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  • richardmitnick 3:49 pm on September 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Investigating the potential for life around the galaxy’s smallest stars", , , , , , The star at the center of the study is an M-dwarf called L 98-59., University of California-Riverside (US)   

    From University of California-Riverside (US) : “Investigating the potential for life around the galaxy’s smallest stars” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    From University of California-Riverside (US)

    September 29, 2021
    Jules L Bernstein
    Senior Public Information Officer
    (951) 827-4580
    jules.bernstein@ucr.edu

    1
    Artist rendering of an M-dwarf star, with three exoplanets orbiting. About 75 percent of all stars in the sky are the cooler, smaller red dwarfs. (NASA)

    New telescope will see planetary neighbors’ atmospheres.

    When the world’s most powerful telescope launches into space this year, scientists will learn whether Earth-sized planets in our ‘solar neighborhood’ have a key prerequisite for life — an atmosphere.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(USA)/European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ Canadian Space Agency [Agence Spatiale Canadienne](CA) Webb Infrared Space Telescope(US) James Webb Space Telescope annotated. Scheduled for launch in October 2021.

    These planets orbit an M-dwarf, the smallest and most common type of star in the galaxy. Scientists do not currently know how common it is for Earth-like planets around this type of star to have characteristics that would make them habitable.

    “As a starting place, it is important to know whether small, rocky planets orbiting M-dwarfs have atmospheres,” said Daria Pidhorodetska, a doctoral student in UC Riverside’s Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. “If so, it opens up our search for life outside our solar system.”

    To help fill this gap in understanding, Pidhorodetska and her team studied whether the soon-to-launch James Webb Space Telescope, or the currently-in-orbit Hubble Space Telescope, are capable of detecting atmospheres on these planets. They also modeled the types of atmospheres likely to be found, if they exist, and how they could be distinguished from each other. The study has now been published in The Astronomical Journal.

    Study co-authors include astrobiologists Edward Schwieterman and Stephen Kane from UCR, as well as scientists from Johns Hopkins University (US), NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (US), Cornell University (US) and The University of Chicago (US).

    The star at the center of the study is an M-dwarf called L 98-59, which measures only 8% of our sun’s mass. Though small, it is only 35 light years from Earth. It’s brightness and relative closeness make it an ideal target for observation.

    Shortly after they form, M-dwarfs go through a phase in which they can shine two orders of magnitude brighter than normal. Strong ultraviolet radiation during this phase has the potential to dry out their orbiting planets, evaporating any water from the surface and destroying many gases in the atmosphere.

    “We wanted to know if the ablation was complete in the case of the two rocky planets, or if those terrestrial worlds were able to replenish their atmospheres,” Pidhorodetska said.

    The researchers modeled four different atmospheric scenarios: one in which the L 98-59 worlds are dominated by water, one in which the atmosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen, a Venus-like carbon dioxide atmosphere, and one in which the hydrogen in the atmosphere escaped into space, leaving behind only oxygen and ozone.

    They found that the two telescopes could offer complementary information using transit observations, which measure a dip in light that occurs as a planet passes in front of its star. The L 98-59 planets are much closer to their star than Earth is to the sun. They complete their orbits in less than a week, making transit observations by telescope faster and more cost effective than observing other systems in which the planets are farther from their stars.

    “It would only take a few transits with Hubble to detect or rule out a hydrogen- or steam-dominated atmosphere without clouds,” Schwieterman said. “With as few as 20 transits, Webb would allow us to characterize gases in heavy carbon dioxide or oxygen-dominated atmospheres.”

    Of the four atmospheric scenarios the researchers considered, Pidhorodetska said the dried-out oxygen-dominated atmosphere is the most likely.

    “The amount of radiation these planets are getting at that distance from the star is intense,” she said.

    Though they may not have atmospheres that lend themselves to life today, these planets can offer an important glimpse into what might happen to Earth under different conditions, and what might be possible on Earth-like worlds elsewhere in the galaxy.

    The L 98-59 system was only discovered in 2019, and Pidhorodetska said she is excited to get more information about it when Webb is launched later this year.

    “We’re on the precipice of revealing the secrets of a star system that was hidden until very recently,” Pidhorodetska said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    University of California-Riverside Campus

    The University of California-Riverside (US) is a public land-grant research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (US) system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907, the predecessor to UC-Riverside was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world’s most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

    The University of California-Riverside’s undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UC-Riverside a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC-Riverside School of Medicine was granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.

    University of California-Riverside is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.” The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places University of California-Riverside tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of University of California-Riverside’s academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked University of California-Riverside 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks University of California-Riverside as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all University of California-Riverside students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. University of California-Riverside’s extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a “university of choice” for minority students. In 2005, University of California-Riverside became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. University of California-Riverside’s sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The University of California-Riverside women’s basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men’s baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.

    History

    At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region’s primary agricultural export. The industry developed from the country’s first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the University of California Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station (CES) on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres (9 ha) of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside. The station conducted experiments in fertilization, irrigation and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to a larger site, 475 acres (192 ha) near Box Springs Mountain.

    The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many University of California-Berkeley(US) alumni, lobbied aggressively for a University of California-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson S. Dilworth authored Senate Bill 512 (1949) which former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Assemblyman John Babbage (both of Riverside) were instrumental in shepherding through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction.

    Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at University of California-Los Angeles, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions. He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, “Never have so few been taught by so many.”

    University of California-Riverside’s enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the University of California system in 1958. Anticipating a “tidal wave” in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. University of California-Riverside’s first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school’s transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. University of California-Riverside’s second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971; subsequent student enrollment declined by up to 25% through 1979. Hinderaker’s development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at University of California-Riverside to keep the campus open.

    In the 1990s, the University of California-Riverside experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as “Tidal Wave II”. The Regents targeted University of California-Riverside for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in the University of California system, and anticipated 19,900 students at University of California-Riverside by 2010. By 1995, African American, American Indian, and Latino student enrollments accounted for 30% of the University of California-Riverside student body, the highest proportion of any University of California campus at the time. The 1997 implementation of Proposition 209—which banned the use of affirmative action by state agencies—reduced the ethnic diversity at the more selective UC campuses but further increased it at University of California-Riverside.

    With University of California-Riverside scheduled for dramatic population growth, efforts have been made to increase its popular and academic recognition. The students voted for a fee increase to move University of California-Riverside athletics into NCAA Division I standing in 1998. In the 1990s, proposals were made to establish a law school, a medical school, and a school of public policy at University of California-Riverside, with the University of California-Riverside School of Medicine and the School of Public Policy becoming reality in 2012. In June 2006, University of California-Riverside received its largest gift, 15.5 million from two local couples, in trust towards building its medical school. The Regents formally approved University of California-Riverside’s medical school proposal in 2006. Upon its completion in 2013, it was the first new medical school built in California in 40 years.

    Academics

    As a campus of the University of California(US) system, University of California-Riverside is governed by a Board of Regents and administered by a president. University of California-Riverside’s academic policies are set by its Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all University of California-Riverside faculty members.

    University of California-Riverside is organized into three academic colleges, two professional schools, and two graduate schools. University of California-Riverside’s liberal arts college, the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, was founded in 1954, and began accepting graduate students in 1960. The College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1960, incorporated the CES as part of the first research-oriented institution at University of California-Riverside; it eventually also incorporated the natural science departments formerly associated with the liberal arts college to form its present structure in 1974. University of California-Riverside’s newest academic unit, the Bourns College of Engineering, was founded in 1989. Comprising the professional schools are the Graduate School of Education, founded in 1968, and the University of California-Riverside School of Business, founded in 1970. These units collectively provide 81 majors and 52 minors, 48 master’s degree programs, and 42 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs. University of California-Riverside is the only University of California campus to offer undergraduate degrees in creative writing and public policy and one of three University of California campuses(along with University of California-Berkeley (US) and University of California-Irvine (US)) to offer an undergraduate degree in business administration. Through its Division of Biomedical Sciences, founded in 1974, University of California-Riverside offers the Thomas Haider medical degree program in collaboration with University of California-Los Angeles(US). University of California-Riverside’s doctoral program in the emerging field of dance theory, founded in 1992, was the first program of its kind in the United States, and University of California-Riverside’s minor in lesbian, gay and bisexual studies, established in 1996, was the first undergraduate program of its kind in the University of California system. A new BA program in bagpipes was inaugurated in 2007.

    Research and economic impact

    University of California-Riverside operated under a $727 million budget in fiscal year 2014–15. The state government provided $214 million, student fees accounted for $224 million and $100 million came from contracts and grants. Private support and other sources accounted for the remaining $189 million. Overall, monies spent at University of California-Riverside have an economic impact of nearly $1 billion in California. University of California-Riverside research expenditure in FY 2018 totaled $167.8 million. Total research expenditures at University of California-Riverside are significantly concentrated in agricultural science, accounting for 53% of total research expenditures spent by the university in 2002. Top research centers by expenditure, as measured in 2002, include the Agricultural Experiment Station; the Center for Environmental Research and Technology; the Center for Bibliographical Studies; the Air Pollution Research Center; and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Throughout University of California-Riverside’s history, researchers have developed more than 40 new citrus varieties and invented new techniques to help the $960 million-a-year California citrus industry fight pests and diseases. In 1927, entomologists at the CES introduced two wasps from Australia as natural enemies of a major citrus pest, the citrophilus mealybug, saving growers in Orange County $1 million in annual losses. This event was pivotal in establishing biological control as a practical means of reducing pest populations. In 1963, plant physiologist Charles Coggins proved that application of gibberellic acid allows fruit to remain on citrus trees for extended periods. The ultimate result of his work, which continued through the 1980s, was the extension of the citrus-growing season in California from four to nine months. In 1980, University of California-Riverside released the Oroblanco grapefruit, its first patented citrus variety. Since then, the citrus breeding program has released other varieties such as the Melogold grapefruit, the Gold Nugget mandarin (or tangerine), and others that have yet to be given trademark names.

    To assist entrepreneurs in developing new products, University of California-Riverside is a primary partner in the Riverside Regional Technology Park, which includes the City of Riverside and the County of Riverside. It also administers six reserves of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC-Riverside recently announced a partnership with China Agricultural University[中国农业大学](CN) to launch a new center in Beijing, which will study ways to respond to the country’s growing environmental issues. University of California-Riverside can also boast the birthplace of two name reactions in organic chemistry, the Castro-Stephens coupling and the Midland Alpine Borane Reduction.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:13 pm on September 6, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers explain origin of elusive ultradiffuse galaxies", , , , , University of California-Riverside (US)   

    From University of California-Riverside (US) : “Astronomers explain origin of elusive ultradiffuse galaxies” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    From University of California-Riverside (US)

    September 6, 2021
    Iqbal Pittalwala

    UC Riverside astronomer and colleagues use simulations to reveal how the very faint dwarf galaxies are born.

    1

    As their name suggests, ultradiffuse galaxies, or UDGs, are dwarf galaxies whose stars are spread out over a vast region, resulting in extremely low surface brightness, making them very difficult to detect. Several questions about UDGs remain unanswered: How did these dwarfs end up so extended? Are their dark matter halos — the halos of invisible matter surrounding the galaxies — special?

    Now an international team of astronomers, co-led by Laura Sales, an astronomer at the University of California-Riverside (US), reports in Nature Astronomy that it has used sophisticated simulations to detect a few “quenched” UDGs in low-density environments in the universe. A quenched galaxy is one that does not form stars.

    “What we have detected is at odds with theories of galaxy formation since quenched dwarfs are required to be in clusters or group environments in order to get their gas removed and stop forming stars,” said Sales, an associate professor of physics and astronomy. “But the quenched UDGs we detected are isolated. We were able to identify a few of these quenched UDGs in the field and trace their evolution backward in time to show they originated in backsplash orbits.”

    Here, “in the field” refers to galaxies isolated in quieter environments and not in a group or cluster environment. Sales explained that a backsplash galaxy is an object that looks like an isolated galaxy today but in the past was a satellite of a more massive system — similar to a comet, which visits our sun periodically, but spends the bulk of its journey in isolation, far from most of the solar system.

    “Isolated galaxies and satellite galaxies have different properties because the physics of their evolution is quite different,” she said. “These backsplash galaxies are intriguing because they share properties with the population of satellites in the system to which they once belonged, but today they are observed to be isolated from the system.”

    2
    On the left, one of the ultra-diffuse galaxies that was analyzed in the simulation. On the right, the image of the DF2 galaxy, which is almost transparent. Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble.

    Dwarf galaxies are small galaxies that contain anywhere from 100 million to a few billion stars. In contrast, the Milky Way has 200 billion to 400 billion stars. While all UDGs are dwarf galaxies, all dwarf galaxies are not UDGs. For example, at similar luminosity, dwarfs show a very large range of sizes, from compact to diffuse. UDGs are the tail end of most extended objects at a given luminosity. A UDG has the stellar content of a dwarf galaxy, 10-100 times smaller than the Milky Way. But its size is comparable to the Milky Way, giving it the extremely low surface brightness that makes it special.

    Sales explained that the dark matter halo of a dwarf galaxy has a mass at least 10 times smaller than the Milky Way, and the size scales similarly. UDGs, however, break this rule and show a radial extension comparable to that of much larger galaxies.

    “One of the popular theories to explain this was that UDGs are ‘failed Milky Ways,’ meaning they were destined to be galaxies like our own Milky Way but somehow failed to form stars,” said José A. Benavides, a graduate student at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Astronomy in Argentina and the first author of the research paper. “We now know that this scenario cannot explain all UDGs. So theoretical models are arising where more than one formation mechanism may be able to form these ultradiffuse objects.”

    According to Sales, the value of the new work is twofold. First, the simulation used by the researchers, called TNG50, successfully predicted UDGs with characteristics similar to observed UDGs. Second, the researchers found a few rare quenched UDGs for which they have no formation mechanism.

    “Using TNG50 as a ‘time machine’ to see how the UDGs got to where they are, we found these objects were satellites several billion years before but got expelled into a very elliptical orbit and look isolated today,” she said.

    3
    Image shows the fall of a blue ultradiffuse galaxy into a galaxy system and its subsequent ejection as a red ultradiffuse galaxy (having already lost its gas). Credit: Vanina Rodriguez.

    The researchers also report that according to their simulations, quenched UDGs can commonly make up 25% of an ultradiffuse population of galaxies. In observations, however, this percentage is much smaller.

    “This means a lot of dwarf galaxies lurking in the dark may have remained undetected to our telescopes,” Sales said. “We hope our results will inspire new strategies for surveying the low-luminosity universe, which would allow for a complete census of this population of dwarf galaxies.”

    The study is the first to resolve the myriad of environments — from isolated dwarfs to dwarfs in groups and clusters — necessary to detect UDGs, and with high-enough resolution to study their morphology and structure.

    Next, the research team will continue its study of UDGs in TNG50 simulations to better understand why these galaxies are so extended compared to other dwarf galaxies with the same stellar content. The researchers will use the Keck Telescope in Hawaii, one of the most powerful telescopes in the world, to measure the dark matter content of UDGs in the Virgo cluster, the closest galaxy cluster to Earth.

    “Future telescopes, such as the Vera C Rubin Observatory or the Roman Space Telescope, come online in the next five to 10 years with capabilities of detecting many more of these intriguing UDGs,” Sales said.

    The study was partially funded by a National Science Foundation CAREER award and a NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant to Sales.

    Sales and Benavides were joined in the research by Mario. G. Abadi of the National University of Córdoba [Universidad Nacional de Córdoba](AR); Annalisa Pillepich of the MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie](DE); Dylan Nelson of the Center for Astronomy Heidelberg – Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik](DE); Federico Marinacci of the University of Bologna [Alma mater studiorum – Università di Bologna](IT); Michael Cooper of The University of California-Irvine (US); Ruediger Pakmor of the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany; Paul Torrey of the University of Florida (US); Mark Vogelsberger of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US); and Lars Hernquist of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) .

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California-Riverside (US) is a public land-grant research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (US) system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907, the predecessor to UC-Riverside was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world’s most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

    UC-Riverside’s undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UC-Riverside a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC-Riverside School of Medicine was granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.

    UC-Riverside is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.” The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UC-Riverside tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UC- Riverside’s academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UC Riverside 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks UC-Riverside as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UC-Riverside students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. UC-Riverside’s extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a “university of choice” for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UC-Riverside’s sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UC-Riverside women’s basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men’s baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.

    History

    At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region’s primary agricultural export. The industry developed from the country’s first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station (CES) on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres (9 ha) of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside. The station conducted experiments in fertilization, irrigation and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to a larger site, 475 acres (192 ha) near Box Springs Mountain.

    The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many University of California-Berkeley(US) alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson S. Dilworth authored Senate Bill 512 (1949) which former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Assemblyman John Babbage (both of Riverside) were instrumental in shepherding through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction.

    Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at University of California-Los Angeles, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions. He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, “Never have so few been taught by so many.”

    UC-Riverside’s enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the University of California system in 1958. Anticipating a “tidal wave” in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UC-Riverside’s first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school’s transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UC-Riverside’s second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971; subsequent student enrollment declined by up to 25% through 1979. Hinderaker’s development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at UC-Riverside to keep the campus open.

    In the 1990s, the UC-Riverside experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as “Tidal Wave II”. The Regents targeted UC-Riverside for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in the UC system, and anticipated 19,900 students at UC-Riverside by 2010. By 1995, African American, American Indian, and Latino student enrollments accounted for 30% of the UC-Riverside student body, the highest proportion of any UC campus at the time. The 1997 implementation of Proposition 209—which banned the use of affirmative action by state agencies—reduced the ethnic diversity at the more selective UC campuses but further increased it at UC-Riverside.

    With UC-Riverside scheduled for dramatic population growth, efforts have been made to increase its popular and academic recognition. The students voted for a fee increase to move UC-Riverside athletics into NCAA Division I standing in 1998. In the 1990s, proposals were made to establish a law school, a medical school, and a school of public policy at UC-Riverside, with the UC-Riverside School of Medicine and the School of Public Policy becoming reality in 2012. In June 2006, UC-Riverside received its largest gift, 15.5 million from two local couples, in trust towards building its medical school. The Regents formally approved UC-Riverside’s medical school proposal in 2006. Upon its completion in 2013, it was the first new medical school built in California in 40 years.

    Academics

    As a campus of the University of California(US) system, UC-Riverside is governed by a Board of Regents and administered by a president. UC-Riverside’s academic policies are set by its Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all UC-Riverside faculty members.

    UC-Riverside is organized into three academic colleges, two professional schools, and two graduate schools. UC-Riverside’s liberal arts college, the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, was founded in 1954, and began accepting graduate students in 1960. The College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1960, incorporated the CES as part of the first research-oriented institution at UC-Riverside; it eventually also incorporated the natural science departments formerly associated with the liberal arts college to form its present structure in 1974. UC-Riverside’s newest academic unit, the Bourns College of Engineering, was founded in 1989. Comprising the professional schools are the Graduate School of Education, founded in 1968, and the UC-Riverside School of Business, founded in 1970. These units collectively provide 81 majors and 52 minors, 48 master’s degree programs, and 42 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs. UC-Riverside is the only UC campus to offer undergraduate degrees in creative writing and public policy and one of three UCs (along with University of California-Berkeley (US) and University of California-Irvine (US)) to offer an undergraduate degree in business administration. Through its Division of Biomedical Sciences, founded in 1974, UC-Riverside offers the Thomas Haider medical degree program in collaboration with University of California-Los Angeles(US). UC-Riverside’s doctoral program in the emerging field of dance theory, founded in 1992, was the first program of its kind in the United States, and UC-Riverside’s minor in lesbian, gay and bisexual studies, established in 1996, was the first undergraduate program of its kind in the University of California system. A new BA program in bagpipes was inaugurated in 2007.

    Research and economic impact

    UC-Riverside operated under a $727 million budget in fiscal year 2014–15. The state government provided $214 million, student fees accounted for $224 million and $100 million came from contracts and grants. Private support and other sources accounted for the remaining $189 million. Overall, monies spent at UC-Riverside have an economic impact of nearly $1 billion in California. UC-Riverside research expenditure in FY 2018 totaled $167.8 million. Total research expenditures at UC-Riverside are significantly concentrated in agricultural science, accounting for 53% of total research expenditures spent by the university in 2002. Top research centers by expenditure, as measured in 2002, include the Agricultural Experiment Station; the Center for Environmental Research and Technology; the Center for Bibliographical Studies; the Air Pollution Research Center; and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Throughout UC-Riverside’s history, researchers have developed more than 40 new citrus varieties and invented new techniques to help the $960 million-a-year California citrus industry fight pests and diseases. In 1927, entomologists at the CES introduced two wasps from Australia as natural enemies of a major citrus pest, the citrophilus mealybug, saving growers in Orange County $1 million in annual losses. This event was pivotal in establishing biological control as a practical means of reducing pest populations. In 1963, plant physiologist Charles Coggins proved that application of gibberellic acid allows fruit to remain on citrus trees for extended periods. The ultimate result of his work, which continued through the 1980s, was the extension of the citrus-growing season in California from four to nine months. In 1980, UC-Riverside released the Oroblanco grapefruit, its first patented citrus variety. Since then, the citrus breeding program has released other varieties such as the Melogold grapefruit, the Gold Nugget mandarin (or tangerine), and others that have yet to be given trademark names.

    To assist entrepreneurs in developing new products, UC-Riverside is a primary partner in the Riverside Regional Technology Park, which includes the City of Riverside and the County of Riverside. It also administers six reserves of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC-Riverside recently announced a partnership with China Agricultural University[中国农业大学](CN) to launch a new center in Beijing, which will study ways to respond to the country’s growing environmental issues. UC-Riverside can also boast the birthplace of two name reactions in organic chemistry, the Castro-Stephens coupling and the Midland Alpine Borane Reduction.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:15 am on August 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scalable quantum computing research supported by $2 million grant", , , , , University of California-Riverside (US), Using silicon quantum dots as the inorganic component, Without design breakthroughs the societal benefits of quantum computing will remain limited.   

    From University of California-Riverside (US) : “Scalable quantum computing research supported by $2 million grant” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    From University of California-Riverside (US)

    August 16, 2021
    Holly Ober
    Senior Public Information Officer
    holly.ober@ucr.edu
    (951) 827-5893

    1
    Credit: Michael Dziedzic/ Unsplash.

    Project aims to make quantum computers easier to produce and operable at room temperature.

    A University of California-Riverside materials scientist has received a $2 million grant from the National Science Foundation (US) to improve the scalability of quantum computers by allowing them to operate at room temperature.

    The project will integrate silicon quantum dots with carefully designed organic molecules to optimize optical and electronic coupling between the two components so the computers can operate without need for cryogenic conditions.

    Lorenzo Mangolini, an associate professor of mechanical engineering who leads the project, also aims to create design guidelines and manufacturing strategies for these hybrid organic-inorganic structures that will also make it possible to produce quantum computers on a larger scale than is currently possible.

    In principle, quantum computing allows information to be processed at a much faster rate than is possible with ordinary computers, while also using less energy. Given the sheer volume of data generated by today’s society, some have heralded quantum computing as an essential next step.

    But today’s quantum computers require materials and structures that need to be both extremely pure and operated at cryogenic temperatures. This “tyranny of low temperature” means quantum computers will remain in the domain of high-tech research companies and never produced in bulk. Without design breakthroughs the societal benefits of quantum computing will remain limited.

    Mangolini’s research group will investigate alternative materials and structures that have the potential to store and optically access quantum information at room temperature, using silicon quantum dots as the inorganic component. Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles that have both optical and electronic properties that strongly deviate from those of the corresponding bulk material, and that can be engineered and tuned by interfacing with other materials.

    “By grafting transmitter organic molecules onto the surface of the silicon particles, we can tune the chemistry and bidirectional energy transfer between the two system components to achieve unprecedented control over their optoelectronic coupling,” Mangolini said.

    This project is a close collaboration between the Mangolini group and the research groups of Ming Lee Tang of the University of Utah (US), Sean Roberts of the University of Texas-Austin (US), and Joel Eaves of University of Colorado- Boulder (US).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California-Riverside (US) is a public land-grant research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (US) system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907, the predecessor to UC-Riverside was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world’s most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

    UC-Riverside’s undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UC-Riverside a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC-Riverside School of Medicine was granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.

    UC-Riverside is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.” The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UC-Riverside tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UC- Riverside’s academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UC Riverside 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks UC-Riverside as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UC-Riverside students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. UC-Riverside’s extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a “university of choice” for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UC-Riverside’s sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UC-Riverside women’s basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men’s baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.

    History

    At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region’s primary agricultural export. The industry developed from the country’s first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station (CES) on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres (9 ha) of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside. The station conducted experiments in fertilization, irrigation and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to a larger site, 475 acres (192 ha) near Box Springs Mountain.

    The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many University of California-Berkeley(US) alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson S. Dilworth authored Senate Bill 512 (1949) which former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Assemblyman John Babbage (both of Riverside) were instrumental in shepherding through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction.

    Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at University of California-Los Angeles, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions. He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, “Never have so few been taught by so many.”

    UC-Riverside’s enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the University of California system in 1958. Anticipating a “tidal wave” in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UC-Riverside’s first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school’s transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UC-Riverside’s second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971; subsequent student enrollment declined by up to 25% through 1979. Hinderaker’s development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at UC-Riverside to keep the campus open.

    In the 1990s, the UC-Riverside experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as “Tidal Wave II”. The Regents targeted UC-Riverside for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in the UC system, and anticipated 19,900 students at UC-Riverside by 2010. By 1995, African American, American Indian, and Latino student enrollments accounted for 30% of the UC-Riverside student body, the highest proportion of any UC campus at the time. The 1997 implementation of Proposition 209—which banned the use of affirmative action by state agencies—reduced the ethnic diversity at the more selective UC campuses but further increased it at UC-Riverside.

    With UC-Riverside scheduled for dramatic population growth, efforts have been made to increase its popular and academic recognition. The students voted for a fee increase to move UC-Riverside athletics into NCAA Division I standing in 1998. In the 1990s, proposals were made to establish a law school, a medical school, and a school of public policy at UC-Riverside, with the UC-Riverside School of Medicine and the School of Public Policy becoming reality in 2012. In June 2006, UC-Riverside received its largest gift, 15.5 million from two local couples, in trust towards building its medical school. The Regents formally approved UC-Riverside’s medical school proposal in 2006. Upon its completion in 2013, it was the first new medical school built in California in 40 years.

    Academics

    As a campus of the University of California(US) system, UC-Riverside is governed by a Board of Regents and administered by a president. UC-Riverside’s academic policies are set by its Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all UC-Riverside faculty members.

    UC-Riverside is organized into three academic colleges, two professional schools, and two graduate schools. UC-Riverside’s liberal arts college, the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, was founded in 1954, and began accepting graduate students in 1960. The College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1960, incorporated the CES as part of the first research-oriented institution at UC-Riverside; it eventually also incorporated the natural science departments formerly associated with the liberal arts college to form its present structure in 1974. UC-Riverside’s newest academic unit, the Bourns College of Engineering, was founded in 1989. Comprising the professional schools are the Graduate School of Education, founded in 1968, and the UC-Riverside School of Business, founded in 1970. These units collectively provide 81 majors and 52 minors, 48 master’s degree programs, and 42 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs. UC-Riverside is the only UC campus to offer undergraduate degrees in creative writing and public policy and one of three UCs (along with University of California-Berkeley (US) and University of California-Irvine (US)) to offer an undergraduate degree in business administration. Through its Division of Biomedical Sciences, founded in 1974, UC-Riverside offers the Thomas Haider medical degree program in collaboration with University of California-Los Angeles(US). UC-Riverside’s doctoral program in the emerging field of dance theory, founded in 1992, was the first program of its kind in the United States, and UC-Riverside’s minor in lesbian, gay and bisexual studies, established in 1996, was the first undergraduate program of its kind in the University of California system. A new BA program in bagpipes was inaugurated in 2007.

    Research and economic impact

    UC-Riverside operated under a $727 million budget in fiscal year 2014–15. The state government provided $214 million, student fees accounted for $224 million and $100 million came from contracts and grants. Private support and other sources accounted for the remaining $189 million. Overall, monies spent at UC-Riverside have an economic impact of nearly $1 billion in California. UC-Riverside research expenditure in FY 2018 totaled $167.8 million. Total research expenditures at UC-Riverside are significantly concentrated in agricultural science, accounting for 53% of total research expenditures spent by the university in 2002. Top research centers by expenditure, as measured in 2002, include the Agricultural Experiment Station; the Center for Environmental Research and Technology; the Center for Bibliographical Studies; the Air Pollution Research Center; and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Throughout UC-Riverside’s history, researchers have developed more than 40 new citrus varieties and invented new techniques to help the $960 million-a-year California citrus industry fight pests and diseases. In 1927, entomologists at the CES introduced two wasps from Australia as natural enemies of a major citrus pest, the citrophilus mealybug, saving growers in Orange County $1 million in annual losses. This event was pivotal in establishing biological control as a practical means of reducing pest populations. In 1963, plant physiologist Charles Coggins proved that application of gibberellic acid allows fruit to remain on citrus trees for extended periods. The ultimate result of his work, which continued through the 1980s, was the extension of the citrus-growing season in California from four to nine months. In 1980, UC-Riverside released the Oroblanco grapefruit, its first patented citrus variety. Since then, the citrus breeding program has released other varieties such as the Melogold grapefruit, the Gold Nugget mandarin (or tangerine), and others that have yet to be given trademark names.

    To assist entrepreneurs in developing new products, UC-Riverside is a primary partner in the Riverside Regional Technology Park, which includes the City of Riverside and the County of Riverside. It also administers six reserves of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC-Riverside recently announced a partnership with China Agricultural University[中国农业大学](CN) to launch a new center in Beijing, which will study ways to respond to the country’s growing environmental issues. UC-Riverside can also boast the birthplace of two name reactions in organic chemistry, the Castro-Stephens coupling and the Midland Alpine Borane Reduction.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:09 pm on August 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Two new grants support faculty diversity and retention", Recruitment for faculty Equity Advocates is scheduled to start in winter of 2022., The project will also evaluate the effects of recent changes to the survey questions used at University of California-Santa Cruz., These grants are part of a series of projects that have been funded from the University of California Office of the President’s program for Advancing Faculty Diversity., This program is coming out of the hard work of last year’s committee and our conversations about proactive steps to create more equitable faculty hiring and retention outcomes., This project will use data science to analyze the text of the student comments to see if bias also shows up there., , University of California-Riverside (US), , We want to know if those changes made a difference. If it reduced bias then it’s something that can be replicated on other campuses.   

    From University of California-Santa Cruz (US) : “Two new grants support faculty diversity and retention” 

    From University of California-Santa Cruz (US)

    August 10, 2021

    Tim Stephens
    stephens@ucsc.edu

    Allison Arteaga Soergel

    1
    Herbert Lee is Vice Provost for Academic Affairs and the campus diversity officer for faculty. Photo by Carolyn Lagattuta.

    University of California-Santa Cruz (US) was awarded grants from the University of California (US) to support two collaborative multi-campus projects for advancing faculty diversity. One project involves the creation of an Equity Advocate Program at University of California-Santa Cruz, while the other will examine the impact of course evaluation systems at several campuses.

    “These grants are part of a series of projects that have been funded from the University of California Office of the President’s program for Advancing Faculty Diversity, focusing on both recruitment and retention,” said Herbert Lee, vice provost for Academic Affairs and the campus diversity officer for faculty.

    Lee is a principal investigator of one project, a collaboration with University of California-Riverside (US) and University of California-Davis (US) to look at potential bias in student surveys of teaching. He said a large body of research has documented that the numerical scores in course evaluations tend to be biased against women and faculty of color, but the narrative component of the surveys has not received the same attention.

    “This project will use data science to analyze the text of the student comments to see if bias also shows up there,” Lee said. “Throughout higher education, student evaluations are one of the primary tools for evaluating teaching effectiveness, so if there are biases, we want to document it and take that into account somehow.”

    Lee, a professor of statistics in the Baskin School of Engineering, and the other principal investigators—Vice Provost Daniel Jeske at University of California-Riverside (US) and Vice Provost Philip Kass at University of California-Davis (US)—are all statistical scientists. “Daniel Jeske had the idea that we can use statistical modeling and machine learning to analyze this,” Lee said.

    The project will also evaluate the effects of recent changes to the survey questions used at University of California-Santa Cruz. The campus’s new Student Experiences of Teaching survey focuses the questions on student self-reflection in an effort to have students think about their own learning and how the instructor and course design may have helped or inhibited their learning.

    “We want to know if those changes made a difference. If it reduced bias then it’s something that can be replicated on other campuses,” Lee said. “The big picture is that we want to see that all faculty have a chance to succeed and that there aren’t hidden barriers and implicit biases against certain groups of faculty.”

    Equity Advocates

    Overall, supporting equitable outcomes for faculty requires both innovation and long-term commitment, starting with the hiring process and continuing over the course of a career. This is the goal of the second collaborative multi-campus project for advancing faculty diversity granted to University of California-Santa Cruz (US). It aims at creating an Equity Advocates Program at University of California-Santa Cruz (US) that will empower strong champions of this work and provide dedicated resources.

    Two faculty Equity Advocates per academic division will receive specialized training and a course release in order to advise on hiring processes, analyze tenure and promotion rates within departments, provide formal and informal faculty mentoring, and assist with other needs related to faculty equity and inclusion

    Associate Professor of Anthropology Megan Moodie, who led the development of the project proposal, said that the idea sprung from a prior Advancing Faculty Diversity collaboration with University of California-Merced (US), through which a committee of faculty from both campuses worked to synthesize and apply research on best-practices in inclusive hiring.

    “This program is coming out of the hard work of last year’s committee and our conversations about proactive steps to create more equitable faculty hiring and retention outcomes, not just nice rhetoric and language around it,” she said. “The whole idea of an Equity Advocate is to have someone where the rubber meets the road.”

    University of California-Merced (US) has an existing Equity Advocates program in place, as do many other University of California campuses, but at Merced, the new project will expand the role beyond the initial hiring process. University of California-Santa Cruz and University of California-Merced currently have the most racially diverse professoriates in the system, but substantial disparities in representation remain between faculty, the student base, and the state’s overall population.

    The Equity Advocates Program will help to deliver continued improvements in representation and will provide crucial formal recognition, support, and compensation for faculty equity leaders at University of California-Santa Cruz. Many faculty of color have previously been filling aspects of the role invisibly, according to research by Associate Professor of Psychology Rebecca Covarrubias.

    Recruitment for faculty Equity Advocates is scheduled to start in winter of 2022, following the completion of training program development in collaboration with University of California-Merced.
    University of California-Santa Cruz’s proposal development team for this project included Professor of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology Needhi Bhalla, Professor of Psychology Jean E. Fox Tree, Associate Professor of Anthropology Megan Moodie, and Professor of Literature Juan Poblete. Bhalla, Fox Tree, Poblete, and Professor of Film & Digital Media John Jota Leaños will lead the campus effort moving forward.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    The University of California-Santa Cruz (US), opened in 1965 and grew, one college at a time, to its current (2008-09) enrollment of more than 16,000 students. Undergraduates pursue more than 60 majors supervised by divisional deans of humanities, physical & biological sciences, social sciences, and arts. Graduate students work toward graduate certificates, master’s degrees, or doctoral degrees in more than 30 academic fields under the supervision of the divisional and graduate deans. The dean of the Jack Baskin School of Engineering oversees the campus’s undergraduate and graduate engineering programs.

    UCSC is the home base for the Lick Observatory.

    UCO Lick Observatory’s 36-inch Great Refractor telescope in the South (large) Dome of main building.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:27 pm on July 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Dark Matter is one of the most vexing known unknowns in nature., Dark Matter makes up about 85% of the mass in the universe., In addition to dark matter hidden dark forces may govern dark matter’s interactions., , , University of California-Riverside (US)   

    From University of California-Riverside (US) : “A new dimension in the quest to understand dark matter” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    From University of California-Riverside (US)

    June 2, 2021 [Just now in social media.]
    Iqbal Pittalwala

    As its name suggests, Dark Matter — material which makes up about 85% of the mass in the universe — emits no light, eluding easy detection. Its properties, too, remain fairly obscure.

    Now, a theoretical particle physicist at the University of California, Riverside, and colleagues have published a research paper in the Journal of High Energy Physics that shows how theories positing the existence a new type of force could help explain dark matter’s properties.

    1
    Flip Tanedo

    “We live in an ocean of Dark Matter, yet we know very little about what it could be,” said Flip Tanedo, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy and the paper’s senior author. “It is one of the most vexing known unknowns in nature. We know it exists, but we do not know how to look for it or why it hasn’t shown up where we expected it.”

    2
    Photo shows Flip Tanedo (left), Sylvain Fichet (center), and Hai-Bo Yu. Credit: Flip Tanedo/UCR.

    Physicists have used telescopes, gigantic underground experiments, and colliders to learn more about dark matter for the last 30 years, though no positive evidence has materialized. The negative evidence, however, has forced theoretical physicists like Tanedo to think more creatively about what dark matter could be.

    The new research, which proposes the existence of an extra dimension in space-time to search for dark matter, is part of an ongoing research program at UC Riverside led by Tanedo. According to this theory, some of the dark matter particles don’t behave like particles. In effect, invisible particles interact with even more invisible particles in such a way that the latter cease to behave like particles.

    “The goal of my research program for the past two years is to extend the idea of dark matter ‘talking’ to dark forces,” Tanedo said. “Over the past decade, physicists have come to appreciate that, in addition to dark matter hidden dark forces may govern dark matter’s interactions. These could completely rewrite the rules for how one ought to look for dark matter.”

    If two particles of dark matter are attracted to, or repelled by, each other, then dark forces are operating. Tanedo explained that dark forces are described mathematically by a theory with extra dimensions and appear as a continuum of particles that could address puzzles seen in small galaxies.

    “Our ongoing research program at UCR is a further generalization of the dark force proposal,” he said. “Our observed universe has three dimensions of space. We propose that there may be a fourth dimension that only the dark forces know about. The extra dimension can explain why dark matter has hidden so well from our attempts to study it in a lab.”

    Tanedo explained that although extra dimensions may sound like an exotic idea, they are actually a mathematical trick to describe “conformal field theories” — ordinary three-dimensional theories that are highly quantum mechanical. These types of theories are mathematically rich, but do not contain conventional particles and so are typically not considered to be relevant for describing nature. The mathematical equivalence between these challenging three-dimensional theories and a more tractable extra dimensional theory is known as the holographic principle.

    “Since these conformal field theories were both intractable and unusual, they hadn’t really been systematically applied to dark matter,” Tanedo added. “Instead of using that language, we work with the holographic extra-dimensional theory.”

    The key feature of the extra-dimensional theory is that the force between dark matter particles is described by an infinite number of different particles with different masses called a continuum. In contrast, ordinary forces are described by a single type of particle with a fixed mass. This class of continuum-dark sectors is exciting to Tanedo because it does something “fresh and different.”

    According to Tanedo, past work on dark sectors focuses primarily on theories that mimic the behavior of visible particles. His research program is exploring the more extreme types of theories that most particle physicists found less interesting, perhaps because no analogs exist in the real world.

    In Tanedo’s theory, the force between dark matter particles is surprisingly different from the forces felt by ordinary matter.

    “For the gravitational force or electric force that I teach in my introductory physics course, when you double the distance between two particles you reduce the force by a factor of four. A continuum force, on the other hand, is reduced by a factor of up to eight.”

    What implications does this extra dimensional dark force have? Since ordinary matter may not interact with this dark force, Tanedo turned to the idea of self-interacting dark matter [Physical Review Letters], an idea pioneered by Hai-Bo Yu, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at UCR who is not a coauthor on the paper. Yu showed that even in the absence of any interactions with normal matter, the effects of these dark forces could be observed indirectly in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Tanedo’s team found the continuum force can reproduce the observed stellar motions.

    “Our model goes further and makes it easier than the self-interacting dark matter model to explain the cosmic origin of dark matter,” Tanedo said.

    Next, Tanedo’s team will explore a continuum version of the “dark photon” model.

    “It’s a more realistic picture for a dark force,” Tanedo said. “Dark photons have been studied in great detail, but our extra-dimensional framework has a few surprises. We will also look into the cosmology of dark forces and the physics of black holes.”

    Tanedo has been working diligently on identifying “blind spots” in his team’s search for dark matter.

    “My research program targets one of the assumptions we make about particle physics: that the interaction of particles is well-described by the exchange of more particles,” he said. “While that is true for ordinary matter, there’s no reason to assume that for dark matter. Their interactions could be described by a continuum of exchanged particles rather than just exchanging a single type of force particle.”

    Tanedo was joined in the research by Ian Chaffey, a postdoctoral researcher working with Tanedo; and Sylvain Fichet, a postdoctoral researcher at the International Center for Theoretical Physics – South American Institute for Fundamental Research [Instituto sul-Americano de Pesquisa Fundamental](BR).

    The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky from http:// palomarskies.blogspot.com.


    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble.


    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.
    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.
    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.

    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).


    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).


    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970

    Dark Matter Research

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington (US) Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    [caption id="attachment_33275" align="alignnone" width="632"] UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California-Riverside (US) is a public land-grant research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (US) system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907, the predecessor to UC-Riverside was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world’s most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

    UC-Riverside’s undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UC-Riverside a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC-Riverside School of Medicine was granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.

    UC-Riverside is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.” The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UC-Riverside tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UC- Riverside’s academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UC Riverside 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks UC-Riverside as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UC-Riverside students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. UC-Riverside’s extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a “university of choice” for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UC-Riverside’s sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UC-Riverside women’s basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men’s baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.

    History

    At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region’s primary agricultural export. The industry developed from the country’s first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station (CES) on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres (9 ha) of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside. The station conducted experiments in fertilization, irrigation and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to a larger site, 475 acres (192 ha) near Box Springs Mountain.

    The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many University of California-Berkeley(US) alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson S. Dilworth authored Senate Bill 512 (1949) which former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Assemblyman John Babbage (both of Riverside) were instrumental in shepherding through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction.

    Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at University of California-Los Angeles, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions. He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, “Never have so few been taught by so many.”

    UC-Riverside’s enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the University of California system in 1958. Anticipating a “tidal wave” in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UC-Riverside’s first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school’s transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UC-Riverside’s second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971; subsequent student enrollment declined by up to 25% through 1979. Hinderaker’s development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at UC-Riverside to keep the campus open.

    In the 1990s, the UC-Riverside experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as “Tidal Wave II”. The Regents targeted UC-Riverside for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in the UC system, and anticipated 19,900 students at UC-Riverside by 2010. By 1995, African American, American Indian, and Latino student enrollments accounted for 30% of the UC-Riverside student body, the highest proportion of any UC campus at the time. The 1997 implementation of Proposition 209—which banned the use of affirmative action by state agencies—reduced the ethnic diversity at the more selective UC campuses but further increased it at UC-Riverside.

    With UC-Riverside scheduled for dramatic population growth, efforts have been made to increase its popular and academic recognition. The students voted for a fee increase to move UC-Riverside athletics into NCAA Division I standing in 1998. In the 1990s, proposals were made to establish a law school, a medical school, and a school of public policy at UC-Riverside, with the UC-Riverside School of Medicine and the School of Public Policy becoming reality in 2012. In June 2006, UC-Riverside received its largest gift, 15.5 million from two local couples, in trust towards building its medical school. The Regents formally approved UC-Riverside’s medical school proposal in 2006. Upon its completion in 2013, it was the first new medical school built in California in 40 years.

    Academics

    As a campus of the University of California(US) system, UC-Riverside is governed by a Board of Regents and administered by a president. UC-Riverside’s academic policies are set by its Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all UC-Riverside faculty members.

    UC-Riverside is organized into three academic colleges, two professional schools, and two graduate schools. UC-Riverside’s liberal arts college, the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, was founded in 1954, and began accepting graduate students in 1960. The College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1960, incorporated the CES as part of the first research-oriented institution at UC-Riverside; it eventually also incorporated the natural science departments formerly associated with the liberal arts college to form its present structure in 1974. UC-Riverside’s newest academic unit, the Bourns College of Engineering, was founded in 1989. Comprising the professional schools are the Graduate School of Education, founded in 1968, and the UC-Riverside School of Business, founded in 1970. These units collectively provide 81 majors and 52 minors, 48 master’s degree programs, and 42 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs. UC-Riverside is the only UC campus to offer undergraduate degrees in creative writing and public policy and one of three UCs (along with University of California-Berkeley (US) and University of California-Irvine (US)) to offer an undergraduate degree in business administration. Through its Division of Biomedical Sciences, founded in 1974, UC-Riverside offers the Thomas Haider medical degree program in collaboration with University of California-Los Angeles(US). UC-Riverside’s doctoral program in the emerging field of dance theory, founded in 1992, was the first program of its kind in the United States, and UC-Riverside’s minor in lesbian, gay and bisexual studies, established in 1996, was the first undergraduate program of its kind in the University of California system. A new BA program in bagpipes was inaugurated in 2007.

    Research and economic impact

    UC-Riverside operated under a $727 million budget in fiscal year 2014–15. The state government provided $214 million, student fees accounted for $224 million and $100 million came from contracts and grants. Private support and other sources accounted for the remaining $189 million. Overall, monies spent at UC-Riverside have an economic impact of nearly $1 billion in California. UC-Riverside research expenditure in FY 2018 totaled $167.8 million. Total research expenditures at UC-Riverside are significantly concentrated in agricultural science, accounting for 53% of total research expenditures spent by the university in 2002. Top research centers by expenditure, as measured in 2002, include the Agricultural Experiment Station; the Center for Environmental Research and Technology; the Center for Bibliographical Studies; the Air Pollution Research Center; and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Throughout UC-Riverside’s history, researchers have developed more than 40 new citrus varieties and invented new techniques to help the $960 million-a-year California citrus industry fight pests and diseases. In 1927, entomologists at the CES introduced two wasps from Australia as natural enemies of a major citrus pest, the citrophilus mealybug, saving growers in Orange County $1 million in annual losses. This event was pivotal in establishing biological control as a practical means of reducing pest populations. In 1963, plant physiologist Charles Coggins proved that application of gibberellic acid allows fruit to remain on citrus trees for extended periods. The ultimate result of his work, which continued through the 1980s, was the extension of the citrus-growing season in California from four to nine months. In 1980, UC-Riverside released the Oroblanco grapefruit, its first patented citrus variety. Since then, the citrus breeding program has released other varieties such as the Melogold grapefruit, the Gold Nugget mandarin (or tangerine), and others that have yet to be given trademark names.

    To assist entrepreneurs in developing new products, UC-Riverside is a primary partner in the Riverside Regional Technology Park, which includes the City of Riverside and the County of Riverside. It also administers six reserves of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC-Riverside recently announced a partnership with China Agricultural University[中国农业大学](CN) to launch a new center in Beijing, which will study ways to respond to the country’s growing environmental issues. UC-Riverside can also boast the birthplace of two name reactions in organic chemistry, the Castro-Stephens coupling and the Midland Alpine Borane Reduction.

     
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