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  • richardmitnick 12:26 pm on September 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Finding new alloys just became simpler", Another type of defect is edge dislocation where an extra atomic plane is inserted into part of the crystal structure., High-entropy alloys are complex alloys with five or more elements that can have all kinds of useful properties., , , The discovery that iron became much stronger with the addition of a little bit of carbon was one of the discoveries that heralded the Industrial Revolution., The finding that edge dislocation actually determines a large part of the yield strength of complex HEAs was a major surprise., The strength of an alloy depends largely on defects in the crystal structure. Perfect crystals are the strongest but these do not exist in real life materials., Tweaking the composition of a base metal by adding different elements thus creating an alloy has been important in human history., University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)   

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) : “Finding new alloys just became simpler” 

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)

    16 September 2021

    In metal alloys, behaviour at the atomic scale affects the material’s properties. However, the number of possible alloys is astronomical. Together with an international team of colleagues, Francesco Maresca, an engineer at the University of Groningen, developed a theoretical model that allows him to rapidly determine the strength of millions of different alloys at high temperatures. Experiments confirmed the model predictions. The findings were published in Nature Communications on 16 September.

    The discovery that iron became much stronger with the addition of a little bit of carbon was one of the discoveries that heralded the Industrial Revolution. ‘Tweaking the composition of a base metal by adding different elements thus creating an alloy has been important in human history,’ says Francesco Maresca, assistant professor at the Engineering and Technology institute Groningen (ENTEG), at the University of Groningen. As a civil engineer, he likes large structures such as bridges. But he is now studying metals at an atomic scale to find the best alloys for specific applications.

    Maresca is particularly interested in high-entropy alloys (HEAs) which were first proposed some twenty years ago. These are complex alloys with five or more elements that can have all kinds of useful properties. But how to find the best one? ‘There are around forty metallic elements that are not radioactive or toxic and are therefore suitable for use in alloys. This gives us roughly 1078 different compositions,’ he explains. It is impossible to test a large fraction of these by simply making them.

    This is why Maresca wanted a good theory to describe important properties of HEAs. One of those properties is high-temperature strength, essential in various applications ranging from turbine engines to nuclear power plants. The strength of an alloy depends largely on defects in the crystal structure. “Perfect crystals are the strongest but these do not exist in real life materials.” A major determinant of strength at high temperatures in body-centred cubic alloys is thought to be a screw dislocation, a dislocation in the lattice structure of a crystal in which the atoms are rearranged into a helical pattern. ‘These dislocations are very hard to model at the atomic scale,’ explains Maresca.

    Composition

    Another type of defect is edge dislocation where an extra atomic plane is inserted into part of the crystal structure. Maresca: ‘It was believed that these dislocations have no effect on strength at high temperatures, because that was shown experimentally in pure metals. However, we found that they can determine strength in complex alloys.’ Edge dislocations are much easier to model and Maresca created an atomic-scale model for this dislocation in HEAs, which he then translated into a MATLAB script that could predict the engineering-scale strength of millions of different alloys at high temperatures in a matter of minutes.

    1
    Atomistic models shed light on the strengthening mechanisms of dislocations in alloys (panel a). Based on easily accessible input (composition, lattice parameters, elastic constants), an analytical model is formulated that enables the efficient screening over millions of alloys (panel b). The screening provides the prediction of the high-temperature yield strength of millions of high entropy alloys (panel c). Illustration credit: Francesco Maresca.

    The result is a strength versus temperature relationship for these different alloys. ‘Using our results, you can find which compositions will give you a specific strength at, for example, 1300 Kelvin. This allows you to tweak the properties of such a high-temperature-resistant material.’ The theoretical results can be used to create alloys with new properties, or to find alternative compositions when one element in an alloy becomes scarce. The model was validated by creating two different alloys and testing their predicted ‘yield strength’, the amount of stress they can withstand at high temperatures without irreversible deformation. The importance of edge dislocation in this process was confirmed using different experimental techniques.

    Surprise

    ‘We also made an atomic model for screw dislocations, which was too complicated for the high-throughput analysis used for the edge dislocation,’ says Maresca. This confirmed that screw dislocation was not the most important determinant of yield strength in these alloys. The finding that edge dislocation actually determines a large part of the yield strength of complex HEAs was a major surprise and one that has made a simple, theory-driven discovery of new complex alloys possible.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1614 and is the second-oldest university in the Netherlands. In 2014, the university celebrated its 400th anniversary. Currently, RUG is placed in the top 100 universities worldwide according to three international ranking tables.

    The university was ranked 65th in the world, according to Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2019. In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, was voted the best university of the Netherlands.

    The University of Groningen has eleven faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175-degree programmes. The university’s alumni and faculty include Johann Bernoulli, Aletta Jacobs, four Nobel Prize winners, nine Spinoza Prize winners, one Stevin Prize winner, royalty, multiple mayors, the first president of the European Central Bank, and a secretary general of NATO.

    Research

    Research schools, centres and institutes

    Humanities and Social Sciences

    Center for Language and Cognition Groningen (CLCG)
    Globalisation Studies Groningen (GSG)
    Centre for Religious Studies (CRS)
    Groningen Institute of Archeology (GIA)
    Groningen Institute for Educational research (GION)
    Groningen Research Institute of Philosophy (GRIPH)
    Groningen Research Institute for the Study of Culture (ICOG)
    Heymans Institute
    Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS)
    Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI)

    Law

    Centre for Law, Administration and Society (CRBS)
    Groningen Centre of Energy Law (GCEL)

    Economics & Business

    Economics, Econometrics and Finance (EEF)
    Global Economics and Management (GEM)
    Human Resource Management & Organisational Behaviour (HRM-OB)
    Innovation & Organization (IO)
    Marketing
    Operations Management & Operations Research (OPERA)

    Life Sciences

    Research School of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCN) / UMCG[51]
    Research Institute BCN-BRAIN / UMCG[52]
    Cancer Research Center Groningen (CRCG) / UMCG[53]
    Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES)[54]
    Behavioural & Physiological Ecology[55]
    Conservation Ecology Group[56]
    Theoretical Research in Evolutionary Life Sciences[57]
    Evolutionary Genetics, Development & Behaviour[58]
    Genomics Research in Ecology & Evolution in Nature[59]
    Neurobiology[60]
    Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE) / UMCG[61]
    Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology (GBB)
    Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy (GRIP)
    Science in Healthy Ageing and healthcaRE (SHARE), UMCG[62]
    W.J. Kolff Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science / UMCG[63]

    Science and Engineering[64]

    Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
    ENTEG – Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen
    ESRIG – Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen
    GBB – Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute
    GELIFES – Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences
    GRIP – Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy
    ISEC – Institute for Science Education and Communication
    Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
    Stratingh Institute for Chemistry
    Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity
    Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials (ZIAM)

     
  • richardmitnick 12:12 pm on April 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Dozens of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies detected", , , , , University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)   

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) via phys.org : “Dozens of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies detected” 


    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)

    via


    phys.org

    April 8, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    Ultra-compact Dwarf Galaxies/GCs around the brightest galaxies in the Fornax cluster. Credit: Saifollahi et al., 2021.

    Astronomers from the University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) and elsewhere have identified 44 new ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The newly found objects most likely belong to the Fornax Cluster. The discovery is reported in a paper published March 31 in MNRAS.

    UCDs are very compact galaxies with high stellar populations, containing about 100 million stars. They display masses, colors and metallicities between those of globular clusters and early-type dwarf galaxies. These ultra-compact stellar systems could provide important insights on the formation and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

    Located some 65 million light years away from the Earth, the Fornax Cluster is the second-richest cluster of galaxies nearby. Due to its relatively close proximity, it is a valuable source of information about galaxy clusters in general. Previous observations of Fornax Cluster have detected 61 member UCDs in total.

    Now, a group of astronomers led by Teymoor Saifollahi of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, reports the finding of dozens of new potential UCDs that may be associated with the Fornax Cluster. By analyzing the data from the Fornax Deep Survey (FDS), Vista Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and archival datasets from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), they identified 44 candidate UCDs in the outskirts of this cluster.

    “With the deep optical images of the Fornax Deep Survey, combined with public near-infrared data, we revisit the UCD population of the Fornax cluster and search for UCD candidates, for the first time, systematically, out to the virial radius of the galaxy cluster,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    The team initially selected 220 UCD candidates, and from this broad sample, they chose 44 that have a higher probability of being real UCDs. Almost all of the newly detected UCD candidates are located outside the core of the Fornax Cluster (more than 1,170 light years away from the cluster’s center).

    According to the paper, almost half of the newfound ultra-compact dwarf galaxies in the outskirts of the Fornax Cluster appear to be intra-cluster UCDs, further away than 650,000 light years from any galaxy in this cluster brighter than -18 mag. The astronomers noted that this group of UCDs may be formed in low-density environments and represent in-falling UCD populations into the cluster.

    The study also identified two over-densities of UCDs outside the core of the Fornax Cluster in the northern and western sides, which appear to overlap the enhancements in the densities of dwarf galaxies in this cluster. This finding suggests that the population of UCDs follow the dwarf galaxies in the Fornax Cluster and may form in low-density, pre-processed group environments, what challenges our current models of UCD formation.

    The authors of the paper added that follow-up spectroscopy and radial velocity studies are required in order to confirm the membership of the new UCD candidates. Such measurements would also shed more light on the origin of these UCDs.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1614 and is the second-oldest university in the Netherlands. In 2014, the university celebrated its 400th anniversary. Currently, RUG is placed in the top 100 universities worldwide according to three international ranking tables.

    The university was ranked 65th in the world, according to Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2019. In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, was voted the best university of the Netherlands.

    The University of Groningen has eleven faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175-degree programmes. The university’s alumni and faculty include Johann Bernoulli, Aletta Jacobs, four Nobel Prize winners, nine Spinoza Prize winners, one Stevin Prize winner, royalty, multiple mayors, the first president of the European Central Bank, and a secretary general of NATO.

    Research

    Research schools, centres and institutes

    Humanities and Social Sciences

    Center for Language and Cognition Groningen (CLCG)
    Globalisation Studies Groningen (GSG)
    Centre for Religious Studies (CRS)
    Groningen Institute of Archeology (GIA)
    Groningen Institute for Educational research (GION)
    Groningen Research Institute of Philosophy (GRIPH)
    Groningen Research Institute for the Study of Culture (ICOG)
    Heymans Institute
    Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS)
    Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI)

    Law

    Centre for Law, Administration and Society (CRBS)
    Groningen Centre of Energy Law (GCEL)

    Economics & Business

    Economics, Econometrics and Finance (EEF)
    Global Economics and Management (GEM)
    Human Resource Management & Organisational Behaviour (HRM-OB)
    Innovation & Organization (IO)
    Marketing
    Operations Management & Operations Research (OPERA)

    Life Sciences

    Research School of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCN) / UMCG[51]
    Research Institute BCN-BRAIN / UMCG[52]
    Cancer Research Center Groningen (CRCG) / UMCG[53]
    Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES)[54]
    Behavioural & Physiological Ecology[55]
    Conservation Ecology Group[56]
    Theoretical Research in Evolutionary Life Sciences[57]
    Evolutionary Genetics, Development & Behaviour[58]
    Genomics Research in Ecology & Evolution in Nature[59]
    Neurobiology[60]
    Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE) / UMCG[61]
    Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology (GBB)
    Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy (GRIP)
    Science in Healthy Ageing and healthcaRE (SHARE), UMCG[62]
    W.J. Kolff Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science / UMCG[63]

    Science and Engineering[64]

    Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
    ENTEG – Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen
    ESRIG – Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen
    GBB – Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute
    GELIFES – Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences
    GRIP – Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy
    ISEC – Institute for Science Education and Communication
    Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
    Stratingh Institute for Chemistry
    Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity
    Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials (ZIAM)

     
  • richardmitnick 9:20 am on December 21, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New discovery brings analogue spintronic devices closer", All these effects were measured both at low temperatures and at room temperature and could be used in applications such as nonlinear circuit elements in the fields of advanced spintronics., , It also allows analogue operations such as amplitude modulation and spin amplification., , The ability to modulate a spin signal rather than just switch it on or off also makes it easier to construct spintronic devices., The observation of nonlinearity in electron spin-related processes in graphene makes it easier to transport; manipulate; and detect spins as well as spin-to-charge conversion., There is a large difference between the numbers of spin-up and spin-down electrons., University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)   

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL): “New discovery brings analogue spintronic devices closer” 


    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)

    17 December 2020

    The observation of nonlinearity in electron spin-related processes in graphene makes it easier to transport, manipulate and detect spins, as well as spin-to-charge conversion. It also allows analogue operations such as amplitude modulation and spin amplification. This brings spintronics to the point where regular electronics was after the introduction of the first transistors. These results by University of Groningen physicists were published in the journal Physical Review Applied on 17 December.

    Spintronics is a type of electronics that uses the spin of electrons (a magnetic moment that can have the values ‘up’ or ‘down’) to transport signals. Spin transport in the 2D carbon material graphene is excellent; however, manipulation of spins is not. This requires the addition of ferromagnets (for spin injection and detection) or heavy-atom materials with high spin-orbit coupling, which allow the manipulation of spins.

    1
    Graphene (light green) with boron nitride (blue) on top. Measuring points indicated in orange. Credit: EM photo Omar / UoG.

    2
    Siddhartha Omar. Credit: University of Groningen.

    Nonlinear

    Scientists from the University of Groningen have now shown that nonlinear effects that are particular to electron spin can be achieved using 2D boron nitride. Previously, they had already shown that injecting a current through a boron nitride bilayer, to which a small DC bias current was applied, resulted in a very high spin polarization, which means that there is a large difference between the numbers of spin-up and spin-down electrons. They have now shown that the polarization increase can be attributed to nonlinear processes that influence the electron spins.

    The nonlinearity means that two spin signals multiply, rather than add up (which would be a linear effect). Furthermore, in the nonlinear regime, spin signals can be measured without using ferromagnets. Earlier, all these effects were either absent or very weak in a typical graphene spintronic device. “All because of this nonlinear effect, which increases in proportion with the bias current,” says Siddhartha Omar, a former postdoctoral researcher at the University of Groningen and first author of the paper. “Polarization can even reach 100 per cent. Since it is nonlinear, you give less and get more during the injection when this current is applied.”

    Neuromorphic

    In the study, Omar and his colleagues in the Physics of Nanodevices group at the Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, show applications of the nonlinear effect for basic analogue operations, such as essential elements of amplitude modulation on pure spin signals. “We believe that this can be used to transport spin over larger distances. The larger spin signal also makes spin-charge conversion easier and that means that we no longer need ferromagnets to detect them.”

    The ability to modulate a spin signal, rather than just switch it on or off, also makes it easier to construct spintronic devices. Omar: ‘They could be used in spin-based neuromorphic computing, which uses switches that can have a range of values, rather than just 0 or 1.’ It also seems possible to create a spin current amplifier, which produces a large spin current with a small bias voltage. ‘It may be there already, but we still have to prove it,’ says Omar.

    Spintronics

    All these effects were measured both at low temperatures and at room temperature and could be used in applications such as nonlinear circuit elements in the fields of advanced spintronics. ‘Spintronics is now at the point where regular electronics was after the introduction of the first transistors. We could now build real spintronic devices,’ concludes Omar.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1614 and is the second-oldest university in the Netherlands. In 2014, the university celebrated its 400th anniversary. Currently, RUG is placed in the top 100 universities worldwide according to three international ranking tables.

    The university was ranked 65th in the world, according to Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2019. In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, was voted the best university of the Netherlands.

    The University of Groningen has eleven faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175-degree programmes. The university’s alumni and faculty include Johann Bernoulli, Aletta Jacobs, four Nobel Prize winners, nine Spinoza Prize winners, one Stevin Prize winner, royalty, multiple mayors, the first president of the European Central Bank, and a secretary general of NATO.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:37 pm on December 8, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Entangled quantum systems, , , , , , , Three of the four fundamental forces in physics can be described in terms of quantum theory. This is not the case for the fourth force (gravity)., University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)   

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) via phys.org: “Experiment to test quantum gravity just got a bit less complicated” 

    From University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL)

    via


    phys.org

    December 8, 2020

    1
    In the proposed experiment, two diamonds are each placed in superposition and studied in freefall. Apart from gravity, the Casimir effect also draws them together, causing noise in the experiment. A thin copper plate can shield this effect, reducing the noise and making the experiment more manageable. Credit: A. Mazumdar, University of Groningen.

    Is gravity a quantum phenomenon? That has been one of the big outstanding questions in physics for decades. Together with colleagues from the UK, Anupam Mazumdar, a physicist from the University of Groningen, proposed an experiment that could settle the issue. However, it requires studying two very large entangled quantum systems in freefall. In a new paper
    [Physical Review A], which has a third-year Bachelor’s student as the first author, Mazumdar presents a way to reduce background noise to make this experiment more manageable.

    Three of the four fundamental forces in physics can be described in terms of quantum theory. This is not the case for the fourth force (gravity), which is described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The experiment that Mazumdar and his colleagues previously designed could prove or disprove the quantum nature of gravity.

    Superposition

    A well-known consequence of the quantum theory is the phenomenon called quantum superposition: in certain situations, quantum states can have two different values at the same time. Take an electron that is irradiated with laser light. Quantum theory says that it can either absorb or not absorb the photon energy from the light. Absorbing the energy would alter the electron’s spin, a magnetic moment that can be either up or down. The result of quantum superposition is that the spin is both up and down.

    These quantum effects take place in tiny objects, such as electrons. By targeting an electron in a specially constructed miniature diamond, it is possible to create superposition in a much larger object. The diamond is small enough to sustain this superposition, but also large enough to feel the pull of gravity. This characteristic is what the experiment exploits: placing two of these diamonds next to each other in freefall and, therefore, canceling out external gravity. This means that they only interact through the gravity between them.

    Challenging

    And that is where another quantum phenomenon comes in. Quantum entanglement means that when two or more particles are generated in close proximity, their quantum states are linked. In the case of the diamonds, if one is spin up, the other, entangled diamond should be spin down. So, the experiment is designed to determine whether quantum entanglement occurs in the pair during freefall, when the force of the gravity between the diamonds is the only way that they interact.

    “However, this experiment is very challenging,” explains Mazumdar. When two objects are very close together, another possible mechanism for interaction is present, the Casimir effect. In a vacuum, two objects can attract each other through this effect. “The size of the effect is relatively large and to overcome the noise it creates, we would have to use relatively large diamonds.” It was clear from the outset that this noise should be reduced to make the experiment more manageable. Therefore, Mazumdar wanted to know if shielding for the Casimir effect was possible.

    Lockdown

    He handed the problem to Thomas van de Kamp, a third-year Bachelor’s student of Physics. “He came to me because he was interested in quantum gravity and wanted to do a research project for his Bachelor’s thesis,” says Mazumdar. During the spring lockdown, when most normal classes were suspended, Van de Kamp started working on the problem. “Within a remarkably short time, he presented his solution, which is described in our paper.”

    This solution is based on placing a conducting plate of copper, around one millimeter thick, between the two diamonds. The plate shields the Casimir potential between them. Without the plate, this potential would draw the diamonds closer to each other. But with the plate, the diamonds are no longer attracted to each other, but to the plate between them. Mazumdar: “This removes the interaction between the diamonds through the Casimir effect, and therefore removes a lot of noise from the experiment.”

    Remarkable

    The calculations performed by Van de Kamp show that the masses of the two diamonds can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. “It may seem like a small step, but it does make the experiment less demanding.” Furthermore, other parameters such as the level of vacuum needed during the experiment also become less demanding due to the shielding of the Casimir effect. Mazumdar says that a further update on the experiment, which also includes a contribution from Bachelor’s student Thomas van de Kamp, will probably appear in the near future. “So, his six-month project has brought him co-authorship on two papers, quite a remarkable feat.”

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Gronigen [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen] (NL) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1614 and is the second-oldest university in the Netherlands. In 2014, the university celebrated its 400th anniversary. Currently, RUG is placed in the top 100 universities worldwide according to three international ranking tables.

    The university was ranked 65th in the world, according to Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2019. In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, was voted the best university of the Netherlands.

    The University of Groningen has eleven faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175-degree programmes. The university’s alumni and faculty include Johann Bernoulli, Aletta Jacobs, four Nobel Prize winners, nine Spinoza Prize winners, one Stevin Prize winner, royalty, multiple mayors, the first president of the European Central Bank, and a secretary general of NATO.

     
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