From University of Oxford: “Oxford to lead quantum computing hub as part of UK’s research and innovation drive”

U Oxford bloc

From University of Oxford

11 Jul 2019

1
Oxford to lead quantum computing hub as part of UK’s research and innovation drive.

Science Minister Chris Skidmore has today announced £94 million of funding for the UK’s Quantum Technologies Research Hubs – including a quantum computing and simulation hub led by Oxford University.

Hubs centred at Oxford, Birmingham, Glasgow and York will revolutionise computing, sensing and timing, imaging, and communications respectively. The collaborations will involve 26 universities, 138 investigators and over 100 partners.

Among the developments in quantum research already taking place in the UK are technologies that will allow fire crews to see through smoke and dust, computers to solve previously unsolvable computational problems, construction projects to image unmapped voids like old mine workings, and cameras that will let vehicles ‘see’ around corners.

The National Quantum Technologies Programme, which began in 2013, has now entered its second phase of funding, part of which will involve the newly announced £94 million investment in four research hubs by the UK government, via UK Research and Innovation’s (UKRI) Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

Through these hubs, the UK’s world-leading quantum technologies research base will continue to drive the development of new technologies through its network of academic and business partnerships.

Science Minister Chris Skidmore said: “Harnessing the full potential of emerging technologies is vital as we strive to meet our Industrial Strategy ambition to be the most innovative economy in the world.

“Our world-leading universities are pioneering ways to apply quantum technologies that could have serious commercial benefits for UK businesses. That’s why I am delighted to be announcing further investment in quantum technology hubs that will bring academics and innovators together and make this once futuristic technology applicable to our everyday lives.”

UKRI’s chief executive, Professor Sir Mark Walport, said: “The UK is leading the field in developing quantum technologies, and this new investment will help us make the next leap forward in the drive to link discoveries to innovative applications. UKRI is committed to ensuring the best research and researchers are supported in this area.”

Oxford will lead the UKRI EPSRC Hub in Quantum Computing and Simulation, which will enable the UK to be internationally leading in quantum computing and simulation. It will drive progress towards practical quantum computers and usher in the era where they will have revolutionary impact on real-world challenges in a range of multidisciplinary themes, from the discovery of novel drugs and new materials through to quantum-enhanced machine learning, information security and even carbon reduction through optimised resource usage.

The hub will bring together leading quantum research teams across 17 universities into a collaboration with more than 25 national and international commercial, governmental and academic entities. It will address critical research challenges and work with partners to accelerate the development of quantum computing in the UK. Hub research will focus on the hardware and software that will be needed for future quantum computers and simulators.

Professor David Lucas of Oxford’s Department of Physics, principal investigator for the new hub, said: “The quantum computing and simulation hub will drive forward the UK’s progress in developing future quantum computing technology. It will build on the successes of the Oxford-led ‘Phase 1’ NQIT hub, which has delivered world-leading performance in quantum logic and quantum networking, as well as a number of spinout companies to take quantum research out of the lab into the commercial arena.”

See the full article here.


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U Oxford campus

Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

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From University of Oxford: “‘Impossible’ nano-sized protein cages made with the help of gold”

U Oxford bloc

From University of Oxford

15 May 2019

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A collaborative effort between the University of Oxford and the Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University in Poland, has produced a super-stable artificial protein ball that apparently defies the rules of geometry and which may have applications in materials science and medicine.

Researchers are interested in making artificial protein cages in the hope that they can design them to have useful properties not found in nature. There are two challenges to achieving this goal. The first is the geometry problem: some proteins may have great potential utility but have the wrong shape to assemble into cages. The second problem is complexity: in nature the many proteins that form a protein cage are held together by a complex network of chemical bonds and these are very difficult to predict and simulate.

In new work, published in Nature, researchers found a way to solve both of these problems.

Professor Heddle, senior author of the research, said: ‘We were able to replace the complex interactions between proteins with a simple ‘staple’ consisting of a single gold atom. This simplifies the design problem and allows us to imbue the cages with new properties such as assembly and disassembly on demand.’

The research has also found a way to get around the geometrical problem: the building block of a protein cage is an 11-sided shape. Theoretically this should not be able to form the faces of a regular convex polyhedron. However the research has found that while this is mathematically true, some so-called ‘impossible shapes’ can assemble into cages which are so close to being regular that the errors are not noticeable.

Central to the study was the ability to characterise different cages, as well the ability to monitor and thereby understand the (dis)assembly dynamically. This work was done in the groups of Professors Justin Benesch and Philipp Kukura at Oxford, using innovative mass measurement approaches with a particular focus on biomolecular structure and assembly.

Justin Benesch, in the Department of Chemistry, said: ‘The ability to interrogate the cages using the advanced mass measurement approaches we have developed here in Oxford, both on the level of their assembly and the constituent building block, was key to not just validating their structure, but also the mechanism by which they are formed.’

The potential implications of the work are far-reaching. The researchers hope that the work can be expanded further to produce cages with new structures and new capabilities with potential applications particularly in drug delivery.

See the full article here.


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Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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U Oxford campus

Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

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From University of Oxford: “MeerKAT telescope unveiled in South Africa”

U Oxford bloc

From University of Oxford

SKA Meerkat telescope, South African design

13 Jul 2018

MeerKAT consists of 64 interconnected dishes, each 13.5m in diameter, that together form a single radio telescope. MeerKAT is an impressive South African achievement, assisted by a cohort of international scientists, including researchers from Oxford University and the Africa Oxford Initiative.

MeerKAT will detect radio waves from the far reaches of the cosmos, allowing scientists to address some of the most puzzling questions and processes of the Universe. The device is able to better detect neutral hydrogen gas – the fundamental building block of the Universe, which is the building block of all the things that we see in the night sky, such as galaxies and stars. Insights from the telescope will support astrophysicists to understand how this gas becomes a star over time. MeerKAT will also be used to conduct tests in fundamental physics, including General Relativity and high-energy astrophysics through observations of pulsars and transients.

The telescope was officially launched at a ceremony in Carnarvon in the Northern Cape, attended by David Mabuza the Deputy President of South Africa, and other science and technology ministers from the SA government, as well as representatives from the teams involved in building the telescope and those planning to lead the science based on the data it will deliver.

Researchers from Oxford’s Department of Physics play leading roles in four of the largest surveys to be carried out with MeerKAT. The deep radio continuum survey (MIGHTEE) will study how galaxies evolve over the history of the universe, and THUNDERKAT aims to detect phenomena which go bang, such as when stars collide together, bursts of radiation when a star dies and accretion events that trigger black holes. The TRAPUM and MeerTIME projects aim at finding new pulsars and fast radio transients, and using them to test our understanding of extreme physics, respectively.

Professor Matt Jarvis, Principal Investigator of the MIGHTEE survey and a Professor of Astrophysics at Oxford, said: Initial data from MeerKAT has shown that it will be one of the premier facilities for radio astronomy until the SKA, I’m sure that we will see some fantastic results over the next few years that will greatly enhance our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve.

The telescope will be the largest of its kind, until the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). When completed, the SKA, will be 50 to 100 times more sensitive than any other radio telescope on Earth, and insights from MeerKAT will be combined with this data to give a comprehensive overview of the history of the universe. Dr Ian Heywood, a Hintze Fellow at Oxford’s Department of Astrophysics, has a leading role in the team, producing MeerKAT images, including some of the most impressive shots of the centre of our Galaxy ever generated, unveiled at the inauguration ceremony.

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First Array Release 1.5 images taken with MeerKAT 32
SKA SA Chief Scientist Dr Fernando Camilo and SKA SA Head of Science Commissioning Dr Sharmila Goedhart, released to the Minister of Science and Technology, Naledi Pandor, the recent AR1.5 results, images achieved by using various configurations of the 32 antennas currently operational in the Karoo.

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MeerKAT produces First Light image
The MeerKAT First Light image of the sky shows unambiguously that MeerKAT is already the best radio telescope of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Array Release 1 (AR1) provides 16 of an eventual 64 dishes integrated into a working telescope array. It is the first significant scientific milestone achieved by MeerKAT.

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This Is The Clearest View of The Centre of The Milky Way to Date, And It Is Breathtaking. (SARAO). Science Alert

Dr Aris Karastergiou, a Physics lecturer at Oxford, who co-leads the Thousand Pulsar Array survey in the MeerTIME project, added: ‘MeerKAT is a fantastic instrument for pulsar science and a stepping stone to the SKA – our work on it will essentially set the stage for the SKA and move us forward to a whole different era of radio astronomy. The telescope has been a long time in the making and we are incredibly excited we can now commence our science projects. It is a remarkable achievement by our South African colleagues in collaboration with a large international scientific community.

The lessons learned from constructing MeerkAT are already feeding into the design specification of the SKA, allowing us to test new algorithms that will allow us to turn the raw data into exceptionally detailed maps and time-domain data products that will be used throughout the scientific community.

Dr. Anne Makena, Program Coordinator at the Africa Oxford Initiative (AfOx), said: ‘The Africa Oxford Initiative (AfOx) celebrates the official unveiling of the MeerKAT Telescope in South Africa. We are proud to be associated with the academics involved in this groundbreaking work both in Oxford and our partner institutions in Africa. This incredible achievement reflects the power of research collaborations, which AfOx will continue to facilitate.’

MeerKAT has been in the making for the better part of the last decade. It is expected to lead to groundbreaking results within the next 5 years, leading to the era of SKA science.

See the full article here.


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Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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U Oxford campus

Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

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From University of Oxford: “ARIEL mission to better understand exoplanet evolution gets green light”

U Oxford bloc

University of Oxford

20 Mar 2018

Oxford University to play a key role in ARIEL, a new research mission to better understand the formation and evolution of exoplanets.

ESA Ariel spacecraft

The project was chosen by the European Space Agency (ESA) from three academic proposals, with the final selection announced today, 20 March 2018.

The ARIEL mission is intended to answer fundamental questions about how planetary systems develop over time. Over the course of four years, the ARIEL spacecraft, will observe 1000 planets orbiting distant stars and marks the first large-scale survey of the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres.

The instrument will have a meter-class mirror which will collect visible and infrared light from distant star systems. A spectrometer will spread this light into a ‘rainbow’ and extract the chemical fingerprints of gases in the planets’ atmospheres. A photometer and guidance system will then capture information on the presence on clouds in the atmospheres of the exoplanets and will allow the spacecraft to point to the target star with high stability and precision.

The ARIEL mission has been developed by a consortium of more than 60 institutes from 15 ESA member state countries, including UK, France, Italy, Poland, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Hungary, Sweden, Czech Republic, Germany, Portugal, with an additional contribution from NASA in the USA currently under study. UK institutions have provided the leadership and planning for ARIEL, including UCL, STFC RAL Space, STFC UK ATC, Cardiff University and the University of Oxford.

Scientists from Oxford’s Department of Physics will support the optical performance testing of the instrument alongside RAL Space. The team also have a strong interest in the atmospheric science data that the mission will generate, and will channel that into future projects.

ARIEL’s Principal Investigator, Professor Giovanna Tinetti of UCL said: “Although we’ve now discovered around 3800 planets orbiting other stars, the nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious. ARIEL will study a statistically large sample of exoplanets to give us a truly representative picture of what these planets are like. This will enable us to answer questions about how the chemistry of a planet links to the environment in which it forms, and how its birth and evolution are affected by its parent star.”

Discussing the announcement, Dr Neil Bowles, ARIEL Co-Investigator and Associate Professor in the department of Physics at Oxford, said: ‘This is fantastic news. Our experience of observing and exploring our Solar System has shown that each time we get new data we have to alter our understanding of how planets “work” significantly. With ARIEL surveying a large number of exoplanet atmospheres it will be fascinating to see how this extends beyond our Solar System and help us to form some context of how other planetary systems compare.’

ARIEL is set to launch in 2028 and will take-off from Kourou in French Guiana. It will be positioned to monitor Lagrange Point 2 (L2), a gravitational balance point 1.5 million kilometres beyond the Earth’s orbit of the Sun. A location that both shields the spacecraft from the Sun and offers an optimum clear view of the whole sky to maximise the possible target exoplanets for observations.

See the full article here.

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Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

#astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #esa-ariel-mission-and-spacecraft, #the-formation-and-evolution-of-exoplanets, #u-oxford

From U Oxford via Science Alert: “Where Did All That Mars Water Go? Scientists Have a New Idea”

U Oxford bloc

Oxford University

Science Alert

21 DEC 2017
DAVID NIELD

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(Earth Observatory of Singapore/James Moore/Jon Wade)

It’s still there… kind of.

Billions of years ago, scientists think Mars was much warmer and wetter than it is now, so where did all that water go? New research published in Nature suggests much of it is actually locked inside the Martian rocks, which have soaked up the liquid water like a giant sponge.

That teases an interesting addition to the commonly held hypothesis that the planet dried out as its atmosphere was stripped away by solar winds.

Using computer modelling techniques and data we’ve collected on rocks here on Earth, the international team of scientists reckon that basalt rocks on Mars can hold up to 25 percent more water than the equivalent rocks on our own planet, and that could help explain where all the water disappeared to.

“People have thought about this question for a long time, but never tested the theory of the water being absorbed as a result of simple rock reactions,” says lead researcher Jon Wade from the University of Oxford in the UK.

Thanks to differences in temperature, pressure, and the chemical make-up of the rocks themselves, water on Mars could’ve been sucked up by the rocky surface while Earth kept its lakes and oceans, the researchers say.

Martian rocks can also hold water down to a greater depth than the rocks on Earth can, according to the simulations.

“The Earth’s current system of plate tectonics prevents drastic changes in surface water levels, with wet rocks efficiently dehydrating before they enter the Earth’s relatively dry mantle,” explains Wade.

In the early days of the Earth and Mars, however, this wouldn’t have been the case, the researchers suggest. Volcanic lava layers would have changed the make-up of the rocks at the surface and could have made them more absorbent.

“On Mars, water reacting with the freshly erupted lavas that form its basaltic crust, resulted in a sponge-like effect,” says Wade. “The planet’s water then reacted with the rocks to form a variety of water-bearing minerals.

“This water-rock reaction changed the rock mineralogy and caused the planetary surface to dry and become inhospitable to life.”

Even small differences in the iron content of the rocks on Earth and Mars, for example, can add up to significant changes in the way water gets sucked up, the research says. Plus, Mars is a much smaller planet, which would also have been a factor.

The team agrees that solar winds are likely to have stripped away some of the water on Mars, but argues that much more of it could be locked away inside the Red Planet than previously thought – very handy once we get to set up base there.

Experts also think Mars is hiding big reserves of water in the form of underground ice. But until we can take more readings and samples from the surface, it’s all just educated guesswork for the time being.

Now the researchers want to use the same principles to study the possibility of finding water locked away in other planets, based on the composition of their rocks and tectonic activity – and where there’s water, there might be life.

“When looking for life on other planets it is not just about having the right bulk chemistry, but also very subtle things like the way the planet is put together, which may have big effects on whether water stays on the surface,” says Wade.

“These effects and their implications for other planets have not really been explored.”

See the full article here.

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Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

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From SLAC: “SLAC X-ray Laser Reveals How Extreme Shocks Deform a Metal’s Atomic Structure”


SLAC Lab

November 13, 2017
Glennda Chui

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This image depicts an experimental setup at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source, where a tantalum sample is shocked by a laser and probed by an X-ray beam. The resulting diffraction patterns, collected by an array of detectors, show the material undergoes a particular type of plastic deformation called twinning. The background illustration shows a lattice structure that has created twins. (Ryan Chen/LLNL)

SLAC/LCLS

When hit by a powerful shock wave, materials can change their shape – a property known as plasticity – yet keep their lattice-like atomic structure. Now scientists have used the X-ray laser at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to see, for the first time, how a material’s atomic structure deforms when shocked by pressures nearly as extreme as the ones at the center of the Earth.

The researchers said this new way of watching plastic deformation as it happens can help study a wide range of phenomena, such as meteor impacts, the effects of bullets and other penetrating projectiles and high-performance ceramics used in armor, as well as how to protect spacecraft from high-speed dust impacts and even how dust clouds form between the stars.

The experiments took place at the Matter in Extreme Condition (MEC) experimental station at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). They were led by Chris Wehrenberg, a physicist at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and described in a recent paper in Nature.

“People have been creating these really high-pressure states for decades, but what they didn’t know until MEC came online is exactly how these high pressures change materials – what drives the change and how the material deforms,” said SLAC staff scientist Bob Nagler, a co-author of the report.

“LCLS is so powerful, with so many X-rays in such a short time, that it can interrogate how the material is changing while it is changing. The material changes in just one-tenth of a billionth of a second, and LCLS can deliver enough X-rays to capture information about those changes in a much shorter time that that.”

Elusive Atomic Deformations

The material they studied here was a thin foil made of tantalum, a blue-gray metallic element whose atoms are arranged in cubes. The team used a polycrystalline form of tantalum that is naturally textured so the orientation of these cubes varies little from place to place, making it easier to see certain types of disruptions from the shock.

When this type of crystalline material is squeezed by a powerful shock, it can deform in two distinct ways: twinning, where small regions develop lattice structures that are the mirror images of the ones in surrounding areas, and slip deformation, where a section of the lattice shifts and the displacement spreads, like a propagating crack.

But while these two mechanisms are fundamentally important in plasticity, it’s hard to observe them as a shock is happening. Previous research had studied shocked materials after the fact, as the material recovered, which introduced complications and led to conflicting interpretations.

The Tremendous Shock of a Tiny Recoil

In this experiment, the scientists shocked a piece of tantalum foil with a pulse from an optical laser. This vaporizes a small piece of the foil into a hot plasma that flies away from the surface. The recoil from this tiny plume creates tremendous pressures in the remaining foil – up to 300 gigapascals, which is three million times the atmospheric pressure around us and comparable to the 350-gigapascal pressure at the center of the Earth, Nagler said.

While this was happening, researchers probed the state of the metal with X-ray laser pulses. The pulses are extremely short – only 50 femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second, long – and like a camera with a very fast shutter speed they can record the metal’s response in great detail.

The X-rays bounce off the metal’s atoms and into a detector, where they create a “diffraction pattern” – a series of bright, concentric rings – that scientists analyze to determine the atomic structure of the sample. X-ray diffraction has been used for decades to discover the structures of materials, biomolecules and other samples and to observe how those structures change, but it’s only recently been used to study plasticity in shock-compressed materials, Wehrenberg said.

And this time the researchers took the technique one step further: They analyzed not just the diffraction patterns, but also how the scattering signals were distributed inside individual diffraction rings and how their distribution changed over time. This deeper level of analysis revealed changes in the tantalum’s lattice orientation, or texture, taking place in about one-tenth of a billionth of a second. It also showed whether the lattice was undergoing twinning or slip over a wide range of shock pressures – right up to the point where the metal melts. The team discovered that as the pressure increased, the dominant type of deformation changed from twinning to slip deformation.

Wehrenberg said the results of this study are directly applicable to Lawrence Livermore’s efforts to model both plasticity and tantalum at the molecular level.

These experiments, he said, “are providing data that the models can be directly compared to for benchmarking or validation. In the future, we plan to coordinate these experimental efforts with related experiments on LLNL’s National Ignition Facility that study plasticity at even higher pressures.”

In addition to LLNL and SLAC, researchers from the University of Oxford, the DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of York contributed to this study. Funding for the work at SLAC came from the DOE Office of Science. LCLS is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

See the full article here .

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SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.
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From U Oxford: “Shocking gaps in basic knowledge of deep sea life”

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Oxford University

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No image caption or credit

Human interference in the deep sea could already be outpacing our basic understanding of how it functions, University scientists have warned. As a result, without increased research and an immediate review of deep ocean conservation measures, the creatures that live there face an uncertain future.

Vibrant, mysterious and often referred to as the ‘final frontier’, the deep sea floor is the largest habitat on Earth. This vast area, which lies below 200m and accounts for 60% of the surface of the planet, is home to an array of creatures. However, very little is known about how it functions and, in particular, how populations of deep sea creatures are interconnected.

In a new review published in Molecular Ecology, scientists from the Department of Zoology at Oxford University have considered all knowledge published to date of deep sea invertebrates. The paper highlights the disparity between our basic knowledge of the ecology of deep sea animals and the growing impact of humans on the deep ocean.

Over the last thirty years there have only been 77 population genetics studies published on invertebrate species, the type of animals that dominate these deep areas. Of these papers, the majority have focused on commercial species at the shallower end of the depth range of up to 1000m, and only one has been conducted on creatures that live deeper than 5000m. As a result, life in the depths of the ocean remains a relative mystery.

The review attempts to use what little information there is to paint a cohesive picture of how populations of deep sea creatures are connected over depth and distance. Often animals are disconnected over a few hundred metres of depth but relatively well connected over a few 1000 km distance.

Christopher Roterman, co-author and postdoctoral researcher in Oxford’s Department of Zoology, said: ‘Today humans have an unprecedented ability to effect the lives of creatures living in one of the most remote environments on earth – the deep sea. At a time where the exploitation of deep sea resources is increasing, scientists are still trying to understand basic aspects of the biology and ecology of deep sea communities.’

The effects of human activity, such as pollution, destructive trawl-fishing, deep sea mining and climate change, appear to be intensifying, and increasingly affecting populations of seafloor invertebrates. The impacts on fragile, slow-growing coral gardens are of particular concern. As ecosystem engineers, corals are biodiversity hotspots, potentially as vital to the seabed as the rainforests are to the Earth.

Christopher added: ‘Population genetics is an important tool that helps us to understand how deep sea communities function, and in turn how resilient they will be in the future to the increasing threat of human impacts. These insights can help governments and other stakeholders to figure out ways to control and sustainably manage human activities, to ensure a healthy deep sea ecosystem.’

The researchers acknowledge that getting data from the deep sea is costly and logistically challenging. However, they stress that recent technological developments mean that more genetic information about populations can be collected than ever before.

Michelle Taylor, co-author and senior postdoctoral researcher in Oxford’s Department of Zoology, said: ‘Next-generation sequencing allows us to scan larger and larger portions of an animal’s genome and at a lower cost. This makes deep sea population genetic studies less costly, and for many animals, the sheer volume of data these new technologies create means they can now be studied for the first time.

‘As scientists it is our duty to gather as much basic information about these creatures as we can and share it, and work with the people that set the rules of the seas – who have the power to make management decisions. We cannot bury our heads in the sand and think that people are not going to try and exploit resources in the deep sea, so science needs to catch up.’

See the full article here.

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Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the central University and colleges. The central University is composed of academic departments and research centres, administrative departments, libraries and museums. The 38 colleges are self-governing and financially independent institutions, which are related to the central University in a federal system. There are also six permanent private halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations and which still retain their Christian character.

The different roles of the colleges and the University have evolved over time.

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