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  • richardmitnick 12:01 pm on July 23, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices", ARPES-angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Spectromicroscopy beamline at the ELETTRA synchrotron in Italy, Two dimensional semiconductors are seen as potential components for the next generation of electronics with applications in flexible electronics; photovoltaics; and spintronics., , U Washington   

    From University of Warwick and U Washington: “First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices” 

    U Washington

    University of Washington

    University of Warwick

    From University of Warwick

    Peter Thorley
    Media Relations Manager
    (Warwick Medical School and Department of Physics)
    Email: peter.thorley@warwick.ac.uk
    Tel: +44 (0)24 761 50868
    Mob: +44 (0) 7824 540863

    1
    Electrons ejected by a beam of light focused on a two-dimensional semiconductor device are collected and analyzed to determine how the electronic structure in the material changes as a voltage is applied between the electrodes.Nelson Yeung/Nick Hine/Paul Nguyen/David Cobden

    -Electronic structure of a semiconductor device – how it behaves when voltage is applied – visualised for the first time
    -Insights from the technique will help development of high performance electronics with low power consumption
    -University of Warwick and University of Washington led study uses focused light to ‘knock’ electrons out of atoms
    -Helps to pave the way for two dimensional semiconductors in future electronics

    Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices.

    Physicists from the University of Warwick and the University of Washington have developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in operating microelectronic devices made of atomically thin, so-called two-dimensional, materials.

    Using this information, they can create visual representations of the electrical and optical properties of the materials to guide engineers in maximising their potential in electronic components.

    The experimentally-led study is published in Nature* today (17 July) and could also help pave the way for the two dimensional semiconductors that are likely to play a role in the next generation of electronics, in applications such as photovoltaics, mobile devices and quantum computers.

    The electronic structure of a material describes how electrons behave within that material, and therefore the nature of the current flowing through it. That behaviour can vary depending upon the voltage – the amount of ‘pressure’ on its electrons – applied to the material, and so changes to the electronic structure with voltage determine the efficiency of microelectronic circuits.

    These changes in electronic structure in operating devices are what underpin all of modern electronics. Until now, however, there has been no way to directly see these changes to help us understand how they affect the behaviour of electrons.

    By applying this technique scientists will have the information they need to develop ‘fine-tuned’ electronic components that work more efficiently and operate at high performance with lower power consumption. It will also help in the development of two dimensional semiconductors that are seen as potential components for the next generation of electronics, with applications in flexible electronics, photovoltaics, and spintronics. Unlike today’s three dimensional semiconductors, two dimensional semiconductors consist of just a few layers of atoms.

    Dr Neil Wilson from the University of Warwick’s Department of Physics said: “How the electronic structure changes with voltage is what determines how a transistor in your computer or television works. For the first time we are directly visualising those changes. Not being able to see how that changes with voltages was a big missing link. This work is at the fundamental level and is a big step in understanding materials and the science behind them.

    “The new insight into the materials has helped us to understand the band gaps of these semiconductors, which is the most important parameter that affects their behaviour, from what wavelength of light they emit, to how they switch current in a transistor.”

    The technique uses angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to ‘excite’ electrons in the chosen material. By focusing a beam of ultra-violet or x-ray light on atoms in a localised area, the excited electrons are knocked out of their atoms. Scientists can then measure the energy and direction of travel of the electrons, from which they can work out the energy and momentum they had within the material (using the laws of the conservation of energy and momentum). That determines the electronic structure of the material, which can then be compared against theoretical predictions based on state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations performed in this case by the research group of co-author Dr Nicholas Hine.

    The team first tested the technique using graphene before applying it to two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors. The measurements were taken at the Spectromicroscopy beamline at the ELETTRA synchrotron in Italy, in collaboration with Dr Alexei Barinov and his group there.

    Dr David Cobden, professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Washington, said: “It used to be that the only way to learn about what the electrons are doing in an operating semiconductor device was to compare its current-voltage characteristics with complicated models. Now, thanks to recent advances which allow the ARPES technique to be applied to tiny spots, combined with the advent of two-dimensional materials where the electronic action can be right on the very surface, we can directly measure the electronic spectrum in detail and see how it changes in real time. This changes the game.”

    Dr Xiaodong Xu, from the Department of Physics and the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at the University of Washington, said: “This powerful spectroscopy technique will open new opportunities to study fundamental phenomena, such as visualisation of electrically tunable topological phase transition and doping effects on correlated electronic phases, which are otherwise challenging.”

    The research was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, part of UK Research and Innovation, and the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

    See the full U Warwick article here .
    See the full U Washington article here .

    *Citation from U Washington

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The establishment of the The University of Warwick was given approval by the government in 1961 and received its Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1965.

    The idea for a university in Coventry was mooted shortly after the conclusion of the Second World War but it was a bold and imaginative partnership of the City and the County which brought the University into being on a 400-acre site jointly granted by the two authorities. Since then, the University has incorporated the former Coventry College of Education in 1978 and has extended its land holdings by the purchase of adjoining farm land.

    The University initially admitted a small intake of graduate students in 1964 and took its first 450 undergraduates in October 1965. In October 2013, the student population was over 23,000 of which 9,775 are postgraduates. Around a third of the student body comes from overseas and over 120 countries are represented on the campus.

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:40 pm on July 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Increased control over ions’ motions may help improve quantum computers", , U Washington   

    From University of Washington via Science News: “Increased control over ions’ motions may help improve quantum computers” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    via

    Science News

    July 22, 2019
    Emily Conover

    A single ion was put into quantum states with up to 100 quanta of energy.

    1
    ION MANEUVERS Physicist Katie McCormick (shown manipulating a mirror that directs a laser beam) and colleagues coaxed a beryllium ion to go through the motions. The ion exhibited precise quantum movements within an electromagnetic field. Burrus/NIST

    Physicists are taking their quantum powers to the next level — the next energy level, that is.

    Researchers have controlled the motion of a trapped ion, an electrically charged atom, better than ever possible before, manipulating the energy level of its oscillation within an electromagnetic field. A single ion of beryllium, trapped by electromagnetic fields, was made to oscillate according to scientists’ bidding, the team reports July 22 in Nature.

    In quantum mechanics, energy comes in discrete amounts, packets known as quanta. Using lasers to tweak the ion, the researchers were able to set it oscillating within the electromagnetic field that confined it, with any number of quanta up to 100, breaking previously published records of about 17 quanta.

    The team also put the ion in a superposition — a weird situation in which the ion is simultaneously in two energy states at once, making it ultrasensitive to any stray electromagnetic fields. The larger the difference in the two energy levels in superposition, the more sensitive the ion is. The researchers put the ion in a superposition between a state with no quanta of energy and one with 18. Such ions could be used as precise sensors to locate electromagnetic fields.

    Scientists’ newly demonstrated prowess with ions could also be used to build better quantum computers. Some quantum computers store and process information via ions confined in traps, with lasers used to perform operations on the quantum data. Though quantum computers are still in their early stages, scientists predict the machines will be able to perform calculations more complex than what’s currently possible (SN: 7/8/17, p. 28).

    “It’s an unprecedented level of control,” says Katie McCormick, a physicist at the University of Washington in Seattle. “We’ve generated quantum states at a level that nobody has before.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:38 am on July 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Deep below Alaskan ice tiny life forms went untouched for 50000 years., Gleaning insight into the kind of extraterrestrial life we might discover elsewhere in the solar system, Liquid pockets called cryopegs have remained untouched for 50000 years., Scientists are probing tiny life forms to improve the hunt for aliens., U Washington   

    From University of Washington via Business Insider: “Deep below Alaskan ice, tiny life forms went untouched for 50,000 years. Scientists are probing them to improve the hunt for aliens.” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    via

    1
    Business Insider

    Jul. 18, 2019
    Aylin Woodward

    2
    Scientist Zachary Cooper climbs down a ladder into a tunnel leading to a cryopeg, a pocket of super-cool water suspended in the Alaskan permafrost, May 2018. Researchers are harnessed to a rope for safety. Shelly Carpenter/University of Washington

    -In pockets of briny water 20 feet under the Arctic tundra, scientists have found thriving microbial communities.
    -Some of these liquid pockets, called cryopegs, have remained untouched for 50,000 years.
    -By studying the microbes that survive in these extreme environments, researchers can glean insight into what types of life to look for on planets like Mars or on Saturn’s moon Titan.

    Almost one-quarter of the Earth’s northern hemisphere remains frozen year-round.

    This permanently chilled ground, aptly named permafrost, consists of soil, rocks and sand held together by ice. Sometimes, permafrost traps pockets of bacteria and viruses hundreds of thousands of years old.

    These unchanging conditions and sub-zero temperatures make patches of permafrost suitable analogs for the icy conditions on other planets and their moons. So scientists are studying the microbes that survive and thrive there to glean insight into the kind of extraterrestrial life we might discover elsewhere in the solar system.

    Recently, researchers from the University of Washington took a new approach to this effort, probing subsurface pockets where sediment mixes with salty water. These pockets under the Arctic tundra are called cryopegs, and some have remained untouched for 50,000 years.

    As it turns out, some are also home to thriving groups of microscopic bacteria.

    “We study really old seawater trapped inside of permafrost for up to 50,000 years, to see how those bacterial communities have evolved over time,” Zachary Cooper, an oceanographer who recently presented some of this research, said in a press release.

    The team’s hope is that the tiny lifeforms they found could offer clues about what types of creatures we should hunt for on Mars or other planets.

    3
    A view of Siberian permafrost from the air.Brocken Inaglory/Wikimedia Commons

    Isolated for 50,000 years

    In cryopegs, the water is so salty that the liquid remains unfrozen even at below-freezing temperatures.

    To reach one of these underground pockets, Cooper and his colleagues drilled more than 20 feet into the permafrost near Utqiaġvik, Alaska.

    They presented a DNA analysis of the bacteria that they discovered there at an astrobiology conference last month. To the researchers’ surprise, their analysis revealed that the isolated bacteria are thriving.

    That shouldn’t be the case.

    “The extreme conditions here are not just the below-zero temperatures, but also the very high salt concentrations,” Jody Deming, another study author, said in the press release. “140 parts per thousand — 14% — is a lot of salt. In canned goods, that would stop microbes from doing anything.”

    4
    A University of Washington research site sits a mile outside of Utqiagvik, Alaska. Zac Cooper/University of Washington

    The primary microbe they found in the salty water was marinobacter, a common type of marine bacteria.

    “Even though it has been in the dark, buried in frozen permafrost for a very long time, it originally came from the marine environment,” Deming said.

    This shows that marinobacter are able to survive even when transplanted into a hyper-salty sediment pocket below the icy tundra.

    “We were quite startled at how dense the bacterial communities are,” Cooper said. “We’re just discovering that there’s a very robust microbial community, co-evolving with viruses, in these ancient buried brines.”

    Drilling into a subterranean tunnel

    Researchers aren’t sure how cryopegs form under layers of ice. They could be former coastal lagoons that got trapped during the last ice age as the ocean receded.

    To access this particular cryopeg, located about 20 to 25 feet below the surface, the researchers had to climb down a 12-foot ladder into the icy tundra, then crawl through a tunnel bored within the permafrost. The tunnel was only wide enough for a single person and not high enough to stand in.

    Researchers then drilled into the tunnel floor to reach the cryopeg’s saline liquid.

    Once they were finally able to analyze the samples they removed, the water turned out to be replete with tiny lifeforms.

    Studying extreme environments could help scientists better understand Mars and Titan

    These pockets of ancient saltwater could be very similar to the environments under the oceans and ice of other planets, the researchers wrote.

    Mars may have once harbored a liquid ocean, and other moons in our solar system also have liquid water. Other ocean worlds include Saturn’s icy moons Titan and Enceladus, and Jupiter’s moons Europa and Ganymede.

    Studying how Earthly bacteria thrives in semi-frozen liquid environments could inform future space-exploration missions about what kind of life to look for and how to detect it. The researchers behind the recent work think that the types of adaptations that allowed marinobacter to survive in hyper-salty, sub-zero water could also arise in bacteria on other planets.

    5
    This near-infrared color mosaic from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shows the sun glinting off of Titan’s north polar seas.NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. Arizona/Univ. Idaho

    Titan, specifically, is a prime candidate in the ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life. It’s Saturn’s largest moon and the second-largest moon in the solar system. Scientists refer to Titan as a “proto-Earth” because of its size, composition, and the bodies of liquid water on its surface. A colossal ocean of liquid water also likely exists below Titan’s roughly 60-mile-thick crust of ice.

    Recently, NASA announced that its next $1 billion mission to space will send a nuclear-powered helicopter to explore Titan. The drone-like rotorcraft, nicknamed “Dragonfly,” is set to launch in 2026. Once it arrives at the distant moon, it will scan Titan’s surface seeking signs of past — or present — microbial alien life.

    6
    Dragonfly: NASA Announces Mission to Saturn’s Largest Moon Titan

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:12 pm on July 11, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Coral on the move to escape sea heat, , , , U Washington   

    From University of Washington and COSMOS: “Reefs on the move- Coral reefs shifting away from equator, new study finds” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    AND

    Cosmos Magazine bloc

    From COSMOS Magazine

    July 9, 2019

    1
    Corals and kelp.Soyoka Muko/Nagasaki University

    Coral reefs are retreating from equatorial waters and establishing new reefs in more temperate regions, according to new research published July 4 in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series. The researchers found that the number of young corals on tropical reefs has declined by 85% — and doubled on subtropical reefs — during the last four decades.

    “Climate change seems to be redistributing coral reefs, the same way it is shifting many other marine species,” said lead author Nichole Price, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in Maine. “The clarity in this trend is stunning, but we don’t yet know whether the new reefs can support the incredible diversity of tropical systems.”

    As climate change warms the ocean, subtropical environments are becoming more favorable for corals than the equatorial waters where they traditionally thrived. This is allowing drifting coral larvae to settle and grow in new regions. These subtropical reefs could provide refuge for other species challenged by climate change and new opportunities to protect these fledgling ecosystems.

    “This study is a great example of the importance of collaborating internationally to assess global trends associated with climate change and project future ecological interactions,” said co-author Jacqueline Padilla-Gamiño, an assistant professor at the University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. “It also provides a nugget of hope for the resilience and survival of coral reefs.”

    The researchers believe that only certain types of coral are able to reach these new locations, based on how far the microscopic larvae can swim and drift on currents before they run out of their limited fat stores. The exact composition of most new reefs is currently unknown, due to the expense of collecting genetic and species diversity data.

    “We are seeing ecosystems transition to new blends of species that have never coexisted, and it’s not yet clear how long it takes for these systems to reach equilibrium,” said co-author Satoshi Mitarai, an associate professor at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University who earned his doctorate at the UW. “The lines are really starting to blur about what a native species is, and when ecosystems are functioning or falling apart.”

    2
    The study site on Palmyra Atoll, one of the Northern Line Islands that lies between Hawaii and American Samoa.
    Nichole Price/Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences

    This experiment in the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific is allowing researchers to enumerate the number of baby corals settling on a reef.

    Recent studies show that corals are establishing new reefs in temperate regions as they retreat from increasingly warmer waters at the equator.

    Writing in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series [above], researchers from 17 institutions in six countries report that the number of young corals has declined by 85% on tropical reefs during the last four decades, but -doubled on subtropical reefs.

    “Climate change seems to be redistributing coral reefs, the same way it is shifting many other marine species,” says lead author Nichole Price, from Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, US.

    “The clarity in this trend is stunning, but we don’t yet know whether the new reefs can support the incredible diversity of tropical systems.”

    The research team has compiled a global database of studies dating back to 1974, when record-keeping began. They hope other scientists will add to it, making it increasingly comprehensive and useful to other research questions.

    See the full U Washington article here .
    See the full COSMOS article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:16 am on July 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Large hole in the sea ice — known as a polynya, , U Washington   

    From University of Washington: “Mysterious holes in Antarctic sea ice explained by years of robotic data” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    June 10, 2019
    Hannah Hickey

    1
    The hole in the sea ice offshore of the Antarctic coast as seen by a NASA satellite on Sept. 25, 2017. NASA Worldview/NASA Blue Marble

    The winter ice on the surface of Antarctica’s Weddell Sea occasionally forms an enormous hole. A hole that appeared in 2016 and 2017 drew intense curiosity from scientists and reporters. Though even bigger gaps had formed decades before, this was the first time oceanographers had a chance to truly monitor the unexpected gap in Antarctic winter sea ice.

    A new study led by the University of Washington combines satellite images of the sea ice cover, robotic drifters and even seals outfitted with sensors to better understand the phenomenon. The research explores why this hole appears in only some years, and what role it could play in the larger ocean circulation.

    The study was published June 10 in the journal Nature.

    “We thought this large hole in the sea ice — known as a polynya — was something that was rare, maybe a process that had gone extinct. But the events in 2016 and 2017 forced us to reevaluate that,” said lead author Ethan Campbell, a UW doctoral student in oceanography. “Observations show that the recent polynyas opened from a combination of factors — one being the unusual ocean conditions, and the other being a series of very intense storms that swirled over the Weddell Sea with almost hurricane-force winds.”

    A “polynya,” a Russian word that roughly means “hole in the ice,” can form near shore as wind pushes the ice around. But it can also appear far from the coast and stick around for weeks to months, where it acts as an oasis for penguins, whales and seals to pop up and breathe.

    2
    Satellite images from Aug. 30, 2017 through Dec. 2, 2017 show the rarely-seen opening in the late Southern Hemisphere winter sea ice. The two plus signs show the location of oceanographic robots that were trapped in a spinning column of water above an underwater mountain known as Maud Rise.AMSR2-ASI/University of Bremen

    This particular spot far from the Antarctic coast often has small openings and has seen large polynyas before. The biggest known polynyas at that location were in 1974, 1975 and 1976, just after the first satellites were launched, when an area the size of New Zealand remained ice-free through three consecutive Antarctic winters despite air temperatures far below freezing.

    Campbell joined the UW as a graduate student in 2016 to better understand this mysterious phenomenon. In a stroke of scientific luck, a big one appeared for the first time in decades. A NASA satellite image in August 2016 drew public attention to a 33,000-square-kilometer (13,000-square-mile) gap that appeared for three weeks. An even bigger gap, of 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) appeared in September and October of 2017.

    The Southern Ocean is thought to play a key role in global ocean currents and carbon cycles, but its behavior is poorly understood. It hosts some of the fiercest storms on the planet, with winds whipping uninterrupted around the continent in the 24-hour darkness of polar winter. The new study used observations from the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project, or SOCCOM, which puts out instruments that drift with the currents to monitor Antarctic conditions.

    The study also used data from the long-running Argo ocean observing program, elephant seals that beam data back to shore, weather stations and decades of satellite images.

    3
    Ocean measurements were also collected by seals swimming under the sea ice with temporary satellite tags, showing normal water conditions in the years that did not have large polynyas.Dan Costa/University of California, Santa Cruz

    “This study shows that this polynya is actually caused by a number of factors that all have to line up for it to happen,” said co-author Stephen Riser, a UW professor of oceanography. “In any given year you could have several of these things happen, but unless you get them all, then you don’t get a polynya.”

    The study shows that when winds surrounding Antarctica draw closer to shore, they promote stronger upward mixing in the eastern Weddell Sea. In that region, an underwater mountain known as Maud Rise forces dense seawater around it and leaves a spinning vortex above. Two SOCCOM instruments were trapped in the vortex above Maud Rise and recorded years of observations there.

    Analysis shows that when the surface ocean is especially salty, as seen throughout 2016, strong winter storms can set off an overturning circulation. Warmer, saltier water from the depths gets churned up to the surface, where air chills it and makes it denser than the water below. As that water sinks, relatively warmer deep water of about 1 degree Celsius (34 F) replaces it, creating a feedback loop where ice can’t reform.

    Under climate change, fresh water from melting glaciers and other sources will make the Southern Ocean’s surface layer less dense, which might mean fewer polynyas in the future. But the new study questions that assumption. Many models show that the winds circling Antarctica will become stronger and draw closer to the coast — the new paper suggests this would encourage more polynyas to form, not fewer.

    4
    Ethan Campbell (right) and Stephen Riser (second from left) view one of the SOCCOM monitoring instruments built at the UW and then released in the Southern Ocean, with UW alumnus Chanelle Cadot (far left), now at NOAA, and UW graduate student Rosalind Echols (second from left).Dennis Wise/University of Washington

    These are the first observations to prove that even a smaller polynya like the one in 2016 moves water from the surface all the way to the deep ocean.

    “Essentially it’s a flipping over of the entire ocean, rather than an injection of surface water on a one-way trip from the surface to the deep,” said co-author Earle Wilson, who recently completed his doctorate in oceanography at the UW.

    One way that a surface polynya matters for the climate is for the deepest water in the oceans, known as Antarctic Bottom Water. This cold, dense water lurks below all the other water. Where and how it’s created affects its characteristics, and would have ripple effects on other major ocean currents.

    “Right now people think most of the bottom water is forming on the Antarctic shelf, but these big offshore polynyas might have been more common in the past,” Riser said. “We need to improve our models so we can study this process, which could have larger-scale climate implications.”

    Large and long-lasting polynyas can also affect the atmosphere, because deep water contains carbon from lifeforms that have sunk over centuries and dissolved on their way down. Once this water reaches the surface that carbon could be released.

    “This deep reservoir of carbon has been locked away for hundreds of years, and in a polynya it might get ventilated at the surface through this really violent mixing,” Campbell said. “A large carbon outgassing event could really whack the climate system if it happened multiple years in a row.”

    Other co-authors on the paper are Kent Moore at the University of Toronto, who was the 2016-17 Canada Fulbright Visiting Chair in Arctic Studies at the UW; Casey Brayton at the University of South Carolina; and Lynne Talley and Matthew Mazloff from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. SOCCOM is funded by the National Science Foundation. Campbell was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship program. Additional funding is from the NSF, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the University of Washington and Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

    ###

    For more information, contact Campbell at ethancc@uw.edu and 224-388-0301, Riser at riser@uw.edu and 206-543-1187 or Wilson at earlew@uw.edu.

    NSF: PLR-1425989; NOAA: NA15OAR4320063

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:01 pm on July 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Educational rankings, U Washington   

    From University of Washington: “UW School of Oceanography ranks No. 1 in global ranking; more than two dozen areas in top 50” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    July 3, 2019
    Jackson Holtz

    1

    The University of Washington’s School of Oceanography again is ranked No. 1 in the world on the Global Ranking of Academic Subjects list for 2019. The ranking, released in June, was conducted by researchers at the Center for World-Class Universities at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Other UW subjects in the top 10 include dentistry and oral sciences at No. 2, library and information sciences at No. 6, education at No. 9, geography at No. 7, biological sciences at No. 8 and public health at No. 5.

    “The University of Washington is proud to be home to – and a destination for – the top scholars and most promising students in these essential fields of study. Our faculty, teachers and researchers are leading learning and discovery across the UW and we are grateful to be recognized for this important work,” said President Ana Mari Cauce.

    The group ranked more than 4,000 universities around the world in 52 subjects across natural sciences, engineering, life sciences, medical sciences and social sciences.

    In 2018, the UW was ranked No. 14 on the group’s annual Academic Ranking of World Universities list. This year’s university ranking has not yet been released.

    Engineering

    Biotechnology — No. 21
    Computer science and engineering — No. 26
    Environmental science and engineering — No. 27
    Energy science and engineering — No. 30
    Biomedical engineering — No. 32
    Nanoscience and nanotechnology — No. 38
    Civil engineering — No. 41

    Life Sciences

    Biological sciences — No. 8
    Human biological sciences — No. 18

    Medical Sciences

    Dentistry and oral sciences — No. 2
    Public health — No. 5
    Clinical medicine — No. 13
    Pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences technology — No. 13
    Nursing — No. 15
    Medical technology — No. 30

    Natural Sciences

    Oceanography — No. 1
    Geography — No. 7
    Atmospheric sciences — No. 15
    Earth sciences — No. 15
    Physics — No. 15
    Ecology — No. 38
    Math — No. 47

    Social Sciences

    Library and information science — No. 6
    Education — No. 9
    Finance — No. 11
    Statistics — No. 19
    Business administration — No. 22
    Sociology — No. 25
    Communication — No. 27
    Psychology — No. 32
    Management — No. 38
    Public Administration — No. 45

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:30 am on June 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, “It’s the proverbial ‘wild West’ of genetic interpretation” said Sarah Nelson, But third-party interpretation is largely unregulated and there are potential risks for consumers., Most respondents reported that they downloaded data and went on to use a third-party application like Promethease or GEDmatch, People using third-party apps to analyze personal genetic data, U Washington   

    From University of Washington: “People using third-party apps to analyze personal genetic data” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    June 13, 2019
    Jackson Holtz

    1

    The burgeoning field of personal genetics appeals to people who want to learn more about themselves, their family and their propensity for diseases. More and more consumers are using services like 23andMe to learn about their genetic blueprint.

    Included with most of these services is the ability for users to download their “raw” genetic data, which can be further analyzed using third-party apps. But little is known about how and why consumers are using these apps, or about a variety of potential risks associated with these apps — such as false positives about health information or unknowingly linking a family history to an unsolved crime.

    “It’s the proverbial ‘wild West’ of genetic interpretation,” said Sarah Nelson, a University of Washington research scientist in the Department of Biostatistics who recently completed her doctorate in the School of Public Health. She’s the lead author of a new paper, “Third-party genetic interpretation tools: a mixed-methods study of consumer motivation and behavior,” that was published today in The American Journal of Human Genetics.

    The team surveyed more than 1,000 people who had paid to obtain their genetic profile through a service like 23andMe or AncestryDNA. Most respondents reported that they downloaded data and went on to use a third-party application like Promethease or GEDmatch.

    “We found that individuals who are initially motivated to learn about ancestry and genealogy frequently end up engaging with health interpretations of their genetic data, too. This has implications for the regulation of such testing and interpretation practices,” said S. Malia Fullerton, associate professor of bioethics and humanities, UW School of Medicine, and the senior author of the paper.

    The study found that nearly all consumers who took the survey (89%) download their raw data and more than half of those who downloaded also used third-party tools (56%) to research both genealogical and ancestry information on third-party sites.

    But third-party interpretation is largely unregulated and there are potential risks for consumers, Nelson said. And there are unanswered questions: What did you consent to? What do you think your data is going to be used for?

    It’s often unclear what happens to the consumer data once it’s provided to a third-party tool. There are privacy risks, and even the chance that the genetic data may help law enforcement solve crimes. Researchers worry about accuracy, data privacy, reliability and the nation’s limited health resources.

    False positives for health conditions can also cause emotional strain and put pressure on an already taxed health care system. People may find out about potentially serious diseases without much context or a support system.

    On the other hand, third-party tools can also enable crowdsourced research and encourage people to learn about genetics.

    Overall, Nelson is pleased that more people are taking an interest in genomics, but more research is needed on how people are using their information.

    “We just had very little data on this,” Nelson said.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:38 am on June 18, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , A NASA satellite image in August 2016 drew public attention to a 33000-square-kilometer (13000-square-mile) gap that appeared for three weeks., An area the size of New Zealand remained ice-free through three consecutive Antarctic winters despite air temperatures far below freezing., An even bigger gap of 50000 square kilometers (19000 square miles) appeared in September and October of 2017., , , , Polynya-large hole in the sea ice, SOCCOM-Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling, The Southern Ocean is thought to play a key role in global ocean currents and carbon cycles but its behavior is poorly understood., U Washington   

    From University of Washington: “Mysterious holes in Antarctic sea ice explained by years of robotic data” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    June 10, 2019
    Hannah Hickey

    1
    The hole in the sea ice offshore of the Antarctic coast as seen by a NASA satellite on Sept. 25, 2017.NASA Worldview/NASA Blue Marble

    The winter ice on the surface of Antarctica’s Weddell Sea occasionally forms an enormous hole. A hole that appeared in 2016 and 2017 drew intense curiosity from scientists and reporters. Though even bigger gaps had formed decades before, this was the first time oceanographers had a chance to truly monitor the unexpected gap in Antarctic winter sea ice.

    A new study led by the University of Washington combines satellite images of the sea ice cover, robotic drifters and even seals outfitted with sensors to better understand the phenomenon. The research explores why this hole appears in only some years, and what role it could play in the larger ocean circulation.

    The study was published June 10 in the journal Nature.

    “We thought this large hole in the sea ice — known as a polynya — was something that was rare, maybe a process that had gone extinct. But the events in 2016 and 2017 forced us to reevaluate that,” said lead author Ethan Campbell, a UW doctoral student in oceanography. “Observations show that the recent polynyas opened from a combination of factors — one being the unusual ocean conditions, and the other being a series of very intense storms that swirled over the Weddell Sea with almost hurricane-force winds.”

    A “polynya,” a Russian word that roughly means “hole in the ice,” can form near shore as wind pushes the ice around. But it can also appear far from the coast and stick around for weeks to months, where it acts as an oasis for penguins, whales and seals to pop up and breathe.

    2
    Satellite images from Aug. 30, 2017 through Dec. 2, 2017 show the rarely-seen opening in the late Southern Hemisphere winter sea ice. The two plus signs show the location of oceanographic robots that were trapped in a spinning column of water above an underwater mountain known as Maud Rise.AMSR2-ASI/University of Bremen

    This particular spot far from the Antarctic coast often has small openings and has seen large polynyas before. The biggest known polynyas at that location were in 1974, 1975 and 1976, just after the first satellites were launched, when an area the size of New Zealand remained ice-free through three consecutive Antarctic winters despite air temperatures far below freezing.

    Campbell joined the UW as a graduate student in 2016 to better understand this mysterious phenomenon. In a stroke of scientific luck, a big one appeared for the first time in decades. A NASA satellite image in August 2016 drew public attention to a 33,000-square-kilometer (13,000-square-mile) gap that appeared for three weeks. An even bigger gap, of 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) appeared in September and October of 2017.

    The Southern Ocean is thought to play a key role in global ocean currents and carbon cycles, but its behavior is poorly understood. It hosts some of the fiercest storms on the planet, with winds whipping uninterrupted around the continent in the 24-hour darkness of polar winter. The new study used observations from the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project, or SOCCOM, which puts out instruments that drift with the currents to monitor Antarctic conditions.

    The study also used data from the long-running Argo ocean observing program, elephant seals that beam data back to shore, weather stations and decades of satellite images.

    3
    Ocean measurements were also collected by seals swimming under the sea ice with temporary satellite tags, showing normal water conditions in the years that did not have large polynyas.Dan Costa/University of California, Santa Cruz

    “This study shows that this polynya is actually caused by a number of factors that all have to line up for it to happen,” said co-author Stephen Riser, a UW professor of oceanography. “In any given year you could have several of these things happen, but unless you get them all, then you don’t get a polynya.”

    The study shows that when winds surrounding Antarctica draw closer to shore, they promote stronger upward mixing in the eastern Weddell Sea. In that region, an underwater mountain known as Maud Rise forces dense seawater around it and leaves a spinning vortex above. Two SOCCOM instruments were trapped in the vortex above Maud Rise and recorded years of observations there.

    Analysis shows that when the surface ocean is especially salty, as seen throughout 2016, strong winter storms can set off an overturning circulation. Warmer, saltier water from the depths gets churned up to the surface, where air chills it and makes it denser than the water below. As that water sinks, relatively warmer deep water of about 1 degree Celsius (34 F) replaces it, creating a feedback loop where ice can’t reform.

    Under climate change, fresh water from melting glaciers and other sources will make the Southern Ocean’s surface layer less dense, which might mean fewer polynyas in the future. But the new study questions that assumption. Many models show that the winds circling Antarctica will become stronger and draw closer to the coast — the new paper suggests this would encourage more polynyas to form, not fewer.

    4
    Ethan Campbell (right) and Stephen Riser (second from left) with one of the SOCCOM monitoring instruments built at the UW and then released in the Southern Ocean.Dennis Wise/University of Washington

    These are the first observations to prove that even a smaller polynya like the one in 2016 moves water from the surface all the way to the deep ocean.

    “Essentially it’s a flipping over of the entire ocean, rather than an injection of surface water on a one-way trip from the surface to the deep,” said co-author Earle Wilson, who recently completed his doctorate in oceanography at the UW.

    One way that a surface polynya matters for the climate is for the deepest water in the oceans, known as Antarctic Bottom Water. This cold, dense water lurks below all the other water. Where and how it’s created affects its characteristics, and would have ripple effects on other major ocean currents.

    “Right now people think most of the bottom water is forming on the Antarctic shelf, but these big offshore polynyas might have been more common in the past,” Riser said. “We need to improve our models so we can study this process, which could have larger-scale climate implications.”

    Large and long-lasting polynyas can also affect the atmosphere, because deep water contains carbon from lifeforms that have sunk over centuries and dissolved on their way down. Once this water reaches the surface that carbon could be released.

    “This deep reservoir of carbon has been locked away for hundreds of years, and in a polynya it might get ventilated at the surface through this really violent mixing,” Campbell said. “A large carbon outgassing event could really whack the climate system if it happened multiple years in a row.”

    Other co-authors on the paper are Kent Moore at the University of Toronto, who was the 2016-17 Canada Fulbright Visiting Chair in Arctic Studies at the UW; Casey Brayton at the University of South Carolina; and Lynne Talley and Matthew Mazloff from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. SOCCOM is funded by the National Science Foundation. Campbell was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship program. Additional funding is from the NSF, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the University of Washington and Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

    For more information, contact Campbell at ethancc@uw.edu and 224-388-0301, Riser at riser@uw.edu and 206-543-1187 or Wilson at earlew@uw.edu.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:32 am on June 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "This Incredible Orbit Map of Our Solar System Makes Our Brains Ache", Eleanor Lutz, , U Washington, ,   

    From University of Washington via Science Alert: Women in STEM- “This Incredible Orbit Map of Our Solar System Makes Our Brains Ache” Eleanor Lutz 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    via

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    1
    (Eleanor Lutz)

    17 JUN 2019
    EVAN GOUGH

    If you want to know what a talent for scientific visualizations looks like, check out Eleanor Lutz. She’s a PhD student in biology at the University of Washington, and at her website Tabletop Whale, you can see her amazing work on full display.

    Her latest piece is a map showing all the orbits of over 18,000 asteroids in the Solar System. It includes 10,000 asteroids that are over 10 km in diameter, and about 8,000 objects of unknown size.

    As the tagline at her website says, she produces “Charts, infographics, and animations about any and all things science.”

    This includes things like a “Visual Compendium of Glowing Creatures,” “All the Stars You Can See From Earth,” and a beautiful topographic map of Mercury.

    2

    But it’s her newest project that is garnering her a lot of attention in the space community. Lutz is working on an Atlas of Space, and has been for the last year and a half. It’s a collection of ten visualizations including planets, moons, and outer space.

    As she says on her website, “I’ve made an animated map of the seasons on Earth, a map of Mars geology, and a map of everything in the solar system bigger than 10 km.”

    It’s that map of objects larger than 10 km that is generating buzz.

    3
    (Eleanor Lutz)

    All of the data for Lutz’s Atlas of Space is public data, freely available. She gets if from sources like NASA and the US Geological Survey.

    Part of what drives her is that even though the data is public and freely available, it’s raw. And taking that raw data and turning it into a helpful, and even beautiful, visualization, takes a lot of work.

    In an interview with Wired, Lutz said, “I really like that all this data is accessible, but it’s very difficult to visualize. It’s really awesome science, and I wanted everyone to be able to see it in a way that makes sense.”

    4
    ( Eleanor Lutz)

    5
    (Eleanor Lutz)

    Lutz’s work is really more than data visualizations. She has a designer’s eye, and some of her work is very artful.

    But being a scientist, she’s inspired to share the data and the methods she used to create her work. She plans to publish the open source code for each of her pieces, and also tutorials for how to create them yourself.

    It’s difficult to understand our world, or anything in nature really, without engaging with science. Without science, all we have is anecdote and opinion.

    But science is all about data, and dense data is not everyone’s cup of tea. It’s taxing and time-consuming to understand.

    Lutz’s work is making it easier. In an interview with Wired, she said, “There’s a knowledge barrier to accessing some of the interesting, awesome things about science. There are so many facts and equations, and I want those cool ideas to be accessible.”

    To access some of those cool ideas she’s talking about, visit her website, tabletopwhale.com, where you can explore her work and her methods. You can also purchase prints there.

    This article was originally published by Universe Today. Read the original article.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:50 am on May 30, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , U Washington   

    From University of Washington: “UW, collaborating institutions awarded $9.5 million for detecting autism earlier in childhood” 

    U Washington

    From University of Washington

    May 29, 2019
    Kim Eckart

    1
    Research scientist Tanya St. John works with a baby at the University of Washington Autism Center.

    A multicenter research team that includes the University of Washington Autism Center has received a five-year, $9.5 million grant to determine whether brain imaging can help detect infants who are likely to go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. Led by Washington University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the research network of eight institutions received the grant from the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Mental Health.

    The new grant supports the continued efforts of researchers in the Infant Brain Imaging Study, or IBIS, network. Scientists will scan the brains of 250 children who have an older sibling with autism, looking for differences that predict which high-risk children are more, and less, likely to develop the condition.

    “Our studies have identified brain alterations in high-risk infants at 6 months of age that can predict a later autism diagnosis,” said Dr. Stephen R. Dager, professor of radiology at the University of Washington School of Medicine and principal investigator at the UW. “Now we are going to work with a new group of families to confirm whether our initial findings can be replicated.”

    Infant siblings of children with autism have a 20 percent chance of developing autism spectrum disorder themselves – a much higher risk than children in the general population. Researchers believe that if brain scans can accurately identify which infants are at highest risk, then careful assessment over the first two years of life could detect behavioral symptoms as soon as they emerge. This would allow interventions to begin sooner and improve those children’s outcomes.

    IBIS researchers published initial findings in 2017 [PubMed], which showed that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correctly identified 80% of babies who went on to be diagnosed with autism at age 2. They also correctly predicted more than 90% of babies who subsequently did not receive that diagnosis.

    “These imaging findings are very exciting and, if replicated, can allow much earlier diagnosis of autism,” said Dager.

    The UW Autism Center, part of the Center on Human Development and Disability, has long studied the signs of autism and the effectiveness of intervention strategies, and has been involved with IBIS since its inception.

    “We have learned so much from the children and families in the IBIS studies. We understand much more about the way autism symptoms unfold in infants with autism risk, starting with subtle early sensory-motor signs and developing into social communication and repetitive behavior in the second year of life,” said Annette Estes, director of the UW Autism Center, research professor of speech and hearing sciences, and co-lead investigator of the IBIS study in Seattle. “These brain findings in the first year of life could be game-changers if the findings hold up. They could allow us to approach autism in a new way, before symptoms emerge.”

    As parents from around the country brought younger and younger children to be evaluated at the UW, the UW Autism Center established its Infant and Toddler Clinic in spring 2017. The clinic provides evaluations for infants and toddlers up to 24 months of age, along with psychologists and behavior analysts to create a treatment plan with clinic- and home-based activities — just as would happen with older children.

    “IBIS families told us how valuable it was to have assessments over the first years of life so they could be sure that any signs of autism would be caught as soon as possible,” said Tanya St. John, a clinical psychologist at the UW Autism Center. “It has been gratifying to bring these services to families in the community, including people who may not have a family history of autism but who just have questions about their infant’s development. Our team has been able to see these young children quickly and get their parents the information and support they need.”

    For the new study, babies will undergo MRI scans while asleep. Those tests will be performed when the infants are 6 and 12 months old, to analyze both the brain’s structure and its functional connections. Infants also will be evaluated for language development, repetitive behaviors, social responsiveness and other behaviors that may, in the future, help understand how autism unfolds in the first year of life.

    “Our goal is to improve outcomes for infants at highest risk,” said Estes. “Intervention that starts before children fall far behind in development, and perhaps before symptoms become clear, might prevent many problems faced by families today.”

    Along with the UW, Washington University and the University of North Carolina, other institutions involved are Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, the University of Minnesota, New York University, the University of Alberta and McGill University. Families participating in the study must travel to the IBIS screening site nearest their hometowns. The imaging sites are located in Seattle, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Chapel Hill, N.C., and Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    To learn more about the IBIS study in Seattle, contact uwautism@uw.edu.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus
    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.
    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
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