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  • richardmitnick 2:40 pm on May 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: “Cheshire” reading and comprehension is Famous Clark ’19; graduate student Helen Davies; and team members Lava Homg ’19; Xinge Zhao ’19; and Lu Nguyen ’19., “Curb” team is Michael Keane ’19; Conley Ernst ’19; and Michelle Bushoy ’19, “PersonalizED” is a web application using Java that allows adolescent users to identify their learning strengths and help them boost their learning success with tips and techniques., clEAR- the virtual reality app they designed that allows users to better understand how to interact with people on the spectrum of hearing loss., Digital Media Studies, Five teams of students approached “real-world” problems merging technology and humanities through the use of digital media., The “PersonalizED” team consisted of Tallis Polashenski ’19; Mojin Yu ’19; Sarah Ogunji ’19; Verona Shuwei Wang ’19; and Amina Shareef ’19., The virtual reality project “clEAR” was the brainchild of seniors Kelly Thornton ’19; Zhewen Guan ’19; AJ Brown ’19; and David Backer ’19., U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “Senior capstone projects merge technology and humanities through digital media” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    May 9, 2019
    Jeanette Colby
    jeanette.colby@rochester.edu

    1
    From left, A.J. Brown, Guan Zhewen, and David Backer look on as graduate student Helen Davies tries out clEAR, the virtual reality app they designed that allows users to better understand how to interact with people on the spectrum of hearing loss. The team worked together on their capstone project as graduates in the Digital Media Students program. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    Making Their Mark

    As the seniors of the Digital Media Studies program go out into the workforce and some on to graduate school, they can say that they’ve already put into practice what they’ve learned.

    From virtual reality projects that aim to foster empathy for the deaf and hard of hearing community to a video game that supports English language learners, five teams of students approached “real-world” problems merging technology and humanities through the use of digital media.

    “Most of our team members had problems with reading and comprehension,” says Lava Hong ’19, who serves as project lead, researcher, and audio engineer for the team, “Cheshire.”

    “I tended to read the Chinese version of a book instead of looking at the English text,” says Xinge Zhao ’19—game designer, tester, and animator for the team—recalling a particularly challenging Shakespeare course. “I was reluctant,” she says. Zhao will graduate with a double major in English and digital media studies.

    “It’s because of vocabulary, grammar, language structure, and context,” Hong says. “We thought these were the elements that we could put into our game to help people better understand literature and make them interested in reading. Hong will graduate this spring with majors in both digital media studies and psychology.

    While each student brings unique skills and knowledge to the group, they all have a love of playing video games. The team also includes Lu Nguyen ’19, who serves as the game programmer and developer; Famous Clark ’19, a game programmer, visual designer, and researcher; and Zhao, who served as a game designer, tester, and animator.

    2
    Julia Tulke, a doctoral student in visual and cultural studies, tries out “Team Cheshire’s” senior capstone project, a game for ESL learners. Looking on, from left, are team member Famous Clark ’19, visual technologist Jim Barbero, graduate student Helen Davies, lecturing professor Joe Loporacaro, and team members Lava Homg ’19, Xinge Zhao ’19, and Lu Nguyen ’19. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    The interactive video game design is based on the gothic short story “Tall Tale Heart,” by Edgar Allan Poe. It’s built to force a gamer to text the answers instead of using multiple choice, because “people can guess,” says Hong.

    Clark, a computer science and digital media studies double major, says the game is coded, so that if you put in correct keywords, the game will assume you’re correct. “It’s built to be intuitive for readers,” he says. If you type in something similar to the word–for example typing an “i” instead of “e” for the word “eyelid,” the game continues to move the player forward in the story.

    The capstone seminar course is taught by Stephanie Ashenfelder, interim director of the Digital Media Studies Program and studio arts program manager in the Department of Art and Art History.

    The virtual reality project “clEAR” was the brainchild of seniors Kelly Thornton ’19, Zhewen Guan ’19, AJ Brown ’19, and David Backer ’19. Using a 360 camera, the team incorporated Oculus technology to create an interactive storyline for users to go through that would put them in real life scenarios for the deaf and hard of hearing. Their goal is to put people in the shoes of a person who is hard of hearing to gain a new perspective.

    “We’re a team of picky eaters,” says Carolyn Zelicoff ’19, team lead and UX/UI designer for the team project called “Curb.” Also on the team is Michael Keane ’19, who serves as visual designer and creative leader; Conley Ernst ’19, who serves as technical lead; and Michelle Bushoy ’19 who oversees marketing. Curb is a food truck app unlike any on the current market—one with a user interface for both the user and the food trucks. Food trucks have the option to toggle their location on or off as well as change their daily menu. Users can filter trucks for dietary needs and restrictions, “whether gluten free, have a nut allergy, or pescetarian,” says Zelicoff.

    3
    Lecturing professor Joe Loporacaro, right, provides feedback to digital media students students, from left, Mojin Yu ’19, Amina Shareef ’19, Tallis Polashenski ’19, Sarah Ogunji ’19, and Verona Wang ’19, on their project, “PersonalizED,” an app designed to help students identify and apply their learning strengths. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    “PersonalizED” is a web application using Java that allows adolescent users to identify their learning strengths and help them boost their learning success with tips and techniques. The team consisted of Tallis Polashenski ’19, Mojin Yu ’19, Sarah Ogunji ’19, Verona Shuwei Wang ’19, and Amina Shareef ’19.

    Gerardo Torres Davila ’19 created the website called R2 that fosters collaboration and takes advantage of a free intercollegiate registration for students in the creative and visual fields at the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology.

    “The diversity of these projects speak to the interests of our students and the interdisciplinary nature of the major,” says Ashenfelder. “These projects are ambitious and thought provoking.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochester is one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:46 pm on January 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Regeneron Science Talent Search, Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “Local teens recognized for Laser Lab research” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    January 25, 2019

    Two local teens have been designated as Scholars in the prestigious Regeneron Science Talent Search (formerly the Intel Science Talent Search) for research projects they carried out last summer at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE).

    U Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Seniors Maia Raynor of Brighton High School and Anirudh Sharma of Webster Schroeder High School are among the 300 Scholars nationwide chosen from nearly 2,000 who entered the competition.

    They will each be awarded $2,000 and their schools will receive $2,000 to support their science, math and engineering programs.

    New York’s Senator Charles Schumer and Congressman Joe Morelle congratulated the students. “It is inspiring to see these talented high schoolers engage with groundbreaking research and be recognized nationally for the incredible scientific work they are able to achieve with the resources at Rochester Laser Lab,” Schumer said.

    “And thank you to the University of Rochester for enabling the success of these students by allowing them to leverage groundbreaking technology and research that is taking place at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics,” Morelle added.

    1
    Raynor Maia, of Brighton High School. (University of Rochester photo / Eugene Kowaluk)

    Raynor used a copper-zinc alloy to remove elemental hydrogen from air. This novel approach offers several advantages over traditional techniques of extracting tritium from air streams and provides the tritium community with a simplified method of reducing emissions to the environment. She was advised by Walter Shmayda, an LLE senior scientist, and Cody Fagan, a graduate student.

    Sharma carried out hydrodynamic simulations of a new “double cone-in-shell” target concept for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of experiments related to studying the internal structure of the sun.

    3
    Anirudh Sharma of Webster Schroeder High School. (University of Rochester photo / Eugene Kowaluk)

    National Ignition Facility at LLNL

    He showed that with optimally chosen parameters a short pulse of x-rays can be produced from a point source. The NIF is the world’s largest laser, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLE collaborates closely with LLNL. Sharma was advised by Stephen Craxton, LLE physicist and high-school program director.

    LLE has as its primary mission the study of the conditions necessary to create and sustain fusion. Involving young adults in state-of-the-art science, however, is another important goal that LLE’s scientists and engineers take very seriously. LLE started its Summer High School Research Program in 1989 and has had 377 participants to date.

    “Our program provides a unique educational opportunity for talented high-school students. They’re amazingly motivated, and it’s exciting to see them recognized as among the best in the nation,” said Craxton. Students working at the laboratory have made up the large majority of Rochester-area Science Talent Search Scholars honored during the past three decades. A total of 38 students from the LLE program have now become Scholars.

    Application materials for LLE’s summer program are sent to area high schools and placed on the LLE website in early February or can be obtained directly by calling Jean Steve at 275-5286. For more information about the program itself, please contact Craxton at 275-5467.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochesteris one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:07 pm on December 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “The year of the laser” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    December 28, 2018

    Rochester breakthrough in laser science earns Nobel Prize

    One of the biggest stories of the year was the selection of Donna Strickland ’89 (PhD) and Gerard Mourou for the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics to devise a better way to apply lasers in research, medicine, and everyday life.

    2
    Gérard Mourou, left, photographed in Rochester in 1987, and Donna Strickland ’89 (PhD), in her lab in Rochester in 1985. (University of Rochester photos)

    In addition to their Nobel noteworthiness, Rochester researchers continue to develop new ways to use lasers in 2018. Because frankly, we’re big on lasers.

    Laser bursts generate electricity faster than any other method

    Ignacio Franco, assistant professor of chemistry and physics, predicted that laser pulses could generate ultrafast electrical currents. In theory. Now he believes he can explain exactly how and why actual experiments to create these currents have succeeded.

    3
    Generating electrical currents along tiny, nanoscale, electrical circuits. (University of Rochester illustration / Michael Osadciw)

    Device creates negative mass — and a novel way to generate lasers

    Most objects react in predictable ways when force is applied to them—unless they have “negative mass.” Then they react exactly opposite from what you would expect.

    Nick Vamivakas, an associate professor of quantum optics and quantum physics, and other researchers in his lab have succeeded in creating particles with negative mass in an atomically thin semiconductor, by causing it to interact with confined light in an optical microcavity. This alone is “interesting and exciting from a physics perspective,” says Vamivakas. “But it also turns out the device we’ve created presents a way to generate laser light with an incrementally small amount of power.”

    4
    An optical microcavity can “generate laser light with an incrementally small amount of power.” (University of Rochester illustration / Michael Osadciw)

    Rochester joins new nationwide high-intensity laser network

    Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the largest university-based laser facility in the world, is partnering with eight other high-intensity laser facilities to form a new national research network called LaserNetUS, which will provide US scientists increased access to high-intensity, ultrafast lasers like the OMEGA EP at the LLE.

    5
    The main amplifiers at the OMEGA EP laser at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    Measuring each point of a beam of light

    If you want to get the greatest benefit from a beam of light—whether to detect a distant planet or to remedy an aberration in the human eye—you need to be able to measure it. Now professor of optics Chunlei Guo and a team of Rochester research team have devised a much simpler way to measure beams of light—even powerful, superfast pulsed laser beams that require very complicated devices to characterize their properties.

    It’s a “revolutionary step forward,” says Guo, and could render traditional instruments for measuring light beams obsolete.

    In the lab where it happened: Nobel science in pictures

    6
    Members of the LLE, from left, Dustin Froula, senior scientist and assistant professor of physics; his PhD student Sara Bucht; and Jake Bromage, senior scientist and associate professor of optics.(University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochesteris one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:59 am on December 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Mysterious Anomaly Under Africa Is Weakening Earth's Magnetic Field, , U Rochester   

    From Science Alert and U Rochester: “Mysterious Anomaly Under Africa Is Weakening Earth’s Magnetic Field” 

    ScienceAlert

    From Science Alert

    27 DEC 2018
    PETER DOCKRILL

    1
    (NASA Hubble Space Telescope/Flickr)

    Above our heads, something is not right. Earth’s magnetic field is in a state of dramatic weakening – and according to mind-boggling research from earlier this year, this phenomenal disruption is part of a pattern lasting for over 1,000 years.

    Earth’s magnetic field doesn’t just give us our north and south poles; it’s also what protects us from solar winds and cosmic radiation – but this invisible force field is rapidly weakening, to the point scientists think it could actually flip, with our magnetic poles reversing.

    As crazy as that sounds, this actually does happen over vast stretches of time. The last time it occurred was about 780,000 years ago, although it got close again around 40,000 years back.

    When it takes place, it’s not quick, with the polarity reversal slowly occurring over thousands of years.

    Nobody knows for sure if another such flip is imminent, and one of the reasons for that is a lack of hard data.

    The region that concerns scientists the most at the moment is called the South Atlantic Anomaly – a huge expanse of the field stretching from Chile to Zimbabwe. The field is so weak within the anomaly that it’s hazardous for Earth’s satellites to enter it, because the additional radiation it’s letting through could disrupt their electronics.

    “We’ve known for quite some time that the magnetic field has been changing, but we didn’t really know if this was unusual for this region on a longer timescale, or whether it was normal,” physicist Vincent Hare from the University of Rochester in New York said in February this year.

    One of the reasons scientists don’t know much about the magnetic history of this region of Earth is it lacks what’s called archeomagnetic data – physical evidence of magnetism in Earth’s past, preserved in archaeological relics from bygone ages.

    One such bygone age belonged to a group of ancient Africans, who lived in the Limpopo River Valley – which borders Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Botswana: regions that fall within the South Atlantic Anomaly of today.

    Approximately 1,000 years ago, these Bantu peoples observed an elaborate, superstitious ritual in times of environmental hardship.

    During times of drought, they would burn down their clay huts and grain bins, in a sacred cleansing rite to make the rains come again – never knowing they were performing a kind of preparatory scientific fieldwork for researchers centuries later.

    “When you burn clay at very high temperatures, you actually stabilise the magnetic minerals, and when they cool from these very high temperatures, they lock in a record of the earth’s magnetic field,” one of the team, geophysicist John Tarduno explained.

    As such, an analysis of the ancient artefacts that survived these burnings reveals much more than just the cultural practices of the ancestors of today’s southern Africans.

    “We were looking for recurrent behaviour of anomalies because we think that’s what is happening today and causing the South Atlantic Anomaly,” Tarduno said.

    “We found evidence that these anomalies have happened in the past, and this helps us contextualise the current changes in the magnetic field.”

    Like a “compass frozen in time immediately after [the] burning”, the artefacts revealed that the weakening in the South Atlantic Anomaly isn’t a standalone phenomenon of history.

    Similar fluctuations occurred in the years 400-450 CE, 700-750 CE, and 1225-1550 CE – and the fact that there’s a pattern tells us that the position of the South Atlantic Anomaly isn’t a geographic fluke.

    “We’re getting stronger evidence that there’s something unusual about the core-mantel boundary under Africa that could be having an important impact on the global magnetic field,” Tarduno says.

    The current weakening in Earth’s magnetic field – which has been taking place for the last 160 years or so – is thought to be caused by a vast reservoir of dense rock called the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province, which sits about 2,900 kilometres (1,800 miles) below the African continent.

    “It is a profound feature that must be tens of millions of years old,” the researchers explained in The Conversation last year.

    “While thousands of kilometres across, its boundaries are sharp.”

    This dense region, existing in between the hot liquid iron of Earth’s outer core and the stiffer, cooler mantle, is suggested to somehow be disturbing the iron that helps generate Earth’s magnetic field.

    There’s a lot more research to do before we better understand what’s going on here.

    As the researchers explain, the conventional idea of pole reversals is that they can start anywhere in the core – but the latest findings suggest what happens in the magnetic field above us is tied to phenomena at special places in the core-mantle boundary.

    If they’re right, a big piece of the field weakening puzzle just fell in our lap – thanks to a clay-burning ritual a millennia ago. What this all means for the future, though, no-one is certain.

    “We now know this unusual behaviour has occurred at least a couple of times before the past 160 years, and is part of a bigger long-term pattern,” Hare said.

    “However, it’s simply too early to say for certain whether this behaviour will lead to a full pole reversal.”

    The findings are reported in Geophysical Review Letters.

    See the full Science Alert article here .

    From U Rochester: “Earth’s magnetic field fluctuations explained by new data”

    February 27, 2018

    2
    Earth’s geomagnetic field surrounds and protects our planet from harmful space radiation. (CC BY-SA 2.0 photo / Flickr user NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

    Using new data gathered from sites in southern Africa, University of Rochester researchers have extended their record of Earth’s magnetic field back thousands of years to the first millennium.

    The record provides historical context to help explain recent, ongoing changes in the magnetic field, most prominently in an area in the Southern Hemisphere known as the South Atlantic Anomaly.

    “We’ve known for quite some time that the magnetic field has been changing, but we didn’t really know if this was unusual for this region on a longer timescale, or whether it was normal,” says Vincent Hare, who recently completed a postdoctoral associate appointment in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) at the University of Rochester, and is lead author of a paper published in Geophysical Research Letters [link is above].

    Weakening magnetic field a recurrent anomaly

    The new data also provides more evidence that a region in southern Africa may play a unique role in magnetic pole reversals.

    he magnetic field that surrounds Earth not only dictates whether a compass needle points north or south, but also protects the planet from harmful radiation from space. Nearly 800,000 years ago, the poles were switched: north pointed south and vice versa. The poles have never completely reversed since, but for the past 160 years, the strength of the magnetic field has been decreasing at an alarming rate. The region where it is weakest, and continuing to weaken, is a large area stretching from Chile to Zimbabwe called the South Atlantic Anomaly.

    In order to put these relatively recent changes into historical perspective, Rochester researchers—led by John Tarduno, a professor and chair of EES—gathered data from sites in southern Africa, which is within the South Atlantic Anomaly, to compile a record of Earth’s magnetic field strength over many centuries. Data previously collected by Tarduno and Rory Cottrell, an EES research scientist, together with theoretical models developed by Eric Blackman, a professor of physics and astronomy at Rochester, suggest the core region beneath southern Africa may be the birthplace of recent and future pole reversals.

    “We were looking for recurrent behavior of anomalies because we think that’s what is happening today and causing the South Atlantic Anomaly,” Tarduno says. “We found evidence that these anomalies have happened in the past, and this helps us contextualize the current changes in the magnetic field.”

    The researchers discovered that the magnetic field in the region fluctuated from 400-450 AD, from 700-750 AD, and again from 1225-1550 AD. This South Atlantic Anomaly, therefore, is the most recent display of a recurring phenomenon in Earth’s core beneath Africa that then affects the entire globe.

    “We’re getting stronger evidence that there’s something unusual about the core-mantel boundary under Africa that could be having an important impact on the global magnetic field,” Tarduno says.

    A pole reversal? Not yet, say researchers.

    The magnetic field is generated by swirling, liquid iron in Earth’s outer core. It is here, roughly 1800 miles beneath the African continent, that a special feature exists. Seismological data has revealed a denser region deep beneath southern Africa called the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The region is located right above the boundary between the hot liquid outer core and the stiffer, cooler mantle. Sitting on top of the liquid outer core, it may sink slightly, disturbing the flow of iron and ultimately affecting Earth’s magnetic field.

    A major change in the magnetic field would have wide-reaching ramifications; the magnetic field stimulates currents in anything with long wires, including the electrical grid. Changes in the magnetic field could therefore cause electrical grid failures, navigation system malfunctions, and satellite breakdowns. A weakening of the magnetic field might also mean more harmful radiation reaches Earth—and trigger an increase in the incidence of skin cancer.

    Hare and Tarduno warn, however, that their data does not necessarily portend a complete pole reversal.

    “We now know this unusual behavior has occurred at least a couple of times before the past 160 years, and is part of a bigger long-term pattern,” Hare says. “However, it’s simply too early to say for certain whether this behavior will lead to a full pole reversal.”

    Even if a complete pole reversal is not in the near future, however, the weakening of the magnetic field strength is intriguing to scientists, Tarduno says. “The possibility of a continued decay in the strength of the magnetic field is a societal concern that merits continued study and monitoring.”

    This study was funded by the US National Science Foundation.

    See the full U Rochester article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 1:06 pm on December 9, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Donna Strickland-Nobel Prize, , , U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “In the lab where it happened: Nobel science in pictures” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    December 8, 2018

    1
    NEXT GENERATION: Donna Strickland ’89 (PhD) and Gérard Mourou received the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics for work to develop chirped pulse amplification (CPA), research they undertook in the 1980s at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE).

    U Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Today, members of the LLE, including (left to right) Dustin Froula, senior scientist and assistant professor of physics; his PhD student Sara Bucht; and Jake Bromage, senior scientist and associate professor of optics, use CPA in their own research to develop the next generation high-power lasers and to better understand the fundamentals of high-energy-density physics.

    2
    STRETCHING, AMPLIFYING, COMPRESSING: CPA involves a three-part sequence: stretching a laser pulse in time so the power is low; amplifying the pulse to higher intensities; and then compressing the pulse in time back to its exact original duration. Fundamental to the system is a grating, which, like a gold-plated prism, spreads the laser pulse into its wavelengths of color, stretching it in time. “Before the invention of CPA, the challenge was that you could only amplify a laser pulse so high before you blew up your amplifiers,” Bromage says. “Using gratings like this (pictured), you can spread the pulse in time, get the energy up by amplifying the longer pulse, and then use the compressor grating at the end to put it all back together.” Ultimately, CPA “allows you to put a lot more energy into a much shorter pulse.”

    3
    THEN AND NOW: In a lab at the LLE, Bucht holds the original grating developed by Strickland while Strickland was a graduate student at Rochester. Strickland’s original is much smaller than the grating used in current research, held by Bromage. Strickland’s original grating allowed researchers at the time to reduce pulse duration by three orders of magnitude; the larger grating allows researchers today to increase the power of the lasers by a factor of a million compared to before CPA was developed.

    4
    THE NEXT NOBEL? Now, however, scientists have reached another plateau in terms of how much power they can put in laser pulses and how big they can make the gratings. The future of CPA—and the subject of Bucht’s current research—involves using plasma instead of a grating. “It’s another step change in terms of laser power that could lead to a possible Nobel Prize for Sara—potentially the next graduate student project to be recognized by the Nobel committee,” Froula says. “We’ve taken the technology Donna and Gérard developed to its limits, and we’re now looking at what the next step in physics would be.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochesteris one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:54 pm on November 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “Rochester joins new nationwide high-intensity laser network” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    October 30, 2018

    Lindsey Valich
    lvalich@ur.rochester.edu

    U Rochester The main amplifiers at the OMEGA EP laser at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    U Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    U Rochester OMEGA EP Laser System

    U Rochester Omega Laser

    To help foster leadership in the application of high-intensity lasers, the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is partnering with eight other high-intensity laser facilities across the country in a new national research network called LaserNetUS.

    The collaboration, which includes University of Texas at Austin, Ohio State, Colorado State, Michigan, Nebraska-Lincoln, SLAC National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will provide US scientists increased access to high-intensity, ultrafast lasers like the OMEGA EP at the LLE.

    The project is funded by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences within the Office of Science and will receive $6.8 million over the next two years.

    “As the largest university-based laser facility in the world, the Omega Laser Facility at the LLE will bring unique energy, intensity, versatility, reliability and diagnostic capability to the LaserNetUS network,” says Mike Campbell, director of the LLE.

    The US was the dominant innovator and user of high-intensity laser technology in the 1990s, but Europe and Asia have since taken the lead, according to a recent report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Currently, 80 to 90 percent of the world’s high-intensity ultrafast laser systems are overseas. LaserNetUS will provide a national network of laser facilities to emulate these successful efforts in Europe.

    The facilities involved in LaserNetUS support the most powerful lasers in the US, including lasers with powers approaching or exceeding a petawatt. Petawatt lasers generate light with at least a million billion watts of power, or nearly 100 times the output of all the world’s power plants—but only in the briefest of bursts, shorter than a tenth of a trillionth of a second. The lasers use a technology called chirped pulse amplification, which was pioneered at the LLE in 1980s by Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou, winners of this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics.

    High-intensity lasers have a broad range of applications in basic research, manufacturing, and medicine. For example, they can be used to recreate some of the most extreme conditions in the universe, such as those found in supernova explosions and near black holes. They can generate high-energy particles for high-energy-density physics research and intense x-ray pulses to probe matter as it evolves on ultrafast time scales.

    The lasers are also promising in many potential technological and medical areas such as precisely cutting materials or delivering tightly focused radiation therapy to cancer tumors.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochesteris one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:17 pm on July 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Summer is when it happens, U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “Summer is ‘when it happens’ for research on River Campus” 

    U Rochester bloc

    From University of Rochester

    July 27, 2018

    Jim Mandelaro
    585.276.4061
    jim.mandelaro@rochester.edu

    “Summer is when it happens,” says Douglas Kelley, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering who is working with five undergraduate researchers. “If you add up the hours, eight weeks of research full time in the summer is about the same amount of time as two semesters, 10 hours a week, which is usually all an undergraduate has time for. And you can work longer chunks of time in the summer, which means you’re even more efficient.”

    Kelley says faculty advisors also benefit from summer research.

    “I get to dedicate more time,” he says, “so it’s easier for me to be a mentor and push things along.”

    Students from across the globe are on the River Campus this summer, taking part in Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) and other research programs with Rochester students and faculty members:

    34 students are conducting research in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. They come from 16 institutions, including Florida International, Carnegie Mellon, Swarthmore College, Stevens Institute of Technology, and American University.
    23 undergraduates are participating in a summer REU sponsored by the Department of Chemistry. They come from Colombia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, and other nations.
    83 students are participating in programs sponsored by the David T. Kearns Center, as McNair Scholars and Xerox Engineering Research Fellows, and as part of REUs focused on advancing human health; nano, bio, and quantum photonics; and computational methods: mind, media, and music. They come from several American universities, including Arizona State, Baylor, Cornell, Illinois, and Princeton.
    Five University of Rochester undergraduates are serving as Eisenberg summer interns in the Department of Chemical Engineering.

    In addition, other undergraduate students are working in labs as well. They are supported with other funding, such as supplemental money faculty receive through grants.

    We know what you did this summer

    Meet some of the undergraduates on the University of Rochester campus this summer working with faculty and graduate students on a variety of research projects.

    1
    Garrett Hotaling ’19 is working in the lab of assistant professor of chemistry Kathryn Knowles. He’s researching cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O), which are useful as semiconductors—materials that have the ability to absorb energy—and their possible use in solar cells. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    2
    Brianna Taggart ’20, right, is a McNair Scholar in the Kearns Center. She’s working in a developmental psychology lab with Laura Elenbaas, assistant professor in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, studying young children’s perceptions of peers of different economic backgrounds. (University of Rochester photo / Stephen Dow)

    3
    Denis Ioni is a student at Florida International University. She is working with physics professor Patrick Oakes on a project to test how cells use bonds to sense the stiffness of their substrate. (University of Rochester photo / Stephen Dow)

    4
    Frederico Hama ’20 is a mechanical engineering major working in the Kearns Center’s Xerox Fellows program this summer. He has designed, built, and run an experimental device that heats liquid metal, using ultrasound to measure the resulting flows. (University of Rohester photo / Stephen Dow)

    5
    Beauclaire Junior ’20 is a Xerox Fellow working with assistant professor of mechanical engineering Doug Kelley researching the electrochemistry of liquid metal batteries, a new technology being brought to market for storing large amounts of energy on the world’s electrical grids. (University of Rochester photo / Stephen Dow)

    6
    Hilary Luety ’19 is a chemical engineering major and an Eisenberg summer intern. She’s working with lecturer and senior technical associate Rachel Monfredo on a project that involves understanding the chemical engineering aspects related to dyeing, and how she can incorporate her findings into lab modules for the chemical engineering curriculum or a stand-alone course for non-engineering students. (University of Rochester photo / Stephen Dow)

    7
    Holly Coleman, right, is a senior at Missouri University of Science and Technology. She’s working in the Kearns Center’s advancing human health program with professor Diane Dalecki, studying how ultra sound technology can be used to affect the growth of collagen. (University of Rochester photo / Stephen Dow)

    “There’s definitely more time for research in the summer as opposed to taking four classes and then coming to a lab during the school year,” says Brianna Taggart ’20, a psychology and African-American studies dual major from Rochester. “It works out great.”

    Taggart is part of the Kearns Center as a McNair Scholar. She’s working with Laura Elenbaas, an assistant professor in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, researching children’s perceptions of peers with different economic backgrounds.

    Michael Peyman will be a junior at Arizona State this fall. The electrical engineering major is working with Zeljko Ignjatovic, an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, on a non-invasive blood pressure measurement device.

    “The whole experience has been great,” Peyman says. “I’ve never done research before. The best part is the independence, being able to choose what you want to research.”

    All Kearns Center REU students will take part in a research symposium on Monday, July 30 at Feldman Ballroom in Douglass Commons. Oral presentations will be 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., followed by lightning talks from 2 to 4, a poster session from 4 to 5:30, and awards and recognition from 5:30 to 6 p.m.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochester is one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:03 pm on March 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Archaeomagnetism, , , New data helps explain recent fluctuations in Earth’s magnetic field, U Rochester   

    From University of Rochester: “New data helps explain recent fluctuations in Earth’s magnetic field” 

    U Rochester bloc

    University of Rochester

    February 27, 2018
    Lindsey Valich
    lvalich@ur.rochester.edu

    1
    Earth’s geomagnetic field surrounds and protects our planet from harmful space radiation. (CC BY-SA 2.0 photo / Flickr user NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

    Magnetosphere of Earth, original bitmap from NASA. SVG rendering by Aaron Kaase

    Using new data gathered from sites in southern Africa, University of Rochester researchers have extended their record of Earth’s magnetic field back thousands of years to the first millennium.

    The record provides historical context to help explain recent, ongoing changes in the magnetic field, most prominently in an area in the Southern Hemisphere known as the South Atlantic Anomaly.

    “We’ve known for quite some time that the magnetic field has been changing, but we didn’t really know if this was unusual for this region on a longer timescale, or whether it was normal,” says Vincent Hare, who recently completed a postdoctoral associate appointment in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) at the University of Rochester, and is lead author of a paper published in Geophysical Research Letters.

    Weakening magnetic field a recurrent anomaly

    The new data also provides more evidence that a region in southern Africa may play a unique role in magnetic pole reversals.

    The magnetic field that surrounds Earth not only dictates whether a compass needle points north or south, but also protects the planet from harmful radiation from space. Nearly 800,000 years ago, the poles were switched: north pointed south and vice versa. The poles have never completely reversed since, but for the past 160 years, the strength of the magnetic field has been decreasing at an alarming rate. The region where it is weakest, and continuing to weaken, is a large area stretching from Chile to Zimbabwe called the South Atlantic Anomaly.

    In order to put these relatively recent changes into historical perspective, Rochester researchers—led by John Tarduno, a professor and chair of EES—gathered data from sites in southern Africa, which is within the South Atlantic Anomaly, to compile a record of Earth’s magnetic field strength over many centuries. Data previously collected by Tarduno and Rory Cottrell, an EES research scientist, together with theoretical models developed by Eric Blackman, a professor of physics and astronomy at Rochester, suggest the core region beneath southern Africa may be the birthplace of recent and future pole reversals.

    “We were looking for recurrent behavior of anomalies because we think that’s what is happening today and causing the South Atlantic Anomaly,” Tarduno says. “We found evidence that these anomalies have happened in the past, and this helps us contextualize the current changes in the magnetic field.”

    The researchers discovered that the magnetic field in the region fluctuated from 400-450 AD, from 700-750 AD, and again from 1225-1550 AD. This South Atlantic Anomaly, therefore, is the most recent display of a recurring phenomenon in Earth’s core beneath Africa that then affects the entire globe.

    “We’re getting stronger evidence that there’s something unusual about the core-mantel boundary under Africa that could be having an important impact on the global magnetic field,” Tarduno says.

    A pole reversal? Not yet, say researchers.

    The magnetic field is generated by swirling, liquid iron in Earth’s outer core. It is here, roughly 1800 miles beneath the African continent, that a special feature exists. Seismological data has revealed a denser region deep beneath southern Africa called the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The region is located right above the boundary between the hot liquid outer core and the stiffer, cooler mantle. Sitting on top of the liquid outer core, it may sink slightly, disturbing the flow of iron and ultimately affecting Earth’s magnetic field.

    A major change in the magnetic field would have wide-reaching ramifications; the magnetic field stimulates currents in anything with long wires, including the electrical grid. Changes in the magnetic field could therefore cause electrical grid failures, navigation system malfunctions, and satellite breakdowns. A weakening of the magnetic field might also mean more harmful radiation reaches Earth—and trigger an increase in the incidence of skin cancer.

    Hare and Tarduno warn, however, that their data does not necessarily portend a complete pole reversal.

    “We now know this unusual behavior has occurred at least a couple of times before the past 160 years, and is part of a bigger long-term pattern,” Hare says. “However, it’s simply too early to say for certain whether this behavior will lead to a full pole reversal.”

    Even if a complete pole reversal is not in the near future, however, the weakening of the magnetic field strength is intriguing to scientists, Tarduno says. “The possibility of a continued decay in the strength of the magnetic field is a societal concern that merits continued study and monitoring.”

    This study was funded by the US National Science Foundation.

    3
    Archaeologist Tom Huffman of the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa helps John Tarduno and his students orient and collect samples at a field site in southern Africa. (University of Rochester photo / courtesy John Tarduno)

    In the Field: “Archaeomagnetism” at work

    The researchers gathered data for this project from an unlikely source: ancient clay remnants from southern Africa dating back to the early and late Iron Ages. As part of a field called “archaeomagnetism,” geophysicists team up with archaeologists to study the past magnetic field.

    The Rochester team, which included several undergraduate students, collaborated with archaeologist Thomas Huffman of the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, a leading expert on Iron Age southern Africa. The group excavated clay samples from a site in the Limpopo River Valley, which borders Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Botswana.

    During the Iron Age in southern Africa, around the time of the first millennium, there was a group of Bantu-speaking people who cultivated grain and lived in villages composed of grain bins, huts, and cattle enclosures. Draughts were devastating to their agriculturally based culture. During periods of draught, they would perform elaborate ritual cleansings of the villages by burning down the huts and grain bins.

    “When you burn clay at very high temperatures, you actually stabilize the magnetic minerals, and when they cool from these very high temperatures, they lock in a record of the earth’s magnetic field,” Tarduno says.

    Researchers excavate the samples, orient them in the field, and bring them back to the lab to conduct measurements using magnetometers. In this way, they are able to use the samples to compile a record of Earth’s magnetic field in the past.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochester is one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:26 pm on June 29, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Researchers use lasers to display ‘true’ 3-D objects, U Rochester   

    From U Rochester: “Researchers use lasers to display ‘true’ 3-D objects” 

    U Rochester bloc

    University of Rochester

    June 29, 2017
    Lindsey Valich
    lvalich@ur.rochester.edu

    1
    Curtis Broadbent [center], a University of Rochester research associate in physics and optics professor John Howell’s [right] group, along with Chris Mullarkey ’18 (PhD) [left] pose with their system for creating 3-D volumetric images. (University photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    In an iconic scene in Star Wars, R2-D2 delivers a three-dimensional projection of a desperate Princess Leia pleading, “Help me Obi-Wan Kenobi. You’re my only hope.”

    The 3-D display that was once only a mainstay of science fiction is now closer to reality, thanks to technology developed by a team of researchers at the University of Rochester.

    Their device is the next step in what is known as 3-D volumetric display, where viewers can see images in three dimensions without the use of special glasses or filters. The technology has an array of potential applications, from revolutionary surgical capabilities to new methods of communication, advertisement, and entertainment.

    “As a kid I grew up reading and watching a lot of science fiction,” says Chris Mullarkey ’18 (PhD) who worked on the project with John Howell, a professor of physics and optics, and Curtis Broadbent, a research associate in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. “Getting the chance to build something that is right out of science fiction was a very cool opportunity.”

    Many other approaches to 3-D displays rely on stereoscopy; that is, taking two different two-dimensional images and presenting one to either eye so the viewer perceives depth. The Rochester display, however, is a true three-dimensional representation with light created at every point in the image. The device is additionally unique in its brightness and display.

    “We’ve done some engineering work to make it so you can view the images from all directions,” Broadbent says. “We’ve also been able to make them significantly brighter than what has previously been done.”

    In order to give viewers a 360-degree perspective, the device consists of a glass box surrounding an airtight, glass sphere about the size of a globe that the researchers heat to approximately 70 degrees Celsius (158 degrees Fahrenheit). The sphere contains cesium vapor, a silvery-gold metal good at emitting light.

    Two laser beams with wavelengths invisible to the eye are crossed in the sphere. Where the laser beams cross, cesium atoms are illuminated by both lasers and are excited into an especially high energy state. When these atoms decay, they emit sky-blue light in all directions.

    “Essentially, you get this tiny, point-like source of blue photons where the lasers intersect,” Broadbent says. “That’s really the key feature that allows us to make an intrinsically 3-D object that exists in real space.”

    Researchers transform blue photons into objects, such as dinosaurs or a moving helicopter, by breaking down the objects into a series of coordinates along the X, Y, and Z axes, which represent the three dimensions of length, width, and height/depth. They program the lasers to cross at these coordinates and illuminate one point at a time.

    2
    Researchers break down a shape into a series of coordinates along the X, Y, and Z axes. These axes correspond with the three dimensions of length, width, and height/depth. (University illustration / Sarah Kirchoff)

    “The image never really exists at one time, even though we perceive it that way,” Broadbent says. “If you want a sequence of points to look like an image, you need to draw it fast enough so the eye can’t tell that the image is being drawn point by point.”

    The lasers illuminate each point for a fraction of a second and are able to light up all of the points that make up the image in about 50 milliseconds (one millisecond equals one thousandth of a second).

    Before high definition technology, early televisions employed a similar two-dimensional version of this phenomenon using vector scanning. An electron gun within the television would send a stream of electrons onto a fluorescent screen, illuminating one point at a time. The electrons would then be scanned over the lines in the image. Researchers essentially apply a 3-D version of this technique in the 3-D volumetric display.

    The basic idea for three-dimensional images formed using crossed lasers in metal vapors started in the 1960s and picked up traction in the late 1980s, although the images were not very bright, nor very large. Since then, researchers have attempted various setups and methods, which often proved impractical due to cost and weight of materials. The Rochester approach uses metal vapors and patent-pending techniques to boost the brightness and size of the display. In their latest prototype, the images are drawn in a one-foot diameter sphere and are viewable from all directions.

    “There were many times where we thought it wasn’t going to work,” Howell says. “And there are still strategies to improve upon it—making it brighter with additional lasers, for instance.”

    3
    Examples of images displayed in true 3-D (University photo / J. Adam Fenster)

    While still in its early stages, the technology has potential functions including applications in air traffic control; advertising; projecting 3-D versions of people and events for video conferencing and general communication or entertainment purposes—if there were a controversial call in a sporting event, you could observe what happened from all angles; or displaying scans of the heart or brain in 3-D.

    “Depth is a real problem for surgeons doing very small vascular repair work,” Broadbent says. “A mounted display that would show depth and highlight different tissue structures would allow surgeons to peer around the sterile field as they manipulate surgical instruments, without having to wear heavy magnifying glasses.”

    The team has filed patent applications and hopes to license the technology for commercial use.

    That means that transmitting messages in 3-D such as R2-D2’s message to Obi-Wan may be closer than we think.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochester is one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:47 am on September 2, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , U Rochester   

    From U Rochester: “Why neutrinos ‘matter’ in the early universe” 

    U Rochester bloc

    University of Rochester

    August 30, 2016
    Monique Patenaude
    monique.patenaude@rochester.edu

    1
    T2K’s detector. (University of Tokyo photo / Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research)

    Physicists love good symmetry—and that love is more than aesthetic appeal. One of the more important symmetries in all of science is the one between antimatter and matter.

    Energy in the early universe was transformed into equal parts of matter and antimatter. Barring anything else, those equal parts should have destroyed each other and left us with no matter with which to make stars and planets, and people and dogs.

    So physicists reason that something must have broken the matter-antimatter symmetry in the early universe, leaving us with a universe dominated by, well, stuff—one in which we (and dogs) can exist. The puzzle of how the matter-antimatter symmetry was broken is one of the great questions that particle physicists are trying to answer.

    University of Rochester graduate student, Konosuke (Ko) Iwamoto, updated the physics world on this question at the 38th biennial International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP), in Chicago earlier this month.

    Iwamoto presented the highly anticipated findings from the Japan-based T2K neutrino experiment collaboration concerning the minute differences in the oscillations of subatomic particles called neutrinos and antineutrinos. (Almost every particle has an antimatter counterpart: a particle with the same mass but opposite charge.)

    T2K map
    T2K map

    The new results suggest that the matter-antimatter symmetry may have been broken by neutrinos. T2K’s experiments show that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently—the imbalance may have disrupted the matter/antimatter balance. Though the results are not conclusive—there is a 1-in-20 chance that their results are a fluke—but physicists are excited about the findings and further data gathering from T2K and other experiments is underway.

    “It is fabulous that Ko was chosen to present the findings of the T2K collaboration at ICHEP,” says Rochester professor of physics, Steven Manly. “ICHEP is the biggest international conference in particle physics and it was started in the 1950s by the then chair of Rochester’s physics department, Robert Marshak. Everyone still calls it the ‘Rochester conference.’”

    T2K is a large, international particle physics experiment operating in Japan. In this experiment, an intense beam of neutrinos is produced at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), which is located on the east coast of Japan, approximately 100 miles north of Tokyo. 185 miles away, the beam detector is located deep inside a mine in the mountains of western Japan. Physicists involved in the experiment measure how the neutrinos oscillate from one of three types, or “flavors,” to another during the transit across Japan.

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex J-PARC
    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex J-PARC

    Professors Kevin McFarland and Manly lead the Rochester neutrino group on T2K. Members of the collaboration recently shared the 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics “for the fundamental discovery and exploration of neutrino oscillations, revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the standard model of particle physics.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Rochester Campus

    The University of Rochester is one of the country’s top-tier research universities. Our 158 buildings house more than 200 academic majors, more than 2,000 faculty and instructional staff, and some 10,500 students—approximately half of whom are women.

    Learning at the University of Rochester is also on a very personal scale. Rochester remains one of the smallest and most collegiate among top research universities, with smaller classes, a low 10:1 student to teacher ratio, and increased interactions with faculty.

     
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