaurs and birds that allowed them to stand on two feet., , , , How the femoral head-a critical part of dinosaur anatomy-developed., Inward-turned femoral heads are necessary for fast and effective erect bipedal locomotion., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “Going to the ‘femoral head’ of the class to explain dinosaur evolution” 

    From Yale University

    11.21.22
    Written by Jim Shelton

    Media:
    Fred Mamoun:
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    A new study by Yale paleontologists charts the radical evolutionary changes to the thigh bones of dinosaurs and birds that allowed them to stand on two feet.

    1
    A new study shows how changes in the upper femur developed across a wide range of dinosaurs, early reptiles and avians, and their modern-day counterparts. The femoral “head” twisted inward in early dinosaurs and modern crocodiles (left); it grew an attachment in later dinosaurs and birds (right).

    Dinosaurs — and birds — wouldn’t have been able to stand on their own two feet without some radical changes to their upper thigh bones. Now, a new study by Yale paleontologists charts the evolutionary course of these leggy alterations.

    The findings resolve a longstanding question about dinosaur evolution and offer a prime example of how new physical features can pop up briefly during embryonic development and then give way to older, known features in adults.

    For the study, a research team led by Yale’s Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar and Shiro Egawa focused on evolutionary shifts in the “femoral head” — where the upper femur connects to the hip — across a wide range of dinosaurs, early reptiles and avians, and their modern-day counterparts. The study appears in Proceedings of the Royal Society B [below].

    The team also included researchers from the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry in Japan, the American Museum of Natural History, Virginia Tech, the Royal Veterinary College in England, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Queensland Museum, CNRS/Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in France, Missouri State University, and the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan.

    “We figured out the way in which the femoral head, a critical part of dinosaur anatomy, developed,” said Bhullar, associate professor of Earth & planetary sciences in Yale’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences and an associate curator at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. “Inward-turned femoral heads are necessary for fast and effective, erect bipedal locomotion.”

    3
    For the study, researchers studied femoral head development in a variety of fossils and animal embryos for reptiles (top) and birds (bottom).

    For years, Bhullar said, there had been two conflicting theories about how dinosaur femoral heads developed. One theory held that the femoral head simply grew an attachment, or overhang, that reoriented the legs. The other theory was that the femoral head twisted inward over time.

    Evidence exists for both the twisting theory, found in early dinosaurs and modern crocodiles, and the in-growth theory, found in later dinosaurs and birds.

    For the new study, the researchers used 3D imaging to study femoral head development in a variety of fossils and animal embryos. Bhullar’s lab at Yale is particularly known for its innovative use of CT scanning and microscopy to create 3D images of fossils.

    What they discovered is that evidence for both theories occurs together.

    “The embryonic development of this major feature changed completely — even while the feature itself remained constant in adults for quite some time,” Bhullar said. “This sort of hidden shift in development might be more common than we think in evolution, and it should serve to caution against the widely held idea that features which develop differently must have evolved separately.”

    Shiro Egawa, a former postdoctoral associate in Bhullar’s lab who is now a postdoctoral fellow at the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry in Japan, is the study’s first author and co-corresponding author.

    Co-authors include Christopher Griffin, a postdoctoral fellow in Yale’s Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, and former Yale researchers João Botelho and Daniel Smith-Paredes.

    The research was funded, in part, by the National Science Foundation, the Japan Science Society, the Yamada Science Foundation, RIKEN, and the Zoological Society of Japan.

    Science paper:
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:40 am on November 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers Solve Hundred-Year-Old Botanical Mystery that was Key to the Spread of Plant Life on Land", Air bubbles block the movement of water., , Around 400 million years ago plants developed vascular systems to extract water efficiently from the soil and use it for photosynthesis altering forever alter the Earth’s atmosphere and ecosystems., Avoiding the formation and spread of these air bubbles is of critical importance for tolerating drought today., , , , , , , , Plants had to overcome drought-induced air bubbles., The earliest land plants were small — just a few centimeters tall at most — and restricted to moist boggy habitats around streams and ponds., , When plants begin to dry out air-bubbles get stuck in the xylem., Yale University, YSE-led research has discovered the answer to a 100-year-old paleontology mystery — how early plants emerged from their watery habitats to grow on land through changes to their vascular systems.   

    From The School of the Environment At Yale University: “Researchers Solve Hundred-Year-Old Botanical Mystery that was Key to the Spread of Plant Life on Land” 

    1

    From The School of the Environment

    at

    Yale University

    11.10.22

    Fran Silverman
    Associate Director of Communications
    fran.silverman@yale.edu
    +1 203-436-4842

    YSE-led research has discovered the answer to a 100-year-old paleontology mystery — how early plants emerged from their watery habitats to grow on land through changes to their vascular systems.

    1

    The earliest land plants were small — just a few centimeters tall at most — and restricted to moist, boggy habitats around streams and ponds. Around 400 million years ago, however, plants developed vascular systems to extract water more efficiently from the soil and use it for photosynthesis, a transition that would forever alter the Earth’s atmosphere and ecosystems. A team of researchers have now solved a 100-year-old paleontology mystery: How did ancient plants emerge from swamps and riverbanks to new habitats with limited access to water?

    In a new paper published in Science [below], YSE Professor of Plant Physiological Ecology Craig Brodersen and his research team, including lead author Martin Bouda ’17 PhD, ’12 MPhil and Kyra A. Prats ’22 PhD, ’16 MFS, discovered that a simple change in the vascular system of plants made them more drought-resistant, which opened up new landscapes for exploration.

    2
    Plant material from Yale-Myers Forest and YSE greenhouses were used to study how their vascular systems are constructed and how they compare to the extinct plants from the fossil record. Without developing their vascular systems, plants would largely still look like mosses. Shown here: Huperzia lucidula, also known as Shining club-moss. Photo courtesy of Craig Brodersen Lab.

    The research was spurred by a century-long debate about why the simple, cylindrical vascular system of the earliest land plants rapidly changed to more complex shapes. In the 1920s, scientists noted this increasing complexity in the fossil record but were not able to pinpoint the reason — if there even was one — for the evolutionary changes.

    Over the past decade, Brodersen and colleagues have explored the implications of how modern plant vascular systems are constructed, especially within the context of drought. When plants begin to dry out, air-bubbles get stuck in the xylem, which is the specialized tissue that transports water and nutrients from the soil to stems and leaves. The bubbles block the movement of water. Left unchecked, they spread throughout the network, disconnect plants from the soil, and ultimately lead to plant death. Avoiding the formation and spread of these bubbles is of critical importance for tolerating drought today, and the research team applied this same thinking to explain the patterns of vascular organization in the fossil record.

    3
    Cross section though leaf of Cheilanthes lanosa, also known as Hairy lip fern, showing a heart-shaped vascular system in the xylem. Credit: Craig Brodersen Lab.

    The cylinder-shaped vascular systems in the earliest land plants, which were similar to a bundle of straws, had initially served them well in their early watery habitats. But as they moved onto land with fewer water resources, the plants had to overcome drought-induced air bubbles. Early land plants did this by reconfiguring the ancestral, cylindrical-shaped xylem into more complex shapes that prevented air bubbles from spreading.

    Historically, observations of increasing vascular complexity in the fossil record were thought to be coincidental and of marginal significance, a byproduct of plants growing in size and developing more complex architecture. The new study reverses this view.

    “It didn’t just sort of happen. There’s actually a good evolutionary reason,” says Bouda. “There was strong pressure from drought that made it happen. That was the hundred-year-old riddle, which we’ve now answered.”

    Bouda notes that the makeup of the team of researchers who co-authored the study, which included a paleobotanist, plant physiologists, and a hydrologist, helped provide techniques and perspectives that led them to uncover the reason for the complex vascular structure that had emerged in Devonian-era plants. The team used microscopy and anatomical analysis to view the inner workings of plant specimens, which included fossil specimens from the Yale Peabody Museum, and living plants from Yale Myers Forest, the Marsh Botanical Garden, the New York Botanical Garden, and the University of Connecticut. Using this information, the team then predicted vascular configurations that could tolerate drought and illustrated how seemingly simple changes in shape lead to profound improvements in drought tolerance.

    4
    Schematic animation of embolism spreading between conduits in two stem cross-sections. In both, embolism crosses half of the conduit walls it encounters. The plant on the left dies, the one on the right lives. Credit: Martin Bouda, under CC Attribution license.

    “Every time a plant deviates from that cylindrical vascular system, every time it changes just a little bit, the plant gets a reward in terms of its ability to survive drought. And if that reward is constantly there, then it’s going to force plants in the direction away from the ancient cylindrical vascular system toward these more complex forms,” says Brodersen. “By making these very small changes, plants solved this problem that they had to figure out very early in the history of the earth, otherwise the forests that we see today just wouldn’t exist.”

    These changes happened rather rapidly — in paleontological time frames, that is — over approximately 20-40 million years. The driving forces behind the change to plant vascular structure could help inform research in breeding drought-resistant plants, helping to build resilience to the impacts of climate change and address production-related food insecurity issues.

    “Now that we have a better understanding of how the vascular systems are put together and how that influences a plant’s ability to tolerate drought, that’s the kind of thing that could be used as a target for breeding programs — for example, making better root systems, making better vascular systems in plants,” Brodersen says.

    The co-authors of the study include Brett A. Huggett, Bates College associate professor of biology; Jay Wason, University of Maine assistant professor of forest ecosystem physiology; and Jonathan Wilson, Haverford College associate professor of environmental studies.

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The Yale School of the Environment

    2

    Yale School of the Environment Vision and Mission

    We are leading the world toward a sustainable future with cutting-edge research, teaching, and public engagement on society’s evolving and urgent environmental challenges.

    Core Values

    Our Mission and Vision are grounded in seven fundamental values:

    Excellence: We promote and engage in path-breaking science, policy, and business models that build on a fundamental commitment to analytic rigor, data, intellectual integrity, and excellence.
    Leadership: We attract outstanding students nationally and internationally and offer a pioneering curriculum that defines the knowledge and skills needed to be a 21st century environmental leader in a range of professions.
    Sustainability: We generate knowledge that will advance thinking and understanding across the various dimensions of sustainability.
    Community: We offer a community that finds strength in its collegiality, diversity, independence, commitment to excellence, and lifelong learning.
    Diversity: We celebrate our differences and identify pathways to a sustainable future that respects diverse values including equity, liberty, and civil discourse.
    Collaboration: We foster collaborative learning, professional skill development, and problem-solving — and we strengthen our scholarship, teaching, policy work, and outreach through partnerships across the university and beyond.
    Responsibility: We encourage environmental stewardship and responsible behavior on campus and beyond.

    Guiding Principles

    In pursuit of our Mission and Vision, we:

    Build on more than a century of work bringing science-based strategies, ethical considerations, and conservation practices to natural resource management.
    Approach problems on a systems basis and from interdisciplinary perspectives.
    Integrate theory and practice, providing innovative solutions to society’s most pressing environmental problems.
    Address environmental challenges at multiple scales and settings — from local to global, urban to rural, managed to wild.
    Draw on the depth of resources at Yale University and our network of alumni who extend across the world.
    Create opportunities for research, policy application, and professional development through our unique centers and programs.
    Provide a diverse forum to convene conversations on difficult issues that are critical to progress on sustainability.
    Bring special focus on the most significant threats to a sustainable future including climate change, the corresponding need for clean energy, and the increasing stresses on our natural resources.

    Statement of Environmental Policy

    As faculty, staff, and students of the Yale School of the Environment, we affirm our commitment to responsible stewardship of the environment of our School, our University, the city of New Haven, and the other sites of our teaching, research, professional, and social activities.

    In the course of these activities, we shall strive to:

    Reduce our use of natural resources.
    Support the sustainable production of the resources we must use by purchasing renewable, reusable, recyclable, and recycled materials.
    Minimize our use of toxic substances and ensure that unavoidable use is in full compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations.
    Reduce the amount of waste we generate and promote strategies to reuse and recycle those wastes that cannot be avoided.
    Restore the environment where possible.

    Each member of the School community is encouraged to set an example for others by serving as an active steward of our environment.

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton.

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:40 pm on November 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The Enduring Mystery of the Dragonfly 44 Galaxy", , , , , MOND theory, , Some ultra-diffuse galaxies somehow lost their star-forming gas leaving them with only a skeleton of elderly stars., The galaxy dubbed Dragonfly 44 is 99.99% dark matter., , Yale University   

    From “Quanta Magazine” : “The Enduring Mystery of the Dragonfly 44 Galaxy” 

    From “Quanta Magazine”

    11.7.22
    Lyndie Chiou

    1
    Ultra-diffuse galaxies somehow lost their star-forming gas, leaving them with only a skeleton of elderly stars.
    Credit: Kristina Armitage/Quanta Magazine.

    In 2016, astronomers led by Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University published a bombshell paper [The Astrophysical Journal Letters (below)] claiming the discovery of a galaxy so dim, yet so broad and heavy, that it must be almost entirely invisible. They estimated that the galaxy, dubbed Dragonfly 44, is 99.99% dark matter.

    A heated debate ensued about Dragonfly 44’s properties that remains unresolved. Meanwhile, more than 1,000 similarly big but faint galaxies have turned up.

    Dragonfly 44 and its ilk are known as ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). While they can be as large as the largest ordinary galaxies, UDGs are exceptionally dim — so dim that, in telescope surveys of the sky, “it’s a task to filter out the noise without accidentally filtering out these galaxies,” said Paul Bennet, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. The bright star-forming gas that’s abundant in other galaxies seems to have vanished in UDGs, leaving only a skeleton of elderly stars.

    Their existence has caused a stir in galactic evolutionary theory, which failed to predict them. “They didn’t turn up in simulations,” van Dokkum said. “You have to do something special to make a galaxy that big and faint.”

    Wild new theories have emerged to explain how Dragonfly 44 and other UDGs came about. And these giant smudges of light may be providing fresh evidence of dark matter’s invisible hand.

    Too Much Dark Matter

    As gravity brings clumps of gas and stars together, their combined energies and momentums cause the mashup to inflate and rotate. Eventually a galaxy emerges.

    There’s just one problem. As galaxies rotate, they should come apart. They don’t appear to have enough mass — and thus gravity — to stick together. The concept of dark matter was invented to provide the missing gravity. In this picture, a galaxy sits inside a larger conglomeration of nonluminous particles. This dark matter “halo” holds the spinning galaxy together.

    One way to estimate a galaxy’s rotation speed, and thus its dark matter content, is by counting its spherical clusters of stars. “We don’t know why, from a theory point of view,” Bennet said, but the number of these “globular clusters” correlates closely with those harder-to-measure properties. In the 2016 paper, van Dokkum counted 94 globular clusters inside Dragonfly 44 — a number that implied an extraordinarily large dark matter halo, despite how little visible matter the galaxy has.

    No one had ever seen anything like it. Van Dokkum and co-authors suggested that Dragonfly 44 could be a “failed Milky Way”: a galaxy with a Milky Way-size dark matter halo that underwent a mysterious event early on that robbed it of its star-forming gas, leaving it with nothing but aging stars and a giant halo.

    Or No Dark Matter

    The object attracted the interest of another camp of astronomers who argue that dark matter doesn’t exist at all. These researchers explain galaxies’ missing gravity by tweaking Newton’s law of gravity instead, an approach called modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND.

    ___________________________________________________
    “MOND”: Modified Newtonian dynamics


    Mordehai Milgrom, “MOND” theorist, is an Israeli physicist and professor in the department of Condensed Matter Physics at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel http://cosmos.nautil.us


    ___________________________________________________

    According to MOND, the modified gravitational force for each galaxy is calculated from the mass-to-light ratio of its stars — their total mass divided by their luminosity. MOND theorists do not speculate as to why the force would depend on this ratio, but their ad hoc formula matches the observed speeds of most galaxies, without the need to invoke dark matter.

    When news broke about Dragonfly 44, MOND advocate Stacy McGaugh, an astronomer at Case Western Reserve University, calculated from its mass-to-light ratio that it should rotate more slowly than van Dokkum’s initial estimate indicated. The MOND calculation didn’t seem to fit the data.

    2
    More than 1,000 ultra-diffuse galaxies have been identified in recent years, including (from left) Dragonfly 44, NGC 1052-DF2, and a close-together pair labeled NGC 1052-DF4 and NGC 1052-DF5. Credits:(left) Teymoor Saifollahi and NASA/HST; NASA/ESA/Pieter van Dokkum; Judy Schmidt.

    But then in 2019, van Dokkum’s group downgraded Dragonfly 44’s rotation speed using improved data [The Astrophysical Journal (below)]. MOND was vindicated. “Dragonfly 44 is an example of how these data evolve to agree with MOND,” said McGaugh.

    Still, for the majority of astronomers, who believe in dark matter, the slower rotation speed just implied that Dragonfly 44’s halo is smaller than they thought. In 2020, an independent group further downsized the halo by counting dramatically fewer globular clusters [MNRAS (below)], but van Dokkum disputes this result. Though the halo’s size remains uncertain, it may be less massive than initially supposed, suggesting that Dragonfly 44 isn’t a failed Milky Way after all.

    Big Old Galaxy

    A newly discovered oddity has compounded the mystery.

    In a paper published in August [MNRAS (below)], van Dokkum’s group found Dragonfly 44 to be extremely ancient, having formed between 10 billion and 13 billion years ago.

    But such an old galaxy should not be as large as Dragonfly 44 is. Early-universe objects tend to be more compact because they formed before the universe’s rapid expansion.

    Moreover, such an old, threadbare galaxy should have been completely torn apart by now. That Dragonfly 44 has held together implies that it has a hefty dark matter halo after all — potentially restoring the “failed Milky Way” hypothesis. “That’s a really fun explanation, so that’s why I like it, but I don’t know if it’s right,” said van Dokkum.

    Another explanation, the “high spin” hypothesis, posits that two small galaxies merged while rotating in the same direction, such that the resulting galaxy, Dragonfly 44, acquired the angular momentum of both. This caused it to rotate more quickly, puffing it out and blowing out its star-making material.

    Dazzlingly Diverse UDGs

    Amid the scrutiny of Dragonfly 44, astronomers have also cataloged a vast and diverse collection of other ultra-diffuse galaxies. The findings are forcing them to conclude that galaxies form in more ways than they knew.

    Some newfound UDGs seem to lack dark matter entirely. Van Dokkum’s group identified one such galaxy in 2018 [Nature (below)], then spotted a trail of others nearby. This May, the team conjectured in [Nature (below)] that the trail formed in a long-ago collision of two galaxies. The collision slowed down the flow of the galaxies’ gas, but their dark matter kept going as if nothing had happened. The gas then compressed into clumps of stars, eventually forming a string of dark matter-free galaxies.

    Meanwhile, Bennet discovered two UDGs in 2018 [The Astrophysical Journal Letters (below)]that point to a different formation theory. In each case, tidal forces from a heavy nearby galaxy seem to have ripped through the UDG, puffing it out and stealing its gas. (This can’t explain Dragonfly 44, which sits too far from heavy galaxies.)

    Puzzlingly, a September [MNRAS (below)] paper reported recent star formation in a UDG, contradicting the idea that they only harbor old stars.

    Such a range of UDGs that look the same outwardly but differ internally may validate dark matter theory over MOND. “If the stars are moving very fast in one galaxy, and very slowly in the other, that’s a big problem for those alternative theories,” van Dokkum said.

    McGaugh agreed that if there are “genuine outliers” among the UDG population, “that is indeed a problem for MOND.” However, he added, “that doesn’t automatically make dark matter a better interpretation.”

    Definitive answers will require new telescopes. The newly operational James Webb Space Telescope has already spotted distant galaxies as they appeared when they were forming in the early universe, which will help test and refine the nascent ideas.

    “The big takeaway is that we still don’t know what’s out there,” van Dokkum said. “There are galaxies that we haven’t discovered that are very big, very close by, and have unusual properties, and they are not in our current catalogs even after all these decades of studying the sky.”

    Science papers:
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 2016
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 2018
    The Astrophysical Journal 2019
    MNRAS 2020
    Nature
    Nature
    MNRAS
    See the above science papers for detailed material with images.
    MNRAS

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Formerly known as Simons Science News, Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent online publication launched by The Simons Foundation to enhance public understanding of science. Why Quanta? Albert Einstein called photons “quanta of light.” Our goal is to “illuminate science.” At Quanta Magazine, scientific accuracy is every bit as important as telling a good story. All of our articles are meticulously researched, reported, edited, copy-edited and fact-checked.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:56 am on November 7, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Yale School of the Environment Students to Represent NGOs and Environmental Organizations at COP27", , , , , Yale University   

    From The School of the Environment At Yale University: “Yale School of the Environment Students to Represent NGOs and Environmental Organizations at COP27” 

    1

    From The School of the Environment

    at

    Yale University

    11.4.22

    1

    COP27, the annual “conference of the parties” hosted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, begins this weekend in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt, drawing tens of thousands of global activists, diplomats, and heads of state. They will be joined at the conference by dozens of students, faculty, and staff from the Yale School of the Environment and Yale University who will participate in key decision-making and negotiations centered on global climate action.

    This year’s conference takes place against the backdrop of a growing energy crisis, rising inflation, and an ongoing conflict in Ukraine — all of which impact critical environmental issues. This is also the first UN climate summit since the release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Sixth Assessment report, which painted the starkest picture yet of our rapidly changing climate and the ever-increasing threats posed to people and ecosystems if urgent action is not taken.

    It also will be the first conference held on the African continent since 2011. The setting is expected to put a heightened focus on the Global South, where millions of people from low-emitting countries and regions are deeply impacted by the effects of climate change caused by the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitters.

    “With every slightest increment of warming, the impacts will only get worse, with a disproportionate impact on those who are still developing — and lack the resources and means to protect themselves — through implementing effective climate action,” Sameh Shoukry, Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and COP27 President-designate, said in a recent statement.

    During the two-week conference, students from YSE and Yale will provide support in areas such as climate finance, environmental justice, natural climate solutions, and ecosystem preservation. They will represent a range of NGOs and environmental organizations, including The Nature Conservancy, the Alliance of Small Island States, the Environmental Defense Fund, the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, and the Clean Air Task Force.

    Before leaving for Sharm el Sheikh, several YSE students shared their plans for COP27 and what they hope to achieve through their participation.

    Vincent Haller ’24 MESc

    2

    “For COP27, I will partner with The Nature Conservancy Chile with the purpose of identifying and reporting key outcomes of discussions — including trends, challenges, opportunities, new technologies — around natural climate solutions. The goal is to facilitate TNC’s follow-up of climate negotiation implications for local action and build internal capacities to align project development to the current trends. I am excited to participate at the forefront of discussions around natural climate solutions, which I believe have the potential to contribute significantly to solving the climate and ecological crisis, if the incentives are placed correctly.

    “My research at YSE is focused on developing accurate emission baselines for forests in my home country of Chile, with the aim of reducing uncertainty and facilitating conservation and restoration project development. My purpose for attending COP27 is to obtain a more holistic understanding of natural climate solutions by getting involved in discussions related to finance, Indigenous community engagement, and governance. Hopefully, this broader perspective will allow me to promote project implementation in Chile and, in the future, contribute to international discussions from a project development perspective.”

    Destiny Treloar ’23 MESc

    3

    “At COP27, I will partner with two NGOs: West Harlem Environmental Action, Inc. (WE ACT for Environmental Justice) and the Women’s Organizing for Change in Agriculture (WOCAN). WE ACT will be hosting the first-ever Climate Justice Pavilion at the convention, elevating the historically disenfranchised voices of the Global South, the U.S environmental justice movement, and other articulations of climate justice activism in the international climate dialogue. WOCAN is an extensive network of women-led organizations dedicated to social and economic advancement for women through the application of the W+ standard [a global framework that measures and monetizes women’s empowerment]. .

    “My master’s thesis at YSE, advised by Dr. Dorceta Taylor, investigates the interlocking systems of power posed to Latina/x/e women when accessing food in the U.S. My experience at COP27 grants me the opportunity to share and further explore my research interests on a broader international scale. I am most excited to examine the proposed mitigation strategies in response to the cascading effects of the climate crisis on food production and security through the lenses of intersectionality, equity, and justice.”

    Weixi Wu ’23 MESc/MPH

    4

    “I will be working with the Regional Environmental Center for Central Asia at COP27. CAREC is an independent, non-political and non-for-profit international organization with a regional mandate to assist Central Asian governments and regional and international stakeholders in addressing environmental and sustainability challenges across the Central Asian region and Afghanistan. I am excited to promote the Central Asian Climate Information Platform at COP27 — the first portal providing climate information of Central Asia — to various international stakeholders.

    “I am interested in the impacts of environmental pollution on human health, particularly vulnerable populations, and hope to pursue a doctoral degree focusing on environmental health issues in Central Asia after I graduate from YSE. At COP27, I want to raise awareness of the environmental issues happening in Central Asia for an international audience and support my organization to attract green investments.”

    Lauren Wiggins ’23 MEM

    5

    “I am thrilled to attend COP27 with the organization that sponsored my attendance to the landmark COP21 in Paris, France: The Deep South Center for Environmental Justice. The women-led organization is based in New Orleans and is dedicated to improving the lives of people harmed by pollution and most vulnerable to climate change in the Gulf Coast region. I am helping lead their efforts to co-curate the first-ever Climate Justice Pavilion at the conference, which will be a space where people from the Global South, Indigenous nations, and communities experiencing environmental injustice in the U.S. can build the collective capacity to share local knowledge and create solutions for pressing issues at the human rights and climate change nexus.

    “My master’s studies focus on designing urban ecosystems for climate adaptation, forest regeneration, and social equity. While in Egypt, it is my hope to leverage opportunities to learn more about community-oriented sustainable development, nature-based solutions for climate mitigation, and share the time, space, and energy with a diverse spectrum of thought leaders. Though I have attended COP twice in the past, this will be my first time both in the Blue Zone (where negotiations take place) and playing a leadership role to uplift crucial youth perspectives like my own.”

    Charly Frisk ’23 MEM

    6

    “I am working with Time for BETTER, a climate change communication agency. The mission of the organization is to ‘bring together bright minds, bold learners, and diverse members of our climate community for a better world.’ My excitement for COP27 lives in the hope that I have for the future and the determination that women — especially Indigenous, Black, and women of color — bring to the climate leadership space for ambitious, regenerative solutions. Earlier this semester, I interned for BETTER, leading programming and operations of our Climate Week NYC event series. After the internship ended, I was offered an opportunity to join the COP27 team as a videographer to bring my creative skills to the agency.

    “For COP27, I will be curating audio-visual content as an on-site media producer for BETTER. I am excited to use my filmmaking skills to curate compelling narratives for the agency and to involve those outside of COP — a chance to see through the lens of hope.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Yale School of the Environment

    2

    Yale School of the Environment Vision and Mission

    We are leading the world toward a sustainable future with cutting-edge research, teaching, and public engagement on society’s evolving and urgent environmental challenges.

    Core Values

    Our Mission and Vision are grounded in seven fundamental values:

    Excellence: We promote and engage in path-breaking science, policy, and business models that build on a fundamental commitment to analytic rigor, data, intellectual integrity, and excellence.
    Leadership: We attract outstanding students nationally and internationally and offer a pioneering curriculum that defines the knowledge and skills needed to be a 21st century environmental leader in a range of professions.
    Sustainability: We generate knowledge that will advance thinking and understanding across the various dimensions of sustainability.
    Community: We offer a community that finds strength in its collegiality, diversity, independence, commitment to excellence, and lifelong learning.
    Diversity: We celebrate our differences and identify pathways to a sustainable future that respects diverse values including equity, liberty, and civil discourse.
    Collaboration: We foster collaborative learning, professional skill development, and problem-solving — and we strengthen our scholarship, teaching, policy work, and outreach through partnerships across the university and beyond.
    Responsibility: We encourage environmental stewardship and responsible behavior on campus and beyond.

    Guiding Principles

    In pursuit of our Mission and Vision, we:

    Build on more than a century of work bringing science-based strategies, ethical considerations, and conservation practices to natural resource management.
    Approach problems on a systems basis and from interdisciplinary perspectives.
    Integrate theory and practice, providing innovative solutions to society’s most pressing environmental problems.
    Address environmental challenges at multiple scales and settings — from local to global, urban to rural, managed to wild.
    Draw on the depth of resources at Yale University and our network of alumni who extend across the world.
    Create opportunities for research, policy application, and professional development through our unique centers and programs.
    Provide a diverse forum to convene conversations on difficult issues that are critical to progress on sustainability.
    Bring special focus on the most significant threats to a sustainable future including climate change, the corresponding need for clean energy, and the increasing stresses on our natural resources.

    Statement of Environmental Policy

    As faculty, staff, and students of the Yale School of the Environment, we affirm our commitment to responsible stewardship of the environment of our School, our University, the city of New Haven, and the other sites of our teaching, research, professional, and social activities.

    In the course of these activities, we shall strive to:

    Reduce our use of natural resources.
    Support the sustainable production of the resources we must use by purchasing renewable, reusable, recyclable, and recycled materials.
    Minimize our use of toxic substances and ensure that unavoidable use is in full compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations.
    Reduce the amount of waste we generate and promote strategies to reuse and recycle those wastes that cannot be avoided.
    Restore the environment where possible.

    Each member of the School community is encouraged to set an example for others by serving as an active steward of our environment.

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton.

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:51 pm on October 27, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What hurricanes and space storms have in common", , , , There are also some interesting differences. For example we expect the extraterrestrial hurricane to be an anticyclone (rotating in the opposite direction of a terrestrial hurricane)., We envision the hurricane analogue in protoplanetary disks to appear quite similar in flow structure to terrestrial hurricanes. Both are rotating storms centered around an ‘eye’ region., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “What hurricanes and space storms have in common” 

    From Yale University

    10.26.22
    Jim Shelton

    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    1
    Image created by G. Laughlin and K. Gerbig using OpenAI’s DALL•E

    Those massive, swirling radar images shown on TV during hurricane season may have an unexpected analog in the deepest reaches of the cosmos — extrasolar storms of dust and gas from which nascent planets begin to form.

    Both storms — terrestrial and extrasolar — feature churning whirlpools of vapor. Both use latent heat to sustain their prodigious circulating motion in the face of energy-draining dissipation.

    But while the Atlantic hurricane season lasts four months a year and is restricted to a portion of planet Earth, space storms may play out over millions of years and occur in protoplanetary disks throughout the universe.

    Konstantin Gerbig, a graduate student in the Department of Astronomy, and Gregory Laughlin, a professor of astronomy in Yale’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, have documented a mechanism that can power these space storms and noted the way they mirror terrestrial hurricanes [The Astrophysical Journal (below)].

    As forecasters continue to monitor this year’s Atlantic hurricane season, Yale News spoke with Gerbig and Laughlin about their findings — and what insight they might provide about hurricane-like storms near and far.

    When did the connection between terrestrial and extrasolar storms first occur to you?

    Gregory Laughlin: Prior to moving to the East Coast from California, tropical storms and hurricanes were something of a far-away concern for me. But there’s a certain immediacy to seeing a “Tropical Storm Warning” on one’s cell phone, which prompted me to realize that I didn’t really understand the physics of hurricanes. That got me reading the literature, especially the articles by Kerry Emanuel at MIT. I came to appreciate the importance of the latent heat of water in driving the process and realized that very analogous conditions might exist in the planet-forming disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars.

    What do the mechanisms that drive these storms have in common?

    Konstantin Gerbig: The extraterrestrial storms we envisioned are reliant on a mechanism that is very similar to the one that drives hurricanes on Earth.

    Hurricanes are reliant on the warm ocean water in the tropics. The strong winds roil the water surface and, in the process, saturate the air in the hurricane with water, leading to cloud formation and heavy rain. The release of latent heat in the eye of the hurricane drives vigorous upwards convection which in turn leads to faster wind speeds. This ‘engine’ is shut off when the hurricane is deprived of its water supply by hitting land.

    While protoplanetary disks do not have an ocean or liquid water in general, they are rich in dust grains that are encased in a water-ice coating. Much like hurricanes on Earth, we proposed that winds in the protoplanetary disks can intensify significantly if they can access the energy hidden in the solid phase of water ice. As such, the energy source for extrasolar hurricanes is the same as for hurricanes on Earth. Another similarity is that both mechanisms are dependent on the mixing efficiency between the gaseous winds and the water, and as a result the storm in the disk would also cease to exist if the dust grains are removed.

    Was it difficult to show that whirlpools in space can be sustained long enough in a protoplanetary disk to create such a storm?

    Gerbig: In order to show that these extraterrestrial storms are indeed feasible, we focused on two questions: Do protoplanetary disks offer favorable conditions for the proposed mechanism to operate in the first place? Second, is the engine strong enough to compensate for the loss of energy it is subjected to by nature of being embedded in a viscous protoplanetary disk?

    To answer these questions, we would ideally look at real observations of protoplanetary disks. However, while observations of such disks have gotten better and better in recent years, the resolution of our telescopes remains far below what would be required to see storms of the sizes that we predict for proposed hurricanes. Because of this, we performed computer simulations to test the feasibility of our storms.

    The plan was to figure out what initial conditions are required to produce a storm that can fight against a given viscosity, which is a measure for the disk’s internal friction. This way, we were able to constrain the ideal location for such storms to operate to just outside the so-called water-snow line — a key location in protoplanetary disks marking the boundary between water vapor and water ice. One challenge in interpreting our simulations is the disk viscosity, which is considered an unknown and consequently hotly debated property of protoplanetary disks. We found that our mechanism works best for protoplanetary disks that are of relatively low viscosity.

    Is there a visual similarity between hurricanes and storms in space?

    Gerbig: We envision the hurricane analogue in protoplanetary disks to appear quite similar in flow structure to terrestrial hurricanes. Both are rotating storms centered around an ‘eye’ region in which convection operates. We also predict the extraterrestrial storm to be enhanced in water content, much like how hurricanes have easily recognizable cloud patterns.

    There are also some interesting differences. For example, we expect the extraterrestrial hurricane to be an anticyclone (rotating in the opposite direction of a terrestrial hurricane). This is because the protoplanetary disk possesses an inherent rotation that differs from the rotation of a planet, such that only anticyclonic storms can be in geostrophic balance. Also, since the gravity in the protoplanetary disk pulls towards the disk midplane, there are two ‘upward’ directions in the disks, which leads to two storms, one above and the other below the midplane.

    How can this information be used to further research?

    Gerbig: Our proposed mechanism [see the science paper] would be important for understanding planet formation as the extra-terrestrial hurricane would capture dust particles much like how the terrestrial hurricane can trap a flock of birds. If the vortex is long-lived enough, and continuously supplied with new dust and pebbles, it can serve as a site for dust coagulation and the formation of planetary embryos. This is a very exciting result as it would be another pointer to the water-snow line as a location of crucial importance in protoplanetary disks.

    Science paper:
    The Astrophysical Journal
    See the science paper for detailed material with images.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:52 am on October 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "With morphing limbs a robot that travels by land and water", , , , Potential applications are numerous: monitoring of ecosystems along shorelines; diver support and ocean farming among others., , This robot differs from other amphibious robots by leveraging shape adaptation to use the same parts for propulsion in both water and land environments., Yale University   

    From Yale University: “With morphing limbs a robot that travels by land and water” 

    From Yale University

    10.12.22
    Written by William Weir

    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    1
    Imagine being able to morph your legs into flippers before you jump in the water. Yale researchers have created a robot that accomplishes this feat through a process they dubbed “adaptive morphogenesis.”


    What is a robot? Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio is re-defining what is a robot from the ground up.

    The project is described in the Oct. 12 edition of Nature [below] and is featured on the issue’s cover.

    The robot, ART (Amphibious Robotic Turtle), takes inspiration from water and land turtles, a group whose fossil record spans over 110 million years.

    “Terrestrial and aquatic turtles share similar bodies, with four limbs and a shell, but have distinctive limb shapes and gaits adapted for their specific environment,” said Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio, the John J. Lee Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science and principal investigator of the study. “Sea turtles have elongated flippers for swimming, whereas land turtles and tortoises have rounded legs for load bearing while walking.”

    The robot features morphing limbs that can adapt their shape, stiffness, and behavior to the environment. The limbs use variable stiffness materials and artificial muscles to transform their shape when transitioning from one environment to another. In its legged state, ART can traverse land with a variety of four-legged terrestrial gaits. Upon reaching a body of water, ART can then morph its legs into flippers, enabling it to swim with lift- and drag-based aquatic gaits.

    “You can almost think of [adaptive morphogenesis] as a form of evolution on demand,” wrote Karl Ziemelis, chief physical sciences editor for Nature.

    The robot differs from other amphibious robots by leveraging shape adaptation to use the same parts for propulsion in both water and land environments. Other approaches add multiple propulsive mechanisms to the same robot, using a different one in each environment, which can lead to energy inefficiencies. “Our results show that adaptive morphogenesis can enhance the efficiency of robots that locomote through multiple environments,” said Kramer-Bottiglio.

    So what do you do with a turtle- and tortoise-inspired amphibious robot? Potential applications are numerous. Kramer-Bottiglio’s lab has focused on applications that include the monitoring of ecosystems along shorelines, diver support, and ocean farming. The robot will also help researchers to study the physics of locomotion in the complex surf zone — where waves, currents, and turbidity make it particularly tricky for robotic devices to navigate — and other environmental transition zones.

    The study’s other authors are, from Yale University, Robert Baines, Sree Kalyan Patiballa (current affiliation, University of Alabama), Joran Booth, Luis Ramirez, Thomas Sipple, and Andonny Garcia; and from West Chester University, Frank Fish.

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:42 am on October 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What a reptile’s bones can teach us about Earth’s perilous past", , , New research centered on the 250-million-year-old reptile known as “Palacrodon”, , , The Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Yale University   

    From The Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences At Yale University: “What a reptile’s bones can teach us about Earth’s perilous past” 

    From The Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences

    At

    Yale University

    9.30.22
    Jim Shelton

    Media Contact
    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    1
    An illustration of how Palacrodon may have looked. (Credit: K.M. Jenkins)

    An extinct reptile’s oddly shaped chompers, fingers, and ear bones may tell us quite a bit about the resilience of life on Earth, according to a new study.

    In fact, paleontologists at Yale, Sam Houston State University, and the University of the Witwatersrand say the 250-million-year-old reptile, known as Palacrodon, fills in an important gap in our understanding of reptile evolution. It’s also a signal that reptiles, plants, and ecosystems may have fared better or recovered more quickly than previously thought after a mass extinction event wiped out most of the plant and animal species on the planet.

    2
    The lower jaw of Palacrodon provided researchers with information about the reptile’s teeth.

    “We now know that Palacrodon comes from one of the last lineages to branch off the reptile tree of life before the evolution of modern reptiles,” said Kelsey Jenkins, a doctoral student in Yale’s Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and first author of the study, which appears in the Journal of Anatomy [below]. “We also know that Palacrodon lived in the wake of the most devastating mass extinction in Earth’s history.”

    That would be the Permian-Triassic extinction event, which occurred 252 million years ago. Known as “the Great Dying,” it killed off 70% of terrestrial species and 95% of marine species.

    Although a large number of reptile species eventually bounced back from this extinction event, the details of how that happened are murky. Researchers have spent decades trying to fill in the gaps in our understanding of key adaptations that enabled reptiles to flourish after the Permian-Triassic extinction — and what those adaptations may reveal about the ecosystems where they lived.

    Palacrodon may help answer some of those questions, Jenkins said.

    But first, she and her colleagues had to get a better look at the little reptile.

    Until recently, what was known about Palacrodon came from examinations of cranial fragments from fossils found in South Africa and Arizona. The information gleaned from those fossils was so limited, however, that Palacrodon was left out of most scientific analyses of reptilian evolution.

    For the new study, Jenkins and her colleagues — including co-corresponding author Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar, assistant professor of Earth & planetary science at Yale and an assistant curator at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History — brought a new analytical approach to bear in examining Palacrodon.

    Specifically, they used computed tomographic (CT) scanning and microscopy to analyze the most complete Palacrodon specimen, a fossil from Antarctica. Bhullar’s lab at Yale is particularly known for its innovative use of CT scanning and microscopy to create 3D images of fossils. (Jenkins and Bhullar also did field work in South Africa and the southwestern U.S. relating to Palacrodon.)

    3
    A specimen of Palacrodon (top) from Antarctica and a CT scan (bottom) of the specimen.

    Using the technology for this study, the researchers were able to obtain characteristics of the reptile’s teeth, as well as other physical features. It revealed that Palacrodon’s teeth were best suited for grinding plant material and that the reptile was likely capable of occasionally climbing or clinging onto vegetation, they said.

    Palacrodon’s unusual teeth, and a few other specialized features of its anatomy, indicate it was likely herbivorous or interacting with plant life in some way,” Jenkins said. “This signals the early rebound of plants, and more broadly the rebound of ecosystems following this mass extinction.”

    Jenkins said the study points to a need for further examination of fossils from the time period just after the Permian-Triassic extinction event.

    Co-authors of the study are Dalton Meyer, a graduate student in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Yale; Patrick Lewis of Sam Houston State University; and Jonah Choiniere of the University of the Witwatersrand, in South Africa.

    Science paper:
    Journal of Anatomy

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on September 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The meandering waves that connect jet streams to global warming", , , , Yale University   

    From Yale University: “The meandering waves that connect jet streams to global warming” 

    From Yale University

    9.12.22
    Jim Shelton

    Fred Mamoun
    fred.mamoun@yale.edu
    203-436-2643

    1
    (Courtesy of The Associated Press)

    Extra waves may be great for surfers, but they can lead to tumultuous weather when they start showing up in jet streams.

    That’s because jet streams — blowing ribbons of wind that encircle the earth — play a critical role in the location and severity of weather events, such as the recent floods that devastated Kentucky. Even a slight change in the “waviness” of the polar or the subtropical jet stream can lead to dramatic weather changes in mid-latitude regions, from northern California to Moscow.

    Recent decades have seen just such an increase in jet stream waves, leading scientists to pose the question: Are these windy wanderings being caused by a warming planet?

    A noted Yale scientist and a team of international colleagues say yes — and in a new study, published in the journal PNAS [below], they offer a theory to prove it.

    “As the planet warms, we predict that the land-ocean contrast of atmospheric heating enhances the meandering in the jet stream and that implies more of these extreme weather events, such as what we have experienced this summer in Kentucky,” said John Wettlaufer, the A.M. Bateman Professor of Geophysics, Mathematics, and Physics at Yale, the co-corresponding author for the study.

    A certain amount of waviness has always been a feature of jet streams. Swedish-American meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Rossby predicted the atmospheric wave concept in the late 1930s; since then, the meanders have been commonly known as “Rossby waves.”

    In the past 30 years, scientists have observed an intensification of the waves, coinciding with increased global warming. More waviness in the jet stream means that rain and wind remain in a region longer than if the jet stream simply traveled due east with no detours.

    Various researchers have made the correlation between climate change and greater waviness in jet streams, however, the mechanism to explain the connection has been debated.

    In the new study, Wettlaufer and his colleagues developed a mathematical theory that explains jet stream waviness and then created a simulation of atmospheric circulation under warming conditions to test their theory.

    “Because polar regions of the planet are warming faster than the mid-latitudes, the typical north-south temperature difference is lower,” Wettlaufer said. As this temperature difference decreases, it causes a slight drop in zonal winds in the jet stream — which, in turn, leads to more meandering of the jet stream.

    “This means that the cyclones and anticyclones associated with the meanders are more stationary — there are weather systems ‘parked’ over some place on the planet,” Wettlaufer said. “Thus, if a low-pressure system is sitting over eastern Kentucky for a long time, moisture is just focused there until the meanders start to move and the weather system moves eastward.”

    The first author of the study is Woosok Moon of Stockholm University. Co-authors are Baek-Min Kim and Gun-Hwan Yang of Pukyong National University.

    Science paper:
    PNAS

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

    Research

    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation , Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences , 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

     
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