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  • richardmitnick 2:52 pm on July 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , SpARCS collaboration, UC Riverside   

    From Keck: “Scientists Get Best Measure of Star-Forming Material in Galaxy Clusters in Early Universe” 

    Keck Observatory

    Keck Observatory.
    Keck, with Subaru and IRTF (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility). Vadim Kurland

    Keck Observatory

    Previously covered from Uc Riverside, https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2017/07/20/from-uc-riverside-scientists-get-best-measure-of-star-forming-material-in-galaxy-clusters-in-early-universe/. But Keck deserves its own story.

    July 26, 2017

    Mari-Ela Chock, Communications Officer
    W. M. Keck Observatory
    mchock@keck.hawaii.edu
    (808) 554-0567

    The international Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) collaboration based at the University of California, Riverside has combined observations from several of the world’s most powerful telescopes, including W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawaii, to carry out one of the largest studies yet of molecular gas – the raw material which fuels star formation throughout the universe – in three of the most distant clusters of galaxies ever found, detected as they appeared when the universe was only four billion years old. Allison Noble, a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led this newest research from the SpARCS collaboration.

    SpARCS collaboration
    5
    To date, we have spectroscopically confirmed about a dozen z > 1 clusters. Above are three examples of rich clusters which SpARCS has discovered.

    Results were recently published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    2
    The Tadpole Galaxy is a disrupted spiral galaxy showing streams of gas stripped by gravitational interaction with another galaxy. Molecular gas is the required ingredient to form stars in galaxies in the early universe. Credit: HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE, ESA, NASA AND BILL SNYDER.

    Clusters are rare regions of the universe consisting of tight groups of hundreds of galaxies containing trillions of stars, as well as hot gas and mysterious dark matter.

    First, the research team used spectroscopic observations from the Very Large Telescope in Chile and Keck Observatory’s powerful Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration (MOSFIRE) to confirm nearly a dozen galaxies were star-forming members of the three massive clusters.

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    Keck/MOSFIRE on Keck 1, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    “Keck Observatory’s MOSFIRE data were essential to proving conclusively that the 11 galaxies analyzed (two pairs) were indeed members of the three clusters and not foreground galaxies,” said Gillian Wilson, a professor of physics and astronomy at UC Riverside and the leader of the SpARCS collaboration.

    Next, the researchers took images through multiple filters from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, which revealed a surprising diversity in the galaxies’ appearance, with some galaxies having already formed large disks with spiral arms.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    One of the telescopes the SpARCS scientists used is the extremely sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) telescope capable of directly detecting radio waves emitted from the molecular gas found in galaxies in the early universe.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    ALMA observations allowed the scientists to determine the amount of molecular gas in each galaxy, and provided the best measurement yet of how much fuel was available to form stars.

    The researchers compared the properties of galaxies in these clusters with the properties of “field galaxies” (galaxies found in more typical environments with fewer close neighbors). To their surprise, they discovered that cluster galaxies had higher amounts of molecular gas relative to the amount of stars in the galaxy compared to field galaxies. The finding puzzled the team because it has long been known that when a galaxy falls into a cluster, interactions with other cluster galaxies and hot gas accelerate the shut off of its star formation relative to that of a similar field galaxy (the process is known as environmental quenching).

    “This is definitely an intriguing result,” said Wilson. “If cluster galaxies have more fuel available to them, you might expect them to be forming more stars than field galaxies, and yet they are not.”

    Allison Noble, a SpARCS collaborator and this study’s leader, suggests several possible explanations: It is possible that something about being in the hot, harsh cluster environment surrounded by many neighboring galaxies perturbs the molecular gas in cluster galaxies such that a smaller fraction of that gas actively forms stars. Alternatively, it is possible that an environmental process, such as increased merging activity in cluster galaxies, results in the observed differences between the cluster and field galaxy populations.

    “While the current study does not answer the question of which physical process is primarily responsible for causing the higher amounts of molecular gas, it provides the most accurate measurement yet of how much molecular gas exists in galaxies in clusters in the early universe,” Wilson said.

    The SpARCS team has developed new techniques using infrared observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to identify hundreds of previously undiscovered clusters of galaxies in the early universe.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    In the future, they plan to study a larger sample of clusters. The team has recently been awarded additional time on ALMA, Keck Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope to continue investigating how the neighborhood in which a galaxy lives determines for how long it can form stars.

    The Keck Observatory data were obtained as the result of a collaboration amongst Wilson and fellow UC faculty members Michael Cooper (UC Irvine) and Saul Perlmutter (UC Berkeley).

    About MOSFIRE

    The Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration (MOSFIRE), gathers thousands of spectra from objects spanning a variety of distances, environments and physical conditions. What makes this large, vacuum-cryogenic instrument unique is its ability to select up to 46 individual objects in the field of view and then record the infrared spectrum of all 46 objects simultaneously. When a new field is selected, a robotic mechanism inside the vacuum chamber reconfigures the distribution of tiny slits in the focal plane in under six minutes. Eight years in the making with First Light in 2012, MOSFIRE’s early performance results range from the discovery of ultra-cool, nearby substellar mass objects, to the detection of oxygen in young galaxies only two billion years after the Big Bang. MOSFIRE was made possible by funding generously provided by the National Science Foundation and astronomy benefactors Gordon and Betty Moore. It is currently the most in-demand instrument at Keck Observatory.

    Other Authors

    Michael McDonald, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Adam Muzzin, York University, Canada
    Julie Nantais, Universidad Andres Bello, Chile
    Gregory Rudnick, University of Kansas
    Eelco van Kampen, European Southern Observatory, Germany
    Tracy Webb, McGill University, Canada
    Howard K.C. Yee, University of Toronto, Canada
    Kyle Boone, UC Berkeley
    Andrew DeGroot, UC Riverside
    Anna Delahaye, McGill University, Canada
    Ricardo Demarco, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
    Ryan Foltz, UC Riverside
    Brian Hayden, UC Berkeley/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Chris Lidman, Australian Astronomical Observatory
    Ariadna Manilla-Robles, European Southern Observatory, Germany

    See the full article here .

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    Mission
    To advance the frontiers of astronomy and share our discoveries with the world.

    The W. M. Keck Observatory operates the largest, most scientifically productive telescopes on Earth. The two, 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaii feature a suite of advanced instruments including imagers, multi-object spectrographs, high-resolution spectrographs, integral-field spectrometer and world-leading laser guide star adaptive optics systems. Keck Observatory is a private 501(c) 3 non-profit organization and a scientific partnership of the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA.

    Today Keck Observatory is supported by both public funding sources and private philanthropy. As a 501(c)3, the organization is managed by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), whose Board of Directors includes representatives from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, with liaisons to the board from NASA and the Keck Foundation.
    Keck UCal

     
  • richardmitnick 1:31 pm on July 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cluster galaxies, , field galaxies, , SpARCS-Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey, UC Riverside   

    From UC Riverside: “Scientists Get Best Measure of Star-forming Material in Galaxy Clusters in Early Universe” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    July 20, 2017
    Iqbal Pittalwala

    1
    The Tadpole Galaxy is a disrupted spiral galaxy showing streams of gas stripped by gravitational interaction with another galaxy. Molecular gas is the required ingredient to form stars in galaxies in the early universe. Credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, ESA, NASA and Bill Snyder.

    The international Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) collaboration based at the University of California, Riverside has combined observations from several of the world’s most powerful telescopes to carry out one of the largest studies yet of molecular gas – the raw material which fuels star formation throughout the universe – in three of the most distant clusters of galaxies ever found, detected as they appeared when the universe was only four billion years old.

    Results were recently published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Allison Noble, a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led this newest research from the SpARCS collaboration.

    Clusters are rare regions of the universe consisting of tight groups of hundreds of galaxies containing trillions of stars, as well as hot gas and mysterious dark matter. First, the research team used spectroscopic observations from the W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawai’i, and the Very Large Telescope in Chile that confirmed 11 galaxies were star-forming members of the three massive clusters.


    Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    Next, the researchers took images through multiple filters from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, which revealed a surprising diversity in the galaxies’ appearance, with some galaxies having already formed large disks with spiral arms.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    One of the telescopes the SpARCS scientists used is the extremely sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) telescope capable of directly detecting radio waves emitted from the molecular gas found in galaxies in the early universe.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    ALMA observations allowed the scientists to determine the amount of molecular gas in each galaxy, and provided the best measurement yet of how much fuel was available to form stars.

    The researchers compared the properties of galaxies in these clusters with the properties of “field galaxies” (galaxies found in more typical environments with fewer close neighbors). To their surprise, they discovered that cluster galaxies had higher amounts of molecular gas relative to the amount of stars in the galaxy, compared to field galaxies. The finding puzzled the team because it has long been known that when a galaxy falls into a cluster, interactions with other cluster galaxies and hot gas accelerate the shut off of its star formation relative to that of a similar field galaxy (the process is known as environmental quenching).

    “This is definitely an intriguing result,” said Gillian Wilson, a professor of physics and astronomy at UC Riverside and the leader of the SpARCS collaboration. “If cluster galaxies have more fuel available to them, you might expect them to be forming more stars than field galaxies, and yet they are not.”

    Noble, a SpARCS collaborator and the study’s leader, suggests several possible explanations: It is possible that something about being in the hot, harsh cluster environment surrounded by many neighboring galaxies perturbs the molecular gas in cluster galaxies such that a smaller fraction of that gas actively forms stars. Alternatively, it is possible that an environmental process, such as increased merging activity in cluster galaxies, results in the observed differences between the cluster and field galaxy populations.

    “While the current study does not answer the question of which physical process is primarily responsible for causing the higher amounts of molecular gas, it provides the most accurate measurement yet of how much molecular gas exists in galaxies in clusters in the early universe,” Wilson said.

    The SpARCS team has developed new techniques using infrared observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to identify hundreds of previously undiscovered clusters of galaxies in the early universe.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

    In the future, they plan to study a larger sample of clusters. The team has recently been awarded additional time on ALMA, the W. M. Keck Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope to continue investigating how the neighborhood in which a galaxy lives determines for how long it can form stars.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:39 am on July 14, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Slow Earthquakes Occur Continuously in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, UC Riverside   

    From UC Riverside: “Slow Earthquakes Occur Continuously in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    July 12, 2017
    Iqbal Pittalwala

    1
    Image shows tremor sources and low frequency earthquake distribution in the study region and historic large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Each red star represents the location of 1 min tremor signal determined by the beam back projection method, and the black stars show three visually detected low frequency earthquakes located using arrival times of body waves. Image credit: Ghosh lab, UC Riverside.

    Seismologists at the University of California, Riverside studying earthquakes in the seismically and volcanically active Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone have found that “slow earthquakes” are occurring continuously, and could encourage damaging earthquakes.

    Slow earthquakes are quiet, can be as large as magnitude 7, and last days to years. Taking place mainly at the boundary between tectonic plates, they happen so slowly that people don’t feel them. A large slow earthquake is typically associated with abundant seismic tremor—a continuous weak seismic chatter—and low frequency (small and repeating) earthquakes.

    “In the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, we found seismic tremor, and visually identified three low frequency earthquakes,” said Abhijit Ghosh, an assistant professor of Earth sciences, who led the research published recently in Geophysical Research Letters. “Using them as templates, we detected nearly 1,300 additional low frequency earthquakes. Slow earthquakes may play an important role in the earthquake cycles in this subduction zone.”

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, which stretches from the Gulf of Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, is one of the most active plate boundaries in the world. It is 3,800 km long and forms the plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. In the last 80 years, four massive earthquakes (greater than magnitude 8) have occurred here.

    2
    Abhijit Ghosh lands in Alaska to do field work. Photo credit: Ghosh lab, UC Riverside.

    Ghosh explained that tectonic tremor—which causes a weak vibration of the ground—and low frequency earthquakes are poorly studied in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone due to limited data availability, difficult logistics, and rugged terrain.

    But using two months of high-quality continuous seismic data recorded from early July-September 2012 at 11 stations in the Akutan Island, Ghosh and his graduate student, Bo Li, detected near-continuous tremor activity with an average of 1.3 hours of tectonic tremor per day using a “beam back projection” method—an innovative array-based method Ghosh developed to automatically detect and locate seismic tremor. Using the seismic arrays the method continuously scans the subsurface for any seismic activity. Just like a radar antenna, it determines from which direction the seismic signal originates and uses that information to locate it. Practically, it can track slow earthquakes minute-by-minute.

    Ghosh and Li found that tremor sources were clustered in two patches with a nearly 25 km gap in between them, possibly indicating that frictional properties determining earthquake activities change laterally along this area. Ghosh explained that this gap impacts the region’s overall stress pattern and can affect earthquake activity nearby.

    “In addition, slow earthquakes seem to have ‘sweet spots’ along the subduction fault that produces majority of the tremor activity,” he said. “We found that the western patch has a larger depth range and shows higher tremor source propagation velocities. More frequent tremor events and low frequency earthquakes in the western patch may be a result of higher fluid activity in the region and indicate a higher seismic slip rate than the eastern region.”

    Ghosh, Li, and their collaborators in multiple institutions in the United States have taken the next step by installing three additional seismic arrays in a nearby island to simultaneously image the subduction fault and volcanic system.

    “This ambitious experiment will provide new insights into the seismic activity and subduction processes in this region,” Ghosh said.

    The study [Geophysical Reseach Letters] was supported by grants to Ghosh from the National Science Foundation-Division of Earth Sciences, EarthScope, the United States Geological Survey, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:39 am on June 29, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , It often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen by which point it is difficult to treat and usually fatal, MCAs- Multicellular aggregates, , Ovarian cancer, UC Riverside,   

    From UC Riverside: “Study Sheds Light on How Ovarian Cancer Spreads” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    June 26, 2017
    Sarah Nightingale

    1
    Researchers at UC Riverside and Notre Dame used fluorescently-tagged cells to study the molecular mechanisms of metastasis in ovarian cancer. No image credit.

    With 20,000 diagnoses each year, ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer and fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. So many women die from ovarian cancer because it often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen, by which point it is difficult to treat and usually fatal.

    A team of researchers from the University of California, Riverside and the University of Notre Dame are studying the molecular mechanisms by which ovarian cancer spreads—or metastasizes—to uncover new therapeutic opportunities.

    In their latest paper, published in the journal Oncogene, they used live imaging and electron microscopy to study the cellular activities associated with successful metastasis, including the expression of a group of proteins called cadherins, which help cells bind together. Since these proteins enable cancer cells to anchor to new sites in the body, it may be possible to disrupt metastasis by blocking cadherin-mediated binding. The research was led by Mark Alber, a distinguished professor of applied mathematics at UC Riverside, and M. Sharon Stack, a Kleiderer-Pezold professor of biochemistry and director of Notre Dame Harper Cancer Research Institute.

    As primary ovarian tumors metastasize, they shed both single cells and clusters of cells, called multicellular aggregates (MCAs), into the pelvis and abdomen. To study exactly how metastasis occurs, the researchers quantified the interactions between epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and three-dimensional models of the abdomen wall. They showed when EOC cells acquired (MCAs)(Ncad), an event that occurs in human EOC tumors, they could penetrate and attach to the abdomen wall. Furthermore, MCAs dispersed prior to invasion as a large cohort of cells, showing that cell to cell junctional integrity (i.e. attachment at the single cell level) was needed for successful metastasis.

    Alber said unlike results observed in other cancers, ovarian cancer cells do not appear to exhibit a ‘leader-follower’ type of collective cell invasion.

    “Interestingly, co-culture of Ncad-expressing cells with cells expressing E-cadherin (Ecad) did not promote invasion of the Ecad-expressing cells, demonstrating that Ncad-expressing cells do not simply lead the way for other cell populations to follow,” Stack said.

    The findings emphasize the importance of Ncad in ovarian cancer metastasis and provide the rationale to support pre-clinical studies using Ncad-blocking molecules as a therapeutic strategy to suppress EOC metastatic anchoring.

    The group is using these results to develop computational models of cancer cell invasion. Future studies will also use patient samples, which will be provided by collaborators from the City of Hope, in Duarte, Calif. for combined modeling and experimental approaches to obtain novel insights into the cellular mechanisms of ovarian cancer metastasis.

    The title of the Oncogene paper is Cadherin composition and multicellular aggregate invasion in organotypic models of epithelial ovarian cancer intraperitoneal metastasis (published online: http://rdcu.be/tyCF). In addition to Alber and Stack, contributors include assistant research scientist Oleg Kim at UC Riverside, and Yuliya Klymenko, Elizabeth Loughran, Jing Yang and Rachel Lombard, who are all at Notre Dame.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:02 am on March 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , UC Riverside,   

    From UC Riverside: “Researchers Crack Structure of Key Protein in Zika Virus” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    March 27, 2017
    Iqbal Pittalwala

    1
    The image shows the crystal structure of ZIKV NS5 protein. The regions with different colors represent individual domains or motifs of ZIKV NS5. The black circle marks the location of the potential inhibitor-binding site. Image credit: Song lab, UC Riverside.

    Zika virus (ZIKV), which causes Zika virus disease, is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. An infected pregnant woman can pass ZIKV to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Sex is yet another way for infected persons to transmit ZIKV to others.

    The genomic replication of the virus is made possible by its “NS5” protein. This function of ZIKV NS5 is unique to the virus, making it an ideal target for anti-viral drug development. Currently, there is no vaccine or medicine to fight ZIKV infection.

    In a research paper just published in Nature Communications, University of California, Riverside scientists report that they have determined the crystal structure of the entire ZIKV NS5 protein and demonstrated that NS5 is functional when purified in vitro. Knowing the structure of ZIKV NS5 helps the researchers understand how ZIKV replicates itself.

    Furthermore, the researchers’ structural analysis of ZIKV NS5 reveals a potential binding site in the protein for an inhibitor, thereby providing a strong basis for developing potential inhibitors against ZIKV NS5 to suppress ZIKV infection. The identification of the inhibitor-binding site of NS5 can now enable scientists to design potential potent drugs to fight ZIKV.

    “We started this work realizing that the full structure of ZIKV NS5 was missing,” said Jikui Song, an assistant professor of biochemistry, who co-led the research with Rong Hai, an assistant professor of plant pathology and microbiology. “The main challenge for us occurred during the protein’s purification process when ZIKV NS5 got degraded – chopped up – by bacterial enzymes.”

    Song, Hai and their colleagues overcame this challenge by developing an efficient protocol for protein purification, which in essence minimizes the purification time for NS5.

    “Our work provides a framework for future studies of ZIKV NS5 and opportunities for drug development against ZIKV based on its structural similarity to the NS5 protein of other flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus,” Hai said. “No doubt, ZIKV therapeutics can benefit from the wealth of knowledge that has already been generated in the dengue virus field.”

    Next, the researchers plan to investigate the antiviral potential on ZIKV NS5 of a chemical compound that has been shown to work effectively in inhibiting the NS5 protein in the dengue virus.

    Song and Hai were joined in the research by graduate students Boxiao Wang (first author), Xiao-Feng Tan, Stephanie Thurmond, Zhi-Min Zhang, and Asher Lin.

    The research was supported by grants to Song from the March of Dimes Foundation, the Sidney Kimmel Foundation for Cancer Research and the National Institutes of Health.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:57 am on March 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Tracing Aromatic Molecules in the Early Universe, UC Riverside, University of California-based MOSDEF survey   

    From UC Riverside: “Tracing Aromatic Molecules in the Early Universe” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    March 22, 2017
    Sean Nealon
    A molecule found in car engine exhaust fumes that is thought to have contributed to the origin of life on Earth has made astronomers heavily underestimate the amount of stars that were forming in the early Universe, a University of California, Riverside-led study has found.

    1
    In this study, astronomers used data from the Keck and Spitzer telescopes to trace the star forming and dusty regions of galaxies at about 10 billion years ago. The picture in the background shows the GOODS field, one of the five regions in the sky that was observed for this study. Credit: Mario De Leo-Winkler with images from the Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage team.

    That molecule is called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). On Earth it is also found in coal and tar. In space, it is a component of dust, which along with gas, fills the space between stars within galaxies.

    The study, which was just published in the Astrophysical Journal, represents the first time that astronomers have been able to measure variations of PAH emissions in distant galaxies with different properties. It has important implications for the studies of distant galaxies because absorption and emission of energy by dust particles can change astronomers’ views of distant galaxies.

    “Despite the ubiquity of PAHs in space, observing them in distant galaxies has been a challenging task,” said Irene Shivaei, a graduate student at UC Riverside, and leader of the study. “A significant part of our knowledge of the properties and amounts of PAHs in other galaxies is limited to the nearby universe.”

    The research was conducted as part of the University of California-based MOSDEF survey, a study that uses the Keck telescope in Hawaii to observe the content of about 1,500 galaxies when the universe was 1.5 to 4.5 billion years old. The researchers observed the emitted visible-light spectra of a large and representative sample of galaxies during the peak-era of star formation activity in the universe.

    In addition, the researchers incorporated infrared imaging data from the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope and the European Space Agency-operated Herschel Space Observatory to trace the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission in mid-infrared bands and the thermal dust emission in far-infrared wavelengths.

    The researchers concluded that the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which also have a lower fraction of metals, which are atoms heavier than hydrogen and helium. These results indicate that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are likely to be destroyed in the hostile environment of low-mass and metal-poor galaxies with intense radiation.

    The researchers also found that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission is relatively weaker in young galaxies compared to older ones, which may be due to the fact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are not produced in large quantities in young galaxies.

    They found that the star-formation activity and infrared luminosity in the universe 10 billion years ago is approximately 30 percent higher than previously measured.

    Studying the properties of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mid-infrared emission bands in distant universe is of fundamental importance to improving our understanding of the evolution of dust and chemical enrichment in galaxies throughout cosmic time. The planned launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2018 will push the boundaries of our knowledge on dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the early universe.

    In addition to Shivaei, the authors are: Naveen Reddy, Brian Siana, and Bahram Mobasher, of UC Riverside; Alice Shapley and Ryan L. Sanders, of UCLA; Mariska Kriek, Sedona H. Price, and Tom Zick, of UC Berkeley; and Alison L. Coil and Mojegan Azadi, of UC San Diego.

    Mario De Leo-Winkler, a postdoctoral researcher in the UCR Department of Physics and Astronomy, made significant contributions to this article.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:06 am on March 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Cosmic Environments and Their Influence in Star Formation, , UC Riverside   

    From UC Riverside: “Cosmic Environments and Their Influence in Star Formation” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    March 6, 2017
    Sean Nealon

    1
    Simulations of the cosmic web. The filaments connecting structures are shown. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of matter distribution in the universe at different times through the age of the universe. Credit: Illustris Simulation

    Researchers at UC Riverside and Caltech team up on Astrophysical Journal paper

    The scaffolding that holds the large-scale structure of the universe constitutes galaxies, dark matter and gas (from which stars are forming), organized in complex networks known as the cosmic web. This network comprises dense regions known as galaxy clusters and groups that are woven together through thread-like structures known as filaments. These filaments form the backbone of the cosmic web and host a large fraction of the mass in the universe, as well as sites of star formation activity.

    While there is ample evidence that environments shape and direct the evolution of galaxies, it is not clear how galaxies behave in the larger, global cosmic web and in particular in the more extended environment of filaments.

    In a joint collaboration between the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, Riverside, astronomers have performed an extensive study of the properties of galaxies within filaments formed at different times during the age of the universe.

    In a just-published paper, astronomers used a sample of 40,000 galaxies in the COSMOS field, a large and contiguous patch of sky with deep enough data to look at galaxies very far away, and with accurate distance measurements to individual galaxies. The large area covered by COSMOS allowed sampling volumes of different densities within the cosmic web.

    Using techniques developed to identify the large-scale structures, they cataloged the cosmic web to its components: clusters, filaments, and sparse regions devoid of any object, extending into the universe as it was 8 billion years ago. The galaxies were then divided into those that are central to their local environment (the center of gravity) and those that roam around in their host environments (satellites).

    “What makes this study unique is the observation of thousands of galaxies in different filaments spanning a significant fraction of the age of the Universe” said Behnam Darvish a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech who is the lead author on the paper. “When we consider the distant universe, we look back in time to when the cosmic web and filaments were younger and had not yet fully evolved and therefore, could study the joint evolution of the large scale structures and galaxies associated with them.”

    2
    Observational data in the COSMOS survey show filamentary structures at different redshifts (look-back times). At higher redshifts, galaxies become younger and one could look at the newly formed structures. No image credit.

    The researchers measured the star formation activity in galaxies located in different environments.

    “It was reassuring when we found that the average star-formation activity declined from the sparsely populated regions of the cosmic web to mildly populated filaments and dense clusters,” said Bahram Mobasher, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Riverside. “However, the surprising finding was that the decline was especially steep for satellite galaxies.”

    He emphasized: “The inevitable conclusion from this was that the majority of satellite galaxies stop forming stars relatively fast during the last 5 billion years as they fall to dense environments of clusters by way of the filaments, while this process is much slower for central galaxies.”

    The fast cessation of star formation experienced by satellite galaxies can be explained by “ram-pressure stripping,” which is loss of star-forming gas within a galaxy as it moves within a denser environment, such as a cluster.

    “Compared to the central galaxies, it is the smaller gravitational pull of the satellite galaxies produced by their smaller mass, that results in a more efficient loss of gas and hence, a slow-down in star formation activity with respect to the more massive central galaxies” said Chris Martin, a professor of astronomy at Caltech.

    This investigation served as a pilot study for future large-volume and relatively deep surveys, which will peer into dimmer and younger galaxies in the Universe, such as LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST.

    In addition to Darvish, Mobasher and Martin, the authors are: Nick Scoville and Shoubaneh Hemmati of Caltech, David Sobral of Lancaster University in the United Kingdom, Andra Stroe of the European Southern Observatory, and Jeyhan Kartaltepe of the Rochester Institute of Technology.

    The research was funded by NASA.

    Mario De Leo Winkler, a postdoctoral researcher in the UCR Department of Physics and Astronomy, made significant contributions to this article.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:36 pm on October 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Cosmic Horseshoe, , , UC Riverside   

    From UC Riverside: “The Cosmic Horseshoe Is Not the Lucky Beacon That Astronomers Had Hoped For” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    10.26.16

    A UC Riverside-lead team of astronomers used a new approach by using the gravitationally lensed galaxy to try to measure the escaping fraction of photons.

    1

    INTRODUCTION

    Around 380,000 years after the Big Bang, electrons and protons bound together to form hydrogen atoms for the first time. They make up more than 90% of the atoms in the universe, and can very efficiently absorb high-energy photons and become ionized. However, there were very few energetic sources to ionize these atoms in the early universe. One billion years after the Big Bang, the material between the galaxies was reionized (transparent). The main energy source of the reionization is widely believed to be massive stars formed within early galaxies. These stars had a short lifespan and were usually born in the midst of dense gas clouds, which made it very hard for ionizing photons to escape their host galaxies.

    Previous studies suggested that about 20 percent of these ionizing photons need to escape the dense-gas environment of their host galaxies to significantly contribute to the reionization of the material between galaxies. Unfortunately, a direct detection of these ionizing photons is very challenging and previous efforts have not been very successful. Therefore, the mechanisms leading to their escape are poorly understood.

    This has led many astrophysicists to use indirect methods to estimate the fraction of ionizing photons that escape the galaxies. In one popular method, the gas is assumed to have a “picket fence” distribution, where the space between the stars and the edges of galaxies is assumed to be composed of either regions of very little gas, which are transparent to ionizing light, or regions of dense gas, which are opaque. Researchers can determine the fraction of each of these regions by studying the light (spectra) emerging from the galaxies.

    In this new study, astronomers directly measured the fraction of ionizing photons escaping from the Cosmic Horseshoe. The Horseshoe is a distant galaxy that is gravitationally lensed. Gravitational lensing is the deformation and amplification of a background object by the curving of space and time due to the mass of a foreground galaxy”, said Kaveh Vasei, graduate student of astronomy at UC Riverside and lead author of the new study. “The details of the galaxy in the background are therefore magnified, allowing us to study its light and physical properties more clearly.”

    RESULTS

    Based on the picket fence model, an escape fraction of 40% for ionizing photons from the Horseshoe was expected. Therefore, the Horseshoe represented an ideal opportunity to get a clear, resolved image of leaking ionizing photons for the first time, to help us understand the mechanisms by which they escape their host galaxies.

    The research team obtained a deep-image of the Horseshoe with the Hubble Space Telescope in an ultraviolet filter, enabling them to directly detect escaping ionizing photons. Surprisingly, the image did not detect ionizing photons coming from the Horseshoe. This team constrained the fraction of escaping photons to be less than 8%, five times smaller than what had been inferred by indirect methods widely used by astronomers.

    “The study concludes that the previously determined fraction of escaping ionizing radiation of galaxies, as estimated by the most popular indirect method, is likely overestimated in many galaxies,” added Prof. Brian Siana, co-author of the research paper and a professor at UC Riverside. “The team is now focusing on direct determination the fraction of escaping ionizing photons that do not rely on indirect estimates.”

    This paper has been published in the Astrophysical Journal and is authored by Kaveh Vasei (UC Riverside), Brian Siana (UC Riverside), Alice E. Shapley (UCLA), Anna M. Quider (University of Cambridge, UK), Anahita Alavi (UC Riverside), Marc Rafelski (Goddard Space Flight Center / NASA), Charles C. Steidel (Caltech), Max Pettini (University of Cambridge, UK), Geraint F. Lewis (University of Sydney)

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:10 pm on September 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Explaining Why the Universe Can Be Transparent, , UC Riverside   

    From UC Riverside: “Explaining Why the Universe Can Be Transparent” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    September 12, 2016
    Sean Nealon

    1
    Reionization as illustrated by data from the Hubble and Chandra space telescopes. Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

    Two papers published by an assistant professor at the University of California, Riverside and several collaborators explain why the universe has enough energy to become transparent.

    The study led by Naveen Reddy, an assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UC Riverside, marks the first quantitative study of how the gas content within galaxies scales with the amount of interstellar dust.

    This analysis shows that the gas in galaxies is like a “picket fence,” where some parts of the galaxy have little gas and are directly visible, whereas other parts have lots of gas and are effectively opaque to ionizing radiation. The findings were just published in The Astrophysical Journal.

    The ionization of hydrogen is important because of its effects on how galaxies grow and evolve. A particular area of interest is assessing the contribution of different astrophysical sources, such as stars or black holes, to the budget of ionizing radiation.

    Most studies suggest that faint galaxies are responsible for providing enough radiation to ionize the gas in the early history of the universe. Moreover, there is anecdotal evidence that the amount of ionizing radiation that is able to escape from galaxies depends on the amount of hydrogen within the galaxies themselves.

    The research team led by Reddy developed a model that can be used to predict the amount of escaping ionizing radiation from galaxies based on straightforward measurements on how “red,” or dusty, their spectra appear to be.

    Alternatively, with direct measurements of the ionizing escape fraction, their model may be used to constrain the intrinsic production rate of ionizing photons at around two billion years after the Big Bang.

    These practical applications of the model will be central to the interpretation of escaping radiation during the cosmic “dark ages,” a topic that is bound to flourish with the coming of 30-meter telescopes, which will allow for research unfeasible today, and the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA’s next orbiting observatory and the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.

    The research ties back to some 400,000 years after the Big Bang, when the universe entered the cosmic “dark ages,” where galaxies and stars had yet to form amongst the dark matter, hydrogen and helium.

    A few hundred million years later, the universe entered the “Epoch of Reionization,” where the gravitational effects of dark matter helped hydrogen and helium coalesce into stars and galaxies. A great amount of ultraviolet radiation (photons) was released, stripping electrons from surrounding neutral environments, a process known as “cosmic reionization.”

    Reionization, which marks the point at which the hydrogen in the Universe became ionized, has become a major area of current research in astrophysics. Ionization made the Universe transparent to these photons, allowing the release of light from sources to travel mostly freely through the cosmos.

    The data for this research was acquired through the low resolution imaging spectrograph on the W.M. Keck Observatory.

    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
    Keck Observatory Interior
    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    The collaborators of this research are Charles Steidel (Caltech), Max Pettini (University of Cambridge), Milan Bogosavljevic (Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade) and Alice Shapley (UCLA).

    The papers are Spectroscopic Measurements of the Far-Ultraviolet Dust Attenuation Curve at z~3 and The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:52 pm on July 18, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , UC Riverside   

    From UCR: “Better Understanding Post-Earthquake Fault Movement” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    July 18, 2016
    Sean Nealon
    Tel: (951) 827-1287
    sean.nealon@ucr.edu

    1
    Schematic summary of research findings showing the sequence of slip behavior.

    Preparation and good timing enabled Gareth Funning and a team of researchers to collect a unique data set following the 2014 South Napa earthquake that showed different parts of the fault, sometimes only a few kilometers apart, moved at different speeds and at different times.

    Aided by GPS measurements made just weeks before the earthquake and data from a new radar satellite, the team found post-earthquake fault movement, known as afterslip, was concentrated in areas of loosely packed sediment. Areas where the fault passed through bedrock tended to slip more during the actual earthquake.

    Sections of Highway 12, which runs through the earthquake zone, were broken during the initial 6.0 magnitude earthquake and were further damaged in the coming days due to afterslip. In some areas the afterslip damage exceeded the initial damage from the earthquake.

    “No one has seen variability in afterslip like we saw,” said Funning, an associate professor of earth sciences at the University of California, Riverside. “This helps us address a big question: Can we use geology as a proxy for fault behavior? Our findings suggest there is a relationship between those two things.”

    The findings could have significant implications for earthquake hazard models, and also for planning earthquake response. If geological information can give a guide to the likely extent of future earthquakes, better forecasts of earthquake damage will be possible. And if areas likely to experience afterslip can be identified in advance, it can be taken into account when building or repairing infrastructure that crosses those faults.

    California, in particular the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, which run along the east side of the San Francisco Bay, seems more susceptible to afterslip than other earthquake-prone regions throughout the world, Funning said.

    The findings on the South Napa earthquake were recently published in paper, Spatial variations in fault friction related to lithology from rupture and afterslip of the 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake, in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

    Funning’s work in the region just north of San Francisco dates back to 2006, when he was a post-doctoral researcher at UC Berkeley and noticed the area wasn’t that well studied, at least compared to the central Bay Area.

    He continued the research after he was hired at UC Riverside and received funding from the United States Geological Survey to conduct surveys using GPS sensors in earthquake prone areas throughout Marin, Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino and Lake counties.

    He began the most recent survey in July 2014. When the South Napa earthquake struck on Aug. 24, 2014, he and three other researchers were in Upper Lake, CA in Lake County, about 70 miles north of the earthquake’s epicenter, making additional measurements.

    The earthquake occurred at 3:20 a.m. By noon, Funning and the other researchers, Michael Floyd (a former post-doctoral researcher with Funning who is now a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Jerlyn Swiatlowski (a graduate student working with Funning) and Kathryn Materna (a graduate student at UC Berkeley), had deployed additional GPS sensors in the earthquake zone in locations that they had, fortuitously, measured just seven weeks earlier.

    In total, there were more than 20 GPS sensors set up by Funning’s team and scientists from the United States Geological Survey. They left the equipment out for four weeks following the earthquake.

    They then combined the GPS sensor data with remote sensing data. The South Napa earthquake was the first major earthquake to be imaged by Sentinel-1A, a European radar imaging satellite launched in 2014 that provides higher resolution information than was previously available.

    In addition to Funning, authors of the paper are: Floyd, Richard J. Walters, John R. Elliott, Jerry L. Svarc, Jessica R. Murray, Andy J. Hooper, Yngvar Larsen, Petar Marinkovic, Roland Bürgmann, Ingrid A. Johanson and Tim J. Wright.

    See the full article here .

    Meet The Quake-Catcher Network

    QCN bloc

    Quake-Catcher Network

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a collaborative initiative for developing the world’s largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to internet-connected computers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes, give early warning to schools, emergency response systems, and others. The Quake-Catcher Network also provides educational software designed to help teach about earthquakes and earthquake hazards.

    After almost eight years at Stanford, and a year at CalTech, the QCN project is moving to the University of Southern California Dept. of Earth Sciences. QCN will be sponsored by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC).

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a distributed computing network that links volunteer hosted computers into a real-time motion sensing network. QCN is one of many scientific computing projects that runs on the world-renowned distributed computing platform Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC).

    BOINCLarge

    BOINC WallPaper

    The volunteer computers monitor vibrational sensors called MEMS accelerometers, and digitally transmit “triggers” to QCN’s servers whenever strong new motions are observed. QCN’s servers sift through these signals, and determine which ones represent earthquakes, and which ones represent cultural noise (like doors slamming, or trucks driving by).

    There are two categories of sensors used by QCN: 1) internal mobile device sensors, and 2) external USB sensors.

    Mobile Devices: MEMS sensors are often included in laptops, games, cell phones, and other electronic devices for hardware protection, navigation, and game control. When these devices are still and connected to QCN, QCN software monitors the internal accelerometer for strong new shaking. Unfortunately, these devices are rarely secured to the floor, so they may bounce around when a large earthquake occurs. While this is less than ideal for characterizing the regional ground shaking, many such sensors can still provide useful information about earthquake locations and magnitudes.

    USB Sensors: MEMS sensors can be mounted to the floor and connected to a desktop computer via a USB cable. These sensors have several advantages over mobile device sensors. 1) By mounting them to the floor, they measure more reliable shaking than mobile devices. 2) These sensors typically have lower noise and better resolution of 3D motion. 3) Desktops are often left on and do not move. 4) The USB sensor is physically removed from the game, phone, or laptop, so human interaction with the device doesn’t reduce the sensors’ performance. 5) USB sensors can be aligned to North, so we know what direction the horizontal “X” and “Y” axes correspond to.

    If you are a science teacher at a K-12 school, please apply for a free USB sensor and accompanying QCN software. QCN has been able to purchase sensors to donate to schools in need. If you are interested in donating to the program or requesting a sensor, click here.

    BOINC is a leader in the field(s) of Distributed Computing, Grid Computing and Citizen Cyberscience.BOINC is more properly the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, developed at UC Berkeley.

    Earthquake safety is a responsibility shared by billions worldwide. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) provides software so that individuals can join together to improve earthquake monitoring, earthquake awareness, and the science of earthquakes. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) links existing networked laptops and desktops in hopes to form the worlds largest strong-motion seismic network.

    Below, the QCN Quake Catcher Network map
    QCN Quake Catcher Network map

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
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