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  • richardmitnick 10:24 am on June 20, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Icebergs drifting from Canada to Southern Florida", , , , US Geological Survey (USGS),   

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) : Women in STEM- Dr. Jenna Hill “Icebergs drifting from Canada to Southern Florida” 

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US)

    June 16, 2021
    Media Relations Office
    media@whoi.edu
    (508) 289-3340

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution & United States Geological Survey data shows how icebergs drifted more than 5,000km during the last glaciation.

    1
    These 3D perspective views of the seafloor bathymetry from multibeam sonar offshore of South Carolina show numerous grooves carved by drifting icebergs. As iceberg keels plow into the seafloor, they dig deep grooves that push aside boulders and piles of sand and mud along their tracks. Sediment cores from nearby buried iceberg scours were used to determine when these icebergs travelled south along the coast. Credit: Jenna Hill, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center (US).

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) climate modeler Dr. Alan Condron and United States Geological Survey (USGS) research geologist Dr. Jenna Hill have found evidence that massive icebergs from roughly 31,000 years ago drifted more than 5000km (> 3,000 miles) along the eastern United States coast from Northeast Canada all the way to southern Florida. These findings were published today in Nature Communications.

    Using high resolution seafloor mapping, radiocarbon dating and a new iceberg model, the team analyzed about 700 iceberg scours (“plow marks” on the seafloor left behind by the bottom parts of icebergs dragging through marine sediment ) from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to the Florida Keys. The discovery of icebergs in this area opens a door to understanding the interactions between icebergs/glaciers and climate.

    “The idea that icebergs can make it to Florida is amazing,” said Condron. “The appearance of scours at such low latitudes is highly unexpected not only because of the exceptionally high melt rates in this region, but also because the scours lie beneath the northward flowing Gulf Stream.”

    “We recovered the marine sediment cores from several of these scours, and their ages align with a known period of massive iceberg discharge known as Heinrich Event 3. We also expect that there are younger and older scours features that stem from other discharge events, given that there are hundreds of scours yet to be sampled,” added Hill.

    To study how icebergs reached the scour sites, Condron developed a numerical iceberg model that simulates how icebergs drift and melt in the ocean. The model shows that icebergs can only reach the scour sites when massive amounts of glacial meltwater (or glacial outburst floods) are released from Hudson Bay. “These floods create a cold, fast flowing, southward coastal current that carries the icebergs all the way to Florida” says Condron. “The model also produces ‘scouring’ on the seafloor in the same places as the actual scours”

    The ocean water temperatures south of Cape Hatteras are about 20-25°C (68-77°F). According to Condron and Hill, for icebergs to reach the subtropical scour locations in this region, they must have drifted against the normal northward direction of flow — the opposite direction to the Gulf Stream. This indicates that the transport of icebergs to the south occurs during large-scale, but brief periods of meltwater discharge.

    “What our model suggests is that these icebergs get caught up in the currents created by glacial meltwater, and basically surf their way along the coast. When a large glacial lake dam breaks, and releases huge amounts of fresh water into the ocean, there’s enough water to create these strong coastal currents that basically move the icebergs in the opposite direction to the Gulf Stream, which is no easy task” Condron said.

    While this freshwater is eventually transferred northward by the Gulf Stream, mixing with the surrounding ocean would have caused the meltwater to be considerably saltier by the time it reached the most northern parts of the North Atlantic. Those areas are considered critical for controlling how much heat the ocean transports northward to Europe. If these regions become abundant with freshwater, then the amount of heat transported north by the ocean could significantly weaken, increasing the chance that Europe could get much colder.

    The routing of meltwater into the subtropics – a location very far south of these regions – implies that the influence of meltwater on global climate is more complex than previously thought, according to Condron and Hill. Understanding the timing and circulation of meltwater and icebergs through the global oceans during glacial periods is crucial for deciphering how past changes in high-latitude freshwater forcing influenced shifts in climate.

    “As we are able to make more detailed computer models, we can actually get more accurate features of how the ocean actually circulates, how the currents move, how they peel off and how they spin around. That actually makes a big difference in terms of how that freshwater is circulated and how it can actually impact climate,” Hill added.

    See the full article here .

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    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.

    The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution’s funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation(US) and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

    WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels (R/V Atlantis and R/V Neil Armstrong); the coastal craft Tioga; small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo; the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin; the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea; and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED.

    WHOI offers graduate and post-doctoral studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and training programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US). WHOI is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (US). WHOI also offers public outreach programs and informal education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associate.

    On October 1, 2020, Peter B. de Menocal became the institution’s eleventh president and director.

    History

    In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences(US) committee concluded that it was time to “consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research.” The committee’s recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to “prosecute oceanography in all its branches” led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(US).

    A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot (43 m) ketch R/V Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution’s logo.

    WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. From 1950 to 1956, the director was Dr. Edward “Iceberg” Smith, an Arctic explorer, oceanographer and retired Coast Guard rear admiral.

    In 1977 the institution appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, and he served until his retirement in 1989.

    On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912.

    On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.

    In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online.

    The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. Likewise, WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company.

    In 2019, iDefense reported that China’s hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy. Some of the targets included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:21 am on January 18, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "‘Melting Rock’ Models Predict Mechanical Origins of Earthquakes", , , , , , US Geological Survey (USGS)   

    From Duke University: “‘Melting Rock’ Models Predict Mechanical Origins of Earthquakes” 


    From Duke University

    January 17, 2020
    Ken Kingery

    New model accurately predicts why and how friction drops as rocks slide past one another with greater speed and undergo a phase change.

    Engineers at Duke University have devised a model that can predict the early mechanical behaviors and origins of an earthquake in multiple types of rock. The model provides new insights into unobservable phenomena that take place miles beneath the Earth’s surface under incredible pressures and temperatures, and could help researchers better predict earthquakes—or even, at least theoretically, attempt to stop them.

    The results appear online on January 17 in the journal Nature Communications.

    “Earthquakes originate along fault lines deep underground where extreme conditions can cause chemical reactions and phase transitions that affect the friction between rocks as they move against one another,” said Hadrien Rattez, a research scientist in civil and environmental engineering at Duke. “Our model is the first that can accurately reproduce how the amount of friction decreases as the speed of the rock slippage increases and all of these mechanical phenomena are unleashed.”

    For three decades, researchers have built machines to simulate the conditions of a fault by pushing and twisting two discs of rock against one another. These experiments can reach pressures of up to 1450 pounds per square inch and speeds of one meter per second, which is the fastest underground rocks can travel. For a geological reference point, the Pacific tectonic plate moves at about 0.00000000073 meters per second.

    3
    Pacific Plate. USGS

    4
    The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in 1996, USGS.

    “In terms of ground movement, these speeds of one meter per second are incredibly fast,” said Manolis Veveakis, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Duke. “And remember that friction is synonymous with resistance. So if the resistance drops to zero, the object will move abruptly. This is an earthquake.”

    In these experiments, the surface of the rocks either begins to turn into a sort of gel or to melt, lowering the coefficient of friction between them and making their movement easier. It’s been well established that as the speed of these rocks relative to one another increases to one meter per second, the friction between them drops like a rock, you might say, no matter the type. But until now, nobody had created a model that could accurately reproduce these behaviors.

    In the paper, Rattez and Veveakis describe a computational model that takes into account the energy balance of all the complicated mechanical processes taking place during fault movement. They incorporate weakening mechanisms caused by heat that are common to all types of rock, such as mineral decomposition, nanoparticle lubrication and melting as the rock undergoes a phase change.

    5
    Researchers twist rock discs against one another under large amounts of pressure at high speeds to simulate what happens during earthquakes at fault lines. New models from Duke engineers are the first that can accurately reproduce how the amount of friction decreases as the speed of the rock slippage increases and the rock undergoes a phase change. Credit – Giulio DiToro (University of Padova), Elena Spagnuolo and Stefano Aretusini (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Rome).

    After running all of their simulations, the researchers found that their new model accurately predicts the drop in friction associated with the entire range of fault speeds from experiments on all available rock types including halite, silicate and quartz.

    Because the model works well for so many different types of rock, it appears to be a general model that can be applied to most situations, which can reveal new information about the origins of earthquakes. While researchers can’t fully recreate the conditions of a fault, models such as this can help them extrapolate to higher pressures and temperatures to get a better understanding of what is happening as a fault builds toward an earthquake.

    “The model can give physical meaning to observations that we usually cannot understand,” Rattez said. “It provides a lot of information about the physical mechanisms involved, like the energy required for different phase transitions.”

    “We still cannot predict earthquakes, but such studies are necessary steps we need to take in order to get there,” said Veveakis. “And in theory, if we could interfere with a fault, we could track its composition and intervene before it becomes unstable. That’s what we do with landslides. But, of course, fault lines are 20 miles underground, and we currently don’t have the drilling capacity to go there.”

    This work was supported by the Southern California Earthquake Center (118062196) under the National Science Foundation (EAR-1033462) and the United States Geological Survey (G12AC20038).

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    Younger than most other prestigious U.S. research universities, Duke University consistently ranks among the very best. Duke’s graduate and professional schools — in business, divinity, engineering, the environment, law, medicine, nursing and public policy — are among the leaders in their fields. Duke’s home campus is situated on nearly 9,000 acres in Durham, N.C, a city of more than 200,000 people. Duke also is active internationally through the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in Singapore, Duke Kunshan University in China and numerous research and education programs across the globe. More than 75 percent of Duke students pursue service-learning opportunities in Durham and around the world through DukeEngage and other programs that advance the university’s mission of “knowledge in service to society.”

     
  • richardmitnick 7:23 am on July 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Deleting mentions of ‘climate change’ from U.S. Geological Survey press releases, , , US Geological Survey (USGS)   

    From Science Magazine: “Trump officials deleting mentions of ‘climate change’ from U.S. Geological Survey press releases” 

    AAAS
    From Science Magazine

    Jul. 8, 2019
    Scott Waldman

    1
    Under Director James Reilly, the U.S. Geological Survey has drawn criticism for deemphasizing concerns about climate change. NASA

    A March news release from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) touted a new study that could be useful for infrastructure planning along the California coastline.

    At least that’s how President Donald Trump’s administration conveyed it.

    The news release hardly stood out. It focused on the methodology of the study rather than its major findings, which showed that climate change could have a withering effect on California’s economy by inundating real estate over the next few decades.

    An earlier draft of the news release, written by researchers, was sanitized by Trump administration officials, who removed references to the dire effects of climate change after delaying its release for several months, according to three federal officials who saw it. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, showed that California, the world’s fifth-largest economy, would face more than $100 billion in damages related to climate change and sea-level rise by the end of the century. It found that three to seven times more people and businesses than previously believed would be exposed to severe flooding.

    “We show that for California, USA, the world’s fifth largest economy, over $150 billion of property equating to more than 6% of the state’s GDP and 600,000 people could be impacted by dynamic flooding by 2100,” the researchers wrote in the study.

    The release fits a pattern of downplaying climate research at USGS and in other agencies within the administration. While USGS does not appear to be halting the pursuit of science, it has publicly communicated an incomplete account of the peer-reviewed research or omitted it under President Trump.

    “It’s been made clear to us that we’re not supposed to use climate change in press releases anymore. They will not be authorized,” one federal researcher said, speaking anonymously for fear of reprisal.

    In the Obama administration, press releases related to climate change were typically approved within days, researchers said. Now, they can take more than six months and go through the offices of political appointees, where they are often altered, several researchers told E&E News.

    In the case of the California coastline study, the press release went through the office of James Reilly, the director of USGS, a former astronaut who is attempting to minimize the consideration of climate change in agency decisions. Reilly is preparing a directive for agency scientists to use climate models that predict changes through 2040, when the effect of emissions is expected to be less severe. The New York Times first reported on the directive.

    At his 2018 confirmation hearing, Reilly promised to protect the agency’s scientific integrity.

    “If someone were to come to me and say, ‘I want you to change this because it’s the politically right thing to do,’ I would politely decline,” Reilly told lawmakers. “I’m fully committed to scientific integrity.”

    A spokeswoman for USGS said the agency has no formal policy to avoid references to climate change.

    “There is no policy nor directive in place that directs us to avoid mentioning climate change in our communication materials,” said Karen Armstrong, the spokeswoman.

    “Scientists at USGS regularly develop new methods and tools to supply timely, relevant and useful information about our planet and its processes, and we are committed to promoting the science they develop and making it broadly available,” she added.

    The agency’s press release about the California coastline study was significantly altered to mask the potential impact of rising temperatures on the state’s economy. Instead, it described the methodology of the study and how it relied on “state-of-the-art computer models” and various sea-level rise predictions.

    “USGS scientists and collaborators used state-of-the-art computer models to determine the coastal flooding and erosion that could result from a range of peer-reviewed, published 21st-century sea level rise and storm scenarios,” the final press release said. “The authors then translated those hazards into a range of projected economic and social exposure data to show the lives and dollars that could be at risk from climate change in California during the 21st century.”

    The USGS release didn’t include the dollar figures outlined in the study.

    An earlier draft of the press release, which was put online by the environmental group Point Blue Conservation Science, a participant in the study, compared the possible effect on Californians to the devastation of Hurricane Katrina. The release had stark recommendations for coastal planners and emphasized that by the end of the century, a typical winter storm could threaten $100 billion in coastal real estate annually.

    “According to the study, even modest sea level rise projections of ten inches (25 centimeters) by 2040 could flood more than 150,000 residents and affect more than $30 billion in property value when combined with an extreme 100-year storm along California’s coast,” the draft stated. “Societal exposure that included storms was up to seven times greater than with sea level rise alone.”

    The agency has omitted climate change from other press releases.

    A release in 2017 that publicized a study on how polar bears were expending more energy due to a loss of sea ice did not mention climate change. It noted that a “moving treadmill of sea ice” in the warming Arctic forced polar bears to hunt for more seals and placed pressure on their population in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, without stating that climate change is a key driver of sea ice conditions.

    Another USGS release, on shifting farming regions due to climate change, mentioned “future high-temperature extremes” and “future climate conditions” but not climate change. The first sentence of the study that it was intended to promote mentions climate change. It was published in Scientific Reports.

    Some of the USGS studies point to national security repercussions. One study released last year found that a military installation in the Pacific Ocean that would play a role in a possible nuclear strike by North Korea could become uninhabitable in less than two decades due to climate change. The study, which was ordered by the Department of Defense, was released by USGS without a press release.

    USGS conducts important climate research and manages the Landsat satellite system that has tracked human-caused global changes for almost 50 years. Government researchers study sea-level rise and glacial melt and manage regional climate adaptation centers housed at universities from Hawaii to Massachusetts.

    Allowing valuable information to fall through the cracks is a waste of taxpayer dollars and could prevent science from being included in policy decisions, said Joel Clement, a former climate staffer for the Department of the Interior, USGS’s parent agency. Clement, who is now a senior fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, said the promotion of studies is an important way to get information into the hands of planners, homeowners, and policymakers. He said Interior appears to be suppressing climate science.

    “It’s an insult to the science, of course, but it’s also an insult to the people who need this information and whose livelihoods and in some cases their lives depend on this,” Clement said. “What’s shocking about it is that this has been taken to a new level, where information that is essential to economic and health and safety—essentially American well-being—is essentially being shelved and being hidden.”

    In the last year of the Obama administration, USGS distributed at least 13 press releases that focused on climate change and highlighted it in the headline, according to an E&E News review. Since then — from 2017 through the first six months of 2019 — none has mentioned climate change in the headline of the press release, according to the list of state and national releases posted on the USGS website. Some briefly mentioned climate change in the body of the release, while others did not refer to it at all.

    Other studies have been quietly buried on the agency’s webpages.

    That subtle form of suppression fits a pattern elsewhere in the federal government.

    Politico recently reported that officials at the Department of Agriculture buried dozens of studies related to climate change. In one case, agency officials tried to prevent outside groups from disseminating a climate-related study. The research looked at how rice provides less nutrition in a carbon-rich environment. That could have global consequences because hundreds of millions of people have rice-based diets around the world.

    The Interior Department has been accused of deleting climate change references from previous press releases. In 2017, The Washington Post reported that the agency deleted a line mentioning climate change in a press release about a study on flood risks to coastal communities. That line was: “Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding.”

    Interior Secretary David Bernhardt, a former energy lobbyist, is under investigation for his ties to the energy industry while serving in government. A separate investigation is exploring whether he sought to block an Interior Department study on the dangers that a pesticide posed to endangered species.

    There is no evidence that Trump political appointees at the agency have blocked climate studies from taking place, but the censoring of press releases has affected the work of researchers worried about their jobs, according to another federal researcher.

    “We are pretty cognizant of political pressures, and with these press releases people are definitely biting their nails over ‘how should we word this’ and if there are proposals within USGS, should we use climate change or not,” the researcher said. “It’s a lot of stuff that definitely filters down, and it affects the reality of people on the ground doing the work when you’re not sure of how I should present this. It’s definitely a huge waste of time.”

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 12:23 pm on October 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , US Geological Survey (USGS),   

    From Science Alert: “The USGS Has Just Listed These 18 North American Volcanoes as “Very High” Risk” 

    ScienceAlert

    From Science Alert

    26 OCT 2018
    MIKE MCRAE

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has recently updated their assessment of potentially threatening volcanoes across the nation, making changes in light of more than a decade of fresh research.

    First, the good news: all of that data has revealed a handful of volcanoes with minimal threat of causing wanton destruction can now be crossed off the list altogether.

    The bad news? There are still 18 bad boys to keep a close eye on. And it’s probably not a huge surprise that 16 out of those are on the North American west coast.

    1

    The last time the USGS ranked volcanic threats was back in 2005. A lot has been discovered about geology since then, so the National Volcanic Threat Assessment figured it was time to go back to the list and double check their sums.

    Given the US is one of the most volcanically active nations on the planet, eruptions are a way of life. Just ask Hawaii, which saw some spectacular displays from Kīlauea volcano earlier this year.

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    Kilauea volcano (Photo: U.S. Geological Survey via EPA-EFE)

    1
    An aerial view of the erupting Pu’u ‘O’o crater on Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano taken at dusk on June 29, 1983.
    Credit: G.E. Ulrich, USGS

    2
    A calmer scene at Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano. Approximately August 8, 2018(United States Geological Survey)

    Then there are those occasional cataclysmic time bombs on the North American continent itself, like Mount St. Helens in Washington, which took the lives of 57 people nearly 40 years ago.

    Knowing which mountains are going to blow sky high in a local apocalypse and which are likely to be smoking duds informs authorities on how to plan for the worst.

    So the USGS categorises volcanoes according to numerous factors that describe their threat, as either very low, low, moderate, high, and very high.

    These levels don’t so much as describe their chances of erupting any time soon, as much as their impact should they did awaken in a pyrotechnic blaze of molten rock and ash plumes.

    There’s the obvious lava flows and flying boulders to contend with, but billowing clouds of dust particles can interfere with air traffic, potentially costing hundreds of millions in cancelled flights and rerouting.

    That’s not to mention toxic gases and fine particulates polluting the atmosphere, increasing health risks. Long after the fireworks die away, volcanoes can still cause immense damage in a variety of ways, depending on their remoteness.

    Take Imuruk Lake for example. Its volcano sits out in the Alaskan wilds, where any ash-laden plume is unlikely to interfere with aircraft. Last seeing action around 300 CE, it’s way down the bottom of the list of potential threats at number 161.

    It joins 20 other volcanoes in the lowest threat category, which now contains 11 fewer occupants than in the 2005 assessment.

    All up, 20 volcanoes have had their risk demoted or removed altogether following their revaluation. Mt Washington in Oregon is now considered dead as a dodo, and just as likely to come back. So has the state’s Four Craters lava field.

    But the 18 red-alert monsters that sit in the list of highest threats are the same ones that were identified in 2005.

    Number one should come as no surprise. Kīlauea’s latest activity saw more than 700 homes and businesses destroyed, making it the most threatening volcano the US has to contend with right now.

    4
    Washington’s Mt Saint Helens and Mt Rainier follow close behind, with Redoubt Volcano in Alaska at number four and California’s Mt Shasta at number five.

    Looking at the top 25, people might be somewhat relieved to see that the much-feared Yellowstone caldera doesn’t make the riskiest top 18, sitting at 21.

    If you’re seeing a pattern, most of the most severe threats are on the US West Coast, with three of the 18 in California, five in Alaska, four in Washington and another four in Oregon.

    None of this means it’s time to pack up and head to Florida. We wouldn’t recommend it anyway, what with their human-sized lizards prowling neighbourhoods, toxic algal blooms, and annual tropical storms building up steam.

    But it does give scientists a better idea of what to prioritise in their research, and governments a good sense of where to put their money.

    As populations swell, air traffic increases, and new kinds of technology and infrastructure stretch across the nation, there’s no doubt we’ll be seeing more additions to the high threat categories in future editions of the assessment.

    Thankfully somebody is keeping a close eye on these sleeping giants.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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