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  • richardmitnick 9:48 pm on June 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scrambled magnetic fields and Gamma-Ray Bursts- Space scientists solve a decades long puzzle", , , , , University of Bath (UK)   

    From University of Bath (UK) : “Scrambled magnetic fields and Gamma-Ray Bursts- Space scientists solve a decades long puzzle” 

    From University of Bath (UK)

    16 June 2021

    Vittoria D’Alessio
    vda26@bath.ac.uk
    +44 (0)1225 383135

    1
    Impression of a GRB outflow showing the prompt phase (gamma-ray flash), reverse shock and forward shock.

    An international team of scientists, led by astrophysicists from the University of Bath, has measured the magnetic field in a far-off Gamma-Ray Burst, confirming for the first time a decades-long theoretical prediction – that the magnetic field in these blast waves becomes scrambled after the ejected material crashes into, and shocks, the surrounding medium.

    Black holes are formed when massive stars (at least 40 times larger than our Sun) die in a catastrophic explosion that powers a blast wave. These extremely energetic events drive out material at velocities close to the speed of light, and power bright, short-lived gamma-ray flashes that can be detected by satellites orbiting the Earth – hence their name, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs).

    Magnetic fields may be threaded through the ejected material and, as the spinning black hole forms, these magnetic fields twist into corkscrew shapes that are thought to focus and accelerate the ejected material.

    The magnetic fields can’t be seen directly, but their signature is encoded in the light produced by charged particles (electrons) that whiz around the magnetic field lines. Earth-bound telescopes capture this light, which has travelled for millions of years across the Universe.

    Head of Astrophysics at Bath and gamma-ray expert Professor Carole Mundell, said: “We measured a special property of the light – polarisation – to directly probe the physical properties of the magnetic field powering the explosion. This is a great result and solves a long-standing puzzle of these extreme cosmic blasts – a puzzle I’ve been studying for a long time.”

    Capturing the light early

    The challenge is to capture the light as soon as possible after a burst and decode the physics of the blast, the prediction being that any primordial magnetics fields will ultimately be destroyed as the expanding shock front collides with the surrounding stellar debris.

    This model predicts light with high levels of polarisation (>10%) soon after the burst when the large-scale primordial field is still intact and driving the outflow. Later, the light should be mostly unpolarised as the field is scrambled in the collision.

    Mundell’s team was first to discover highly polarised light minutes after the burst that confirmed the presence of primordial fields with large-scale structure. But the picture for expanding forward shocks has proved more controversial.

    Teams who observed GRBs in slower time – hours to a day after a burst – found low polarisation and concluded the fields had long-since been destroyed, but could not say when or how. In contrast, a team of Japanese astronomers announced an intriguing detection of 10% polarised light in a GRB, which they interpreted as a polarised forward shock with long-lasting ordered magnetic fields.

    Lead author of the new study, Bath PhD student Nuria Jordana-Mitjans, said: “These rare observations were difficult to compare, as they probed very different timescales and physics. There was no way to reconcile them in the standard model.”

    The mystery remained unsolved for over a decade, until the Bath team’s analysis of GRB 141220A.

    In the new paper, published today in the MNRAS, Professor Mundell’s team report the discovery of very low polarisation in forward-shock light detected just 90 seconds after the blast of GRB 141220A. The super-speedy observations were made possible by the team’s intelligent software on the fully autonomous robotic Liverpool Telescope and the novel RINGO3 polarimeter – the instrument that logged the GRB’s colour, brightness, polarisation and rate of fade. Putting together this data, the team was able to prove that:

    The light originated in the forward shock.
    The magnetic field length scales were much smaller than the Japanese team inferred.
    The blast was likely powered by the collapse of ordered magnetic fields in the first moments of the formation of a new black hole.
    The mysterious detection of polarisation by the Japanese team could be explained by a contribution of polarised light from the primordial magnetic field before it was destroyed in the shock.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Bath (UK) is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol (UK) and University of the West of England-Bristol (UK), Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. The university’s main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath’s submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.

    The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities (UK), the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association (EU), Universities UK and GW4 (UK).

     
  • richardmitnick 3:52 pm on May 20, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Finding quasars- rare extragalactic objects are now easier to spot", , , , , University of Bath (UK)   

    From University of Bath (UK) : “Finding quasars- rare extragalactic objects are now easier to spot” 

    From University of Bath (UK)

    18 May 2021

    Vittoria D’Alessio
    vda26@bath.ac.uk
    +44 (0)1225 383135

    1
    A quasar – the most luminous persistent source of light in the universe. National Aeronautics Space Agency (US).

    Astrophysicists from the University of Bath have developed a new method for pinpointing the whereabouts of extremely rare extragalactic objects. They hope their technique for finding ‘changing-look quasars’ will take scientists one step closer to unravelling one of greatest mysteries of the universe – how supermassive black holes grow. Quasars are believed to be responsible for regulating the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

    A quasar is a region of spectacular luminosity at the centre of a galaxy, powered by a supermassive black hole – the largest type of black hole, with a mass that exceeds that of our sun by millions or billions. There is a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.

    Changing-look quasars switch rapidly between a state of high luminosity and one of low luminosity, and scientists are yet to work out why. When the brightness is dialed down, a quasar is too faint to be seen against the backdrop of the host galaxy, making it hard for space scientists to find either it or the supermassive black hole it is connected to.

    The new detection method will enable researchers to find quasars undergoing extreme changes in luminosity, and therefore to create a more comprehensive census of supermassive blackholes. The next step will be to study the causes of the luminosity switches, to give scientists a better understanding of how supermassive black holes grow. From this, clues are likely to emerge about the chain of events that give rise to the growth of galaxies, as the energy output from supermassive black holes can affect the fate of galaxies.

    Astrophysicist Dr Carolin Villforth, who was involved in the research, said: “These quasars and supermassive blackholes are extremely important for galaxy evolution – the more we learn about them, the more we understand how they influence the growth of galaxies.”

    What exactly are quasars?

    Quasars are the most luminous persistent source of light in the universe. Many galaxies, including our own, are thought to have one, and astrophysicists have identified more than a million in total.

    Quasars are formed when gaseous matter is drawn by gravitations forces towards a supermassive black hole. As this gas approaches the black hole, it forms an ‘accretion disk’ which orbits the black hole. Energy is released from the disk in the form of electromagnetic radiation, and it is this radiation that produces the quasar’s luminosity.

    The accretion disk is surrounded by a thick, dusty donut that obscures much of the quasar’s emission. Because the dusty structure is very large, the level of obscuration should not change on human timescales, however a changing-look quasar can appear to switch from bright to dark quickly (within a human year), which would be highly surprising if true. Creating a more comprehensive list of changing-look quasars would be a major step towards understanding the reasons behind these apparent transitions.

    Previous efforts to identify changing-look quasars have relied on variability in a wide range of wavelengths – a technique called photometric variability, which is known to miss lower luminosity quasars. The Bath researchers used spectroscopic data to assess the changes in very small wavelength ranges, allowing them to detect changing-look quasars that had been missed by photometric searches. Using this technique, they spotted four changing-look quasars millions of lightyears from earth. All four were too dim to be picked up by photometric searches. Earlier identification efforts had only found two of these quasars in the same area.

    Former MPhys student at Bath, Bart Potts, who led the research, explained: “We took a previous dataset and applied our new method to see if we could identify any new changing quasars that others had missed. This gave us a bigger set of changing-look quasars for further study, and validated that our methodology was more sensitive than others, which was great. It shows that our methodology is more sensitive to weaker luminosity.”

    He added: “Ultimately, this finding will give something to the academic community that studies quasars. It will help others further their research into why this specific type of quasar goes through luminosity switches. We are helping our community find important answers to big questions.”

    Science paper:
    Astronomy & Astrophysics

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Bath (UK) is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. The university’s main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath’s submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent.[4] The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.[2]

    The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association, Universities UK and GW4.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:25 pm on May 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Physicists observe modified energy landscapes at the intersection of 2D materials", , Due to this "squeeze" 2D materials have enhanced optical and electronic properties that show great promise as next-generation ultrathin devices., , Modern 2D materials consist of single-atom layers where electrons can move in two dimensions but their motion in the third dimension is restricted., , University of Bath (UK)   

    From University of Bath (UK) : “Physicists observe modified energy landscapes at the intersection of 2D materials” 

    From University of Bath (UK)

    2
    2D sheets intersect and twist on top of each other, modifying the energy landscape of the materials. Credit: Ventsislav Valev.

    In 1884, Edwin Abbott wrote the novel Flatland: A Romance in Many Dimensions as a satire of Victorian hierarchy. He imagined a world that existed only in two dimensions, where the beings are 2D geometric figures. The physics of such a world is somewhat akin to that of modern 2D materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, which include tungsten disulfide (WS2), tungsten diselenide (WSe2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2).

    Modern 2D materials consist of single-atom layers where electrons can move in two dimensions but their motion in the third dimension is restricted. Due to this “squeeze” 2D materials have enhanced optical and electronic properties that show great promise as next-generation ultrathin devices in the fields of energy, communications, imaging and quantum computing, among others.

    Typically, for all these applications, the 2D materials are envisioned in flat-lying arrangements. Unfortunately, however, the strength of these materials is also their greatest weakness—they are extremely thin. This means that when they are illuminated, light can interact with them only over a tiny thickness, which limits their usefulness. To overcome this shortcoming, researchers are starting to look for new ways to fold the 2D materials into complex 3D shapes.

    In our 3D universe, 2D materials can be arranged on top of each other. To extend the Flatland metaphor, such an arrangement would quite literally represent parallel worlds inhabited by people who are destined to never meet.

    Now, scientists from the Department of Physics at the University of Bath in the UK have found a way to arrange 2D sheets of WS2 (previously created in their lab) into a 3D configuration, resulting in an energy landscape that is strongly modified when compared to that of the flat-laying WS2 sheets. This particular 3D arrangement is known as a ‘nanomesh’: a webbed network of densely-packed, randomly distributed stacks, containing twisted and/or fused WS2 sheets.

    Modifications of this kind in Flatland would allow people to step into each other’s worlds. “We didn’t set out to distress the inhabitants of Flatland,” said Professor Ventsislav Valev who led the research, “But because of the many defects that we nanoengineered in the 2D materials, these hypothetical inhabitants would find their world quite strange indeed.

    “First, our WS2 sheets have finite dimensions with irregular edges, so their world would have a strangely shaped end. Also, some of the sulphur atoms have been replaced by oxygen, which would feel just wrong to any inhabitant. Most importantly, our sheets intersect and fuse together, and even twist on top of each other, which modifies the energy landscape of the materials. For the Flatlanders, such an effect would look like the laws of the universe had suddenly changed across their entire landscape.”

    Dr. Adelina Ilie, who developed the new material together with her former Ph.D. student and post-doc Zichen Liu, said: “The modified energy landscape is a key point for our study. It is proof that assembling 2D materials into a 3D arrangement does not just result in ‘thicker’ 2D materials—it produces entirely new materials. Our nanomesh is technologically simple to produce, and it offers tunable material properties to meet the demands of future applications.”

    Professor Valev added: “The nanomesh has very strong nonlinear optical properties—it efficiently converts one laser colour into another over a broad palette of colours. Our next goal is to use it on Si waveguides for developing quantum optical communications.”

    Ph.D. student Alexander Murphy, also involved in the research, said: “In order to reveal the modified energy landscape, we devised new characterisation methods and I look forward to applying these to other materials. Who knows what else we could discover?”

    Science paper:
    Laser & Photonics Reviews

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Bath is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. The university’s main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath’s submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.

    The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association (EU), Universities UK and GW4.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:08 pm on February 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New turntable-like catalytic reactor promises more sustainable chemical manufacturing", , , Innovate UK, MD-SMDR-multi-disc 'scale-up' reactor, , SMDR-Spinning Disc Mesh Reactor, The basic principle of the SMDR is using the centrifugal forces generated by rotation to create a very consistent and repeatable reaction., The engineers behind the Spinning Mesh Disc Reactor have won funding to continue developing their innovative catalytic reactor., The SMDR creates chemicals by imitating the action of a record player., University of Bath (UK)   

    From University of Bath (UK) via phys.org: “New turntable-like catalytic reactor promises more sustainable chemical manufacturing” 

    From University of Bath (UK)

    via


    phys.org

    February 11, 2021

    1
    The engineers behind the Spinning Mesh Disc Reactor have won funding to continue developing their innovative catalytic reactor. Credit: University of Bath.

    A new catalytic reactor that can create chemical compounds more quickly, cheaply and in a more sustainable way has won funding from Innovate UK.

    The Spinning Disc Mesh Reactor (SMDR), developed by University of Bath chemical engineers Dr. Emma Emanuelsson-Patterson and Dr. Parimala Shivaprasad, creates chemicals and APIs—Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, used to create all sorts of medicines—by reacting chemicals with enzymes on a spinning cloth-covered plate, like a vinyl record.

    The pair’s company, SMDR Ltd, has won funding from Innovate UK to commercialise the reactor and market it to pharmaceutical companies following its 12-year development.

    The SMDR creates chemicals by imitating the action of a record player: an enzyme applied to a woollen cloth disc is spun on a turntable, where it reacts with a chemical substrate, creating the desired compound or API.

    The Emanuelsson research group has shown that using a cloth disc protects the enzymes from denaturing or shearing, which renders them unusable, and allows optimal contact between the enzyme catalyst and the substrate, which ensures fast reactions. This means the catalyst cloth disc can be used for far longer, making the process cheaper and more sustainable than traditional reactors.

    Dr. Emanuelsson-Patterson says: “The basic principle of the SMDR is using the centrifugal forces generated by rotation to create a very consistent and repeatable reaction. Chemical engineers strive to enhance this kind of ‘mass transfer’ as it produces faster reactions, and in our case more chemicals or APIs.”

    Dr. Shivaprasad adds: “One of the main advantages of the SMDR essentially works a little bit like a jukebox that can switch between records. Using the catalyst cloth mesh discs, which can be swapped easily and quickly, means we can apply a range of different reagents or catalysts rapidly, creating a wide range of chemicals or APIs.”

    Explaining the need for better efficiency, Dr. Emanuelsson-Patterson said: “Reagents and enzymes are expensive and also very sensitive to how they’re handled, particularly with regard to shearing (or tearing) forces. Using the mesh disc and harnessing centrifugal forces means we’ve significantly reduced these risks, giving more potential to safely reuse them. This has benefits in efficiency, cost and sustainability.”

    The disc design also creates potential for improving the efficiency of chemical production—catalysts can be switched in and out quickly, creating flexibility and scope for batch production. One exciting challenge the team will investigate is how the SMDR could run several different reactions, using multiple catalysts at the same time.

    Dr. Shivaprasad was a part of the three-month ICURe programme to carry out the market analysis for the SMDR. The main objective was to identify the current challenges in chemical manufacturing and if the SMDR had the potential to alleviate these challenges to improve processing efficiency in chemical industries.

    “We found that there was a market need among pharmaceutical intermediaries—the companies that supply APIs, the ingredients that go into drugs or products—for faster, more sustainable production options,” she says.

    The next steps for Dr. Emanuelsson-Patterson and Dr. Shivaprasad include the optimisation of multi-disc ‘scale-up’ reactor, the MD-SMDR, on pilot scale and doing a cost analysis. They hope that its cost-effectiveness and flexibility will provide a pathway for local production of APIs and chemicals, reducing the reliance on complex supply chains, which has proven an issue in some countries during the coronavirus pandemic.

    The MD-SMDR, is designed based on a modular concept having a single shaft with numerous discs, each of which would be stackable. This will create flexibility both in the quantities and types of chemicals produced.

    The project has received £68,500 in funding from Innovate UK Sustainable Funding Round 2, a part of UK Research and Innovation.

    Dr. Ian Campbell, interim Executive Chair for Innovate UK, said: “In these difficult times, we have seen the best of British business innovation. The pandemic is not just a health emergency but one that impacts society and the economy.

    “SMDR Ltd, along with every initiative Innovate UK has supported through this fund, is an important step forward in driving sustainable economic development. Each one is also helping to realise the ambitions of hard-working people.”

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Bath is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. The university’s main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath’s submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent.[4] The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.[2]

    The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association, Universities UK and GW4.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:16 pm on January 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New galaxy sheds light on how stars form", , , , , TDG's-tidal dwarf galaxies, Tidal Dwarf galaxy TDG J1023+1952, University of Bath (UK)   

    From University of Bath (UK): “New galaxy sheds light on how stars form” 

    From University of Bath (UK)

    22 January 2021
    Vittoria D’Alessio
    vda26@bath.ac.uk
    +44 (0)1225 386319

    1
    A tidal dwarf galaxy (blue) and a spiral galaxy (greyscale). The Milky Way is an example of a spiral galaxy. (Created from images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and ALMA.)

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres.

    A lot is known about galaxies. We know, for instance, that the stars within them are shaped from a blend of old star dust and molecules suspended in gas. What remains a mystery, however, is the process that leads to these simple elements being pulled together to form a new star.

    But now an international team of scientists, including astrophysicists from the University of Bath and the National Astronomical Observatory (OAN) in Madrid, Spain have taken a significant step towards understanding how a galaxy’s gaseous content becomes organised into a new generation of stars.

    Their findings have important implications for our understanding of how stars formed during the early days of the universe, when galaxy collisions were frequent and dramatic, and star and galaxy formation occurred more actively than it does now.

    For this study, the researchers used the Chile-based Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) – a network of radio telescopes combined to form one, mega telescope – to observe a type of galaxy called a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). TDGs emerge from the debris of two older galaxies colliding with great force. They are actively star-forming systems and pristine environments for scientists trying to piece together the early days of other galaxies, including our own – the Milky Way (thought to be 13.6-billion years old).

    “The little galaxy we’ve been studying was born in a violent, gas-rich galactic collision and offers us a unique laboratory to study the physics of star formation in extreme environments,” said co-author Professor Carole Mundell, head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath.

    From their observations, the researchers learnt that a TDG’s molecular clouds are similar to those found in the Milky Way, both in terms of size and content. This suggests there is a universal star-formation process at play throughout the universe.

    Unexpectedly, however, the TDG in the study (labelled TDG J1023+1952) also displayed a profusion of dispersed gas. In the Milky Way, clouds of gas are by far the most prominent star-forming factories.

    “The fact that molecular gas appears in both cloud form and as diffuse gas was a surprise,” said Professor Mundell.

    Dr Miguel Querejeta from the OAN in Spain and lead author of the study added: “ALMA’s observations were made with great precision so we can say with confidence that the contribution of diffuse gas is much higher in the tidal dwarf galaxy we studied than typically found in normal galaxies.”

    He added: “This most likely means most of the molecular gas in this tidal dwarf galaxy is not involved in forming stars, which questions popular assumptions about star formation.”

    Because of the vast distance that separates Earth from TDG J1023+1952 (around 50 million light years), individual clouds of molecular gas appear as tiny regions in the sky when viewed through the naked eye. However, ALMA has the power to distinguish the smallest details.

    “We have managed to identify clouds with an apparent size as small as observing a coin placed several kilometres away from us,” said Professor Mundell, adding: “It’s remarkable that we can now study stars and the gas clouds from which they are formed in a violent extragalactic collision with the same detail that we can study those forming in the calm environment of our own Milky Way.”

    The paper ALMA Resolves Giant Molecular Clouds in a Tidal Dwarf Galaxy appears in the latest issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics. This research was a collaborative effort of scientists from across the world working remotely. Their expertise covers the physics of stars, dust and gas, and the science of galaxy evolution.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Bath is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. The university’s main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath’s submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent.[4] The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.[2]

    The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association, Universities UK and GW4.

     
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