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  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on September 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , It’s exciting because of the link to the dinosaurs, U Texas at Austin   

    From University of Texas at Austin via COSMOS: “The rocks below a famous crater” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    From University of Texas at Austin

    via

    Cosmos Magazine bloc

    COSMOS Magazine

    10 September 2019
    Richard A Lovett

    Geologists examine what unfolded after that asteroid hit.

    1
    Artist’s impression of the Chicxulub crater, showing the peak ring. Credit D. VAN RAVENSWAAY/SPL

    Scientists drilling into the heart of the Chicxulub impact crater in the Gulf of Mexico have discovered 130 metres of sediments laid down within hours after the site was struck by the asteroid widely believed to have killed off the dinosaurs.

    In part, it’s exciting because of the link to the dinosaurs. But it also gives geologists a chance to watch how events unfolded on a time scale of minutes to hours, says Sean Gulick, a geophysicist at the University of Texas, Austin, as opposed to thousands or millions of years, “which is what normal geology would look like”.

    The Chicxulub crater was formed 66 million years ago when a 10-kilometre-wide asteroid or comet ploughed into the ocean near what is now Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula.

    In 2016, Gulick co-led a team from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) that drilled into the 200-kilometre wide crater in an effort to better understand its history.

    The site they chose was a portion of the now-buried crater’s peak ring, formed when the impact caused rock from deep beneath the surface to splash upward, forming a plateau near the crater’s centre.

    However, because the ocean at that time was hundreds of metres deep, the peak ring never rose above sea level.

    Not that the impact zone was immediately submerged. Initially, the blast drove the water away, leaving a zone of molten rock known as impact melt – now solidified into lava.

    But soon, the water came rushing back. At first, Gulick says, it hit the impact melt and exploded into steam, creating about 10 metres of shattered rock, just above the now-solidified impact melt.

    That was followed by 80 to 90 metres of gravel-like sediments, with the larger gravel at the bottom and the smaller at the top. The only way that could have happened, he says, is if the waters rushed back so quickly that they were still full of rocks from the blast – rocks that then settled to the bottom: big ones first, smaller ones later.

    There are also signs, he says, that the water sloshed around within the crater, like bathwater in a tub. Then came a 10-centimetre layer of gravel-sized material that appears to have been created by the disturbance of the sea floor by a fast-moving wave: i.e., a tsunami.

    Gulick thinks it was created when the outrushing waters from the impact reflected off the nearest landmass – which at the time would have been mountains in central Mexico, 800 kilometres away – then came back to deposit sediments on top of the 130 metres of rocks already deposited in the aftermath of the impact.

    Support from this, he says, comes from the fact that these deposits contain perylene, a chemical made only in soils. That, he says, “would require land, somewhere, to have been touched by water that then came rushing back”.

    None of this means the Chicxulub impact killed the dinosaurs. Others have argued that climate-changing volcanism in India may instead have been the culprit.

    But Gulick’s samples also contain charcoal in the layers directly above the tsunami deposits, suggesting that the impact may have set off massive wildfires. “We knew impacts can make wildfires,” he says. “But this is direct evidence that this happened at ground zero.”

    In addition, the rocks returning to the crater after the impact were low in sulfur, even though geologists knew that about one-third of the ones in the impact area initially contained sulfur-rich minerals like gypsum or anhydrite.

    The sulfur from these rocks must therefore have been vaporised by the impact, Gulick says.

    And when it mixed with vaporised ocean water, it would have filled the upper atmosphere with hundreds of gigatons of sulfate aerosols, creating a bright haze that would have dropped global temperatures by more than 25 degrees Celsius, “putting most of the world below freeing for most of the year” – and possibly lasting for “a decade or two”.

    3
    A portion of the drilled cores from the rocks that filled the crater. Credit International Ocean Discovery Program

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas at Austin

    U Texas Austin campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:52 pm on March 28, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Two New Planets Discovered Using Artificial Intelligence", AI helps us search the data set uniformly, , K2 data is more challenging to work with because the spacecraft was moving around all the time, , , , Of the two planets one is called K2-293b and orbits a star 1300 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The other K2-294b orbits a star 1230 light-years away also located in Aquarius., U Texas at Austin   

    From University of Texas at Austin: “Two New Planets Discovered Using Artificial Intelligence” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    From University of Texas at Austin

    McDonald Observatory U Texas at Austin

    U Texas at Austin McDonald Observatory, Altitude 2,070 m (6,790 ft)

    26 March 2019

    Media Contact:
    Rebecca Johnson, Communications Mgr.
    rjohnson@astro.as.utexas.edu
    McDonald Observatory
    512-475-6763

    Science Contacts:
    Anne Dattilo
    anne.dattilo@utexas.edu
    Department of Astronomy
    512-471-6493

    Dr. Andrew Vanderburg
    %u200Bavanderburg@utexas.edu
    Department of Astronomy
    512-471-6493

    Astronomers at The University of Texas at Austin, in partnership with Google, have used artificial intelligence (AI) to uncover two more hidden planets in the Kepler space telescope archive. The technique shows promise for identifying many additional planets that traditional methods could not catch.

    The planets discovered this time were from Kepler’s extended mission, called K2.

    NASA/Kepler Telescope, and K2 March 7, 2009 until November 15, 2018

    3
    Anne Dattilo

    To find them, the team, led by an undergraduate at UT Austin, Anne Dattilo, created an algorithm that sifts through the data taken by Kepler to ferret out signals that were missed by traditional planet-hunting methods. Long term, the process should help astronomers find many more missed planets hiding in Kepler data. The discoveries have been accepted for publication in an upcoming issue of The Astronomical Journal.

    Other team members include NASA Sagan fellow at UT Austin Andrew Vanderburg and Google engineer Christopher Shallue. In 2017, Vanderburg and Shallue first used AI to uncover a planet around a Kepler star — one already known to harbor seven planets. The discovery made that solar system the only one known to have as many planets as our own.

    Dattilo explained that this project necessitated a new algorithm, as data taken during Kepler’s extended mission K2 differs significantly from that collected during the spacecraft’s original mission.

    “K2 data is more challenging to work with because the spacecraft is moving around all the time,” Vanderburg explained. This change came about after a mechanical failure. While mission planners found a workaround, the spacecraft was left with a wobble that AI had to take into account.

    The Kepler and K2 missions have already discovered thousands of planets around other stars, with an equal number of candidates awaiting confirmation. So why do astronomers need to use AI to search the Kepler archive for more?

    “AI will help us search the data set uniformly,” Vanderburg said. “Even if every star had an Earth-sized planet around it, when we look with Kepler, we won’t find all of them. That’s just because some of the data’s too noisy, or sometimes the planets are just not aligned right. So, we have to correct for the ones we missed. We know there are a lot of planets out there that we don’t see for those reasons.

    “If we want to know how many planets there are in total, we have to know how many planets we’ve found, but we also have to know how many planets we missed. That’s where this comes in,” he explained.

    The two planets Dattilo’s team found “are both very typical of planets found in K2,” she said. “They’re really close in to their host star, they have short orbital periods, and they’re hot. They are slightly larger than Earth.”

    Of the two planets, one is called K2-293b and orbits a star 1,300 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The other, K2-294b, orbits a star 1,230 light-years away, also located in Aquarius.

    Once the team used their algorithm to find these planets, they followed up by studying the host stars using ground-based telescopes to confirm that the planets are real. These observations were done with the 1.5-meter telescope at the Smithsonian Institution’s Whipple Observatory in Arizona and the Gillett Telescope at Gemini Observatory in Hawaii.

    The 1.5-meter Tillinghast Telescope, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory,Mount Hopkins, Arizona, US in AZ, USA, Altitude 2,606 m 8,550 ft


    Frederick C Gillett Gemini North Telescope Maunakea, Hawaii, USA

    The future of the AI concept for finding planets hidden in data sets looks bright. The current algorithm can be used to probe the entire K2 data set, Dattilo said — approximately 300,000 stars. She also believes the method is applicable to Kepler’s successor planet-hunting mission, TESS, which launched in April 2018. Kepler’s mission ended later that year.

    NASA/MIT TESS replaced Kepler in search for exoplanets

    Dattilo plans to continue her work using AI for planet hunting when she enters graduate school in the fall.

    See the full article here
    .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas at Austin

    U Texas Austin campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:41 am on November 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Texas Petawatt Laser, U Texas at Austin   

    From University of Texas at Austin: “UT Austin Selected for New Nationwide High-Intensity Laser Network” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    From University of Texas at Austin

    30 October 2018
    Marc G Airhart

    1
    The Texas Petawatt Laser, among the most powerful in the U.S., will be part of a new national network funded by the Dept. of Energy, named LaserNetUS. Credit: University of Texas at Austin.

    The University of Texas at Austin will be a key player in LaserNetUS, a new national network of institutions operating high-intensity, ultrafast lasers. The overall project, funded over two years with $6.8 million from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, aims to help boost the country’s global competitiveness in high-intensity laser research.

    UT Austin is home to one of the most powerful lasers in the country, the Texas Petawatt Laser. The university will receive $1.2 million to fund its part of the network.

    “UT Austin has become one of the international leaders in research with ultra-intense lasers, having operated one of the highest-power lasers in the world for the past 10 years,” said Todd Ditmire, director of UT Austin’s Center for High Energy Density Science, which houses the Texas Petawatt Laser. “We can play a major role in the new LaserNetUS network with our established record of leadership in this exciting field of science.”

    High-intensity lasers have a broad range of applications in basic research, manufacturing and medicine. For example, they can be used to re-create some of the most extreme conditions in the universe, such as those found in supernova explosions and near black holes. They can generate particles for high-energy physics research or intense X-ray pulses to probe matter as it evolves on ultrafast time scales. They are also promising in many potential technological areas such as generating intense neutron bursts to evaluate aging aircraft components, precisely cutting materials or potentially delivering tightly focused radiation therapy to cancer tumors.

    LaserNetUS includes the most powerful lasers in the United States, some of which have powers approaching or exceeding a petawatt. Petawatt lasers generate light with at least a million billion watts of power, or nearly 100 times the output of all the world’s power plants — but only in the briefest of bursts. Using the technology pioneered by two of the winners of this year’s Nobel Prize in physics, called chirped pulse amplification, these lasers fire off ultrafast bursts of light shorter than a tenth of a trillionth of a second.

    “I am particularly excited to lead the Texas Petawatt science effort into the next phase of research under this new, LaserNetUS funding,” said Ditmire. “This funding will enable us to collaborate with some of the leading optical and plasma physics scientists from around the U.S.”

    LaserNetUS will provide U.S. scientists increased access to the unique high-intensity laser facilities at nine institutions: UT Austin, The Ohio State University, Colorado State University, the University of Michigan, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Rochester, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    The U.S. was the dominant innovator and user of high-intensity laser technology in the 1990s, but now Europe and Asia have taken the lead, according to a recent report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine titled “Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers: Reaching for the Brightest Light.” Currently, 80 to 90 percent of the world’s high-intensity ultrafast laser systems are overseas, and all of the highest-power research lasers currently in construction or already built are also overseas. The report’s authors recommended establishing a national network of laser facilities to emulate successful efforts in Europe. LaserNetUS was established for exactly that purpose.

    The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences is a part of the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    LaserNetUS will hold a nationwide call for proposals for access to the network’s facilities. The proposals will be peer reviewed by an independent panel. This call will allow any researcher in the U.S. to get time on one of the high-intensity lasers at the LaserNetUS host institutions.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas Austin campus

    U Texas at Austin

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:30 am on August 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , T.A.C.C., U Texas at Austin   

    From Texas Advanced Computing Center: “New Texas supercomputer to push the frontiers of science” 

    TACC bloc

    From Texas Advanced Computing Center

    August 29, 2018
    Aaron Dubrow

    National Science Foundation awards $60 million to the Texas Advanced Computing Center to build nation’s fastest academic supercomputer.


    A new supercomputer, known as Frontera (Spanish for “frontier”), will begin operations in 2019 [That’s pretty fast]. It will allow the nation’s academic researchers to make important discoveries in all fields of science, from astrophysics to zoology, and further establishes The University of Texas at Austin’s leadership in advanced computing.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) announced today that it has awarded $60 million to the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin for the acquisition and deployment of a new supercomputer that will be the fastest at any U.S. university and among the most powerful in the world.

    The new system, known as Frontera (Spanish for “frontier”), will begin operations in 2019 . It will allow the nation’s academic researchers to make important discoveries in all fields of science, from astrophysics to zoology, and further establishes The University of Texas at Austin’s leadership in advanced computing.

    2
    Image from a global simulation of Earth’s mantle convection enabled by the NSF-funded Stampede supercomputer. The Frontera system will allow researchers to incorporate more observations into simulations, leading to new insights into the main drivers of plate motion. [Courtesy of ICES, UT Austin]

    “Supercomputers — like telescopes for astronomy or particle accelerators for physics — are essential research instruments that are needed to answer questions that can’t be explored in the lab or in the field,” said Dan Stanzione, TACC executive director. “Our previous systems have enabled major discoveries, from the confirmation of gravitational wave detections by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory to the development of artificial-intelligence-enabled tumor detection systems. Frontera will help science and engineering advance even further.”

    “For over three decades, NSF has been a leader in providing the computing resources our nation’s researchers need to accelerate innovation,” said NSF Director France Córdova. “Keeping the U.S. at the forefront of advanced computing capabilities and providing researchers across the country access to those resources are key elements in maintaining our status as a global leader in research and education. This award is an investment in the entire U.S. research ecosystem that will enable leap-ahead discoveries.”

    Frontera is the latest in a string of successful awards and deployments by TACC with support from NSF. Since 2006, TACC has built and operated three supercomputers that debuted in the Top 10 most powerful systems in the world: Ranger (2008), Stampede1 (2012) and Stampede2 (2017). Three other systems debuted in the Top 25.

    If completed today, Frontera would be the fifth most powerful system in the world, the third fastest in the U.S. and the largest at any university. For comparison, Frontera will be about twice as powerful as Stampede2 (currently the fastest university supercomputer) and 70 times as fast as Ranger, which operated until 2013. To match what Frontera will compute in just one second, a person would have to perform one calculation every second for about a billion years.

    3
    Industrial scale simulations of novel boiler designs (above) are needed to make them cleaner and more cost effective. Systems like Frontera will make it possible to use computation to evaluate new designs much more quickly before they are built. [Courtesy: the University of Utah, the University of California, Berkeley, and Brigham Young University]

    “Today’s NSF award solidifies the University of Texas’ reputation as the nation’s leader in academic supercomputing,” said Gregory L. Fenves, president of UT Austin. “UT is proud to serve the research community with the world-class capabilities of TACC, and we are excited to contribute to the many discoveries Frontera will enable.”

    Anticipated early projects on Frontera include analyses of particle collisions from the Large Hadron Collider, global climate modeling, improved hurricane forecasting and multi-messenger astronomy.

    The primary computing system will be provided by Dell EMC and powered by Intel processors. Data Direct Networks will contribute the primary storage system, and Mellanox will provide the high-performance interconnect for the machine. NVIDIA, GRC (Green Revolution Cooling) and the cloud providers Amazon, Google, and Microsoft will also have roles in the project.

    “The new Frontera systems represents the next phase in the long-term relationship between TACC and Dell EMC, focused on applying the latest technical innovation to truly enable human potential,” said Thierry Pellegrino, vice president of Dell EMC High Performance Computing. “The substantial power and scale of this new system will help researchers from Austin and across the U.S. harness the power of technology to spawn new discoveries and advancements in science and technology for years to come.”

    “Accelerating scientific discovery lies at the foundation of the TACC’s mission, and enabling technologies to advance these discoveries and innovations is a key focus for Intel,” said Patricia Damkroger, Vice President in Intel’s Data Center Group and General Manager, Extreme Computing Group. “We are proud that the close partnership we have built with TACC will continue with TACC’s selection of next-generation Intel Xeon Scalable processors as the compute engine for their flagship Frontera system.”

    Faculty at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES) at UT Austin will lead the world-class science applications and technology team, with partners from the California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, Princeton University, Stanford University, the University of Chicago, the University of Utah and the University of California, Davis.

    Experienced technologists and operations partners from the sites above as well as The Ohio State University, the Georgia Institute of Technology and Texas A&M University will ensure the system runs effectively in all areas, including security, user engagement and workforce development.

    “With its massive computing power, memory, bandwidth, and storage, Frontera will usher in a new era of computational science and engineering in which data and models are integrated seamlessly to yield new understanding that could not have been achieved with either alone,” said Omar Ghattas, director of the Center for Computational Geosciences in ICES and co-principal investigator on the award.

    Frontera’s name alludes to “Science the Endless Frontier,” the title of a 1945 report to President Harry Truman by Vannevar Bush that led to the creation of the National Science Foundation.

    “NSF was born out of World War II and the idea that science, and scientists, had enabled our nation to win the war, and continued innovation would be required to ‘win the peace’,” said Stanzione. “Many of the frontiers of research today can be advanced only by computing, and Frontera will be an important tool to solve grand challenges that will improve our nation’s health, well-being, competitiveness and security.”

    Frontera will enter production in the summer of 2019 and will operate for five years. In addition to serving as a resource for the nation’s scientists and engineers, the award will support efforts to test and demonstrate the feasibility of an even larger future leadership-class system, 10 times as fast as Frontera, to potentially be deployed as Phase 2 of the project.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) designs and operates some of the world’s most powerful computing resources. The center’s mission is to enable discoveries that advance science and society through the application of advanced computing technologies.

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    TACC Lonestar Cray XC40 supercomputer

    Dell Poweredge U Texas Austin Stampede Supercomputer. Texas Advanced Computer Center 9.6 PF

    TACC HPE Apollo 8000 Hikari supercomputer

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    TACC DELL EMC Stampede2 supercomputer


     
  • richardmitnick 9:49 am on October 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , U Texas at Austin   

    From University of Texas at Austin: “UT Is Now Home to the Fastest Supercomputer at Any U.S. University” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    University of Texas at Austin

    October 27, 2017
    Anna Daugherty

    The term “medical research” might bring to mind a sterile room with white lab coats, goggles, and vials. But for cutting-edge researchers, that picture is much more high-tech: it’s a room filled with row after row of metal racks housing 300,000 computer processors, each blinking green, wires connecting each processor, and the deafening sound of a powerful machine at work. It’s a room like the one housing the 4,000-square-foot supercomputer Stampede2 at The University of Texas’ J.J. Pickle Research Campus.

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    TACC Lonestar Cray XC40 supercomputer

    Dell Poweredge U Texas Austin Stampede Supercomputer. Texas Advanced Computer Center 9.6 PF

    TACC HPE Apollo 8000 Hikari supercomputer

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    TACC DELL EMC Stampede2 supercomputer

    At peak performance, Stampede2, the flagship supercomputer at UT Austin’s Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC), will be capable of performing 18 quadrillion operations per second (18 petaflops, in supercomputer lingo). That’s more powerful than 100,000 desktops. As the fastest supercomputer at any university in the U.S., it’s a level of computing that the average citizen can’t comprehend. Most people do their computing on phones the size of their hands—but then again, most aren’t mining cancer data, predicting earthquakes, or analyzing black holes.

    Funded by a $30 million grant from the National Science Foundation, Stampede2 replaces the original Stampede system, which went live in 2013. Designed to be twice as powerful while using half the energy of the older system, Stampede2 is already being used by researchers around the country. In June 2017, Stampede2 went public with 12 petaflops and was ranked as the 12th most powerful computer in the world. Phase two added six petaflops in September and phase three will complete the system in 2018 by adding a new type of memory capacity to the computer.

    For researchers like Rommie Amaro, professor of chemistry at the University of California, San Diego, a tool like Stampede2 is essential. As the director of the National Biomedical Computation Resource, Amaro says nearly all of their drug research is done on supercomputers.

    Most of her work with the original Stampede system focused on a protein called p53, which prevents tumor growth; the protein is mutated in approximately half of all cancer patients. Due to the nature of p53, it’s difficult to track with standard imaging tools, so Amaro’s team took available images of the protein to supercomputers and turned them into a simulation showing how the 1.6 million atoms in p53 move. Using Stampede, they were able to find weaknesses in p53 and simulate interactions with more than a million compounds; several hundred seemed capable of restoring p53. More than 30 proved successful in labs and are now being tested by a pharmaceutical company.

    “The first Stampede gave us really outstanding, breakthrough research for cancer,” Amaro says. “And we already have some really interesting preliminary data on what Stampede2 is going to give us.”

    And it’s not just the medical field that benefits. Stampede has created weather phenomena models that have shown new ways to measure tornado strength, and produced seismic hazard maps that predict the likelihood of earthquakes in California. It has also helped increase the accuracy of hurricane predictions by 20–25 percent. During Hurricane Harvey in August, researchers used TACC supercomputers to forecast how high water would rise near the coast and to predict flooding in rivers and creeks in its aftermath.

    Aaron Dubrow, strategic communications specialist at TACC, says supercomputer users either use publicly available programs or create an application from the mathematics of the problem they are researching. “You take an idea like how cells divide and turn that into a computer algorithm and it becomes a program of sorts,” he says. Researchers can log into the supercomputer remotely or send their program to TACC staff. Stampede2 also has web portals for smaller problems in topics like drug discovery or natural disasters.

    For Dan Stanzione, executive director at the TACC, some of the most important research isn’t immediately applied. “Basic science has dramatic impacts on the world, but you might not see that until decades from now.” He points to Einstein’s 100-year-old theory of gravitational waves, which was recently confirmed with the help of supercomputers across the nation, including Stampede. “You might wonder why we care about gravitational waves. But now we have satellite, TV, and instant communications around the world because of Einstein’s theories about gravitational waves 100 years ago.”

    According to Stanzione, there were nearly 40,000 users of the first Stampede and an approximate 3,500 projects completed. Similar to Stampede, the new Stampede2 is expected to have a four-year lifespan. “Your smartphone starts to feel old and slow after four or five years, and supercomputers are the same,” he says. “They may still be fast, but it’s made out of four-year-old processors. The new ones are faster and more power efficient to run.” The old processors don’t go to waste though—most will be donated to state institutions across Texas.

    In order to use a supercomputer, researchers must submit proposals to an NSF board, which then delegates hours of usage. Stanzione says there are requests for nearly a billion processor hours every quarter, which is several times higher than what is available nationwide. While Stanzione says nearly every university has some sort of supercomputer now, the U.S. still lags behind China in computing power. The world’s top two computers are both Chinese, and the first is nearly five times more powerful than the largest in the states.

    Regardless, Stampede2 will still manage to serve researchers from more than 400 universities. Other users include private businesses, such as Firefly Space Company in nearby Cedar Park, and some government users like the Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Stanzione says all work done on Stampede2 must be public and published research.

    “Being the leader in large-scale computational sciences and engineering means we can attract the top researchers who need these resources,” he says. “It helps attract those top scholars to UT. And then hopefully once they’re here, it helps them reach these innovations a little faster.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas Arlington Campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:07 pm on October 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , U Texas at Austin, Visualizing Science 2017: Finding the Hidden Beauty in College Research   

    From U Texas at Austin: “Visualizing Science 2017: Finding the Hidden Beauty in College Research” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    University of Texas at Austin

    20 October 2017
    Steven E Franklin

    Five years ago the College of Natural Sciences began an annual tradition called Visualizing Science with the intent of finding the inherent beauty hidden within scholarly research. Each spring faculty, staff and students in our college community are invited to send us images that celebrate the splendor of science and the scientific process. Every year they deliver the moments where science and art meld and become one, and this year is no exception.

    The pursuit of scientific discovery often contains a visual aspect, as researchers explore the topics that fascinate them and attempt to communicate their discoveries in a meaningful way. History is rife with examples: Su Song drew detailed star maps, Charles Darwin sketched evolutionary trees in his notes, Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray diffraction images were vital to determining the structure of DNA, and Richard Feynman’s diagrams helped transform theoretical physics, to name a few.

    Now, with the advent of supercomputers and sophisticated software, scientific visualizations are becoming an invaluable part of the discovery process. Many modern scientists use 3-D models and data visualizations to uncover hidden patterns in data, to expose the inner workings of life or to reveal the very structure of the universe. This trend is exemplified by several of our newest Visualizing Science award winners.

    The winning images this year were publically revealed at Art in Science, an event put on by our Natural Sciences Council as part of Natural Sciences Week. These finalists, seven of the most stunning submissions from our scientific community, are featured below. The first six images were chosen by committee based on their beauty and scientific merit. The final image, our Facebook favorite, was chosen by the public on our Facebook page. The first six images will be displayed on campus in The University of Texas at Austin Tower and the Kuehne Physics Mathematics Astronomy Library, as well as on digital screens throughout buildings in the College of Natural Sciences.

    Please enjoy the fruits of our fifth annual Visualizing Science competition:

    First Place
    1
    Most stars in the Universe are not in isolation, but rather form in clusters. In the most compact clusters, a million stars as bright as a billion suns are packed within just a few light-years. This image shows the turbulent gas structures in a three-dimensional, multi-physics supercomputer simulation during the formation of such massive clusters, with the red-to-violet rainbow spectrum representing gas at high-to-low densities. Stars are the fundamental building blocks of galaxies, and of the Universe as a whole, and understanding star formation provides crucial insights to the history and future of our cosmos. The simulation and the visualization were produced locally on the Texas-sized supercomputers, Stampede and Lonestar 5, at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC). — Benny Tsang, Astronomy Graduate Student.

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    TACC Lonestar Cray XC40 supercomputer

    Dell Poweredge U Texas Austin Stampede Supercomputer. Texas Advanced Computer Center 9.6 PF

    TACC HPE Apollo 8000 Hikari supercomputer

    TACC Maverick HP NVIDIA supercomputer

    Second Place
    2
    This three-dimensional high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) image differentiates between the bony chainmail (in orange) embedded in the skin of a Komodo Dragon and the underlying bones of its skull (in white). The chainmail is formed by bony deposits in the head called cephalic osteoderms. The Komodo was donated by the Fort Worth Zoo after its death. Travis LaDuc catalogued the specimen into the Biodiversity Collections and made arrangements to have it scanned by Jessie Maisano in the Jackson School of Geosciences’s CT facility. The image is part of a manuscript being submitted to a scientific journal, featuring four authors: Chris Bell and Jessie Maisano of UT Jackson School of Geosciences; Diane Barber of the Ft. Worth Zoo; and LaDuc. — Travis LaDuc, Curator of Herpetology in the Department of Integrative Biology.

    Third Place
    3
    In this computer simulation of a diffusion process, particles are dropped in the center of a circle and then move randomly about its area until they meet another particle to which they stick. As they accumulate, the particles form growing fractal structures that are called Brownian Trees. One example of where these structures can be found in nature is in electro-chemical deposition processes, such as electroplating. — Lukas Gradl, Physics Graduate Student.

    Honorable Mentions
    4
    A close-up of a fabric that was embroidered using algorithmic design and patterning. The process includes programming the repetitive algorithm, designing and trying a pattern that will work best in holding the structure, hand folding, industrial steaming and chemical treatment. — Luisa Gil Fandino, Lecturer, Division of Textiles and Apparel.
    5
    Quantum computers run on magic states, a valuable resource required for some quantum operations. Understanding which quantum states are magic and which are not can be tricky. When states are plotted in 3-D space, the magic states form a bubbly fractal, as seen here. — Patrick Rall, Physics Graduate Student.
    6
    Newton’s method is a way of finding where a function is equal to zero. It’s simple and generally very effective, but small changes in the input can lead to large differences in the output. Though this makes its implementation more difficult, it also creates a fractal structure called a Newton fractal. In this image, Newton’s method was applied to many different inputs to graph the fractal: color represents the output of the algorithm, and shading represents its convergence time. — Arun Debray, Mathematics Graduate Student.

    Facebook Favorite
    7
    This photo captures a serendipitous moment during a trip to Port Aransas for a Field Study Seminar course in Environmental Science. Alec was using a hand lens to take notes about the grain type of the beach sand when a honeybee landed on his lab partner’s hand. Alec held his lens up to the bee, quickly grabbed the camera from his bag and snapped the picture before the visitor bee flew off. — Alec Blair, Environmental Science (Biological Sciences option) Undergraduate Student

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    U Texas Arlington Campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:48 am on April 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Hobby-Eberly Telescope Updated, U Texas at Austin, VIRUS spectrographs   

    From U Texas at Austin: Hobby-Eberly Telescope Updated 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    University of Texas at Austin

    1
    Hobby-Eberly Telescope. 2011-05-10 | Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial physics

    The HET was designed and constructed with a unique objective: to gather a very large amount of light, specifically for spectroscopy, at extremely low cost.

    A fixed elevation-axis design, based on the radio telescope at Arecibo, and an innovative system for tracking stars, contributed to an 80% reduction in initial costs compared to optical telescopes of similar size. The primary mirror of the HET is the largest yet constructed, at 11.1 x 9.8 meters. At any given time during observations, only a portion of the mirror is utilized. The HET’s 10 meter effective aperture places it among the world’s five largest telescopes.

    Work is underway to modify the telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The addition of 150 integral field spectrographs (VIRUS), mounted to the sides of the main framework, will give the HET the ability to map the expansion rate of the early universe, looking back in time billions of years, to measure how clusters of galaxies moved in relation to one another as the universe evolved.

    Wide Field Upgrade

    The Wide Field Upgrade (WFU) is the first phase of the HETDEX retrofit. Keep up with progress at HET Blog, a forum where users can post articles, comments, and photos of the work. Time-lapse movies and live webcams are available at HETDEX WFU.

    2
    Artist’s concept of the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The VIRUS spectrographs are contained in the curved gray “saddlebags” on the side of the telescope.

    Unique and Powerful Survey Instrument

    The deployment of the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), for the HETDEX project, will transform the HET into a powerful survey instrument like no other in astronomy, placing 35,000 fibers on the sky, each capable of collecting a distinct spectrum, with every exposure. VIRUS is scheduled to begin science operations in 2017.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas Arlington Campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:39 pm on March 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , U Texas at Austin,   

    From WIRED: “Astronomers Don’t Point This Telescope—The Telescope Points Them” 

    Wired logo

    WIRED

    03.23.17
    Sarah Scoles

    1
    U Texas Austin McDonald Observatory Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    The hills of West Texas rise in waves around the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, a powerful instrument encased in a dome that looks like the Epcot ball. Soon, it will become more powerful still: Scientists recently primed the telescope to find evidence of dark energy in the early universe, prying open its eye so it can see and process a wide swath of sky. On April 8, scientists will dedicate the new telescope, capping off the $40 million upgrade and beginning the real work.

    The dark energy experiment, called Hetdex, isn’t how astronomy has traditionally been done. In the classical model, a lone astronomer goes to a mountaintop and solemnly points a telescope at one predetermined object. But Hetdex won’t look for any objects in particular; it will just scan the sky and churn petabytes of the resulting data through a silicon visual cortex. That’s only possible because of today’s steroidal computers, which let scientists analyze, store, and send such massive quantities of data.

    “Dark energy is not only terribly important for astronomy, it’s the central problem for physics. It’s been the bone in our throat for a long time.”

    Steven Weinberg
    Nobel Laureate
    University of Texas at Austin

    The hope is so-called blind surveys like this one will find stuff astronomers never even knew to look for. In this realm, computers take over curation of the sky, telling astronomers what is interesting and worthy of further study, rather than the other way around. These wide-eyed projects are becoming a standard part of astronomers’ arsenal, and the greatest part about them is that their best discoveries are still totally TBD.

    Big Sky Country

    To understand dark energy—that mysterious stuff that pulls the taffy of spacetime—the Hetdex team needed Hobby-Eberly to study one million galaxies 9-11 billion light-years away as they fly away from Earth. To get that many galaxies in a reasonable amount of time, they broadened the view of its 91 tessellated stop-sign-shaped mirrors by 100. They also created an instrument called Virus, with 35,000 optical fibers that send the light from the universe to a spectrograph, which splits it up into constituent wavelengths. All that data can determine both how far away a galaxy is and how fast it’s traveling away from Earth.

    But when a telescope takes a ton of data down from the sky, scientists can also uncover the unexpected. Hetdex’s astronomers will find more than just the stretch marks of dark energy. They’ll discover things about supermassive black holes, star formation, dark matter, and the ages of stars in nearby galaxies.

    The classical method still has advantages; if you know exactly what you want to look at, you write up a nice proposal to Hubble and explain why a fixed gaze at the Whirlpool Galaxy would yield significant results. “But what you see is what you get,” says astronomer Douglas Hudgins. “This is an object, and the science of that object is what you’re stuck with.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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  • richardmitnick 9:15 am on February 9, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Faintest galaxies yet seen in the early universe, , , , U Texas at Austin   

    From U Texas at Austin: “Astronomers Find Faintest Early Galaxies Yet, Probe How the Early Universe Lit Up” 

    U Texas Austin bloc

    University of Texas at Austin

    08 February 2017
    No writer credit

    Astronomers at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a new technique to discover the faintest galaxies yet seen in the early universe —10 times fainter than any previously seen.

    1
    A Hubble Space Telescope view of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744.

    These galaxies will help astronomers probe a little-understood, but important period in cosmic history. Their new technique helps probe the time a billion years after the Big Bang, when the early, dark universe was flooded with light from the first galaxies.

    Rachael Livermore and Steven Finkelstein of the UT Austin Astronomy Department, along with Jennifer Lotz of the Space Telescope Science Institute, went looking for these faint galaxies in images from Hubble Space Telescope’s Frontier Fields survey.

    2
    A Hubble Space Telescope view of the galaxy cluster MACS 0416 is annotated in cyan and magenta to show how it acts as a ‘gravitational lens,’ magnifying more distant background galaxies.

    “These galaxies are actually extremely common,” Livermore said. “It’s very satisfying being able to find them.”

    These faint, early galaxies gave rise to the Epoch of Reionization, when the energetic radiation they gave off bombarded the gas between all galaxies in the universe. This caused the atoms in this diffuse gas to lose their electrons (that is, become ionized).

    Finkelstein explained why finding these faint galaxies is so important. “We knew ahead of time that for our idea of galaxy-powered reionization to work, there had to be galaxies a hundred times fainter than we could see with Hubble,” he said, “and they had to be really, really common.” This was why the Hubble Frontier Fields program was created, he said.

    Lotz leads the Hubble Frontier Fields project, one of the telescope’s largest to date. In it, Hubble photographed several large galaxy clusters. These were selected to take advantage of their enormous mass which causes a useful optical effect, predicted by Albert Einstein. A galaxy cluster’s immense gravity bends space, which magnifies light from more-distant galaxies behind it as that light travels toward the telescope. Thus the galaxy cluster acts as a magnifying glass, or a “gravitational lens,” allowing astronomers to see those more-distant galaxies — ones they would not normally be able to detect, even with Hubble.

    Even then, though, the lensed galaxies were still just at the cusp of what Hubble could detect.

    “The main motivation for the Frontier Fields project was to search for these extremely faint galaxies during this critical period in the universe’s history,” Lotz said. “However, the primary difficulty with using the Frontier Field clusters as an extra magnifying glass is how to correct for the contamination from the light of the cluster galaxies.”

    Livermore elaborates: “The problem is, you’re trying to find these really faint things, but you’re looking behind these really bright things. The brightest galaxies in the universe are in clusters, and those cluster galaxies are blocking the background galaxies we’re trying to observe. So what I did was come up with a method of removing the cluster galaxies” from the images.

    Her method uses modeling to identify and separate light from the foreground galaxies (the cluster galaxies) from the light coming from the background galaxies (the more-distant, lensed galaxies).

    According to Lotz, “This work is unique in its approach to removing this light. This has allowed us to detect more and fainter galaxies than seen in previous studies, and to achieve the primary goal for the Frontier Fields survey.”

    Livermore and Finkelstein have used the new method on two of the galaxy clusters in the Frontier Fields project: Abell 2744 and MACS 0416. It enabled them to identify faint galaxies seen when the universe was about a billion years old, less than 10 percent of its current age — galaxies 100 times fainter than those found in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, for instance, which is the deepest image of the night sky yet obtained.

    Their observations showed that these faint galaxies are extremely numerous, consistent with the idea that large numbers of extremely faint galaxies were the main power source behind reionization.

    There are four Frontier Fields clusters left, and the team plans to study them all with Livermore’s method. In future, she said, they would like to use the James Webb Space Telescope to study even fainter galaxies.

    The work is published in a recent issue of The Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas Arlington Campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:40 pm on December 19, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , U Texas at Austin   

    From U Texas Austin via Pys.org: “Famous red star Betelgeuse is spinning faster than expected; may have swallowed a companion 100,000 years ago” 

    THIS POST IS DEDICATED TO J.L.T. who knew how to get it done.

    U Texas Austin bloc

    University of Texas at Austin

    phys.org

    phys.org

    December 19, 2016
    No writer credit

    1
    This 2012 infrared image of Betelgeuse by the orbiting Herschel telescope shows two shells of interacting matter on one side of the star. Credit: L. Decin/University of Leuven/ESA

    Astronomer J. Craig Wheeler of The University of Texas at Austin thinks that Betelgeuse, the bright red star marking the shoulder of Orion, the hunter, may have had a past that is more interesting than meets the eye. Working with an international group of undergraduate students, Wheeler has found evidence that the red supergiant star may have been born with a companion star, and later swallowed that star. The research is published today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    For such a well-known star, Betelgeuse is mysterious. Astronomers know that it’s a red supergiant, a massive star that is nearing the end of its life and so has bloated up to many times its original size. Someday it will explode as a supernova, but no one knows when.

    “It might be ten thousand years from now, or it might be tomorrow night,” Wheeler, a supernova expert, said.

    A new clue to the future of Betelgeuse involves its rotation. When a star inflates to become a supergiant, its rotation should slow down. “It’s like the classic spinning ice skater—not bringing her arms in, but opening her arms up,” Wheeler said. As the skater opens her arms, she slows down. So, too, should Betelgeuse’s rotation have slowed as the star expanded. But that is not what Wheeler’s team found.

    “We cannot account for the rotation of Betelgeuse,” Wheeler said. “It’s spinning 150 times faster than any plausible single star just rotating and doing its thing.”

    He directed a team of undergraduates including Sarafina Nance, Manuel Diaz, and James Sullivan of The University of Texas at Austin, as well as visiting students from China and Greece, to study Betelgeuse with a computer modeling program called MESA. The students used MESA to model Betelgeuse’s rotation for the first time.

    Wheeler said in contemplating the star’s puzzlingly fast rotation, he began to speculate. “Suppose Betelgeuse had a companion when it was first born? And let’s just suppose it is orbiting around Betelgeuse at an orbit about the size that Betelgeuse is now. And then Betelgeuse turns into a red supergiant and absorbs it—swallows it.”

    He explained that the companion star, once swallowed, would transfer the angular momentum of its orbit around Betelgeuse to that star’s outer envelope, speeding Betelgeuse’s rotation.

    2
    This view of Orion, the hunter, was captured from McDonald Observatory on November 20, 2016 by a DSLR camera piggybacked on a three-inch telescope for a 12-minute exposure. Supergiant star Betelgeuse forms the hunter’s bright orange shoulder at top left. Credit: Tom Montemayor

    Wheeler estimates that the companion star would have had about the same mass as the Sun, in order to account for Betelgeuse’s current spin rate of 15 km/sec.

    While an interesting idea, is there any evidence for this swallowed-companion theory? In a word: perhaps.

    If Betelgeuse did swallow a companion star, it’s likely that the interaction between the two would cause the supergiant to shoot some matter out into space, Wheeler said.

    Knowing how fast matter comes off of a red giant star, about 10 km/sec, Wheeler said he was able to roughly estimate how far from Betelgeuse this matter should be today.

    “And then I went to the literature, in my naiveté, and read about Betelgeuse, and it turns out there’s a shell of matter sitting beyond Betelgeuse only a little closer than what I had guessed,” Wheeler said.

    Infrared images taken of Betelgeuse in 2012 by Leen Decin of the University of Leuven in Belgium with the orbiting Herschel telescope show two shells of interacting matter on one side of Betelgeuse. Various interpretations exist; some say that this matter is a bow shock created as Betelgeuse’s atmosphere pushes through the interstellar medium as it races through the galaxy.

    No one knows the origin with certainty. But “the fact is,” Wheeler said, “there is evidence that Betelgeuse had some kind of commotion on roughly this timescale”—that is, 100,000 years ago when the star expanded into a red supergiant.

    The swallowed companion theory could explain both Betelgeuse’s rapid rotation and this nearby matter.

    Wheeler and his team of students are continuing their investigations into this enigmatic star. Next, he says, they hope to probe Betelgeuse using a technique called “asteroseismology”—looking for sound waves impacting the surface of the star, to get clues to what’s happening deep inside its obscuring cocoon. They will also use the MESA code to better understand what would happen if Betelgeuse ate a companion star.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Texas Arlington Campus

    In 1839, the Congress of the Republic of Texas ordered that a site be set aside to meet the state’s higher education needs. After a series of delays over the next several decades, the state legislature reinvigorated the project in 1876, calling for the establishment of a “university of the first class.” Austin was selected as the site for the new university in 1881, and construction began on the original Main Building in November 1882. Less than one year later, on Sept. 15, 1883, The University of Texas at Austin opened with one building, eight professors, one proctor, and 221 students — and a mission to change the world. Today, UT Austin is a world-renowned higher education, research, and public service institution serving more than 51,000 students annually through 18 top-ranked colleges and schools.

     
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