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  • richardmitnick 9:38 am on November 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 1. Summit (US), 2. Sierra (US), 3. Sunway TaihuLight (China), 4. Tianhe-2 (China), 5. Piz Daint (Switzerland), , , , , TOP500 list of supercomputers   

    From Science Node: “The 5 fastest supercomputers in the world” 

    Science Node bloc
    From Science Node

    Countries around the world strive to reach the peak of computing power–but there can be only one.

    19 Nov, 2018
    11.29.18 update
    Kevin Jackson

    Peak performance within supercomputing is a constantly moving target. In fact, a supercomputer is defined as being any machine “that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate.” The field is a continual battle to be the best. Those who achieve the top rank may only hang on to it for a fleeting moment.

    Competition is what makes supercomputing so exciting, continually driving engineers to reach heights that were unimaginable only a few years ago. To celebrate this amazing technology, let’s take a look at the fastest computers as defined by computer ranking project TOP500—and at what these machines are used for.

    5. Piz Daint (Switzerland)

    Cray Piz Daint supercomputer of the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS)

    Named after a mountain in the Swiss Alps, Piz Daint has been Europe’s fastest supercomputer since its debut in November 2013. But a recent 40 million Euro upgrade has boosted the Swiss National Supercomputer Centre’s machine into the global top five, now running at 21.2 petaFLOPS and ­utilizing 387,872 cores.

    The machine has helped scientists at the University of Basel make discoveries about “memory molecules” in the brain. Other Swiss scientists have taken advantage of its ultra-high resolutions to set up a near-global climate simulation.

    4. Tianhe-2 (China)

    China’s Tianhe-2 Kylin Linux supercomputer at National Supercomputer Center, Guangzhou, China

    Tianhe-2, whose name translates as “MilkyWay-2,” has also seen recent updates. But despite now boasting a whopping 4,981,760 cores and running at 61.4 petaFLOPS, that hasn’t stopped it from slipping two spots in just one year—from #2 to #4.

    TOP500 reported that the machine, developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) in China, is intended mainly for government security applications. This means that much of the work done by Tianhe-2 is kept secret, but if its processing power is anything to judge by, it must be working on some pretty important projects.

    3. Sunway TaihuLight (China)

    Sunway NRCPC TaihuLight, China, US News

    A former number one, Sunway TaihuLight dominated the list since its debut in June 2016. At that time, it’s 93.01 petaFLOPS and 10,649,000 cores made it the world’s most powerful supercomputer by a wide margin, boasting more than five times the processing power of its nearest competitor (ORNL’s Titan) and nearly 19 times more cores.

    But given the non-stop pace of technological advancement, no position is ever secure for long. TaihuLight ceded the top spot to competitors in June 2018.

    Located at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, China, TaihuLight’s creators are using the supercomputer for tasks ranging from climate science to advanced manufacturing. It has also found success in marine forecasting, helping ships avoid rough seas while also helping with offshore oil drilling.

    2. Sierra (US)

    LLNL IBM NVIDIA Mellanox ATS-2 Sierra Supercomputer

    Sierra initially debuted at #3 on the June 2018 list with 71.6 petaFLOPS, but optimization has since pushed the processing speed on its 1,572,480 cores to 94.6 petaFLOPS, earning it the #2 spot in November 2018.

    Incorporating both IBM central processing units (CPUs) and NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs), Sierra is specifically designed for modeling and simulations essential for the US National Nuclear Security Administration.

    1. Summit (US)

    ORNL IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer. Credit: Carlos Jones, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Dept. of Energy

    Showing further evidence of the US Department of Energy’s renewed commitment to supercomputing power, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) Summit first claimed the #1 spot in June 2018, taking the top rank from China for the first time in 6 years. Further upgrades have cemented that spot—at least until the next list comes out in June 2019.

    In the five months since its debut on the June 2018 list, Summit has widened its lead as the number one system, improving its High Performance Linpack (HPL) performance from 122.3 to 143.5 petaFLOPS.

    Scientists are already putting the world’s most powerful computer to work. A seven-member team from ORNL won the 2018 Gordon Bell Prize for their deployment of Summit to process genetic data in order to better understand how individuals develop chronic pain and respond to opioids.

    The race to possess the most powerful supercomputer never really ends. This friendly competition between countries has propelled a boom in processing power, and it doesn’t look like it’ll be slowing down anytime soon. With scientists using supercomputers for important projects such as curing debilitating diseases, we can only hope it will continue for years to come. [Whoever thinks this is a “friendly competition between countries” is way off base. This is a part of the Chinese route to world dominance]

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Science Node is an international weekly online publication that covers distributed computing and the research it enables.

    “We report on all aspects of distributed computing technology, such as grids and clouds. We also regularly feature articles on distributed computing-enabled research in a large variety of disciplines, including physics, biology, sociology, earth sciences, archaeology, medicine, disaster management, crime, and art. (Note that we do not cover stories that are purely about commercial technology.)

    In its current incarnation, Science Node is also an online destination where you can host a profile and blog, and find and disseminate announcements and information about events, deadlines, and jobs. In the near future it will also be a place where you can network with colleagues.

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  • richardmitnick 12:38 pm on June 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: China's Sunway TaihuLight- the world's now 2nd fastest supercomputer, Green500 results, HPCG Results, , , TOP500 list of supercomputers   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory via TOP500: “US Regains TOP500 Crown with Summit Supercomputer, Sierra Grabs Number Three Spot” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    1

    TOP500 The List

    June 25, 2018

    FRANKFURT, Germany; BERKELEY, Calif.; and KNOXVILLE, Tenn.—The TOP500 celebrates its 25th anniversary with a major shakeup at the top of the list. For the first time since November 2012, the US claims the most powerful supercomputer in the world, leading a significant turnover in which four of the five top systems were either new or substantially upgraded.

    ORNL IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer. Credit: Carlos Jones, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Dept. of Energy

    Summit, an IBM-built supercomputer now running at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), captured the number one spot with a performance of 122.3 petaflops on High Performance Linpack (HPL), the benchmark used to rank the TOP500 list. Summit has 4,356 nodes, each one equipped with two 22-core Power9 CPUs, and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs. The nodes are linked together with a Mellanox dual-rail EDR InfiniBand network.

    Sunway TaihuLight, China, US News

    Sunway TaihuLight, a system developed by China’s National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC) and installed at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, drops to number two after leading the list for the past two years. Its HPL mark of 93 petaflops has remained unchanged since it came online in June 2016.

    LLNL SIERRA IBM supercomputer

    Sierra, a new system at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory took the number three spot, delivering 71.6 petaflops on HPL. Built by IBM, Sierra’s architecture is quite similar to that of Summit, with each of its 4,320 nodes powered by two Power9 CPUs plus four NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs and using the same Mellanox EDR InfiniBand as the system interconnect.

    General highlights

    Despite the ascendance of the US at the top of the rankings, the country now claims only 124 systems on the list, a new low. Just six months ago, the US had 145 systems. Meanwhile, China improved its representation to 206 total systems, compared to 202 on the last list. However, thanks mainly to Summit and Sierra, the US did manage to take the lead back from China in the performance category. Systems installed in the US now contribute 38.2 percent of the aggregate installed performance, with China in second place with 29.1 percent. These numbers are a reversal compared to six months ago.

    The next most prominent countries are Japan, with 36 systems, the United Kingdom, with 22 systems, Germany with 21 systems, and France, with 18 systems. These numbers are nearly the same as they were on the previous list.

    For the first time, total performance of all 500 systems exceeds one exaflop, 1.22 exaflops to be exact. That’s up from 845 petaflops in the November 2017 list. As impressive as that sounds, the increase in installed performance is well below the previous long-term trend we had seen until 2013.

    The overall increase in installed capacity is also reflected in the fact that there are now 273 systems with HPL performance greater than one petaflop, up from 181 systems on the previous list. The entry level to the list is now 716 teraflops, an increase of 168 teraflops.

    Technology trends

    Accelerators are used in 110 TOP500 systems, a slight increase from the 101 accelerated systems in the November 2017 lists. NVIDIA GPUs are present in 96 of these systems, including five of the top 10: Summit, Sierra, ABCI, Piz Daint, and Titan. Seven systems are equipped with Xeon Phi coprocessors, while PEZY accelerators are used in four systems. An additional 20 systems now use Xeon Phi as the main processing unit.

    Almost all the supercomputers on the list (97.8 percent) are powered by main processors with eight or more cores and more than half (53.2 percent) have over 16 cores.

    Ethernet, 10G or faster, is now used in 247 systems, up from 228 six months ago. InfiniBand is found on 139 systems, down from 163 on the previous list. Intel’s Omni-Path technology is in 38 systems, slightly up from 35 six months ago.

    Vendor highlights

    For the first time, the leading HPC manufacturer of supercomputers on the list is not from the US. Chinese-based Lenovo took the lead with 23.8 percent (122 systems) of all installed machines, followed by HPE with 15.8 percent (79 systems), Inspur with 13.6 percent (68 systems), Cray with 11.2 percent (56 systems), and Sugon with 11 percent (55 systems). Of these, only Lenovo, Inspur, and Sugon captured additional system share compared to half a year ago.

    Even though IBM has two of the top three supercomputers in Summit and Sierra, it claims just 19 systems on the entire list. However, thanks to those two machines, the company now contributes 19.9 percent of all TOP500 performance. Trailing IBM is Cray, with 16.5 percent of performance, Lenovo with 12.0 percent, and HPE with 9.9 percent.

    Intel processors are used in 476 systems, which is marginally higher than the 471 systems on the last list. IBM Power processors are now in 13 systems, down from 14 systems since November 2017.

    Green500 results

    The top three positions in the Green500 are all taken by supercomputers installed in Japan that are based on the ZettaScaler-2.2 architecture using PEZY-SC2 accelerators, while all other system in the top 10 use NVIDIA GPUs.

    The most energy-efficient supercomputer is once again the Shoubu system B, a ZettaScaler-2.2 system installed at the Advanced Center for Computing and Communication, RIKEN, Japan. It was remeasured and achieved 18.4 gigaflops/watt during its 858 teraflops Linpack performance run. It is ranked number 362 in the TOP500 list.

    The second-most energy-efficient system is Suiren2 system at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization/KEK, Japan. This ZettaScaler-2.2 system achieved 16.8 gigaflops/watt and is listed at position 421 in the TOP500. Number three on the Green500 is the Sakura system, which is installed at PEZY Computing. It achieved 16.7 gigaflops/watt and occupies position 388 on the TOP500 list.

    They are followed by the DGX SaturnV Volta system in the US; Summit in the US; the TSUBAME 3.0 system, AIST AI Cloud system, the AI Bridging Cloud Infrastructure (ABCI) system, all from Japan; the new IBM MareNostrum P9 cluster in Spain; the DOE’s Summit system; and Wilkes-2, from the UK. All of these systems use various NVIDIA GPUs.

    The most energy-efficient supercomputer that doesn’t rely on accelerators of any kind is the Sunway TaihuLight, which is powered exclusively by ShenWei processors. Its 6.05 gigaflops/watt earned it 22nd place on the Green500 list.

    HPCG Results

    The TOP500 list has incorporated the High-Performance Conjugate Gradient (HPCG) Benchmark results, which provided an alternative metric for assessing supercomputer performance and is meant to complement the HPL measurement.

    The two new DOE systems, Summit at ORNL and Sierra at LLNL, captured the first two positions on the latest HPCG rankings. Summit achieved 2.93 HPCG-petaflops and Sierra delivered 1.80 HPCG-petaflops. They are followed by the previous leader, Fujitsu’s K computer, which attained 0.60 HPCG-petaflops. Trinity, a Cray XC40 system installed at Los Alamos National Lab and Piz Daint, a Cray XC50 system installed at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) round out the top five.

    About the TOP500 List

    The first version of what became today’s TOP500 list started as an exercise for a small conference in Germany in June 1993. Out of curiosity, the authors decided to revisit the list in November 1993 to see how things had changed. About that time, they realized they might be onto something and decided to continue compiling the list, which is now a much-anticipated, much-watched and much-debated twice-yearly event.

    The TOP500 list is compiled by Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville; and Martin Meuer of ISC Group, Germany.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.”[1] Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
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