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  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on March 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Forces of nature: great women who changed science, , Women in STEM   

    From PI: Women in STEM-“Forces of nature: great women who changed science” 

    Perimeter Institute

    Perimeter Institute

    Oct 18, 2017 [Just now in social media.]
    Eamon O’Flynn

    The first computer algorithm. Stellar classification systems. The discovery of new elements, forces, and other building blocks of nature.

    Such fundamental discoveries have shaped our understanding of the universe and ourselves. Many were made by women who pursued their research in the face of gender discrimination and did not get the recognition they deserved.

    Women have been historically under-represented in physics; progress is happening, but there is much work to be done. Systemic and cultural barriers still exist. Part of making positive change includes celebrating the contributions women have made to science, especially those women overlooked in their time. That’s why Perimeter Institute has created the “Forces of Nature” poster series.

    Download them. Print them. Share them. Post them in classrooms, dorm rooms, living rooms, offices, and physics departments. Talk about these women. Share their stories.

    Downloading is free – just click on the images below, fill out the short form, and we’ll email you hi-res images that can be printed as large as 24” x 36”.

    Claudia Alexander

    Vera Rubin

    Vivienne Malone-Mayes

    Forces of Nature


    Women have made some of the most important discoveries in science. Ada Lovelace was the first computer programmer. Chien-Shiung Wu was a leading experimental physicist of her time. Emmy Noether’s work in symmetry and conservation underpins much of modern physics. Annie Jump Cannon led the development of stellar classification systems. Marie Skłodowska Curie made revolutionary contributions to physics and chemistry. These women were forces of nature.


    See the full article here .

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    About Perimeter

    Perimeter Institute is the world’s largest research hub devoted to theoretical physics. The independent Institute was founded in 1999 to foster breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of our universe, from the smallest particles to the entire cosmos. Research at Perimeter is motivated by the understanding that fundamental science advances human knowledge and catalyzes innovation, and that today’s theoretical physics is tomorrow’s technology. Located in the Region of Waterloo, the not-for-profit Institute is a unique public-private endeavour, including the Governments of Ontario and Canada, that enables cutting-edge research, trains the next generation of scientific pioneers, and shares the power of physics through award-winning educational outreach and public engagement.

  • richardmitnick 9:07 am on March 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Women in STEM   

    From Stanford University: “Meeting showcases women in data science” 

    Stanford University Name
    Stanford University

    March 9, 2018
    Amy Adams

    Speakers, organizers and attendees of the Women in Data Science conference, including Margot Gerritsen (center), who led the meeting. (Image credit: L.A. Cicero)

    In 2015, Margot Gerritsen, director of Stanford’s Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, got tired of technical conferences that included no or few women speakers. “I always joke that this meeting was a revenge effect,” she said. “We wanted to showcase really amazing work that’s being done by women.”

    Now, in its third year, the Women in Data Science conference included 17 women speakers and roughly 100,000 people listening on live stream or Facebook Live. More than 170 regional events in over 50 countries also featured their own panels of women speakers. Gerritsen, who is also a professor of energy resources engineering, said one reason for the meeting is to inspire women to enter and stay in the field of data science. “It’s still really tough for women not to feel a little isolated,” she said.

    One outcome of the event has been lists of women worldwide who can speak about data science that are now regularly provided to meeting organizers looking for women speakers. “I would never have imagined that we would be reaching so many people,” Gerritsen said.

    Women who attended the meeting reflected on their own experiences and the value of a community of inspiring women.

    Lan Huong Nguyen
    Margot Gerritsen
    Fatimah Al-Ismail
    Emily Shah
    Daniela Witten
    Risa Wechsler
    Danielle Maddix
    Alison Marsden
    Bianca Yu
    Elena Grewal
    Karen Matthys
    Judy Logan

    Gerritsen is also associate professor of energy resources engineering and senior associate dean for educational initiatives in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences, a senior fellow in the Precourt Institute for Energy, a member of Stanford Bio-X and of the Child Health Research Institute. Marsden is also a faculty affiliate of ICME, a member of Stanford Bio-X, the Cardiovascular Institute and the Child Health Research Institute.

    [This is a huge and important article which I highly recommend, but is too large to deal with here. Please read the full article.]

    See the full article here .

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    Leland and Jane Stanford founded the University to “promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization.” Stanford opened its doors in 1891, and more than a century later, it remains dedicated to finding solutions to the great challenges of the day and to preparing our students for leadership in today’s complex world. Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. Since 1952, more than 54 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members

    Stanford University Seal

  • richardmitnick 4:50 pm on March 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Bias in the publishing pipeline, Holding journals accountable, Publish or Perish, , Women in all scientific fields experience gender bias, Women in STEM   

    From The Conversation: Women in STEM – “Perish not publish? New study quantifies the lack of female authors in scientific journals” 

    The Conversation

    March 8, 2018
    Ione Fine, Professor of Psychology, University of Washington
    Alicia Shen, Ph.D Candidate in Psychology, University of Washington


    Author lists in journals should reflect who is doing science today and not the ‘old, white men’ of yore. Giammarco Boscaro on Unsplash, CC BY

    “Publish or perish” is tattooed on the mind of every academic. Like it or loathe it, publishing in high-profile journals is the fast track to positions in prestigious universities with illustrious colleagues and lavish resources, celebrated awards and plentiful grant funding. Yet somehow, in the search to understand why women’s scientific careers often fail to thrive, the role of high-impact journals has received little scrutiny.

    One reason is that these journals don’t even collect data about the gender or ethnic background of their authors. To examine the representation of women within these journals, with our colleagues Jason Webster and Yuichi Shoda, we delved into MEDLINE, the online repository that contains records of almost every published peer-reviewed neuroscience article. We used the Genderize.io database to predict the gender of first and last authors on over 166,000 articles published between 2005 and 2017 in high-profile journals that include neuroscience, our own scientific discipline. The results were dispiriting.

    Female scientists underrepresented

    We began by looking at first authors – the place in the author list that traditionally is held by the junior researcher who does the hands-on research. We expected over 40 percent to be women, similar to the percentage of women postdocs in neuroscience in the U.S. and Europe. Instead, fewer than 25 percent first authors in the journals Nature and Science were women.

    Our findings were similar for last authors, the place typically held by the laboratory leader. We expected the numbers to match large National Institutes of Health grants, which are a similarly rigorous measure of significance, scientific sophistication and productivity; 30 percent are awarded to women – comparable to the proportion of women tenure-track faculty in neuroscience. The proportion of women last authors was half what we expected – just over 15 percent of last authors in Science and Nature were women.

    “Publish or perish” is tattooed on the mind of every academic. Like it or loathe it, publishing in high-profile journals is the fast track to positions in prestigious universities with illustrious colleagues and lavish resources, celebrated awards and plentiful grant funding. Yet somehow, in the search to understand why women’s scientific careers often fail to thrive, the role of high-impact journals has received little scrutiny.

    One reason is that these journals don’t even collect data about the gender or ethnic background of their authors. To examine the representation of women within these journals, with our colleagues Jason Webster and Yuichi Shoda, we delved into MEDLINE, the online repository that contains records of almost every published peer-reviewed neuroscience article. We used the Genderize.io database to predict the gender of first and last authors on over 166,000 articles published between 2005 and 2017 in high-profile journals that include neuroscience, our own scientific discipline. The results were dispiriting.
    Female scientists underrepresented

    We began by looking at first authors – the place in the author list that traditionally is held by the junior researcher who does the hands-on research. We expected over 40 percent to be women, similar to the percentage of women postdocs in neuroscience in the U.S. and Europe. Instead, fewer than 25 percent first authors in the journals Nature and Science were women.

    Our findings were similar for last authors, the place typically held by the laboratory leader. We expected the numbers to match large National Institutes of Health grants, which are a similarly rigorous measure of significance, scientific sophistication and productivity; 30 percent are awarded to women – comparable to the proportion of women tenure-track faculty in neuroscience. The proportion of women last authors was half what we expected – just over 15 percent of last authors in Science and Nature were women.

    Our study, published online [BioRxiv] and highlighted in a letter printed in the journal Nature, focused on neuroscience. We made our code accessible, and we’re thrilled that students in other fields are already beginning to examine the gender breakdown of bylines in their own disciplines.

    One thing our data mining study doesn’t reveal is why women are so seriously underrepresented. But a large literature suggests that gender bias almost certainly plays a role.

    Bias in the publishing pipeline

    One place bias occurs is when scientists themselves undervalue the scientific contributions of women. One analysis found that women are more likely to be the person performing experiments. Despite this, they are more likely to be in the less prestigious “middle” author position. Anecdotally, many laboratory leaders have observed that male students tend to be more proactive about negotiating their position in the author list than women.

    Bias can also influence the reviewing process. Researchers at the Ohio State University found that, when reviewers are randomly assigned to evaluate scientific work ostensibly submitted by a female or a male author, they rated the work written by male authors as having higher rigor. An analysis of peer-review scores for postdoctoral fellowship applications in Sweden revealed a system that was “riddled with prejudice” – women were given lower competence ratings than men who had less than half their publication impact. Bias may be particularly strong when expectations are high – qualities like “brilliance” are far more likely to be attributed to men. This may be why we found the proportion of women authors was negatively correlated with journal “impact factor.”

    Finally, bias occurs within the editorial process. Nature, in a series of editorials spanning more than a decade, has observed that its editors are less likely to ask women to write commissioned pieces.

    Do women fail to “lean in”? Female authors may be less likely to submit to high-profile journals. Success rates for elite journals are low – for instance, in Nature, less than 10 percent of submissions make it into print. In many fields, the publication delay associated with a failed submission means there’s a high risk of being scooped by another research team. If a female scientist estimates her chance of success more conservatively than a man, for whatever reason, she will be more likely to play it safe.

    Holding journals accountable

    Scientific publishing is staggeringly profitable: In 2017, Elsevier reported profits of over US$1.2 billion. These companies rely heavily on the scientific community, both as authors of the journal content they are selling and as reviewers. Given the profit they make and the outsized influence they wield over scientific careers, it seems obvious that journals have a moral and perhaps even a legal responsibility to make sure the process is equable.

    We believe journals need to take full responsibility for ensuring social equity across the publishing pipeline: encouraging women to submit, ensuring that women receive fair reviews, and enforcing equity in the editorial process.

    There are some obvious first steps. The scientific community should demand that journals collect data about gender and ethnicity for article submissions and acceptances, and these data should be publicly available. That way researchers can choose to avoid (or even boycott) journals with a poor track record. Researchers should insist that reviewers be given more specific review criteria – such as requirements to explain their ratings of significance and impact, as well as their assessment of scientific quality, as is done at the NIH and the National Science Foundation. Finally, it is past time for journals to adopt mandatory double-blind reviewing.

    While the representation of women authors may not have changed over the last decade or so, the attitude of the scientific community has transformed. When I (Ione Fine) was an undergraduate at Oxford, I was told casually by a professor that “women don’t run with the ball intellectually” – even though I was interviewing him for a feminist magazine! (For 20 years, I have wondered whether this reflected extraordinary arrogance combined with a singular lack of tact or sheer idiocy.) But the only thing that made the comment surprising was the context – his attitude was commonplace.

    These days there is an overwhelming consensus in our scientific community that scientific talent is not gendered. Universities, funding agencies, conference organizers and individual laboratory leaders around the world are all working to resolve this problem. It is time for the journals to “lean in.”

    See the full article here .

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    The Conversation US launched as a pilot project in October 2014. It is an independent source of news and views from the academic and research community, delivered direct to the public.
    Our team of professional editors work with university and research institute experts to unlock their knowledge for use by the wider public.
    Access to independent, high quality, authenticated, explanatory journalism underpins a functioning democracy. Our aim is to promote better understanding of current affairs and complex issues. And hopefully allow for a better quality of public discourse and conversation.

  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on February 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Evangelia Gousiou, , , Jeny Teheran, , , , Sima Baymani, Women in STEM   

    From CERN and FNAL: Women in STEM- “Coding has no gender” Sima Baymani, Jeny Teheran, Evangelia Gousiou 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead


    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    5 Feb 2018
    Kate Kahle
    Lauren Biron

    Sima Baymani: “You can work all over the world, because programming is the same everywhere. The choices you have are endless.”

    With 11 February marking the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, female physicists, engineers and computer scientists from CERN and from Fermilab share their experiences of building a career in science.

    Sima Baymani: “There is a lot of collaboration, and this, for me, is part of the joy of programming”

    Computer science engineer, Sima Baymani, talks about the freedom, creativity and collaboration of computer programming. (Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN)

    Computer science engineer, Sima Baymani was born in Iran before her family fled war when she was young to start a new life in Sweden. Her parents were academics, and Sima and her sisters were always encouraged to learn more about everything. Her mother, a physicist, had to restart her career in Sweden and chose to pursue database management and programming. Her enjoyment of her job, coupled with an inspiring Danish mathematics teacher, were two factors that helped lead Sima towards studying computer science.

    “In school I was interested in almost all subjects. But I can see that the IT boom in Sweden had an effect on me, and on other women, because when we started university it was one of the peaks of women studying computer science.” At university, Sima wanted to understand how computers worked, so she specialised in hardware and embedded systems. After graduation she worked as an independent consultant for 10 years before joining CERN.

    She has encountered challenges in fighting gender and ethnic stereotypes, and often felt that she had to work harder to prove herself. Yet part of her joy of programming is collaborating with colleagues to find creative solutions to complex problems and to develop new products or new functionality. “Technology is everywhere in our society; the problems and solutions you can work with creatively are endless,” she enthuses.

    Jeny Teheran: “What I love the most is to work with teams around the world.”

    Jeny Teheran shares the best parts of being a security analyst and cybersecurity researcher at Fermilab. (Video: Fermilab)

    Jeny Teheran is a security analyst and cybersecurity researcher at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. That means keeping up with and taking care of hardware and software vulnerabilities so that the experiments can carry out their science in a secure manner. It’s a fast-paced job where you have to come up with the best solution you can put in place, right in the moment.

    “I would recommend this job because it challenges you. It pushes you to be on top of your game. You have to improve your analytical skills; you have to react fast; you have to communicate better.” – Jeny Teheran

    Jeny came to Fermilab from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. She grew up in a house with few toys but lots of books, and says she has always felt close to science. With a degree in systems and computing engineering, she arrived at Fermilab four years ago as an intern to work in the offline production team for neutrino experiments. A year later, she was hired as a security analyst. “And I’m loving it,” she says.

    Evangelia Gousiou: “Nothing beats the rush you get when something that you designed works for the first time.”

    Electronics engineer, Evangelia Gousiou, talks about what led her to a career in engineering. (Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN)

    Electronics engineer, Evangelia Gousiou, began her career studying IT and Electronics in Athens, Greece, before beginning an internship at a manufacturing plant in Thailand. She came to CERN for a one-year position, and now, ten years later is still at CERN enjoying a job that is never boring.

    “Work is never repetitive, which makes it very rewarding. I usually follow a project through all its stages from conception of the architecture, to the coding and the delivery to the users of a product that I have built to be useful for them. So I see the full picture and that keeps me engaged.” – Evangelia Gousiou

    For Evangelia, to be a good electronics engineer means knowing a range of disciplines, from software to mechanics. There is also the human aspect, as she works daily with people from many different cultures.

    At school, her favourite subjects were maths and physics, as she enjoyed finding out how things worked, yet Evangelia never dreamt of being an engineer when she grew up. When the time came to choose what to study, she felt that engineering would be something interesting and future-proof, and then she got hooked and now can’t imagine doing anything else. “I would recommend engineering professions for their intellectual challenge and the empowerment that they bring,” she beams.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries

    Cern Courier




    CERN CMS New

    CERN LHCb New II


    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

  • richardmitnick 3:36 pm on February 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, , , , Women in STEM   

    From BNL: Women in STEM- “Elke-Caroline Aschenauer Awarded Prestigious Humboldt Research Award” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    January 31, 2018
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    (631) 344-8350

    Peter Genzer
    (631) 344-3174

    Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, widely recognized for helping to design and lead experiments in nuclear physics, at the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle collider that explores the particles and forces that form the bulk of visible matter in the universe.

    Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, a senior physicist at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been awarded a Humboldt Research Award for her contributions to the field of experimental nuclear physics. This prestigious international award—issued by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Bonn, Germany—comes with a prize of €60,000 (more than $70,000 U.S.) and the opportunity to spend up to one year in Germany (not necessarily continuously) to collaborate with researchers at universities and research organizations there.

    “I am very happy to receive this recognition of my work—the many hours sitting in control rooms, taking data, writing code, and much more,” Aschenauer said. “And I am grateful for the opportunity to have extended stays in Germany to work again with colleagues who are not only colleagues but also friends—some of them I have known since we were finishing our Ph.D.s!”

    These relationships, she said, will help to foster or strengthen collaborations among European and U.S. physicists addressing some of the major research aims at Brookhaven Lab’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research—as well as among those hoping to build a U.S.-based Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a proposed facility for which Aschenauer has been a strong proponent.

    “This opportunity will in many ways help us to be in contact with many experts in the field in Germany and the rest of Europe, and it will help promote the EIC and the Cold QCD Physics program at RHIC,” she said.

    QCD, or Quantum Chromodynamics, is the theory that describes how the strong nuclear force binds the fundamental building blocks of visible matter—the stuff that makes up everything we see in the universe, from stars, to planets, to people. RHIC explores QCD by colliding protons, heavy ions, and protons with heavy ions, sometimes recreating the extreme heat and pressure that existed in the early universe, and sometimes using one particle to probe the structure of another nucleus without heating it up (that is, in its “cold” initial state). By giving scientists a deeper understanding of QCD and the strong nuclear force, these experiments will help elucidate how matter is constructed from the smallest scales imaginable to the large-scale structure of the universe today.

    Aschenauer is widely recognized for helping to design and lead various experiments that have explored these fundamental questions, particularly the internal structure of the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei. At Germany’s Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) laboratory, she was involved in the HERMES experiment taking snapshots of the inside of protons.


    This experiment revealed the first information about the three-dimensional distribution of smaller building blocks called “quarks,” which are held together inside protons by glue-like “gluons,” carriers of the strong nuclear force. She also helped devise ways to measure how these smaller building blocks contribute to the overall “spin” of protons.

    She continued her explorations of nuclear structure at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), leading a new experiment for studying gluon structure through the design and approval stages. Since 2009, she has been the leader of the medium-energy physics group at Brookhaven National Laboratory, designing detector components and new measurement techniques for experiments at RHIC.

    In addition to using particle collisions to recreate the conditions of the early universe, RHIC is also the world’s only polarized proton collider for spin physics studies. Spin, or more precisely, intrinsic angular momentum, is a fundamental property of subatomic particles that is somewhat analogous to the spinning of a toy top with a particular orientation. A particle’s spin influences its optical, electrical, and magnetic characteristics; it is essential to technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for example. Yet the origin of spin in a composite particle such as the proton is still not well understood. Experiments in the 1980s revealed that the spins of a proton’s three main constituent quarks account for only about a third of the overall proton spin, setting off a “crisis” among physicists and a worldwide quest to measure other sources of proton spin.

    Aschenauer has been at the forefront of this effort, bringing both an understanding of the underlying theory and designing and performing cutting-edge experiments to explore spin, both in Germany and the U.S. At RHIC, these experiments have revealed an important role for gluons, possibly equal to or more significant than that of the quarks, in establishing proton spin. As an advocate for a future Electron-Ion Collider, Aschenauer has been instrumental in establishing how this machine could be used to make additional measurements to resolve the inner structure of protons, and is helping to translate those ideas into designs for the detector and interaction region that will achieve this goal at an EIC.

    Aschenauer together with members of her group also developed an innovative way to use spin as a tool for probing the “color” interactions among quarks in a way that tests a theoretical concept of nature’s strongest force and paves a way toward mapping protons’ 3D internal structure. This work established the science case for the key measurements taken during the polarized proton run at RHIC in 2017, and also lays the foundation for future experiments at a proposed EIC.

    As noted by Andreas Schäfer of Germany’s University of Regensburg, who nominated Aschenauer for this honor and will serve as her German host, both the “hot” and “cold” QCD communities of physicists support the EIC thanks in large part to the efforts of Aschenauer and her colleagues to showcase the science that could be achieved at such a machine. He noted that the EIC could also have relevance to the physics program at Europe’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and possible future European colliders.

    “All European Electron-Ion Collider User Group members would profit from Aschenauer being in Germany for a longer stretch of time,” Schäfer said. “While Regensburg would be the host university, Aschenauer would spend much of her time meeting with other European groups of experimentalists as well as theoreticians,” he added.

    Aschenauer really enjoys this interplay of experiment and theory and turning ideas into experimental reality.

    “I like the combination between coming up with an idea—how to measure something—and helping to build a detector or system to make that measurement. I find that a very interesting challenge. And then also, once you have done that, you get to analyze the data to get a result that pushes the field forward with new knowledge,” she said.

    “I was fortunate to be involved in a lot of innovative measurements in Germany, which then led to follow-up experiments at Jefferson Lab and at RHIC, where we do things with different methods. The opportunities made possible by this award, particularly the chance to work closely with colleagues in Germany, will help build on those earlier experiences and help us refine how we might pursue these ideas further at a future EIC.”

    Berndt Mueller, Brookhaven Lab’s Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear and Particle Physics, noted, “Elke has been one of the driving forces of the RHIC Spin program over the past decade, which culminated in the discovery that gluons are major contributors to the spin of the proton. In addition, she has established herself as one of the global leaders developing the science program of a proposed future Electron-Ion Collider. The Humboldt Research Award recognizes her outsized contributions to the science of nucleon structure.”

    Aschenauer earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich in 1994, then accepted a personal postdoctoral fellowship from the European Union to work at the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics and the University of Ghent in Belgium. She joined DESY in Germany as a postdoc in 1997, beginning her research on proton spin at the HERMES experiment, and became a staff scientist there in 2001. After being part of a team that built the ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for HERMES, she spent three years as Deputy Spokesperson and Run Coordinator, and then 3.5 years as the spokesperson of the HERMES experiment. In 2006, she moved to Jefferson Lab and was the group leader of the Hall D scientific and technical staff and project leader for the Hall D contribution to the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. She joined Brookhaven as a staff scientist in 2009, received tenure in 2010, and was named a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2013.

    See the full article here .

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    BNL Campus

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector


    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

  • richardmitnick 11:49 am on January 23, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Elena Belova, , Theoretical physicist Elena Belova named to editorial board of Physics of Plasmas, Women in STEM   

    From PPPL: Women in STEM – “Theoretical physicist Elena Belova named to editorial board of Physics of Plasmas” 


    January 22, 2018
    John Greenwald

    Elena Belova. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications).

    Elena Belova, a principal research physicist in the Theory Department at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), has been named to the editorial board of the Physics of Plasmas, a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics. Duties of board members, selected for their high degree of technical expertise, range from suggesting topics for special sections to adjudicating impasses between authors and referees that arise over manuscripts.

    Belova, a PPPL physicist for more than 20 years, is expert at developing computer codes, such as simulations of wave-particle interactions and models of global stability in fusion plasmas that are widely used in fusion research. “I like code development because it is algorithmic and codes can really help to understand the experimental results,” she said. “But it still surprises me when theory works the way it’s supposed to. I also like that you can perform the simulation and look “inside” the device – which is not always possible in a real experiment. Visualizing things through computer simulations allows one to ‘see a picture,’ which is, as they say, better than a thousand words.”

    Fusing of light elements

    Fusion, the reaction that powers the sun and most stars, is the fusing of light elements that generates massive amounts of energy. Researchers seek to replicate fusion on Earth for a virtually inexhaustible supply of energy by controlling plasma, the hot, charged state of matter composed of electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions, that fuels fusion reactions. Theorists create computer models that simulate the processes involved, which experiments then test in attempts to confirm.

    Recent experiments at PPPL validated a code of Belova’s to predict a way to suppress a type of plasma instability that can halt fusion production. The method could prove useful to ITER, the international fusion facility under construction in France to demonstrate the ability to produce 10 times more power than it consumes.

    Second female physicist in Theory Department

    Belova, 53, joined PPPL in 1997 as the second female physicist to work in the Theory Department. Among her honors has been the Katherine E. Weimer Award for Women in Plasma Physics, a national honor named for the first woman theorist at PPPL, which Belova received in 2005.

    As a high school student in the former Soviet Union, Belova grew interested in mathematics and spent three years in an after-school program sponsored by the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. “In math you don’t really need to know anything,” she said. “You just solve puzzles. At least, this is what I thought in high school.”

    She earned a bachelor’s degree in applied mathematics in 1984 and a master’s degree in plasma physics in 1987, both from the Institute, though relatives had tried to persuade her not to switch subjects. “They said physics was too hard for a woman,” she recalled.

    But math had become too abstract for Belova and physics, while more difficult, was also more practical and exciting. She worked as a research engineer at the Space Research Institute in Moscow from 1987 to 1989 and as a junior research scientist from 1989 to 1992. While space physics is no longer her subject, her knowledge has served in good stead. “There are many common approaches in fusion and space plasma physics,” she said.

    Arrived in U.S. in 1992

    Belova and her husband, also a physicist, left Russia for the United States in 1992. She had been accepted in the graduate program at Dartmouth College, and became a research assistant in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. While she had learned technical English terms as an undergraduate student in Russia, her command of the broader language was still a bit shaky. “In my first year as a teaching assistant I would sometimes just write equations on the board and would point them out to students rather than trying to explain,” she said.

    After earning her doctorate in physics from Dartmouth in 1997 she worked as an associate research physicist at PPPL until 2004, a research physicist until 2008 and a principal research physicist since then. Among the scientific articles she has written at the Lab have been 15 invited papers for workshops and conferences around the world.

    Belova is the fourth PPPL staff member to be appointed to an editorial position in recent years. Richard Hawryluk, interim director of the laboratory, chairs the editorial board of the journal Nuclear Fusion; David Gates, principal research physicist and Stellarator Physics Division Head at PPPL, is editor-in-chief of the new online journal Plasma; and Igor Kaganovich, principal research physicist and deputy head of the PPPL Theory Department, serves as associate editor of Physics of Plasmas.

    See the full article here .

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    PPPL campus

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory managed by Princeton University. PPPL, on Princeton University’s Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro, N.J., is devoted to creating new knowledge about the physics of plasmas — ultra-hot, charged gases — and to developing practical solutions for the creation of fusion energy. Results of PPPL research have ranged from a portable nuclear materials detector for anti-terrorist use to universally employed computer codes for analyzing and predicting the outcome of fusion experiments. The Laboratory is managed by the University for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the largest single supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

  • richardmitnick 2:22 pm on January 15, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Annie Opel, Coral conservation, , , Women in STEM   

    From Harvard Gazette: Women in STEM- “For answers on coral conservation, she followed the fish” Annie Opel 

    Harvard University
    Harvard University

    Harvard Gazette

    January 11, 2018
    Peter Reuell

    Researcher’s St. Croix project explores impact of restoration efforts.

    A new study suggests that efforts to restore coral reefs, such as this staghorn coral thicket outplanted at Great St. James, have a positive impact on fish populations, both short- and long-term. Photo by Kemit-Amon Lewis.

    Spending hours a day diving around the coral reefs off St. Croix might sound like the stuff of a dream vacation, but for Annie Opel ’17, it was serious business.

    Opel spent much of her Virgin Islands adventure on thesis research that shows that efforts to restore coral reefs have a positive impact on fish populations, both short- and long-term. The study was published in the December issue of Marine Biology with Opel as first author, a rare accomplishment for an undergraduate.

    “Reefs are not only biologically important — more than 4,000 species of fish rely on these ecosystems — they’re also really important for humans,” Opel said. “We depend on them for commercial and recreational fisheries, they provide protection for coastal communities, and they bring in a great deal of money through tourism.

    “But right now they’re threatened by a number of anthropogenic inputs, from pollution to the effects of climate change,” Opel said. “Coral reefs have experienced bleaching and mass mortality all over the world, causing ecosystem degradation that affects the marine life that rely on the reefs to survive.”

    Opel threads a nursery tree with lines of coral pieces. Photo by Kemit-Amon Lewis

    While there have been efforts to counter those threats by transplanting corals grown in underwater “nurseries” to damaged reefs, the impact of such projects on Caribbean reefs has been an open question, Opel said.

    “In St. Croix, they’ve been restoring corals since 2009,” Opel said. “[But] no one is really looking at what’s happening after the fact … so no one knows if this is an efficient way to restore reef systems.”

    What she found, Opel said, is that as little as a week after the introduction of experimental coral beds, significantly more fish and a greater diversity of species appeared. The research also showed that, over time, the fish community changed as additional species began visiting the sites.

    “Overall, it’s a success story — we outplanted corals and there were more fish,” she said. “That’s really exciting and something people took for granted in these restoration projects, but no one had quantified it before. I think it’s going to be interesting for future studies to use this as a benchmark to know what’s going on after transplanting corals.”

    Kemit-Amon Lewis

    John Melendez

    During a post-high school gap year, Opel worked with the Nature Conservancy on coral restoration projects in St. Croix. As a sophomore at Harvard, she joined the lab of Colleen M. Cavanaugh, the Edward C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and later proposed the coral study for her senior honors thesis.

    The project was helped along the way by Cavanaugh and postdoctoral fellows Joey Pakes Nelson and Randi Rotjan, who is now an assistant professor at Boston University.

    “This work was really cool for a variety of reasons,” said Nelson, an invertebrate biologist and ecologist. “As a global community, we spend a lot of money on coral reef restoration, but few studies describe how this practice affects the reef community, so Annie’s work provides justification for investments in this type of conservation.”

    Opel “had great resources because of her work in the Nature Conservancy, she knew about transplanting corals, she had diving experience, and she had a great question,” Nelson added.

    But answering a great question takes dedication.

    Courtesy of Annie Opel ’17

    “I went down to St. Croix in March over spring break and in collaboration with other researchers, outplanted four 2-by-2-meter plots of an endangered species of coral found in the Caribbean called Acropora cervicornis,” Opel said. “We also designated control plots 10 and 20 meters away.”

    Opel returned to the island at the end of the academic year to plant four additional plots and then began the hard work of collecting data almost entirely on her own.

    “Each survey day, I spent two hours underwater where I took five-minute surveys on each of my 16 plots,” she said. “I sat there with underwater paper and a clipboard, and I would basically mark every fish I saw for that five minutes. It was a steep learning curve, because I needed to learn how to identify every species of fish by sex and age before I started taking my surveys. I took surveys three times a week for all 16 plots, and I counted something like 15,000 fish in total, so it was a lot of sitting underwater in my bright orange wetsuit counting and identifying fish.”

    One of the most challenging parts of the project, she said, was finding partners to accompany her on dives.

    Opel surveys the fish around an outplanted colony near St. Croix. Photo by Sandra Schleier.

    “For safety reasons, you always dive with another person,” Opel said. “But it’s not like I had an assistant or anyone working with me, so I had to crowdsource my volunteers. I asked around at local dive shops in St. Croix and got put in contact with a lot of great people who wanted to help me with my research. One day my dad even came with me, so that was really special.

    “One of my favorite parts of the paper [Marine Biology] is the acknowledgments, because I got the chance to thank all the volunteer divers and all of the people who helped make this project happen. And I am really thankful to have had three rock-star female scientists to mentor me through this academic journey.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Harvard University campus
    Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s best known landmark.

    Harvard University has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

  • richardmitnick 3:22 pm on January 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Black holes and gravitational waves, , ESA/NASA LISA, , Women in STEM,   

    From Yale: Women in STEM: “Black holes, gravitational waves take Yale prof to NASA’s LISA mission” Priyamvada Natarajan 

    Yale University bloc

    Yale University

    January 9, 2018
    Jim Shelton

    Priyamvada Natarajan

    NASA has named professor of astronomy and physics Priyamvada Natarajan to its team of U.S. scientists lending expertise on gravitational waves and astrophysics for the upcoming LISA mission.

    LISA — which stands for Laser Interferometer Space Antenna — is a space-based, gravitational wave observatory that will be composed of three spacecraft separated by millions of miles. The mission, scheduled for the early 2030s, is a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the LISA consortium.

    ESA/NASA eLISA space based the future of gravitational wave research

    Natarajan is a member of the NASA LISA Study Team.

    “The detection of gravitational waves in 2015 by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) collaboration is one of the major scientific breakthroughs of this century,” Natarajan said.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project

    Gravitational waves. Credit: MPI for Gravitational Physics/W.Benger-Zib

    ESA/eLISA the future of gravitational wave research

    Skymap showing how adding Virgo to LIGO helps in reducing the size of the source-likely region in the sky. (Credit: Giuseppe Greco (Virgo Urbino group)

    “The tremors they identified in space-time, produced by the collision of two stellar-mass black holes, was extremely challenging to detect. The more massive cousins of these black holes are supermassive black holes that reside in the centers of most, if not all, galaxies.”

    Supermassive black holes also are likely to have been built up via mergers, Natarajan explained. “The cosmic earthquakes produced during these collisions cannot be detected from the Earth and require a LIGO-like interferometer in space as these events will be detectable at much lower frequencies,” she said. “The LISA mission plans to detect these gravitational waves from space-based detectors. The mission will test our fundamental understanding of how supermassive black holes form and grow.”

    Natarajan’s research focuses on understanding the formation of the first black holes and the accumulation of mass in the most massive black holes in the universe.

    “We currently believe that black holes grow both via direct consumption of gas and stars in their vicinity, as well as via mergers with other black holes,” Natarajan said. “The detection of gravitational waves from colliding supermassive black holes by LISA would validate and calibrate the relative importance of mergers versus accretion.”

    Natarajan’s research into black holes also figures prominently in the Jan. 10 episode of the PBS science documentary series, “NOVA – Black Hole Apocalypse.”

    “My research group at Yale is extremely active and we are working at the leading edge of these questions combining theoretical models, numerical simulations, and the most up-to-date multi-wavelength observations,” Natarajan said.

    See the full article here .

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    Yale University Campus

    Yale University comprises three major academic components: Yale College (the undergraduate program), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools. In addition, Yale encompasses a wide array of centers and programs, libraries, museums, and administrative support offices. Approximately 11,250 students attend Yale.

  • richardmitnick 4:40 pm on January 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Mallory Ladd, Mallory Ladd began trekking to the Arctic even before her time at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, NGEE-Arctic program, , Soil chemistry, Women in STEM   

    From ORNL: Women in STEM- “Mallory Ladd: A molecular-scale Arctic expedition” 


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Mallory Ladd gathers field samples on the coastal plain of northern Alaska. Photo courtesy, Mallory Ladd.

    Mallory Ladd is a Bredesen Center student working with the NGEE-Arctic program at ORNL, seeking a better understanding of how soil water chemistry affects the aboveground environment. Photo courtesy, Jason Richards

    January 2, 2018

    Stephanie G. Seay, Communications

    Mallory Ladd began trekking to the Arctic, even before her time at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in search of a better understanding of what’s going on belowground and how it links to changes in the larger landscape.

    The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) Bredesen Center student last year finished her third trip to Alaska to collect field data for the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Arctic (NGEE-Arctic) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The program harnesses the expertise of more than 140 scientists from national labs and universities studying how permafrost thaw may affect regional and global climate systems.

    Ladd is using her capabilities in analytical chemistry and mass spectrometry to examine how soil water chemistry is changing in the Arctic because of warming and thawing conditions, in order to better inform earth science models. She has been exploring those changes since her undergraduate days researching Arctic soil nitrogen at the University of Toledo.

    “Chemists usually spend a lot of time in the lab,” Ladd said. “But with this type of research I’m encouraged to get out and collect samples in the field. I feel closer to the science questions that way; working from sample collection to data analysis, from start to finish, has been enlightening.”

    Her path to the Arctic began at Toledo as the result of a chance encounter with Professor Mike Weintraub, who had just received funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to examine seasonality in the Arctic. Ladd was a senior at the university at the time, watching a screening of the documentary Dirt! with a friend. “We were talking about how interesting the movie was, how important the nutrient profile and soil chemistry are to so many things, when Mike joined in the conversation and told us he was looking for a lab technician with a chemistry background to join his team,” said Ladd. She worked with Weintraub for two years, visiting the Arctic twice for sampling as she studied soil nitrogen availability and impacts on plant life.

    Advancing science with cutting-edge instruments

    The work greatly influenced where Ladd would go for her doctoral studies. She was attracted to the Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research & Graduate Education for its close ties to the national lab and the NGEE-Arctic program led by ORNL Environmental Sciences Division Director Stan Wullschleger—as well as by the offer of a personalized Ph.D. program that allows her to pursue science and a parallel track in policy. She began her time with ORNL and UTK in 2013, and is currently pursuing a doctorate in energy science and engineering. She is also an NSF Graduate Research Fellow.

    Wullschleger and UTK adviser Robert Hettich, a scientist in the Mass Spectrometry/Laser Spectroscopy Group at ORNL, helped Ladd design a program around Arctic metabolomics. In this focus area, she studies small molecules in the soil—how they are transported and break down over time, and how soil chemistry changes as temperatures rise.

    “Much of the success with this research is owed to being at ORNL with all the cutting-edge technologies it offers. The mass spectrometry resources here have been integral to getting high-resolution measurements in a short amount of time,” Ladd said.

    Her work for NGEE-Arctic started out in Barrow, Alaska, a coastal plain environment that has interesting microtopography where the soil physically moves as it freezes and thaws, creating rifts and valleys in the landscape. This summer, NGEE-Arctic conducted sampling in Nome, a sub-Arctic region that has undergone more warming and has markedly different, abundant plant life compared with Barrow.

    “My work at ORNL has allowed me to connect my fundamental scientific questions with DOE deliverables,” Mallory said. “It’s a great time to advocate for science, and to make sure we have strong, motivated young scientists doing excellent work.”

    Supporting the next generation of scientists

    Ladd has been very active in supporting her peers. She maintains a blog, “Think Like a Postdoc,” that chronicles her work and dispenses advice to other students.

    She also founded a student group at UTK called Pipeline: Vols for Women in STEM. A part of the university’s Commission for Women, the group works to enhance the status and representation of women in the 50-plus science, technology, engineering, and math fields at UTK through events such as an annual research symposium, interdisciplinary mentoring, monthly lectures, community outreach, and professional and social networking events.

    “The name ‘Pipeline’ refers to the analogy often used to describe the phenomenon that young girls and women are shown to be just as interested and scoring just as high as boys and men in STEM areas in K-12 and as college undergrads. But after graduating we see a divergence in the gender balance where men start to dominate these fields, often referred to as the leaky pipeline,” she said. Research in the past decade has discarded the notion that those changes happen because women start having children or are not “cut out” for long hours, she added.

    “Instead, studies are showing that the culprit is unconscious, or implicit, biases at the systemic level that are discouraging women from pursuing these careers as compared to their white male counterparts. The numbers are even worse for women of color, and especially at the leadership level,” she said. The Pipeline group tracks statistics on gender distribution in STEM areas at the university and aims to reverse that trend.

    Ladd’s curiosity and questioning nature began early. “I always questioned everything, and my parents were a huge part of that. They always encouraged me to not be afraid of standing out and to challenge the status quo. Science has been an outlet for that tendency,” she said. “I like the phrase that science turns ‘I don’t know’ into ‘I don’t know yet.’”

    Ladd grew up playing volleyball, with siblings who played rugby and soccer—meaning a lot of time on the road with various teams. “Our parents always told us it was okay to play in the dirt,” she said. Today away from the lab, she continues to spend time outdoors, kayaking, biking, and rock climbing, adding, “I’m a huge advocate for grad students making time for outside interests.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.


  • richardmitnick 1:55 pm on December 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A dynamic multi-objective problem – finding the best possible route for data one that is fast and less congested, , , , early-careerResearch award from DOE’s Office of Science to develop methods combining machine-learning algorithms with parallel computing to optimize such networks, , Mariam Kiran, This type of science and the problems it can address can make a real impact, Women in STEM   

    From ASCRDiscovery: Women in STEM -“Thinking networks” Mariam Kiran 

    Advancing Science Through Computing

    ESnet map

    December 2017

    ESnet’s DOE early-career awardee works to overcome roadblocks in computational networks.

    ESnet’s Mariam Kiran. Image courtesy of ESnet.

    The Atlas detector at CERN, in Switzerland. Users of it and other linked research facilities stand to benefit from ESnet’s efforts to reduce bottlenecks in intercontinental scientific data flow. Image courtesy of ESnet.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    Like other complex systems, computer networks can break down and suffer bottlenecks. Keeping such systems running requires algorithms that can identify problems and find solutions on the fly so information moves quickly and on time.

    Mariam Kiran – a network engineer for the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), a DOE Office of Science user facility managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory – is using an early-career research award from DOE’s Office of Science to develop methods combining machine-learning algorithms with parallel computing to optimize such networks.

    Kiran’s interest in science and mathematics was fueled by Doctor Who and other popular television shows she watched in her native United Kingdom. At 15 she got her first taste of computer programming, through a school project, using the BASIC programming language to create an airline database system. “I added a lot of graphics so that if you entered a wrong password, two airplanes would come across (the screen) and crash,” she says. It felt great to use a computer to create something out of nothing.

    Kiran’s economist father and botanist mother encouraged her interests and before long she was studying computer science at the University of Sheffield. Pop culture also influenced her interests there, at a time when many students dressed in long black coats like those seen in the blockbuster movie The Matrix. The core computer science concept from that film – using computer simulations to test complex theories – was appealing.

    She started coding such simulations, but along the way discovered another interest: developing ways around computer science roadblocks in those experiments. With simulations “you have potentially too much data to be processed, so you need a very fast and good system on the back end to make sure that the simulation goes as fast as it can,” she says. That challenge got her interested in computing and network infrastructure such as high-performance computing systems and cloud computing. She wanted to understand the problems and find strategies that help software run correctly and smoothly.

    Kiran’s interest led her to join the software engineering and testing group at the University of Sheffield, where she also completed her master’s degree and Ph.D. She was part of a team that assembled a simulation platform for coding interacting components of a complex system – or agent-based modeling, used widely in Europe to calculate problems in economics or biology. Each agent could represent a government, a person, an individual organism, or a cell. “You code everything up as an agent and then let them interact with other agents, randomly or by following certain rules, and see how the system reacts overall.”

    In 2014, she joined the UK’s University of Bradford as an associate professor and taught software engineering and machine learning. However, her research interests in performance optimization of computing and networks led her to investigate new projects that examined similar problems in applications that run over distributed compute and network resources. As a result, in 2016 she joined ESnet, which supports international science research computing networks and has produced a variety of innovations such as TCP and high-speed connections.

    With her early career grant, Kiran has five years of support to pursue software innovations that can manage the efficiency of today’s computer networks and take them to the next level. Machine learning algorithms – such as deep neural networks used for image recognition and analysis – can be exploited to understand user behavior and data-movement patterns across the network. A computer networks is a complex distributed system. How one heals itself or performs corrective measures at the edge while operating optimally overall is an interesting challenge to understand and solve, Kiran says.

    Managing information across networks is like transporting cargo on a highway system, she says. “You’re moving data from one building to the next building, and you have to find the shortest possible route.” The fastest path might depend on the time of day and traffic patterns.

    Some science applications, however, are deadline-driven and require data to arrive by certain times to succeed. Short routes might become overly congested, whereas slightly longer paths may be under-used.

    In the end, it’s a dynamic, multi-objective problem – finding the best possible route for data, one that is fast and less congested.

    “Throughout the day, the state of the network changes depending on the users and applications interacting on it,” Kiran notes. “Understanding these complex relationships is a challenge. I’m interested in seeing whether machine learning can help us understand these more and allow networks to automate corrective measures in near-real time to prevent outages and application failures.”

    She’s now identifying main problems along autonomous networks and applying those lessons to analogous computational and network problems. For example, she’s examining how engineers deal with outage-triggering bottlenecks and how bandwidth is controlled across links. Being at ESnet, which has led networking research for years, provides immense experience and capabilities to learn and apply solutions to a high-speed network that is built to think, she says.

    Better-functioning networks could speed computational research on a range of topics, including climate, weather and nuclear energy. High performance computing boosts these calculations by rapidly distributing them across multiple computers and processors, sometimes across the world. It also allows international scientists to collaborate quickly. Researchers at diverse locations from Berkeley Lab to Switzerland’s CERN to labs in South America can interact with data quickly and seamlessly and develop new theories and findings.

    This type of science and the problems it can address can make a real impact, Kiran says. “That’s what excites me about research – that we can improve or provide solutions to real-world problems.”

    Now in its eighth year, the DOE Office of Science’s Early Career Research Program for researchers in universities and DOE national laboratories supports the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and stimulates research careers in the disciplines supported by the Office of Science. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit htp://science.energy.gov.

    See the full article here.

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    ASCRDiscovery is a publication of The U.S. Department of Energy

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