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  • richardmitnick 1:55 pm on May 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Quantum magnets in motion", , Kardar-Parisi-Zhang superdiffusion, , , , Spin: a specific magnetic quantum property of atoms and other particles, Spins also constitute the basis of certain forms of quantum computers., The scientists locked ultracold atoms in a specially formed "box-shaped" potential formed by an arrangement of tiny mirrors., The scientists studied the relaxation of a single magnetic domain wall in a chain of 50 linearly arranged spins., The work reveals an interesting connection between quantum mechanical spin systems in cold atoms and classical systems such as growing bacterial colonies or spreading wildfires., Theoretical Physics   

    From MPG Institute for Quantum Optics [MPG Institut für Quantenoptik] (DE) via phys.org : “Quantum magnets in motion” 

    Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik (DE)

    From MPG Institute for Quantum Optics [MPG Institut für Quantenoptik] (DE)

    via

    phys.org

    May 16, 2022

    1
    The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality combines classical everyday phenomena such as coffee stains with quantum mechanical spin chains in a surprising way. Credit: MPG Institute of Quantum Optics.

    The behavior of microscopic quantum magnets has long been a subject taught in lectures in theoretical physics. However, investigating the dynamics of systems that are far out of equilibrium and watching them “live” has been difficult so far. Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching have accomplished precisely this, using a quantum gas microscope. With this tool, quantum systems can be manipulated and then imaged with such high resolution that even individual atoms are visible. The results of the experiments on linear chains of spins show that the way their orientation propagates corresponds to the so-called Kardar-Parisi-Zhang superdiffusion. This confirms a conjecture that recently emerged from theoretical considerations.

    A team of physicists around Dr. Johannes Zeiher and Prof Immanuel Bloch has eyes on objects that others hardly ever get to see. The researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Garching use a so-called quantum gas microscope to track down processes on the tiny scale of quantum physics. Such an instrument allows—with the help of atoms and lasers—to specifically create quantum systems with desired properties and to investigate them with high resolution. In these experiments, the researchers also focus on transport phenomena—how quantum objects move under certain external conditions.

    The team has now made a surprising experimental discovery. The researchers were able to show that the one-dimensional transport of spins—the term “spin” stands for a specific, magnetic quantum property of atoms and other particles—resembles macroscopic phenomena in certain areas. For the most part, processes in the quantum realm and in the everyday world differ significantly. “But our work reveals an interesting connection between quantum mechanical spin systems in cold atoms and classical systems such as growing bacterial colonies or spreading wildfires,” says Johannes Zeiher, group leader in the Quantum Many-Body Systems division at MPQ. “This discovery is completely unexpected and points to a deep connection in the field of non-equilibrium physics that is still poorly understood.”

    Physicists refer to such a theoretical analogy between random motion in quantum and classical systems as “universality.” In this specific case, it is the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality (KPZ)—a phenomenon previously known only from classical physics.

    The telling exponent

    In order to observe the phenomenon microscopically, the Garching team first cooled down a cloud of atoms to temperatures close to absolute zero. That way, movements due to heat could be ruled out. Then they locked the ultracold atoms in a specially formed “box-shaped” potential, formed by an arrangement of tiny mirrors. “We used this to study the relaxation of a single magnetic domain wall in a chain of 50 linearly arranged spins,” explains David Wei, a researcher in Johannes Zeiher’s group. The domain wall separates areas with identical orientation of neighboring spins from each other. The researchers first created the domain wall for the experiment using a new trick, whereby an “effective magnetic field” was generated by projecting light. In doing so, the researchers can strongly suppress the couplings between spins, effectively “locking” them into place.

    The relaxation within the spin chain occurred after the couplings between spins were switched on in a controlled manner and, as it turned out, followed a characteristic pattern. “This can be described mathematically by a power law with the exponent 3/2,” says Wei—a hint at the connection with KPZ universality. Further evidence for this relationship was provided when the researchers detected the motion of individual spins, which was revealed through the quantum gas microscope.

    “This high precision was the basis for a detailed statistical evaluation,” says Zeiher. “The striking course of spin diffusion that our experiment showed corresponds in its mathematical form approximately to the spread of a coffee stain on a tablecloth, for example,” explains the Max Planck physicist. That such an astonishing connection could exist had been suspected by a team of theorists about two years ago on the basis of theoretical considerations. However, experimental confirmation of this hypothesis was still lacking.

    An old model amazes physicists

    For the description of quantum mechanical spin phenomena, physicists have been using the so-called Heisenberg model very successfully for a long time (but it was only recently that spin transport phenomena could be described theoretically within this model). “Our results show that surprising new insights are still possible even within an established theoretical framework,” Johannes Zeiher emphasizes. “And they are proof of how theory and experiment cross-fertilize in physics.”

    The results that have now been achieved by the team in Garching are not only of academic value. They could also be useful for tangible technical applications. For example, spins also constitute the basis of certain forms of quantum computers. Knowledge of the transport properties of the information carriers could be of critical importance for the practical realization of such novel computer architectures.

    The study appears in Science.

    See the full article here .

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    Research at the MPG Institute for Quantum Optics [Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik ] (DE)
    Light can behave as an electromagnetic wave or a shower of particles that have no mass, called photons, depending on the conditions under which it is studied or used. Matter, on the other hand, is composed of particles, but it can actually exhibit wave-like properties, giving rise to many astonishing phenomena in the microcosm.

    At our institute we explore the interaction of light and quantum systems, exploiting the two extreme regimes of the wave-particle duality of light and matter. On the one hand we handle light at the single photon level where wave-interference phenomena differ from those of intense light beams. On the other hand, when cooling ensembles of massive particles down to extremely low temperatures we suddenly observe phenomena that go back to their wave-like nature. Furthermore, when dealing with ultrashort and highly intense light pulses comprising trillions of photons we can completely neglect the particle properties of light. We take advantage of the large force that the rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field exerts on electrons to steer their motion within molecules or accelerate them to relativistic energies.

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding

     
  • richardmitnick 9:01 am on April 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A long-sought ammonia-dimer solution", Ammonia dimers: pairs of ammonia molecules, , , , , , Theoretical Physics, Understanding the properties of ammonia molecules and how they interact with other molecules has critical value., University of Delaware physicist Krzysztof Szalewicz   

    From The University of Delaware: “A long-sought ammonia-dimer solution” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    April 28, 2022
    Article by Beth Miller
    Photo illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase


    University of Delaware physicist Krzysztof Szalewicz and collaborators have resolved a long-standing debate about ammonia dimers — two joined ammonia molecules — that will be helpful for chemists, biologists and other scientists.

    UD’s Krzysztof Szalewicz and collaborators determine ammonia molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other.

    It takes a lot of brain power to be a theoretical physicist. It also takes far more than brain power to be a theoretical physicist.

    The calculating minds of University of Delaware physicist Krzysztof Szalewicz and his collaborators, for example, use more than 26 million hours annually on Department of Defense computers. They routinely use UD’s High Performance Computing clusters as well.

    And that’s what it takes now to produce increasingly precise information to support new science and advanced applications.

    Such muscular machines weren’t available 30 years ago, when an active debate was going on about the likelihood of ammonia dimers — two joined ammonia molecules — forming hydrogen bonds.

    The debate was an important one. Ammonia is a molecule of significance on many fronts, including those on our planet and far beyond it. Understanding the properties of ammonia molecules and how they interact with other molecules has critical value for industry, pharmaceuticals, biology and production of environmentally sustainable fuels, for example.

    Szalewicz, an expert in the study and calculation of intermolecular forces, and his collaborators found a reliable, highly accurate answer to the question. Their findings were published recently in Nature Communications. Aling Jing, a graduate student on Szalewicz’s team, was the lead author. Ad van der Avoird, a theoretical chemist from the Netherlands, was a third collaborator.

    Their work resolves the debate and gives chemists and biologists and other scientists new confidence as they develop new experiments, materials and processes.

    A bit of background on hydrogen bonds may be helpful to understand how Szalewicz’s new calculations shed light on this issue.

    When two hydrogen atoms connect with one oxygen atom the bonds are strong and are called “covalent” bonds. These strong bonds form water molecules — H2O.

    When two water molecules are near each other, a hydrogen atom from one molecule will form a bond with the oxygen atom of the other molecule. This is a hydrogen bond, which is not as strong as the covalent bond intrinsic to the water molecule, but is still a powerful part of intermolecular dynamics.

    The covalent bond is what holds the water molecule together. The hydrogen bond is what holds multiple water molecules together, making it possible to pour yourself a big glass of water.

    The hydrogen bonds between water molecules are settled science.

    Until 1985, the ammonia-hydrogen bond question was considered settled, too. An ammonia molecule (NH3) is made of one nitrogen atom connected to three hydrogen atoms by covalent bonds.

    The debate about whether ammonia molecules could form hydrogen bonds with other ammonia molecules was reopened in 1985, when new experiments suggested that the ammonia dimers — pairs of ammonia molecules — are not hydrogen bound, in contrast to the predictions of previous theories.

    More calculations, experiments and debate followed.

    “Finally, people said ‘It is too hard. We cannot do anything more,’” Szalewicz said.

    But as computing muscle became increasingly available, more accurate calculations were possible, providing increasingly precise pictures of the mechanisms in play.

    Szalewicz and his collaborators now have produced a calculation of the potential energy surface of the ammonia dimer, which shows how the interaction energy of the molecules is related to their geometric shapes.

    “What we have found now is that, yes, it was a hard problem,” Szalewicz said. “The answer is not completely ‘yes, period.’ We cannot say that.”

    What they have shown, with highest confidence, is that ammonia dimers are quite flexible, not rigid, as the 1985 experiment concluded. This means that a broad range of intermolecular separations and orientations is covered during the intermolecular motions.

    The published experimental configuration turned out to be an average between two hydrogen-bonded configurations. This is like a snapshot of intermolecular motion, which was assumed by the experimental group to be the most likely configuration, but actually is fairly rare.

    By factoring in many more data points, Szalewicz and collaborators went far beyond single configurations to show that the hydrogen bonds were far more likely than not. That kind of precision makes a huge difference in how you incorporate ammonia molecules in various applications and has many other implications for chemistry.

    Szalewicz compares it to taking an extended hike through a mountain range.

    “You go up, up, up from a valley to a pass,” he said. “Then you go down to another valley. If the pass is high above the valley, it is a hard hike. The valley corresponds to the hydrogen-bonded configurations and with a high pass, getting from one valley to another is difficult. Thus, molecules stay mostly in the valleys and finding the dimer at the top of the pass is a very rare event.

    “The ammonia-dimer valley surface is different from those of typical hydrogen-bonded molecules. Instead of two well-separated valleys, there is one very narrow one containing both hydrogen-bonded configurations, with almost no pass between them. Finding the dimer at the top of the pass is a fairly likely event. Therefore, it could be observed in experiments.”

    This is why experimental physicists need theoretical physicists and also why theoretical physicists need experimental physicists.

    “There is an old joke that is actually very true,” Szalewicz said. “When an experimentalist publishes a result, everyone believes it — except the experimentalist, who always knows they might have overlooked something. When a theorist publishes a result, nobody believes it — except the theorists.”

    When they work together, as they must, great insights are likely.

    Experiments also measure excitations of intermolecular motions. Szalewica and collaborators performed quantum-mechanical calculations of such excitations, obtaining excellent agreement with the experiment. This is a strong validation of the correctness of the surface developed in the calculations.

    Using similar calculations with water, Szalewicz has previously published potential energy surfaces that help to explain properties of water that have not been previously explained. They now are used by industrial chemists who work on steam engines and need to know those properties at various temperatures.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology now recommends using these theoretical calculations, which have shown greater accuracy than experimental measurements.

    The research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .

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    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation , UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, the University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 , University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 7:39 pm on March 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Klarman fellow blends physics and math to explore string theory", , , Connecting the physics of string theory with arithmetic geometry., Cornell University College of Arts and Sciences, , String theory solves quantum gravity-but with a catch: it proposes a universe with 10 dimensions., Theoretical Physics   

    From Cornell University College of Arts and Sciences: “Klarman fellow blends physics and math to explore string theory” 

    From Cornell University College of Arts and Sciences

    at

    Cornell University

    3/14/2022
    Kate Blackwood , Cornell Chronicle

    1
    Richard Nally. Credit: Chris Kitchen.

    What does a six-dimensional figure look like?

    Theoretical physicist Richard Nally can’t show you exactly, but he does have a sculpture – a pink shape the size of a grapefruit – that can help you imagine a piece of one.

    “It’s called a K3 surface,” said Nally, a Klarman Fellow in physics in the College of Arts and Sciences (A&S). “Of course, we can’t make sculptures of things that live in six dimensions, but you can take little slices of them to see what they look like.

    2

    This is a slice of a four-dimensional shape that is really important to the history and practice of string theory.

    Nally will spend his three-year Klarman Postdoctoral Fellowship seeking to understand the mathematical structures at the root of gravity and quantum mechanics.

    “Often we see advances in mathematics and physics go hand in hand,” said Liam McAllister, professor of physics (A&S), Nally’s faculty host. “For example, calculus in Newton’s time, and the geometry associated with fundamental forces in the mid-20th century. Richard focuses on number theory, a discipline that has been profoundly influential in pure mathematics, but has had hardly any connection to physics – so far. But there is amazing potential.”

    Some of the hardest problems in theoretical physics have pieces of number theory at their core, McAllister said, and by exposing these connections at the frontiers of physics and mathematics, progress can be made in both fields.

    String theory solves quantum gravity, Nally said-but with a catch: it proposes a universe with 10 dimensions. So far, no one has shown that string theory is consistent with our four-dimensional universe. The higher-dimensional shapes such as his K3 surface are helpful in finding something like our world in the math of string theory.

    Researchers have known about the shapes in string theory for decades, Nally said. But in the past few years, he and others have started to take the shapes seriously as number theoretic objects and to study them in that framework. Nally devoted much of his doctoral dissertation at Stanford University to the topic.

    “We want to find a nice shape that lets us keep the solution to quantum gravity, while getting the features – such as an expanding universe and only having four dimensions – that we see in the world around us,” he said.

    Nally is working with McAllister’s research group to take these shapes even further. In a current project, they are looking for a mathematical shape that will connect string theory with the positive cosmological constant, the fact that the rate of the universe’s expansion is accelerating.

    “Nobody has produced a single compelling example of a solution to the equations that define string theory that have this accelerating feature,” Nally said. “The thing we’re working on is producing this example, this one beautiful shape in six dimensions that if you put it on the computer and solve the equation, it says that the [expansion of the] universe is accelerating.”

    The team is making great strides, even in the past month, toward this endeavor, Nally said, but the results are far from guaranteed.

    “We have a series of computer servers we’re using to assist us, and we are going to light them on fire looking for an example,” he said. “Frankly, I don’t know how long that will take. There are too many of these shapes to look at all of them, so you have to make guesses.”

    “Our work involves exploring mathematical realms of theoretical physics,” McAllister said, “especially the geometry of the extra dimensions of string theory, in search of echoes of themes known in pure mathematics. Richard finds concrete, intuitive elements hidden in these very abstract problems.”

    Another project Nally is working on during his Klarman Fellowship connects the physics of string theory with arithmetic geometry. “There is a deep connection between string theory –the sorts of objects physicists in string theory have been studying for the last 20 years –and the field of math,” he said.

    With the Klarman Fellowship, Nally said he has “complete freedom” to pursue these and other projects. The interactive culture of the College of Arts and Sciences, where researchers in physics and math are seeking closer ties, gives him many opportunities for collaboration.

    Nally also teaches a weekly informal seminar on ‘modularity,” an abstract concept related to the mathematics behind his graduate studies. Among those who attend are some of Cornell’s most accomplished physics and math researchers, including McAllister; Tom Hartman, associate professor of physics; Michael Stillman, professor of mathematics; and Ravi Ramakrishna, professor of mathematics.

    “Everyone is invested and wants to learn and wants to genuinely understand what’s happening,” Nally said. “It’s great that I came into this setting; the two departments are already trying to connect.”

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    The College of Arts and Sciences is a division of Cornell University. It has been part of the university since its founding, although its name has changed over time. It grants bachelor’s degrees, and masters and doctorates through affiliation with the Cornell University Graduate School. Its major academic buildings are located on the Arts Quad and include some of the university’s oldest buildings. The college offers courses in many fields of study and is the largest college at Cornell by undergraduate enrollment.

    Originally, the university’s faculty was undifferentiated, but with the founding of the Cornell Law School in 1886 and the concomitant self-segregation of the school’s lawyers, different departments and colleges formed.

    Initially, the division that would become the College of Arts and Sciences was known as the Academic Department, but it was formally renamed in 1903. The College endowed the first professorships in American history, musicology, and American literature. Currently, the college teaches 4,100 undergraduates, with 600 full-time faculty members (and an unspecified number of lecturers) teaching 2,200 courses.

    The Arts Quad is the site of Cornell’s original academic buildings and is home to many of the college’s programs. On the western side of the quad, at the top of Libe Slope, are Morrill Hall (completed in 1866), McGraw Hall (1872) and White Hall (1868). These simple but elegant buildings, built with native Cayuga bluestone, reflect Ezra Cornell’s utilitarianism and are known as Stone Row. The statue of Ezra Cornell, dating back to 1919, stands between Morrill and McGraw Halls. Across from this statue, in front of Goldwin Smith Hall, sits the statue of Andrew Dickson White, Cornell’s other co-founder and its first president.

    Lincoln Hall (1888) also stands on the eastern face of the quad next to Goldwin Smith Hall. On the northern face are the domed Sibley Hall and Tjaden Hall (1883). Just off of the quad on the Slope, next to Tjaden, stands the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, designed by I. M. Pei. Stimson Hall (1902), Olin Library (1959) and Uris Library (1892), with Cornell’s landmark clocktower, McGraw Tower, stand on the southern end of the quad.

    Olin Library replaced Boardman Hall (1892), the original location of the Cornell Law School. In 1992, an underground addition was made to the quad with Kroch Library, an extension of Olin Library that houses several special collections of the Cornell University Library, including the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections.

    Klarman Hall, the first new humanities building at Cornell in over 100 years, opened in 2016.[6] Klarman houses the offices of Comparative Literature and Romance Studies. The building is connected to, and surrounded on three sides by, Goldwin Smith Hall and fronts East Avenue.

    Legends and lore about the Arts Quad and its statues can be found at Cornelliana.

    The College of Arts and Sciences offers both undergraduate and graduate (through the Graduate School) degrees. The only undergraduate degree is the Bachelor of Arts. However, students may enroll in the dual-degree program, which allows them to pursue programs of study in two colleges and receive two different degrees. The faculties within the college are:

    Africana Studies and Research Center*
    American Studies
    Anthropology
    Archaeology
    Asian-American Studies
    Asian Studies
    Astronomy/Astrophysics
    Biology (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences)
    Biology & Society Major (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Human Ecology)
    Chemistry and Chemical Biology
    China and Asia-pacific Studies
    Classics
    Cognitive Studies
    College Scholar Program (frees up to 40 selected students in each class from all degree requirements and allows them to fashion a plan of study conducive to achieving their ultimate intellectual goals; a senior thesis is required)
    Comparative Literature
    Computer Science (with the College of Engineering)
    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Engineering)
    Economics
    English
    Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
    German Studies
    Government
    History
    History of Art
    Human Biology
    Independent Major
    Information Science (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and College of Engineering)
    Jewish Studies
    John S. Knight Institute for Writing in the Disciplines
    Latin American Studies
    Latino Studies
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies
    Linguistics
    Mathematics
    Medieval Studies
    Modern European Studies Concentration
    Music
    Near Eastern Studies
    Philosophy
    Physics
    Psychology
    Religious Studies
    Romance Studies
    Russian
    Science and Technology Studies
    Society for the Humanities
    Sociology
    Theatre, Film, and Dance
    Visual Studies Undergraduate Concentration

    *Africana Studies was an independent center reporting directly to the Provost until July 1, 2011.

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and The Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute(US) in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through The State University of New York (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.

    History

    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.

    Research

    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States. Cornell is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are The Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation, accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration ’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at The California Institute of Technology and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building.

    Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico(US) until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association (US) and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico](US).

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As a National Science Foundation center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer.

    In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Engineering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation.

    During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States.

    Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider (JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider (JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] <a href="http://“>Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:05 am on February 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Mutating Quantum Particles Set in Motion", “Anyons”, , , , The Cavendish Laboratory - Department of Physics (UK), , Theoretical Physics   

    From The Cavendish Laboratory – Department of Physics (UK): “Mutating Quantum Particles Set in Motion” 

    1

    From The Cavendish Laboratory – Department of Physics (UK)

    at

    U Cambridge bloc

    The University of Cambridge (UK)

    2.8.22
    Vanessa Bismuth

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    Artist impression of particle waves. Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay.

    In the world of fundamental particles, you are either a fermion or a boson but a new study from the University of Cambridge shows, for the first time, that one can behave as the other as they move from one place to another.

    Researchers from the Cavendish Laboratory have modelled a quantum walk of identical particles that can change their fundamental character by simply hopping across a domain wall in a one-dimensional lattice.

    Their findings, published as a Letter in Physical Review Research, open up a window to engineer and control new kinds of collective motion in the quantum world.

    All known fundamental particles fall in two groups: either a fermion (“matter particle”) or a boson (“force carrier”), depending on how their state is affected when two particles are exchanged. This “exchange statistics” strongly affects their behaviour, with fermions (electrons) giving rise to the periodic table of elements and bosons (photons) leading to electromagnetic radiation, energy and light.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries.

    Periodic Table 2014 The National Institute of Standards and Technology (US).

    In this new study, the theoretical physicists show that, by applying an effective magnetic field that varies in space and with the particle density, it is possible to coax the same particles to behave as bosons in one region and (pseudo)fermions in another. The boundaries separating these regions are invisible to every single particle and, yet, dramatically alters their collective motion, leading to striking phenomena such as particles getting trapped or fragmenting into many wave packets.

    “Everything that we see around us is made up of either bosons or fermions. These two groups behave and move completely differently: bosons try to bunch together whereas fermions try to stay separate,” explained first author Liam L.H. Lau, who carried out this research during his undergraduate studies at the Cavendish Laboratory and is now a graduate student at Rutgers University.

    “The question we asked was what if the particles could change their character as they moved around on a one-dimensional lattice, our notion of space.”

    This research is partly motivated by the remarkable prospects of being able to control the nature of particles in the laboratory. In particular, certain two-dimensional materials have been found to host particle-like excitations that are in between bosons and fermions – called “anyons” – which could be used to build robust quantum computers. However, in all setups so far, the nature of the particles is fixed and cannot be changed in space or time.

    By analysing mathematical models, the present study shows how one can juxtapose bosonic, fermionic, and even “anyonic” spatial domains in the same physical system, and explores how two particles can move in surprising ways through these different regions.

    “The boundaries separating these regions are very special, because they are transparent to single particles and, yet, control the final distribution by how they reflect or transmit two particles arriving together!” said Lau. The researchers illustrate this “many-body” effect by studying different arrangements of the spatial domains, which give rise to strikingly different collective motion of the two particles, as shown in this image.

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    Density plots showing how two particles move through bosonic (“0”) and pseudo-fermionic (π) regions after being released next to each other in two different scenarios. Left: The particles start out as bosons and move together (solid lines) left and right before impinging on a 0-π; border, where they are partially reflected (solid lines) and partially split (dotted lines). For each splitting, one particle escapes the bosonic region. Right: Starting as pseudo-fermions, the particles move in a “superposition” of two ways: in one, they rapidly move apart as ordinary fermions and pass straight through the π-0 borders (dotted lines); in the other, they are bound together, move very slowly, and are forever trapped in the fermionic region (solid lines). Credit – Lau and Dutta.

    “These variable two-particle interferences are fascinating in their own rights, but the new questions they open up for many particles are even more exciting,” said Dr Shovan Dutta, the study’s co-author who conceived and supervised the research in the Cavendish and has recently moved to The MPG Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems [MPG Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme](DE).

    “Our work builds on recent progress in engineering artificial magnetic fields for neutral atoms, and the predictions can be tested experimentally in existing optical-lattice setups,” added Dutta. “This will open access to a rich class of controllable many-particle dynamics and, potentially, technological applications, including in quantum sensing.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    2

    The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics and is named after the British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish. The laboratory has had a huge influence on research in the disciplines of physics and biology.

    As of 2019, 30 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. Notable discoveries to have occurred at the Cavendish Laboratory include the discovery of the electron, neutron, and structure of DNA.

    The Cavendish Laboratory was initially located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. It is named after British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish for contributions to science and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as chancellor of the university and donated funds for the construction of the laboratory.

    Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the laboratory and the first Cavendish Professor of Physics. The Duke of Devonshire had given to Maxwell, as head of the laboratory, the manuscripts of Henry Cavendish’s unpublished Electrical Works. The editing and publishing of these was Maxwell’s main scientific work while he was at the laboratory. Cavendish’s work aroused Maxwell’s intense admiration and he decided to call the Laboratory (formerly known as the Devonshire Laboratory) the Cavendish Laboratory and thus to commemorate both the Duke and Henry Cavendish.

    Physics

    Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson (1897); the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend and the development of the cloud chamber by C.T.R. Wilson.

    Ernest Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton.

    Physical chemistry

    Physical Chemistry (originally the department of Colloid Science led by Eric Rideal) had left the old Cavendish site, subsequently locating as the Department of Physical Chemistry (under RG Norrish) in the then new chemistry building with the Department of Chemistry (led by Lord Todd) in Lensfield Road: both chemistry departments merged in the 1980s.

    Nuclear physics

    In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb. Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Alan Nunn May, Anthony French, Samuel Curran and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban. Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the Montreal Laboratory and some later to the Chalk River Laboratories. The production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at The University of California-Berkeley (US).

    Biology

    The Cavendish Laboratory has had an important influence on biology, mainly through the application of X-ray crystallography to the study of structures of biological molecules. Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA. For their work while in the Cavendish Laboratory, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962, together with Maurice Wilkins of King’s College London (UK), himself a graduate of St. John’s College, Cambridge.

    The discovery was made on 28 February 1953; the first Watson/Crick paper appeared in Nature on 25 April 1953. Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guy’s Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in The News Chronicle of London, on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life. The news reached readers of The New York Times the next day; Victor K. McElheny, in researching his biography, Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution, found a clipping of a six-paragraph New York Times article written from London and dated 16 May 1953 with the headline Form of `Life Unit’ in Cell Is Scanned. The article ran in an early edition and was then pulled to make space for news deemed more important. (The New York Times subsequently ran a longer article on 12 June 1953). The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity also ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday 30 May 1953. Bragg’s original announcement of the discovery at a Solvay Conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April 1953 went unreported by the British press.

    Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, and Beryl M. Oughton, were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson; at the time they were working at The University of Oxford (UK)’s Chemistry Department. All were impressed by the new DNA model, especially Brenner who subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to the late Dr. Beryl Oughton, later Rimmer, they all travelled together in two cars once Dorothy Hodgkin announced to them that they were off to Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA. Orgel also later worked with Crick at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies (US).

    U Cambridge Campus

    The University of Cambridge (UK) [legally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge] is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world’s fourth-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford(UK) after a dispute with townsfolk. The two ancient universities share many common features and are often jointly referred to as “Oxbridge”.

    Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 semi-autonomous constituent colleges and over 150 academic departments, faculties and other institutions organised into six schools. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. All students are members of a college. Cambridge does not have a main campus and its colleges and central facilities are scattered throughout the city. Undergraduate teaching at Cambridge is organised around weekly small-group supervisions in the colleges – a feature unique to the Oxbridge system. These are complemented by classes, lectures, seminars, laboratory work and occasionally further supervisions provided by the central university faculties and departments. Postgraduate teaching is provided predominantly centrally.

    Cambridge University Press a department of the university is the oldest university press in the world and currently the second largest university press in the world. Cambridge Assessment also a department of the university is one of the world’s leading examining bodies and provides assessment to over eight million learners globally every year. The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden. Cambridge’s libraries – of which there are 116 – hold a total of around 16 million books, around nine million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. The university is home to – but independent of – the Cambridge Union – the world’s oldest debating society. The university is closely linked to the development of the high-tech business cluster known as “Silicon Fe”. It is the central member of Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre based around the Cambridge Biomedical Campus.

    By both endowment size and consolidated assets Cambridge is the wealthiest university in the United Kingdom. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2019, the central university – excluding colleges – had a total income of £2.192 billion of which £592.4 million was from research grants and contracts. At the end of the same financial year the central university and colleges together possessed a combined endowment of over £7.1 billion and overall consolidated net assets (excluding “immaterial” historical assets) of over £12.5 billion. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the ‘golden triangle’ of English universities.

    Cambridge has educated many notable alumni including eminent mathematicians; scientists; politicians; lawyers; philosophers; writers; actors; monarchs and other heads of state. As of October 2020 121 Nobel laureates; 11 Fields Medalists; 7 Turing Award winners; and 14 British prime ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students; alumni; faculty or research staff. University alumni have won 194 Olympic medals.

    History

    By the late 12th century the Cambridge area already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However it was an incident at Oxford which is most likely to have led to the establishment of the university: three Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities who would normally take precedence (and pardon the scholars) in such a case; but were at that time in conflict with King John. Fearing more violence from the townsfolk scholars from the University of Oxford started to move away to cities such as Paris; Reading; and Cambridge. Subsequently enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of a new university when it had become safe enough for academia to resume at Oxford. In order to claim precedence it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members (ius non-trahi extra) and an exemption from some taxes; Oxford was not granted similar rights until 1248.

    A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach “everywhere in Christendom”. After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290 and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318 it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.

    Foundation of the colleges

    The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries; but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane.

    Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse – Cambridge’s first college in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries but colleges continued to be established until modern times. There was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson built in the late 1970s. However Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010 making it the newest full college (it was previously an “Approved Society” affiliated with the university).

    In medieval times many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. The colleges’ focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching “scholastic philosophy”. In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law and towards the classics; the Bible; and mathematics.

    Nearly a century later the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. Many nobles, intellectuals and even commoners saw the ways of the Church of England as too similar to the Catholic Church and felt that it was used by the Crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement. In Cambridge the movement was particularly strong at Emmanuel; St Catharine’s Hall; Sidney Sussex; and Christ’s College. They produced many “non-conformist” graduates who, greatly influenced by social position or preaching left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex.

    Modern period

    After the Cambridge University Act formalised the organisational structure of the university the study of many new subjects was introduced e.g. theology, history and modern languages. Resources necessary for new courses in the arts architecture and archaeology were donated by Viscount Fitzwilliam of Trinity College who also founded the Fitzwilliam Museum. In 1847 Prince Albert was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge after a close contest with the Earl of Powis. Albert used his position as Chancellor to campaign successfully for reformed and more modern university curricula, expanding the subjects taught beyond the traditional mathematics and classics to include modern history and the natural sciences. Between 1896 and 1902 Downing College sold part of its land to build the Downing Site with new scientific laboratories for anatomy, genetics, and Earth sciences. During the same period the New Museums Site was erected including the Cavendish Laboratory which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site and other departments for chemistry and medicine.

    The University of Cambridge began to award PhD degrees in the first third of the 20th century. The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in 1924.

    In the First World War 13,878 members of the university served and 2,470 were killed. Teaching and the fees it earned came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed. As a consequence the university first received systematic state support in 1919 and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the university (but not the colleges) should receive an annual grant. Following the Second World War the university saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places; this was partly due to the success and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:45 am on January 24, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "At the interface of physics and mathematics", , , Integrable model: equation that can be solved exactly., , , , , String Theory-which scientists hope will eventually provide a unified description of particle physics and gravity., , Theoretical Physics   

    From The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH): “At the interface of physics and mathematics” 

    From The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH)

    24.01.2022
    Barbara Vonarburg

    Sylvain Lacroix is a theoretical physicist who conducts research into fundamental concepts of physics – an exciting but intellectually challenging field of science. As an Advanced Fellow at ETH Zürich’s Institute for Theoretical Studies (ITS), he works on complex equations that can be solved exactly only thanks to their large number of symmetries.

    1
    “It was fascinating to learn abstract mathematical concepts and see them neatly applied in the realm of physics,” says Sylvain Lacroix, Advanced Fellow at the Institute for Theoretical Studies. Photo: Nicola Pitaro/ETH Zürich.

    “I got hooked on the interplay of physics and mathematics while I was still at secondary school,” says 30-​year-old Sylvain Lacroix, who was born and grew up near Paris. “It was fascinating to learn abstract mathematical concepts and see them neatly applied in the realm of physics.” During his studies at The University of Lyon [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1] (FR), he devoted much of his energy and enthusiasm to physics problems that had highly complex underlying mathematical structures. So when it came to selecting a topic for his doctoral thesis, this area of research seemed like the obvious choice. He decided to explore the theory of what are known as integrable models – a subject he has continued to pursue up to the present day.

    Lacroix readily acknowledges that most people outside his line of work find the term “integrable models” completely incomprehensible: “I have to admit that it’s probably not the simplest or most accessible field of physics,” he says, almost apologetically. That’s why he takes pains to explain it in layman’s terms: “We define a model as a body of laws, a set of equations that describe the behaviour of certain quantities, for example how the position of an object changes over time.” An integrable model is characterised by equations that can be solved exactly, which is by no means a given.

    Symmetry is the key

    Many of the equations used in modern physics – such as that practised at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] – are so complex that they can be solved only approximately. These approximation methods often serve their purpose well, for instance if there is only a weak interaction between two particles. However, other cases require exact calculations – and that’s where integrable models come in. But what makes them so exact? “That’s another aspect that is tricky to explain,” Lacroix says, “but it ultimately comes down to symmetry.” Take, for example, the symmetry of time or space: a physics experiment will produce the same results whether you perform it today or – under identical conditions – ten days from now, and whether it takes place in Zürich or New York. Consequently, the equation that describes the experiment must remain invariant even if the time or location changes. This is reflected in the mathematical structure of the equation, which contains the corresponding constraints. “If we have enough symmetries, this results in so many constraints that we can simplify the equation to the point where we get exact results,” says the physicist.

    Integrable models and their exact solutions are actually very rare in mathematics. “If I chose a random equation, it would be extremely unlikely to have this property of exact solvability,” Lacroix says. “But equations of this kind really do exist in nature.” Some describe the movement of waves propagating in a channel, for example, while others describe the behaviour of a hydrogen atom. “But it’s important to note that my work doesn’t have any practical applications of that kind,” Lacroix says. “I don’t examine concrete physical models; instead, I study mathematical structures and attempt to find general approaches that will allow us to construct new exactly solvable equations.” Although some of these formulas may eventually find a real-​world application, others probably won’t.

    After completing his doctoral thesis, Lacroix spent three years working as a postdoc at The University of Hamburg [Universität Hamburg](DE), before finally moving to Zürich in September 2021. “I don’t have a family, so I had no problem making the switch,” he says. He is relieved that he can now spend five years at the ITS as an Advanced Fellow and focus entirely on his research without having to worry about the future. He admits it was a pleasure getting to know different countries as a postdoc and that he enjoyed moving from place to place. “But it makes it very hard to have any kind of stability in your life.”

    A beautiful setting

    Lacroix spends most of his time working in his office at the ITS, which is located in a stately building dating from 1882 not far from the ETH Main Building. “It’s a lovely place,” he says, glancing out the window at the green surroundings and the city beyond. “I feel very much at home here. Living in Zürich is wonderful, it’s such a great feeling being here.” In his spare time, he likes watching movies, reading books and socialising. “I love meeting up with friends in restaurants or cafés,” he says. He also feels fortunate that he didn’t start working in Zürich until after the Covid measures had been relaxed.

    “I’m vaccinated and everyone’s very careful at ETH. We still have restrictions in place, but life is slowly getting back to normal – and that made it much easier to get to know my colleagues from day one,” he says. One of the greatest privileges of working at the ITS, Lacroix says, is that it offers an international environment that brings together researchers from all over the world. As well as offering a space for experts to exchange ideas and holding seminars where Fellows can present their work, the Institute also has a tradition of organising joint excursions. In the autumn of 2021, Lacroix joined his colleagues on a hike in the Flumserberg mountain resort for the first time: “I love hiking and it’s incredible to have the mountains so close.”

    Normally, however, he can be found sitting at his desk jotting down a series of mostly abstract equations on a sheet of paper. Occasionally his computer comes in handy, he says, because it has become so much more than just a calculating device; today’s computers can also handle abstract mathematical concepts, which can be very useful. Most people don’t really understand much of what Lacroix puts down on paper, but that doesn’t bother him: “I’ve learned to live with that,” he says; “I don’t feel isolated in my research at all – at least not in the academic sphere.”

    A better understanding of quantum field theory

    Integrable models are extremely symmetrical models, Lacroix explains. The basic principle of symmetry plays an important role in modern physics, for example in quantum field theory – the theoretical basis of particle physics – as well as in string theory, which scientists hope will eventually provide a unified description of particle physics and gravity. So could such an all-​encompassing unified field theory turn out to be an integrable model? “That would obviously be great, especially for me!” Lacroix says with a wry smile. “But it’s a bit optimistic to believe that whatever unified theory of physics finally emerges will have enough symmetries to make it completely exact.”

    Even if the equations he studies don’t explain the world directly, he still believes they can help us achieve a better understanding of theoretical physics. For example, we can take advantage of so-​called “toy models”, which have a particularly large number of symmetries, to simplify extremely complex equations in quantum field theory. “This gives us a better understanding of how the theory works, even if these models are too simplistic for the real world,” Lacroix says. Yet his primary interest lies in the purely mathematical questions that integrable models pose, and he admits that the equations they involve sometimes even appear in his dreams: “It’s hard to shake off what I’ve been thinking about the entire day. But I’ve never managed to solve a mathematical problem in my dreams – at least not so far!”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ETH Zurich campus

    The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH) is a public research university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, the school focuses exclusively on science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Like its sister institution The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne](CH) , it is part of The Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain (ETH Domain)) , part of the The Swiss Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research [EAER][Eidgenössisches Departement für Wirtschaft, Bildung und Forschung] [Département fédéral de l’économie, de la formation et de la recherche] (CH).

    The university is an attractive destination for international students thanks to low tuition fees of 809 CHF per semester, PhD and graduate salaries that are amongst the world’s highest, and a world-class reputation in academia and industry. There are currently 22,200 students from over 120 countries, of which 4,180 are pursuing doctoral degrees. In the 2021 edition of the QS World University Rankings ETH Zürich is ranked 6th in the world and 8th by the Times Higher Education World Rankings 2020. In the 2020 QS World University Rankings by subject it is ranked 4th in the world for engineering and technology (2nd in Europe) and 1st for earth & marine science.

    As of November 2019, 21 Nobel laureates, 2 Fields Medalists, 2 Pritzker Prize winners, and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein. Other notable alumni include John von Neumann and Santiago Calatrava. It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) and a member of the CESAER network.

    ETH Zürich was founded on 7 February 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and began giving its first lectures on 16 October 1855 as a polytechnic institute (eidgenössische polytechnische Schule) at various sites throughout the city of Zurich. It was initially composed of six faculties: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry, forestry, and an integrated department for the fields of mathematics, natural sciences, literature, and social and political sciences.

    It is locally still known as Polytechnikum, or simply as Poly, derived from the original name eidgenössische polytechnische Schule, which translates to “federal polytechnic school”.

    ETH Zürich is a federal institute (i.e., under direct administration by the Swiss government), whereas The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ] (CH) is a cantonal institution. The decision for a new federal university was heavily disputed at the time; the liberals pressed for a “federal university”, while the conservative forces wanted all universities to remain under cantonal control, worried that the liberals would gain more political power than they already had. In the beginning, both universities were co-located in the buildings of the University of Zürich.

    From 1905 to 1908, under the presidency of Jérôme Franel, the course program of ETH Zürich was restructured to that of a real university and ETH Zürich was granted the right to award doctorates. In 1909 the first doctorates were awarded. In 1911, it was given its current name, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments.

    ETH Zürich, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne](CH), and four associated research institutes form The Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles polytechniques fédérales] (CH) with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects.

    Reputation and ranking

    ETH Zürich is ranked among the top universities in the world. Typically, popular rankings place the institution as the best university in continental Europe and ETH Zürich is consistently ranked among the top 1-5 universities in Europe, and among the top 3-10 best universities of the world.

    Historically, ETH Zürich has achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics. There are 32 Nobel laureates who are associated with ETH Zürich, the most recent of whom is Richard F. Heck, awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is perhaps its most famous alumnus.

    In 2018, the QS World University Rankings placed ETH Zürich at 7th overall in the world. In 2015, ETH Zürich was ranked 5th in the world in Engineering, Science and Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Stanford University(US) and University of Cambridge(UK). In 2015, ETH Zürich also ranked 6th in the world in Natural Sciences, and in 2016 ranked 1st in the world for Earth & Marine Sciences for the second consecutive year.

    In 2016, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked ETH Zürich 9th overall in the world and 8th in the world in the field of Engineering & Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Stanford University(US), California Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Cambridge(UK), Imperial College London(UK) and University of Oxford(UK) .

    In a comparison of Swiss universities by swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zürich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences.

    In the survey CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programs in the fields of biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics, ETH Zürich was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent programs in all the considered fields, the other two being Imperial College London(UK) and The University of Cambridge(UK), respectively.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:17 pm on December 22, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A-list candidate for fault-free quantum computing delivers surprise", , Contradictory experimental findings in several kinds of unconventional superconductors including heavy fermions-the class that includes uranium ditelluride., Experiments revealed telltale signs of antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations that were coupled to superconductivity in uranium ditelluride., In multiorbital pairing electrons in some atomic shells are more likely to form pairs than others., Neutron-scattering experiments, , , , , Spin-triplet superconductivity arises from antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in a way that physicists haven’t previously imagined., , Superconductivity happens when electrons form pairs and move as one like couples spinning across a dance floor., The name spin triplet refers to the spontaneous breakdown of three symmetries in these ordered arrangements., Theoretical Physics, Uranium ditelluride crystals are believed to host a rare “ spin-triplet” form of superconductivity. Puzzling experimental results upended the leading explanation.   

    From Rice University (US) : “A-list candidate for fault-free quantum computing delivers surprise” 

    From Rice University (US)

    Dec. 22, 2021
    Jade Boyd

    Puzzling result forces physicists to rethink ‘spin-triplet’ superconductivity.

    1
    An artist’s impression of a neutron striking a sample of superconducting uranium ditelluride in experiments at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US). Crystals of uranium (dark gray) and tellurium (brown) are suspected of hosting spin-triplet superconductivity, a state marked by electron pairs with spins pointed in the same direction (blue). In neutron scattering experiments, incoming neutrons disrupt pairs by flipping one spin in the opposite direction (red), revealing telltale evidence of the pair’s quantum mechanical state. (Credit: Jill Hemman/DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US))

    A Rice University-led study is forcing physicists to rethink superconductivity in uranium ditelluride, an A-list material in the worldwide race to create fault-tolerant quantum computers.

    Uranium ditelluride crystals are believed to host a rare “ spin-triplet” form of superconductivity, but puzzling experimental results published this week in Nature have upended the leading explanation of how the state of matter could arise in the material. Neutron-scattering experiments by physicists from Rice, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US), The University of California-San Diego (US) and The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (US) at The Florida State University (US) revealed telltale signs of antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations that were coupled to superconductivity in uranium ditelluride.

    Spin-triplet superconductivity has not been observed in a solid-state material, but physicists have long suspected it arises from an ordered state that is ferromagnetic. The race to find spin-triplet materials has heated up in recent years due to their potential for hosting elusive quasiparticles called Majorana fermions that could be used to make error-free quantum computers .

    “People have spent billions of dollars trying to search for them,” Rice study co-author Pengcheng Dai said of Majorana fermions, hypothetical quasiparticles that could be used to make topological quantum bits free from the problematic decoherence that plagues qubits in today’s quantum computers .

    “The promise is that if you have a spin-triplet superconductor, it can potentially be used to make topological qubits,” said Dai, a professor of physics and astronomy and member of the Rice Quantum Initiative. “You can’t do that with spin-singlet superconductors. So, that’s why people are extremely interested in this.”

    Superconductivity happens when electrons form pairs and move as one like couples spinning across a dance floor. Electrons naturally loathe one another, but their tendency to avoid other electrons can be overcome by their inherent desire for a low-energy existence. If pairing allows electrons to achieve a more sloth-like state than they could achieve on their own — something that’s only possible at extremely cold temperatures — they can be coaxed into pairs.

    The coaxing comes in the form of fluctuations in their physical environment. In normal superconductors, like lead, the fluctuations are vibrations in the atomic lattice of lead atoms inside the superconducting wire. Physicists have yet to identify the fluctuations that bring about unconventional superconductivity in materials like uranium ditelluride. But decades of study have found phase changes — watershed moments where electrons spontaneously rearrange themselves — at the critical points where pairing begins.

    In the equations of quantum mechanics, these spontaneous ordered arrangements are represented by terms known as order parameters. The name spin triplet refers to the spontaneous breakdown of three symmetries in these ordered arrangements. For example, electrons spin constantly, like tiny bar magnets. One order parameter relates to their spin axis (think north pole), which points up or down. Ferromagnetic order is when all spins point the same direction, and antiferromagnetic order is when they alternate in an up-down, up-down arrangement. In the only confirmed spin-triplet, superfluid helium-3 , the order parameter has no fewer than 18 components.

    “All other superconductivity is spin singlet,” said Dai, who’s also a member of Rice’s Center for Quantum Materials (RCQM). “In a spin singlet, you have one spin up and one spin down, and if you put a magnetic field on, it can easily destroy superconductivity.”

    That’s because the magnetic field pushes spins to align in the same direction. The stronger the field, the stronger the push.

    “The problem with uranium ditelluride is the field required to destroy superconductivity is 40 Tesla,” Dai said. “That’s huge. For 40 years, people thought the only possibility for that to occur is that when you put a field on, the spins are already aligned in one direction, meaning it’s a ferromagnet.”

    In the study, Dai and Rice postdoctoral research associate Chunruo Duan, the study’s lead author, worked with Florida State co-author Ryan Baumbach, whose lab grew the single crystal samples of uranium ditelluride used in the experiment, and UC San Diego co-author Brian Maple, whose lab tested and prepared the samples for neutron-scattering experiments at Oak Ridge’s Spallation Neutron Source [below].

    “What the neutron does is come in with a particular energy and momentum, and it can flip the Cooper pair spins from an up-up state to an up-down state,” Dai said. “It tells you how the pairs are formed. From this neutron spin resonance , one can basically determine the electron pairing energy” and other telltale properties of the quantum mechanical wave function that describes the pair, he said.

    Dai said there are two possible explanations for the result: either uranium ditelluride is not a spin-triplet superconductor, or spin-triplet superconductivity arises from antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in a way that physicists haven’t previously imagined. Dai said decades of experimental evidence points to the latter , but this appears to violate conventional wisdom about superconductivity. So Dai teamed up with Rice colleague Qimiao Si, a theoretical physicist who specializes in emergent quantum phenomena like unconventional superconductivity.

    Si, a study co-author, has spent much of the past five years showing a theory of multiorbital pairing he co-developed with former Ph.D. student Emilian Nica explains contradictory experimental findings in several kinds of unconventional superconductors including heavy fermions-the class that includes uranium ditelluride.

    In multiorbital pairing electrons in some atomic shells are more likely to form pairs than others. Si recalled thinking that uranium had the potential to contribute paired electrons from any of seven orbitals with 14 possible states.

    “Multiorbitals was the first thing that came to mind,” he said. “It wouldn’t be possible if you only had one band or one orbital, but orbitals bring a new dimension to possible unconventional superconductor pairings. They’re like a palette of colors. The colors are the internal quantum numbers, and the f electrons in the uranium-based, heavy-fermion materials are naturally set up to have these colors. They lead to new possibilities that go beyond the ‘periodic table of pairing states.’ One of these new possibilities turns out to be spin-triplet pairing.”

    Si and Nica, who’s now at The Arizona State University (US), showed antiferromagnetic correlations could give rise to plausible, low-energy, spin-triplet pairing states.

    “Spin-triplet pairing states are highly improbable in the vast majority of cases because pairs will form as spin-singlets in order to lower their energy,” Si said. “In uranium ditelluride, spin-orbit coupling can change the energy landscape in a way that makes spin-triplet pairing states more competitive with their spin-singlet counterparts.”

    Si is the Harry C. and Olga K. Wiess Professor in Rice’s Department of Physics and Astronomy and director of RCQM. Additional co-authors include Andrey Podlesnyak of Oak Ridge and Yuhang Deng, Camilla Moir and Alexander Breindel of UC San Diego.

    The research was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science’s Office of Basic Energy Science (DE-SC0012311, DE-SC0016568, DE-SC0018197, DEFG02-04-ER46105), the Robert A. Welch Foundation (C-1839, C-1411), The National Science Foundation (US) (1644779, 1810310, 1607611) and the State of Florida, The Arizona State University (US) and the DOE Office of Science User Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source.

    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings


    Stem Education Coalition

    Rice University [formally William Marsh Rice University] is a private research university in Houston, Texas. It is situated on a 300-acre campus near the Houston Museum District and is adjacent to the Texas Medical Center.

    Opened in 1912 after the murder of its namesake William Marsh Rice, Rice is a research university with an undergraduate focus. Its emphasis on education is demonstrated by a small student body and 6:1 student-faculty ratio. The university has a very high level of research activity. Rice is noted for its applied science programs in the fields of artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing, space science, and nanotechnology. Rice has been a member of the Association of American Universities since 1985 and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    The university is organized into eleven residential colleges and eight schools of academic study, including the Wiess School of Natural Sciences, the George R. Brown School of Engineering, the School of Social Sciences, School of Architecture, Shepherd School of Music and the School of Humanities. Rice’s undergraduate program offers more than fifty majors and two dozen minors, and allows a high level of flexibility in pursuing multiple degree programs. Additional graduate programs are offered through the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business and the Susanne M. Glasscock School of Continuing Studies. Rice students are bound by the strict Honor Code, which is enforced by a student-run Honor Council.

    Rice competes in 14 NCAA Division I varsity sports and is a part of Conference USA, often competing with its cross-town rival the University of Houston. Intramural and club sports are offered in a wide variety of activities such as jiu jitsu, water polo, and crew.

    The university’s alumni include more than two dozen Marshall Scholars and a dozen Rhodes Scholars. Given the university’s close links to NASA, it has produced a significant number of astronauts and space scientists. In business, Rice graduates include CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies; in politics, alumni include congressmen, cabinet secretaries, judges, and mayors. Two alumni have won the Nobel Prize.

    Background

    Rice University’s history began with the demise of Massachusetts businessman William Marsh Rice, who had made his fortune in real estate, railroad development and cotton trading in the state of Texas. In 1891, Rice decided to charter a free-tuition educational institute in Houston, bearing his name, to be created upon his death, earmarking most of his estate towards funding the project. Rice’s will specified the institution was to be “a competitive institution of the highest grade” and that only white students would be permitted to attend. On the morning of September 23, 1900, Rice, age 84, was found dead by his valet, Charles F. Jones, and was presumed to have died in his sleep. Shortly thereafter, a large check made out to Rice’s New York City lawyer, signed by the late Rice, aroused the suspicion of a bank teller, due to the misspelling of the recipient’s name. The lawyer, Albert T. Patrick, then announced that Rice had changed his will to leave the bulk of his fortune to Patrick, rather than to the creation of Rice’s educational institute. A subsequent investigation led by the District Attorney of New York resulted in the arrests of Patrick and of Rice’s butler and valet Charles F. Jones, who had been persuaded to administer chloroform to Rice while he slept. Rice’s friend and personal lawyer in Houston, Captain James A. Baker, aided in the discovery of what turned out to be a fake will with a forged signature. Jones was not prosecuted since he cooperated with the district attorney, and testified against Patrick. Patrick was found guilty of conspiring to steal Rice’s fortune and he was convicted of murder in 1901 (he was pardoned in 1912 due to conflicting medical testimony). Baker helped Rice’s estate direct the fortune, worth $4.6 million in 1904 ($131 million today), towards the founding of what was to be called the Rice Institute, later to become Rice University. The board took control of the assets on April 29 of that year.

    In 1907, the Board of Trustees selected the head of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy at Princeton University, Edgar Odell Lovett, to head the Institute, which was still in the planning stages. He came recommended by Princeton’s president, Woodrow Wilson. In 1908, Lovett accepted the challenge, and was formally inaugurated as the Institute’s first president on October 12, 1912. Lovett undertook extensive research before formalizing plans for the new Institute, including visits to 78 institutions of higher learning across the world on a long tour between 1908 and 1909. Lovett was impressed by such things as the aesthetic beauty of the uniformity of the architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, a theme which was adopted by the Institute, as well as the residential college system at Cambridge University in England, which was added to the Institute several decades later. Lovett called for the establishment of a university “of the highest grade,” “an institution of liberal and technical learning” devoted “quite as much to investigation as to instruction.” [We must] “keep the standards up and the numbers down,” declared Lovett. “The most distinguished teachers must take their part in undergraduate teaching, and their spirit should dominate it all.”

    Establishment and growth

    In 1911, the cornerstone was laid for the Institute’s first building, the Administration Building, now known as Lovett Hall in honor of the founding president. On September 23, 1912, the 12th anniversary of William Marsh Rice’s murder, the William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science, and Art began course work with 59 enrolled students, who were known as the “59 immortals,” and about a dozen faculty. After 18 additional students joined later, Rice’s initial class numbered 77, 48 male and 29 female. Unusual for the time, Rice accepted coeducational admissions from its beginning, but on-campus housing would not become co-ed until 1957.

    Three weeks after opening, a spectacular international academic festival was held, bringing Rice to the attention of the entire academic world.

    Per William Marsh Rice’s will and Rice Institute’s initial charter, the students paid no tuition. Classes were difficult, however, and about half of Rice’s students had failed after the first 1912 term. At its first commencement ceremony, held on June 12, 1916, Rice awarded 35 bachelor’s degrees and one master’s degree. That year, the student body also voted to adopt the Honor System, which still exists today. Rice’s first doctorate was conferred in 1918 on mathematician Hubert Evelyn Bray.

    The Founder’s Memorial Statue, a bronze statue of a seated William Marsh Rice, holding the original plans for the campus, was dedicated in 1930, and installed in the central academic quad, facing Lovett Hall. The statue was crafted by John Angel. In 2020, Rice students petitioned the university to take down the statue due to the founder’s history as slave owner.

    During World War II, Rice Institute was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.

    The residential college system proposed by President Lovett was adopted in 1958, with the East Hall residence becoming Baker College, South Hall residence becoming Will Rice College, West Hall becoming Hanszen College, and the temporary Wiess Hall becoming Wiess College.

    In 1959, the Rice Institute Computer went online. 1960 saw Rice Institute formally renamed William Marsh Rice University. Rice acted as a temporary intermediary in the transfer of land between Humble Oil and Refining Company and NASA, for the creation of NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center (now called Johnson Space Center) in 1962. President John F. Kennedy then made a speech at Rice Stadium reiterating that the United States intended to reach the moon before the end of the decade of the 1960s, and “to become the world’s leading space-faring nation”. The relationship of NASA with Rice University and the city of Houston has remained strong to the present day.

    The original charter of Rice Institute dictated that the university admit and educate, tuition-free, “the white inhabitants of Houston, and the state of Texas”. In 1963, the governing board of Rice University filed a lawsuit to allow the university to modify its charter to admit students of all races and to charge tuition. Ph.D. student Raymond Johnson became the first black Rice student when he was admitted that year. In 1964, Rice officially amended the university charter to desegregate its graduate and undergraduate divisions. The Trustees of Rice University prevailed in a lawsuit to void the racial language in the trust in 1966. Rice began charging tuition for the first time in 1965. In the same year, Rice launched a $33 million ($268 million) development campaign. $43 million ($283 million) was raised by its conclusion in 1970. In 1974, two new schools were founded at Rice, the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management and the Shepherd School of Music. The Brown Foundation Challenge, a fund-raising program designed to encourage annual gifts, was launched in 1976 and ended in 1996 having raised $185 million. The Rice School of Social Sciences was founded in 1979.

    On-campus housing was exclusively for men for the first forty years, until 1957. Jones College was the first women’s residence on the Rice campus, followed by Brown College. According to legend, the women’s colleges were purposefully situated at the opposite end of campus from the existing men’s colleges as a way of preserving campus propriety, which was greatly valued by Edgar Odell Lovett, who did not even allow benches to be installed on campus, fearing that they “might lead to co-fraternization of the sexes”. The path linking the north colleges to the center of campus was given the tongue-in-cheek name of “Virgin’s Walk”. Individual colleges became coeducational between 1973 and 1987, with the single-sex floors of colleges that had them becoming co-ed by 2006. By then, several new residential colleges had been built on campus to handle the university’s growth, including Lovett College, Sid Richardson College, and Martel College.

    Late twentieth and early twenty-first century

    The Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations was held at Rice in 1990. Three years later, in 1993, the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy was created. In 1997, the Edythe Bates Old Grand Organ and Recital Hall and the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, renamed in 2005 for the late Nobel Prize winner and Rice professor Richard E. Smalley, were dedicated at Rice. In 1999, the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology was created. The Rice Owls baseball team was ranked #1 in the nation for the first time in that year (1999), holding the top spot for eight weeks.

    In 2003, the Owls won their first national championship in baseball, which was the first for the university in any team sport, beating Southwest Missouri State in the opening game and then the University of Texas and Stanford University twice each en route to the title. In 2008, President David Leebron issued a ten-point plan titled “Vision for the Second Century” outlining plans to increase research funding, strengthen existing programs, and increase collaboration. The plan has brought about another wave of campus constructions, including the erection the newly renamed BioScience Research Collaborative building (intended to foster collaboration with the adjacent Texas Medical Center), a new recreational center and the renovated Autry Court basketball stadium, and the addition of two new residential colleges, Duncan College and McMurtry College.

    Beginning in late 2008, the university considered a merger with Baylor College of Medicine, though the merger was ultimately rejected in 2010. Rice undergraduates are currently guaranteed admission to Baylor College of Medicine upon graduation as part of the Rice/Baylor Medical Scholars program. According to History Professor John Boles’ recent book University Builder: Edgar Odell Lovett and the Founding of the Rice Institute, the first president’s original vision for the university included hopes for future medical and law schools.

    In 2018, the university added an online MBA program, MBA@Rice.

    In June 2019, the university’s president announced plans for a task force on Rice’s “past in relation to slave history and racial injustice”, stating that “Rice has some historical connections to that terrible part of American history and the segregation and racial disparities that resulted directly from it”.

    Campus

    Rice’s campus is a heavily wooded 285-acre (115-hectare) tract of land in the museum district of Houston, located close to the city of West University Place.

    Five streets demarcate the campus: Greenbriar Street, Rice Boulevard, Sunset Boulevard, Main Street, and University Boulevard. For most of its history, all of Rice’s buildings have been contained within this “outer loop”. In recent years, new facilities have been built close to campus, but the bulk of administrative, academic, and residential buildings are still located within the original pentagonal plot of land. The new Collaborative Research Center, all graduate student housing, the Greenbriar building, and the Wiess President’s House are located off-campus.

    Rice prides itself on the amount of green space available on campus; there are only about 50 buildings spread between the main entrance at its easternmost corner, and the parking lots and Rice Stadium at the West end. The Lynn R. Lowrey Arboretum, consisting of more than 4000 trees and shrubs (giving birth to the legend that Rice has a tree for every student), is spread throughout the campus.

    The university’s first president, Edgar Odell Lovett, intended for the campus to have a uniform architecture style to improve its aesthetic appeal. To that end, nearly every building on campus is noticeably Byzantine in style, with sand and pink-colored bricks, large archways and columns being a common theme among many campus buildings. Noteworthy exceptions include the glass-walled Brochstein Pavilion, Lovett College with its Brutalist-style concrete gratings, Moody Center for the Arts with its contemporary design, and the eclectic-Mediterranean Duncan Hall. In September 2011, Travel+Leisure listed Rice’s campus as one of the most beautiful in the United States.

    Lovett Hall, named for Rice’s first president, is the university’s most iconic campus building. Through its Sallyport arch, new students symbolically enter the university during matriculation and depart as graduates at commencement. Duncan Hall, Rice’s computational engineering building, was designed to encourage collaboration between the four different departments situated there. The building’s foyer, drawn from many world cultures, was designed by the architect to symbolically express this collaborative purpose.

    The campus is organized in a number of quadrangles. The Academic Quad, anchored by a statue of founder William Marsh Rice, includes Ralph Adams Cram’s masterpiece, the asymmetrical Lovett Hall, the original administrative building; Fondren Library; Herzstein Hall; the original physics building and home to the largest amphitheater on campus; Sewall Hall for the social sciences and arts; Rayzor Hall for the languages; and Anderson Hall of the Architecture department. The Humanities Building winner of several architectural awards is immediately adjacent to the main quad. Further west lies a quad surrounded by McNair Hall of the Jones Business School; the Baker Institute; and Alice Pratt Brown Hall of the Shepherd School of Music. These two quads are surrounded by the university’s main access road, a one-way loop referred to as the “inner loop”. In the Engineering Quad, a trinity of sculptures by Michael Heizer, collectively entitled 45 Degrees; 90 Degrees; 180 Degrees are flanked by Abercrombie Laboratory; the Cox Building; and the Mechanical Laboratory housing the Electrical; Mechanical; and Earth Science/Civil Engineering departments respectively. Duncan Hall is the latest addition to this quad providing new offices for the Computer Science; Computational and Applied Math; Electrical and Computer Engineering; and Statistics departments.

    Roughly three-quarters of Rice’s undergraduate population lives on campus. Housing is divided among eleven residential colleges which form an integral part of student life at the university The colleges are named for university historical figures and benefactors.While there is wide variation in their appearance; facilities; and dates of founding are an important source of identity for Rice students functioning as dining halls; residence halls; sports teams among other roles. Rice does not have or endorse a Greek system with the residential college system taking its place. Five colleges: McMurtry; Duncan; Martel; Jones; and Brown are located on the north side of campus across from the “South Colleges”; Baker; Will Rice; Lovett, Hanszen; Sid Richardson; and Wiess on the other side of the Academic Quadrangle. Of the eleven colleges Baker is the oldest originally built in 1912 and the twin Duncan and McMurtry colleges are the newest and opened for the first time for the 2009–10 school year. Will Rice; Baker; and Lovett colleges are undergoing renovation to expand their dining facilities as well as the number of rooms available for students.

    The on-campus football facility-Rice Stadium opened in 1950 with a capacity of 70000 seats. After improvements in 2006 the stadium is currently configured to seat 47,000 for football but can readily be reconfigured to its original capacity of 70000, more than the total number of Rice alumni living and deceased. The stadium was the site of Super Bowl VIII and a speech by John F. Kennedy on September 12 1962 in which he challenged the nation to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade. The recently renovated Tudor Fieldhouse formerly known as Autry Court is home to the basketball and volleyball teams. Other stadia include the Rice Track/Soccer Stadium and the Jake Hess Tennis Stadium. A new Rec Center now houses the intramural sports offices and provide an outdoor pool and training and exercise facilities for all Rice students while athletics training will solely be held at Tudor Fieldhouse and the Rice Football Stadium.

    The university and Houston Independent School District jointly established The Rice School-a kindergarten through 8th grade public magnet school in Houston. The school opened in August 1994. Through Cy-Fair ISD Rice University offers a credit course based summer school for grades 8 through 12. They also have skills based classes during the summer in the Rice Summer School.

    Innovation District

    In early 2019 Rice announced the site where the abandoned Sears building in Midtown Houston stood along with its surrounding area would be transformed into the “The Ion” the hub of the 16-acre South Main Innovation District. President of Rice David Leebron stated “We chose the name Ion because it’s from the Greek ienai, which means ‘go’. We see it as embodying the ever-forward motion of discovery, the spark at the center of a truly original idea.”

    Students of Rice and other Houston-area colleges and universities making up the Student Coalition for a Just and Equitable Innovation Corridor are advocating for a Community Benefits Agreement (CBA)-a contractual agreement between a developer and a community coalition. Residents of neighboring Third Ward and other members of the Houston Coalition for Equitable Development Without Displacement (HCEDD) have faced consistent opposition from the City of Houston and Rice Management Company to a CBA as traditionally defined in favor of an agreement between the latter two entities without a community coalition signatory.

    Organization

    Rice University is chartered as a non-profit organization and is governed by a privately appointed board of trustees. The board consists of a maximum of 25 voting members who serve four-year terms. The trustees serve without compensation and a simple majority of trustees must reside in Texas including at least four within the greater Houston area. The board of trustees delegates its power by appointing a president to serve as the chief executive of the university. David W. Leebron was appointed president in 2004 and succeeded Malcolm Gillis who served since 1993. The provost six vice presidents and other university officials report to the president. The president is advised by a University Council composed of the provost, eight members of the Faculty Council, two staff members, one graduate student, and two undergraduate students. The president presides over a Faculty Council which has the authority to alter curricular requirements, establish new degree programs, and approve candidates for degrees.

    The university’s academics are organized into several schools. Schools that have undergraduate and graduate programs include:

    The Rice University School of Architecture
    The George R. Brown School of Engineering
    The School of Humanities
    The Shepherd School of Music
    The Wiess School of Natural Sciences
    The Rice University School of Social Sciences

    Two schools have only graduate programs:

    The Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management
    The Susanne M. Glasscock School of Continuing Studies

    Rice’s undergraduate students benefit from a centralized admissions process which admits new students to the university as a whole, rather than a specific school (the schools of Music and Architecture are decentralized). Students are encouraged to select the major path that best suits their desires; a student can later decide that they would rather pursue study in another field or continue their current coursework and add a second or third major. These transitions are designed to be simple at Rice with students not required to decide on a specific major until their sophomore year of study.

    Rice’s academics are organized into six schools which offer courses of study at the graduate and undergraduate level, with two more being primarily focused on graduate education, while offering select opportunities for undergraduate students. Rice offers 360 degrees in over 60 departments. There are 40 undergraduate degree programs, 51 masters programs, and 29 doctoral programs.

    Faculty members of each of the departments elect chairs to represent the department to each School’s dean and the deans report to the Provost who serves as the chief officer for academic affairs.

    Rice Management Company

    The Rice Management Company manages the $6.5 billion Rice University endowment (June 2019) and $957 million debt. The endowment provides 40% of Rice’s operating revenues. Allison Thacker is the President and Chief Investment Officer of the Rice Management Company, having joined the university in 2011.

    Academics

    Rice is a medium-sized highly residential research university. The majority of enrollments are in the full-time four-year undergraduate program emphasizing arts & sciences and professions. There is a high graduate coexistence with the comprehensive graduate program and a very high level of research activity. It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools as well as the professional accreditation agencies for engineering, management, and architecture.

    Each of Rice’s departments is organized into one of three distribution groups, and students whose major lies within the scope of one group must take at least 3 courses of at least 3 credit hours each of approved distribution classes in each of the other two groups, as well as completing one physical education course as part of the LPAP (Lifetime Physical Activity Program) requirement. All new students must take a Freshman Writing Intensive Seminar (FWIS) class, and for students who do not pass the university’s writing composition examination (administered during the summer before matriculation), FWIS 100, a writing class, becomes an additional requirement.

    The majority of Rice’s undergraduate degree programs grant B.S. or B.A. degrees. Rice has recently begun to offer minors in areas such as business, energy and water sustainability, and global health.

    Student body

    As of fall 2014, men make up 52% of the undergraduate body and 64% of the professional and post-graduate student body. The student body consists of students from all 50 states, including the District of Columbia, two U.S. Territories, and 83 foreign countries. Forty percent of degree-seeking students are from Texas.

    Research centers and resources

    Rice is noted for its applied science programs in the fields of nanotechnology, artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing and space science.

    Rice Alliance for Technology and Entrepreneurship – supports entrepreneurs and early-stage technology ventures in Houston and Texas through education, collaboration, and research, ranked No. 1 among university business incubators.
    Baker Institute for Public Policy – a leading nonpartisan public policy think-tank
    BioScience Research Collaborative (BRC) – interdisciplinary, cross-campus, and inter-institutional resource between Rice University and Texas Medical Center
    Boniuk Institute – dedicated to religious tolerance and advancing religious literacy, respect and mutual understanding
    Center for African and African American Studies – fosters conversations on topics such as critical approaches to race and racism, the nature of diasporic histories and identities, and the complexity of Africa’s past, present and future
    Chao Center for Asian Studies – research hub for faculty, students and post-doctoral scholars working in Asian studies
    Center for the Study of Women, Gender, and Sexuality (CSWGS) – interdisciplinary academic programs and research opportunities, including the journal Feminist Economics
    Data to Knowledge Lab (D2K) – campus hub for experiential learning in data science
    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) – center for education and research in the field of digital signal processing
    Ethernest Hackerspace – student-run hackerspace for undergraduate engineering students sponsored by the ECE department and the IEEE student chapter
    Humanities Research Center (HRC) – identifies, encourages, and funds innovative research projects by faculty, visiting scholars, graduate, and undergraduate students in the School of Humanities and beyond
    Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering (IBB) – facilitates the translation of interdisciplinary research and education in biosciences and bioengineering
    Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology – advances applied interdisciplinary research in the areas of computation and information technology
    Kinder Institute for Urban Research – conducts the Houston Area Survey, “the nation’s longest running study of any metropolitan region’s economy, population, life experiences, beliefs and attitudes”
    Laboratory for Nanophotonics (LANP) – a resource for education and research breakthroughs and advances in the broad, multidisciplinary field of nanophotonics
    Moody Center for the Arts – experimental arts space featuring studio classrooms, maker space, audiovisual editing booths, and a gallery and office space for visiting national and international artists
    OpenStax CNX (formerly Connexions) and OpenStax – an open source platform and open access publisher, respectively, of open educational resources
    Oshman Engineering Design Kitchen (OEDK) – space for undergraduate students to design, prototype and deploy solutions to real-world engineering challenges
    Rice Cinema – an independent theater run by the Visual and Dramatic Arts department at Rice which screens documentaries, foreign films, and experimental cinema and hosts film festivals and lectures since 1970
    Rice Center for Engineering Leadership (RCEL) – inspires, educates, and develops ethical leaders in technology who will excel in research, industry, non-engineering career paths, or entrepreneurship
    Religion and Public Life Program (RPLP) – a research, training and outreach program working to advance understandings of the role of religion in public life
    Rice Design Alliance (RDA) – outreach and public programs of the Rice School of Architecture
    Rice Center for Quantum Materials (RCQM) – organization dedicated to research and higher education in areas relating to quantum phenomena
    Rice Neuroengineering Initiative (NEI) – fosters research collaborations in neural engineering topics
    Rice Space Institute (RSI) – fosters programs in all areas of space research
    Smalley-Curl Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (SCI) – the nation’s first nanotechnology center
    Welch Institute for Advanced Materials – collaborative research institute to support the foundational research for discoveries in materials science, similar to the model of Salk Institute and Broad Institute
    Woodson Research Center Special Collections & Archives – publisher of print and web-based materials highlighting the department’s primary source collections such as the Houston African American, Asian American, and Jewish History Archives, University Archives, rare books, and hip hop/rap music-related materials from the Swishahouse record label and Houston Folk Music Archive, etc.

    Student life

    Situated on nearly 300 acres (120 ha) in the center of Houston’s Museum District and across the street from the city’s Hermann Park, Rice is a green and leafy refuge; an oasis of learning convenient to the amenities of the nation’s fourth-largest city. Rice’s campus adjoins Hermann Park, the Texas Medical Center, and a neighborhood commercial center called Rice Village. Hermann Park includes the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Houston Zoo, Miller Outdoor Theatre and an 18-hole municipal golf course. NRG Park, home of NRG Stadium and the Astrodome, is two miles (3 km) south of the campus. Among the dozen or so museums in the Museum District was (until May 14, 2017) the Rice University Art Gallery, open during the school year from 1995 until it closed in 2017. Easy access to downtown’s theater and nightlife district and to Reliant Park is provided by the Houston METRORail system, with a station adjacent to the campus’s main gate. The campus recently joined the Zipcar program with two vehicles to increase the transportation options for students and staff who need but currently don’t utilize a vehicle.

    Residential colleges

    In 1957, Rice University implemented a residential college system, which was proposed by the university’s first president, Edgar Odell Lovett. The system was inspired by existing systems in place at Oxford(UK) and Cambridge(UK) and at several other universities in the United States, most notably Yale University. The existing residences known as East, South, West, and Wiess Halls became Baker, Will Rice, Hanszen, and Wiess Colleges, respectively.

    List of residential colleges:

    Baker College, named in honor of Captain James A. Baker, friend and attorney of William Marsh Rice, and first chair of the Rice Board of Governors.
    Will Rice College, named for William M. Rice, Jr., the nephew of the university’s founder, William Marsh Rice.
    Hanszen College, named for Harry Clay Hanszen, benefactor to the university and chairman of the Rice Board of Governors from 1946 to 1950.
    Wiess College, named for Harry Carothers Wiess (1887–1948), one of the founders and one-time president of Humble Oil, now ExxonMobil.
    Jones College, named for Mary Gibbs Jones, wife of prominent Houston philanthropist Jesse Holman Jones.
    Brown College, named for Margaret Root Brown by her in-laws, George R. Brown.
    Lovett College, named after the university’s first president, Edgar Odell Lovett.
    Sid Richardson College, named for the Sid Richardson Foundation, which was established by Texas oilman, cattleman, and philanthropist Sid W. Richardson.
    Martel College, named for Marian and Speros P. Martel, was built in 2002.
    McMurtry College, named for Rice alumni Burt and Deedee McMurtry, Silicon Valley venture capitalists.
    Duncan College, named for Charles Duncan, Jr., Secretary of Energy.

    Much of the social and academic life as an undergraduate student at Rice is centered around residential colleges. Each residential college has its own cafeteria (serveries) and each residential college has study groups and its own social practices.

    Although each college is composed of a full cross-section of students at Rice, they have over time developed their own traditions and “personalities”. When students matriculate they are randomly assigned to one of the eleven colleges, although “legacy” exceptions are made for students whose siblings or parents have attended Rice. Students generally remain members of the college that they are assigned to for the duration of their undergraduate careers, even if they move off-campus at any point. Students are guaranteed on-campus housing for freshman year and two of the next three years; each college has its own system for determining allocation of the remaining spaces, collectively known as “Room Jacking”. Students develop strong loyalties to their college and maintain friendly rivalry with other colleges, especially during events such as Beer Bike Race and O-Week. Colleges keep their rivalries alive by performing “jacks,” or pranks, on each other, especially during O-Week and Willy Week. During Matriculation, Commencement, and other formal academic ceremonies, the colleges process in the order in which they were established.

    Student-run media

    Rice has a weekly student newspaper (The Rice Thresher), a yearbook (The Campanile), college radio station (KTRU Rice Radio), and now defunct, campus-wide student television station (RTV5). They are based out of the RMC student center. In addition, Rice hosts several student magazines dedicated to a range of different topics; in fact, the spring semester of 2008 saw the birth of two such magazines, a literary sex journal called Open and an undergraduate science research magazine entitled Catalyst.

    The Rice Thresher is published every Wednesday and is ranked by Princeton Review as one of the top campus newspapers nationally for student readership. It is distributed around campus, and at a few other local businesses and has a website. The Thresher has a small, dedicated staff and is known for its coverage of campus news, open submission opinion page, and the satirical Backpage, which has often been the center of controversy. The newspaper has won several awards from the College Media Association, Associated Collegiate Press and Texas Intercollegiate Press Association.

    The Rice Campanile was first published in 1916 celebrating Rice’s first graduating class. It has published continuously since then, publishing two volumes in 1944 since the university had two graduating classes due to World War II. The website was created sometime in the early to mid 2000s. The 2015 won the first place Pinnacle for best yearbook from College Media Association.

    KTRU Rice Radio is the student-run radio station. Though most DJs are Rice students, anyone is allowed to apply. It is known for playing genres and artists of music and sound unavailable on other radio stations in Houston, and often, the US. The station takes requests over the phone or online. In 2000 and 2006, KTRU won Houston Press’ Best Radio Station in Houston. In 2003, Rice alum and active KTRU DJ DL’s hip-hip show won Houston Press‘ Best Hip-hop Radio Show. On August 17, 2010, it was announced that Rice University had been in negotiations to sell the station’s broadcast tower, FM frequency and license to the University of Houston System to become a full-time classical music and fine arts programming station. The new station, KUHA, would be operated as a not-for-profit outlet with listener supporters. The FCC approved the sale and granted the transfer of license to the University of Houston System on April 15, 2011, however, KUHA proved to be an even larger failure and so after four and a half years of operation, The University of Houston System announced that KUHA’s broadcast tower, FM frequency and license were once again up for sale in August 2015. KTRU continued to operate much as it did previously, streaming live on the Internet, via apps, and on HD2 radio using the 90.1 signal. Under student leadership, KTRU explored the possibility of returning to FM radio for a number of years. In spring 2015, KTRU was granted permission by the FCC to begin development of a new broadcast signal via LPFM radio. On October 1, 2015, KTRU made its official return to FM radio on the 96.1 signal. While broadcasting on HD2 radio has been discontinued, KTRU continues to broadcast via internet in addition to its LPFM signal.

    RTV5 is a student-run television network available as channel 5 on campus. RTV5 was created initially as Rice Broadcast Television in 1997; RBT began to broadcast the following year in 1998, and aired its first live show across campus in 1999. It experienced much growth and exposure over the years with successful programs like Drinking with Phil, The Meg & Maggie Show, which was a variety and call-in show, a weekly news show, and extensive live coverage in December 2000 of the shut down of KTRU by the administration. In spring 2001, the Rice undergraduate community voted in the general elections to support RBT as a blanket tax organization, effectively providing a yearly income of $10,000 to purchase new equipment and provide the campus with a variety of new programming. In the spring of 2005, RBT members decided the station needed a new image and a new name: Rice Television 5. One of RTV5’s most popular shows was the 24-hour show, where a camera and couch placed in the RMC stayed on air for 24 hours. One such show is held in fall and another in spring, usually during a weekend allocated for visits by prospective students. RTV5 has a video on demand site at rtv5.rice.edu. The station went off the air in 2014 and changed its name to Rice Video Productions. In 2015 the group’s funding was threatened, but ultimately maintained. In 2016 the small student staff requested to no longer be a blanket-tax organization. In the fall of 2017, the club did not register as a club.

    The Rice Review, also known as R2, is a yearly student-run literary journal at Rice University that publishes prose, poetry, and creative nonfiction written by undergraduate students, as well as interviews. The journal was founded in 2004 by creative writing professor and author Justin Cronin.

    The Rice Standard was an independent, student-run variety magazine modeled after such publications as The New Yorker and Harper’s. Prior to fall 2009, it was regularly published three times a semester with a wide array of content, running from analyses of current events and philosophical pieces to personal essays, short fiction and poetry. In August 2009, The Standard transitioned to a completely online format with the launch of their redesigned website, http://www.ricestandard.org. The first website of its kind on Rice’s campus, The Standard featured blog-style content written by and for Rice students. The Rice Standard had around 20 regular contributors, and the site features new content every day (including holidays). In 2017 no one registered The Rice Standard as a club within the university.

    Open, a magazine dedicated to “literary sex content,” predictably caused a stir on campus with its initial publication in spring 2008. A mixture of essays, editorials, stories and artistic photography brought Open attention both on campus and in the Houston Chronicle. The third and last annual edition of Open was released in spring of 2010.

    Vahalla is the Graduate Student Association on-campus bar under the steps of the chemistry building.

    Athletics

    Rice plays in NCAA Division I athletics and is part of Conference USA. Rice was a member of the Western Athletic Conference before joining Conference USA in 2005. Rice is the second-smallest school, measured by undergraduate enrollment, competing in NCAA Division I FBS football, only ahead of Tulsa.

    The Rice baseball team won the 2003 College World Series, defeating Stanford, giving Rice its only national championship in a team sport. The victory made Rice University the smallest school in 51 years to win a national championship at the highest collegiate level of the sport. The Rice baseball team has played on campus at Reckling Park since the 2000 season. As of 2010, the baseball team has won 14 consecutive conference championships in three different conferences: the final championship of the defunct Southwest Conference, all nine championships while a member of the Western Athletic Conference, and five more championships in its first five years as a member of Conference USA. Additionally, Rice’s baseball team has finished third in both the 2006 and 2007 College World Series tournaments. Rice now has made six trips to Omaha for the CWS. In 2004, Rice became the first school ever to have three players selected in the first eight picks of the MLB draft when Philip Humber, Jeff Niemann, and Wade Townsend were selected third, fourth, and eighth, respectively. In 2007, Joe Savery was selected as the 19th overall pick.

    Rice has been very successful in women’s sports in recent years. In 2004–05, Rice sent its women’s volleyball, soccer, and basketball teams to their respective NCAA tournaments. The women’s swim team has consistently brought at least one member of their team to the NCAA championships since 2013. In 2005–06, the women’s soccer, basketball, and tennis teams advanced, with five individuals competing in track and field. In 2006–07, the Rice women’s basketball team made the NCAA tournament, while again five Rice track and field athletes received individual NCAA berths. In 2008, the women’s volleyball team again made the NCAA tournament. In 2011 the Women’s Swim team won their first conference championship in the history of the university. This was an impressive feat considering they won without having a diving team. The team repeated their C-USA success in 2013 and 2014. In 2017, the women’s basketball team, led by second-year head coach Tina Langley, won the Women’s Basketball Invitational, defeating UNC-Greensboro 74–62 in the championship game at Tudor Fieldhouse. Though not a varsity sport, Rice’s ultimate frisbee women’s team, named Torque, won consecutive Division III national championships in 2014 and 2015.

    In 2006, the football team qualified for its first bowl game since 1961, ending the second-longest bowl drought in the country at the time. On December 22, 2006, Rice played in the New Orleans Bowl in New Orleans, Louisiana against the Sun Belt Conference champion, Troy. The Owls lost 41–17. The bowl appearance came after Rice had a 14-game losing streak from 2004–05 and went 1–10 in 2005. The streak followed an internally authorized 2003 McKinsey report that stated football alone was responsible for a $4 million deficit in 2002. Tensions remained high between the athletic department and faculty, as a few professors who chose to voice their opinion were in favor of abandoning the football program. The program success in 2006, the Rice Renaissance, proved to be a revival of the Owl football program, quelling those tensions. David Bailiff took over the program in 2007 and has remained head coach. Jarett Dillard set an NCAA record in 2006 by catching a touchdown pass in 13 consecutive games and took a 15-game overall streak into the 2007 season.

    In 2008, the football team posted a 9-3 regular season, capping off the year with a 38–14 victory over Western Michigan University in the Texas Bowl. The win over Western Michigan marked the Owls’ first bowl win in 45 years.

    Rice Stadium also serves as the performance venue for the university’s Marching Owl Band, or “MOB.” Despite its name, the MOB is a scatter band that focuses on performing humorous skits and routines rather than traditional formation marching.

    Rice Owls men’s basketball won 10 conference titles in the former Southwest Conference (1918, 1935*, 1940, 1942*, 1943*, 1944*, 1945, 1949*, 1954*, 1970; * denotes shared title). Most recently, guard Morris Almond was drafted in the first round of the 2007 NBA Draft by the Utah Jazz. Rice named former Cal Bears head coach Ben Braun as head basketball coach to succeed Willis Wilson, fired after Rice finished the 2007–2008 season with a winless (0-16) conference record and overall record of 3-27.

    Rice’s mascot is Sammy the Owl. In previous decades, the university kept several live owls on campus in front of Lovett College, but this practice has been discontinued, due to public pressure over the welfare of the owls.

    Rice also has a 12-member coed cheerleading squad and a coed dance team, both of which perform at football and basketball games throughout the year.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:03 am on November 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Jet from giant galaxy Messier 87* Black Hole-Computer modelling explains black hole observations", , , , , , , Theoretical Physics   

    From Goethe University [Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main](DE) : “Jet from giant galaxy Messier 87* Black Hole-Computer modelling explains black hole observations” 

    From Goethe University [Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main](DE)

    An enormous jet of particles emitted by the giant galaxy Messier 87 can be observed astronomically in various wavelengths. Dr. Alejandro Cruz Osorio and Professor Luciano Rezzolla from Goethe University Frankfurt together with an international team of scientists has succeeded in developing a theoretical model of the morphology of this jet using complex supercomputer calculations. The images from these calculations provide an unprecedented match with astronomical observations and confirm Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

    1
    Along the magnetic field lines, the particles are accelerated so efficiently that they form a jet out to scales of 6000 light years in the case of Messier 87. Credit: Alejandro Cruz-Osorio.

    The galaxy Messier 87 (M87) is located 55 million light years away from Earth in the Virgo constellation. It is a giant galaxy with 12,000 globular clusters, making the Milky Way’s 200 globular clusters appear modest in comparison. A black hole of six and a half billion sun masses is harboured at the centre of Messier 87. It is the first black hole for which an image exists, created in 2019 by the international research collaboration Event Horizon Telescope.

    Messier 87*, The first image of the event horizon of a black hole. This is the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy Messier 87. Image via The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released on 10 April 2019 via National Science Foundation(US).

    EHT map.

    This black hole (Messier 87*) shoots a jet of plasma at near the speed of light, a so-called relativistic jet, on a scale of 6,000 light years. The tremendous energy needed to power this jet probably originates from the gravitational pull of the black hole, but how a jet like this comes about and what keeps it stable across the enormous distance is not yet fully understood.

    The black hole Messier 87* attracts matter that rotates in a disc in ever smaller orbits until it is swallowed by the black hole. The jet is launched from the centre of the accretion disc surrounding Messier 87, and theoretical physicists at Goethe University, together with scientists from Europe, USA and China, have now modelled this region in great detail.

    They used highly sophisticated three-dimensional supercomputer simulations that use the staggering amount of a million CPU hours per simulation and had to simultaneously solve the equations of general relativity by Albert Einstein, the equations of electromagnetism by James Maxwell, and the equations of fluid dynamics by Leonhard Euler.

    The result was a model in which the values calculated for the temperatures, the matter densities and the magnetic fields correspond remarkably well with what deduced from the astronomical observations. On this basis, scientists were able to track the complex motion of photons in the curved spacetime of the innermost region of the jet and translate this into radio images. They were then able to compare these computer modelled images with the observations made using numerous radio telescopes and satellites over the past three decades.

    Dr Alejandro Cruz-Osorio, lead author of the study, comments: “Our theoretical model of the electromagnetic emission and of the jet morphology of Messier 87 matches surprisingly well with the observations in the radio, optical and infrared spectra. This tells us that the supermassive black hole M87* is probably highly rotating and that the plasma is strongly magnetized in the jet, accelerating particles out to scales of thousands of light years.”

    Professor Luciano Rezzolla, Institute for Theoretical Physics at Goethe University Frankfurt, remarks: “The fact that the images we calculated are so close to the astronomical observations is another important confirmation that Einstein’s theory of general relativity is the most precise and natural explanation for the existence of supermassive black holes in the centre of galaxies. While there is still room for alternative explanations, the findings of our study have made this room much smaller.”

    Science paper:
    Nature Astronomy

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Goethe University[Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main](DE) is a university located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was founded in 1914 as a citizens’ university, which means it was founded and funded by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt. The original name was Universität Frankfurt am Main. In 1932, the university’s name was extended in honour of one of the most famous native sons of Frankfurt, the poet, philosopher and writer/dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The university currently has around 45,000 students, distributed across four major campuses within the city.

    The university celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2014. The first female president of the university, Birgitta Wolff, was sworn into office in 2015, and was succeeded by Enrico Schleiff in 2021. 20 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university, including Max von Laue and Max Born. The university is also affiliated with 18 winners of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize.

    Goethe University is part of the IT cluster Rhine-Main-Neckar. The Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz] (DE), the Goethe University Frankfurt and The Technical University of Darmstadt [Technische Universität Darmstadt] (DE) together form the Rhine-Main-Universities (RMU).

    Organization
    Campus Westend
    University Library at Campus Westend

    The university consists of 16 faculties. Ordered by their sorting number, these are:

    01. Rechtswissenschaft (Law)
    02. Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Economics and Business Administration)
    03. Gesellschaftswissenschaften (Social Sciences)
    04. Erziehungswissenschaften (Educational Sciences)
    05. Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften (Psychology and Sports Sciences)
    06. Evangelische Theologie (Protestant Theology)
    07. Katholische Theologie (Roman Catholic Theology)
    08. Philosophie und Geschichtswissenschaften (Philosophy and History)
    09. Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften (Faculty of Linguistics, Cultures, and Arts)
    10. Neuere Philologien (Modern Languages)
    11. Geowissenschaften/Geographie (Geosciences and Geography)
    12. Informatik und Mathematik (Computer Science and Mathematics)
    13. Physik (Physics)
    14. Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie (Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy)
    15. Biowissenschaften (Biological Sciences)
    16. Medizin (Medical Science)

    In addition, there are several co-located research institutes of the Max Planck Society:

    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics
    Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
    Max Planck Institute for European Legal History

     
  • richardmitnick 9:37 am on October 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Is dark matter cold or warm or hot?", , , , , , , , , Theoretical Physics,   

    From Symmetry: “Is dark matter cold or warm or hot?” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From Symmetry

    10/12/21
    Glennda Chui

    The answer has to do with dark matter’s role in shaping the cosmos.

    Milky Way Dark Matter Halo Credit:L. Calçada/ European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL)

    Half a century after Vera Rubin and Kent Ford confirmed that a form of invisible matter—now called dark matter—is required to account for the rotation of galaxies, the evidence for its existence is overwhelming.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________
    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM, denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky from http:// palomarskies.blogspot.com.

    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble.

    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.

    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.

    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.

    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).

    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970

    Dark Matter Research

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington (US) Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Although it is known to interact with ordinary matter only through gravity, there is such a massive amount of dark matter out there—85% of all the matter in the universe—that it has played a pivotal behind-the-scenes role in shaping all the stuff we can see, from our own Milky Way galaxy to the wispy filaments of gas that link galaxies across vast distances.

    “We think it exists because there’s evidence for it on many, many scales,” says Kevork Abazajian, a theoretical physicist and astrophysicist at The University of California-Irvine (US).

    There have been a lot of ideas about what form dark matter might take, from planet-sized objects called MACHOs to individual particles like WIMPs—weakly interacting massive particles roughly the size of a proton—and even tinier things like axions and sterile neutrinos.

    In the 1980s, scientists came up with a way to make sense of this growing collection: They started classifying proposed dark-matter particles as cold, warm or hot. These categories are based on how fast each type of dark matter would have traveled through the early universe—a speed that depended on its mass—and on how hot its surroundings were when it popped into existence.

    Light, fast particles are known as hot dark matter; heavy, slow ones are cold dark matter; and warm dark matter falls in between.

    In this way of seeing things, WIMPs are cold, sterile neutrinos are warm, and relic neutrinos from the early universe are hot. (Axions are a special case—both light and extremely cold. We’ll get to them later.)

    Why is their speed so important?

    “If a dark matter particle is lighter and faster, it can travel farther in a given time, and it will smooth out any structure that already exists along the way,” Abazajian says.

    On the other hand, slower, colder forms of dark matter would have helped build structure, and based on what we know and see today it must have been part of the mix.

    Building galaxies

    Although there are theories about when and how each type of dark-matter candidate would have formed, the only thing scientists know for sure is that dark matter was already around about 75,000 years after the Big Bang. It was then that matter started to dominate over radiation and little seeds of structure started to form, says Stanford University (US) theoretical physicist Peter Graham.

    Most types of dark-matter particles would have been created by collisions between other particles in the hot, dense soup of the infant universe, in much the same way that high-energy particle collisions at places like the Large Hadron Collider give rise to exotic new types of particles. As the universe expanded and cooled, dark-matter particles would have wound up being hot, warm or cold—and, in fact, there could have been more than one type.

    Scientists describe them as freely “streaming” through the universe, although this term is a little misleading, Abazajian says. Unlike leaves floating on a river, all headed in the same direction in a coordinated way, “these things are not just in one place and then in another place,” he says. “They’re everywhere and going in every direction.”

    As it streamed, each type of dark matter would have had a distinctive impact on the growth of structure along the way—either adding to its clumpiness, and thus to the building of galaxies, or thwarting their growth.

    Cold dark matter, such as the WIMP, would have been a clump-builder. It moved slowly enough to glom together and form gravitational wells, which would have captured nearby bits of matter.

    Hot dark matter, on the other hand, would have been a clump-smoother, zipping by so fast that it could ignore those gravitational wells. If all dark matter were hot, none of those seeds could have grown into bigger structures, says Silvia Pascoli, a theoretical physicist at The University of Bologna [Alma mater studiorum – Università di Bologna](IT). That’s why scientists now believe that hot dark-matter particles, such as relic neutrinos from the early days of the cosmos, could not constitute more than a sliver of dark matter as a whole.

    Despite their tiny contribution, Pascoli adds, “I say these relic neutrinos are currently the only known component of dark matter. They have an important impact on the evolution of the universe.”

    You might think that warm dark matter would be the best dark matter, filling the universe with a Goldilocks bowl of just-right structure. Sterile neutrinos are considered the top candidate in this category, and in theory they could indeed constitute the vast majority of dark matter.

    But most of the parameter space—the sets of conditions—where they could exist have been ruled out, says Abazajian, who as a graduate student researched how specific types of neutrino oscillations in the early universe could have produced sterile neutrino dark matter.

    Although those same oscillations could be happening today, he says, the probability that a regular neutrino would turn into a sterile one through standard oscillations in the vacuum of space are thought to be very small, with estimates ranging from 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 100 trillion.

    “You’d have to have a very good counting mechanism to count up to 100 trillion hits in your detector without missing the one hit from a sterile neutrino,” Abazajian says.

    That said, there are a few experiments out there that are giving it a try, using new approaches that don’t rely on direct hits.

    Then there’s the axion.

    Unlike the other dark-matter candidates, axions would be both extremely light—so light that they are better described as waves whose associated fields can spread over kilometers—and extremely cold, Graham says. They are so weakly coupled to other forms of matter that the frantic collisions of particles in the thermal bath of the early universe would have produced hardly any.

    “They would have been produced in a different way than the other dark matter candidates,” Graham says. “Even though the universe was very hot at the time, axions would have been very cold at birth and would stay cold forever, which means that they are absolutely cold dark matter.”

    Even though axions are very light, Graham says, “because they exist at close to absolute zero, the temperature where all motion stops, they are essentially not moving. They’re kind of this ghostly fluid, and everything else moves through it.”

    Searching for dark matter of all kinds

    Some scientists think it will take more than one type of dark matter to account for all the things we see in the universe.

    And in the past few years, as experiments aimed at detecting WIMPs and producing dark matter particles through collisions at the Large Hadron Collider have so far come up empty-handed, the search for dark matter has broadened.

    SixTRack CERN LHC particles

    The proliferation of ideas for searches has been helped by technological advances and clever approaches that could force much lighter and even more exotic dark-matter particles out of hiding.

    Some of those efforts make use of the very clumpiness that dark matter was instrumental in creating.

    Simona Murgia, an experimentalist at The University of California-Irvine (US), led a team looking for signs of collisions between WIMPs and their antiparticles with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope while a postdoc at the DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    Now she’s joined an international team of scientists who will conduct a vast survey of the Southern sky from the Vera C. Rubin Observatory in Chile using the world’s biggest digital camera, which is under construction at SLAC.

    NSF (US) NOIRLab (US) NOAO (US) Vera C. Rubin Observatory [LSST] Telescope currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing NSF (US) NOIRLab (US) NOAO (US) AURA (US) Gemini South Telescope and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope.

    One of the things this survey will do is get a much better handle on the distribution of dark matter in the universe by looking at how it bends light from the galaxies we can see.

    “It will tell us something about the nature of dark matter in a totally different way,” Murgia says. “The more clumpy its distribution is, the more consistent it is with theories that tell you dark matter is cold.”

    The camera is expected to snap images of about 20 billion galaxies over 10 years, and from those images scientists hope to infer the fundamental nature of the dark matter that shaped them.

    “We don’t only want to know the dark matter is there,” Murgia says. “We do want to understand the cosmology, but we also really want to know what dark matter is.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 9:52 pm on October 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The Search for Quantum Gravity", , , , , Theoretical Physics   

    From The University of California-Santa Barbara (US) : “The Search for Quantum Gravity” 

    UC Santa Barbara Name bloc

    From The University of California-Santa Barbara (US)

    October 11, 2021

    Sonia Fernandez
    sonia.fernandez@ucsb.edu

    With support from The Heising-Simons Foundation (US), theoretical physicists take a new approach to the search for quantum gravity.

    1
    Quantum Gravity Illustration

    About a century ago, Albert Einstein amazed the world with his groundbreaking theory of relativity, and ever since he shared this profound understanding of gravity and spacetime, physicists everywhere have worked hard to prove, refine and extend it. In the intervening decades, numerous observations have borne Einstein out, with phenomena such as gravitational lensing and redshift, shifts in planetary orbit and, more recently, gravitational waves and observations of black holes.

    However, for all the advances we’ve made in witnessing the more readily observable, macro effects of gravity, there remains a gap — a chasm, really — in our ability to understand gravity in the context of another profound discovery: quantum mechanics, the physics of matter and energy at their smallest scales.

    “There is the longstanding problem, perhaps the greatest remaining from 20th century physics, of reconciling quantum mechanics with gravity,” said UC Santa Barbara theoretical physicist Steven Giddings. The universe is quantum, and unlike the other fundamental forces — the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces — which have been described within quantum field theory, what we know of gravitation remains solidly in the realm of classical physics.

    “Associated with that problem is a gulf between theory and observation,” said Giddings, who specializes in high energy and gravitational theory, as well as quantum black holes, quantum cosmology and other quantum aspects of gravity. Traditional thinking leads one to believe that quantum aspects of gravity are only observable if we explore incredibly short distances, he said, such as the Planck length (10-35 meter), thought to be the smallest length in the universe and the length at which quantum gravity effects become important. It’s also far beyond observational reach.

    But what if it was possible to detect quantum gravity at longer, observable length scales? Giddings, and fellow theorists Kathryn Zurek and Yanbei Chen at The California Institute of Technology (US), Cynthia Keeler and Maulik Parikh at The Arizona State University (US), and Ben Freivogel and Erik Verlinde at The University of Amsterdam [Universiteit van Amsterdam](NL), think that could be the case.

    “Various theoretical developments have indicated that quantum gravity effects may become important at much greater distances in certain contexts, and that is truly exciting and worth exploring,” Giddings said. “We are taking this seriously.”

    And, thanks to support from the Heising-Simons Foundation, the team is poised to bridge that chasm, by exploring ways in which quantum gravity may be observed, via effects a longer length scales.

    “We are thrilled that the Heising-Simons Foundation has chosen to support this vision of exploring new effects, particularly at long distances, in quantum gravity, and the possibility that they lead to observational effects,” Giddings said of the $3.1 million in multi-institution grants to help the team push the boundaries of our knowledge of quantum gravity. “Their support should really move this research forward.”

    Quantum Effects at Longer Lengths

    Reconciling relativity to quantum mechanics has challenged physicists for the better part of a century, with puzzles such as the black hole information paradox. That’s where relativity and quantum mechanics violently conflict on the issue of what happens to information that falls into a black hole, those extremely high-gravity voids in spacetime. A relativistic picture indicates that the information gets destroyed as the black hole slowly evaporates, while quantum mechanics states that that information cannot be destroyed.

    A suggested approach to that conundrum and other similarly complex issues emerges with the proposed holographic principle, a fundamentally new idea about the possible behavior of quantum gravity.

    “There are different ways to explain it, but one is that the amount of information you can put in a volume is not proportional to the volume but to the surface area surrounding the volume,” Giddings explained. A consistent theory incorporating this principle might explain how information is not destroyed, resulting in a relativistic object, such as a black hole, obeying quantum rules.

    “When one tries to reconcile the existence of black holes with the principles of quantum mechanics, one seems to be led to the conclusion that new quantum gravity effects must become important not just at short distances, but at distances comparable to the size of the black hole in question — for the largest black holes we know, many times the size of our solar system,” Giddings said.

    The principle, which started out originally with black holes, has been suggested to extend to the universe in general — what we perceive as our three-dimensional reality may even, in a sense, have an underlying two-dimensional description. This could make its mathematical description more elegant and compelling.

    “This is a big departure from the properties of quantum field theories that describe other forces of nature — like electromagnetism and the strong force — and is a feature of gravity that strongly suggests that a theory of gravity has a very different underlying structure,” he added. This fundamentally different structure might be part of a description with novel properties, in which information is preserved.

    A related argument for the observability of quantum gravity at greater distances comes from the notion that very high energy collisions, though far beyond what we have been able to accomplish, start producing quantum gravitational effects at increasingly large distances.

    “When one considers extremely high energy collisions of particles, one is not probing shorter distances any longer — as has been true at accessible energies — but instead one starts to see effects at longer distances, due to basic properties of gravity,” Giddings said.

    Quantum Gravity at Work

    Recent developments in experimental observations have made it possible to detect and measure new effects of gravity, such as with Caltech’s Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Virgo interferometer in Italy, and the Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector (KAGRA) in Japan.

    _______________________________________________________________________________________
    LIGOVIRGOKAGRA

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy

    KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Telescope Project (JP)
    _______________________________________________________________________________________
    Each of those facilities is turned to space to sense gravitational waves coming from major events, such as the mergers of massive celestial bodies like black holes and neutron stars. These, as well as observations of light from near black holes by The Event Horizon Telescope-EHT, may also be sensitive to long-range quantum effects. In addition, ideas related to holography suggest the possibility of new quantum effects in lab-based settings, and newer experiments with interferometers may provide novel ways to test them.

    The task for the researchers as they resolve foundational issues and understand aspects of the fundamental description of quantum gravity, is to develop “effective descriptions” that can connect theory with observations coming in from the interferometers and other instruments.

    “In physics, we have often been in the situation where we don’t have the complete theory, but we have an approximate description that captures certain important properties of that theory,” Giddings explained. “Often, such ‘effective descriptions’ can be surprisingly powerful, and lead to deeper insight about the more fundamental theory.”

    The group’s diverse mix of backgrounds is a strength of this collaboration, with specializations ranging from quantum gravity to particle physics, string theory to gravitational wave physics. Through a series of meetings to be held over four years the collaboration will progress from foundational issues, such as sharpening the description of holography and understanding the mathematical structure of gravity, to studying models that may describe behavior of quantum gravity, its interactions and potentially observable effects, to developing specific observational tests with the interferometers and observations of black holes.

    Along the way, the collaboration will grow, starting with the seven core members and adding postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, and finally broadening activities to include additional physicists to discuss collaboration results and related theoretical advances from the broader community.

    “If we are able to observe quantum effects of black holes, that will be truly revolutionary,” Giddings said. “It would also likely help guide the conceptual revolution of reconciling quantum mechanics with gravity, which we expect to likely be as profound as the revolutionary discovery of quantum mechanics.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Santa Barbara Seal

    The University of California-Santa Barbara (US) is a public land-grant research university in Santa Barbara, California, and one of the ten campuses of the University of California (US) system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers’ college, The University of California-Santa Barbara joined the University of California system in 1944, and is the third-oldest undergraduate campus in the system.

    The university is a comprehensive doctoral university and is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation (US), The University of California-Santa Barbara spent $235 million on research and development in fiscal year 2018, ranking it 100th in the nation. In his 2001 book The Public Ivies: America’s Flagship Public Universities, author Howard Greene labeled The University of California-Santa Barbara a “Public Ivy”.

    The University of California-Santa Barbara is a research university with 10 national research centers, including the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (US) and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation. Current University of California-Santa Barbara faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates; one Fields Medalist; 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences (US); 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering (US); and 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (US). The University of California-Santa Barbara was the No. 3 host on the ARPANET and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The faculty also includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners and recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize; an IEEE Medal of Honor; a National Medal of Technology and Innovation; and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics.
    The University of California-Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men’s soccer and men’s water polo.

    History

    The University of California-Santa Barbara traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, which was founded in 1891, and offered training in home economics and industrial arts. The Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School which then became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.

    In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, and the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system. The State College system sued to stop the takeover but the governor did not support the suit. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses.

    From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name. When the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the rapidly growing college Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings.

    Originally the regents envisioned a small several thousand–student liberal arts college a so-called “Williams College (US) of the West”, at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, The University of California-Santa Barbara is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after The University of California-Berkeley (US) and The University of California-Los Angeles (US) (the only other state campus to have been acquired by the UC system). The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres (40 ha) of largely unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre (160 ha) portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949.

    Originally only 3000–3500 students were anticipated but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958 along with a name change from “Santa Barbara College” to “University of California-Santa Barbara,” and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor- Samuel B. Gould- was appointed in 1959.

    In 1959 The University of California-Santa Barbara professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university’s first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called The Human Situation.

    In the late ’60s and early ’70s The University of California-Santa Barbara became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school’s faculty club in 1969 killed the caretaker Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970 multiple occasions of arson occurred including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista during which time one male student Kevin Moran was shot and killed by police. The University of California-Santa Barbara ‘s anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to impose a curfew and order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight on campus and in Isla Vista during this time.

    In 1995 The University of California-Santa Barbara was elected to the Association of American Universities– an organization of leading research universities with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States (both public and private) and two universities in Canada.

    On May 23, 2014 a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at The University of California-Santa Barbara. The murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student who lived in Isla Vista.

    Research activity

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), The University of California-Santa Barbara spent $236.5 million on research and development in fiscal 2013, ranking it 87th in the nation.

    From 2005 to 2009 UCSB was ranked fourth in terms of relative citation impact in the U.S. (behind Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), California Institute of Technology(US), and Princeton University (US)) according to Thomson Reuters.

    The University of California-Santa Barbara hosts 12 National Research Centers, including the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, the Southern California Earthquake Center, the UCSB Center for Spatial Studies, an affiliate of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, and the California Nanosystems Institute. Eight of these centers are supported by The National Science Foundation (US). UCSB is also home to Microsoft Station Q, a research group working on topological quantum computing where American mathematician and Fields Medalist Michael Freedman is the director.

    Research impact rankings

    The Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked The University of California-Santa Barbara 48th worldwide for 2016–17, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2016 ranked https://www.nsf.gov/ 42nd in the world; 28th in the nation; and in 2015 tied for 17th worldwide in engineering.

    In the United States National Research Council rankings of graduate programs, 10 University of California-Santa Barbara departments were ranked in the top ten in the country: Materials; Chemical Engineering; Computer Science; Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Physics; Marine Science Institute; Geography; History; and Theater and Dance. Among U.S. university Materials Science and Engineering programs, The University of California-Santa Barbara was ranked first in each measure of a study by the National Research Council of the NAS.

    The Centre for Science and Technologies Studies at

     
  • richardmitnick 1:47 pm on October 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab boasts new Theory Division", Astrophysics Theory, , , , , , , Fermilab experts on perturbative QCD use high-performance computing to tackle the complexity of simulations for experiments at the Large Hadron Collider., Muon g-2 Theory Initiative and the Muon g-2 experiment, , Particle Theory, , , Superconducting Systems, Theoretical Physics   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) : “Fermilab boasts new Theory Division” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    October 8, 2021

    Theoretical physics research at Fermi National Particle Accelerator Laboratory has always sparked new ideas and scientific opportunities, while at the same time supporting the large experimental group that conducts research at Fermilab. In recent years, the Theoretical Physics Department has further strengthened its position worldwide as a hub for the high-energy physics theoretical community. The department has now become Fermilab’s newest division, the Theory Division, which officially launched early this year with strong support from HEP.

    This new division seeks to:

    support strategic theory leadership;
    promote new initiatives, as well as strengthen existing ones;
    and leverage U.S. Department of Energy support through partnerships with universities and more.

    “Creating the Theory Division increases the lab’s abilities to stimulate and develop new pathways to discovery,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer.

    Led by Marcela Carena and her deputy Patrick Fox, this new division features three departments: Particle Theory, Astrophysics Theory and Quantum Theory. “This structure will help us focus our scientific efforts in each area and will allow for impactful contributions to existing and developing programs for the theory community,” said Carena.

    Particle Theory Department

    At the helm of the Particle Theory Department is Andreas Kronfeld. This department studies all aspects of theoretical particle physics, especially those areas inspired by the experimental program—at Fermilab and elsewhere. It coordinates leading national efforts, including the Neutrino Theory Network, and the migration of the lattice gauge theory program to Exascale computing platforms. Lattice quantum chromodynamics, or QCD, experts support the Muon g-2 Theory Initiative, providing a solid theory foundation for the recently announced results of the Muon g-2 experiment.

    Fermilab particle theorists, working with DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US) nuclear theorists, are using machine learning for developing novel event generators to precisely model neutrino-nuclear interactions, and employ lattice QCD to model multi-nucleon interactions; both are important for achieving the science goals of DUNE.

    Fermilab experts on perturbative QCD use high-performance computing to tackle the complexity of simulations for experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Fermilab theorists are strongly involved in the exploration of physics beyond the Standard Model, through model-building, particle physics phenomenology, and formal aspects of quantum field theory.

    Astrophysics Theory Department

    Astrophysics Theory, led by Dan Hooper, consists of researchers who work at the confluence of astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics. Fermilab’s scientists have played a key role in the development of this exciting field worldwide and continue to be deeply involved in supporting the Fermilab cosmic frontier program.

    Key areas of research include dark matter, dark energy, the cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, neutrino astronomy and axion astrophysics. A large portion of the department’s research involves numerical cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, large-scale structures and gravitational lensing. The department is developing machine-learning tools to help solve these challenging problems.

    Quantum Theory Department

    Led by Roni Harnik, the Quantum Theory Department has researchers working at the interface of quantum information science and high-energy physics. Fermilab theorists are working to harness the developing power of unique quantum information capabilities to address important physics questions, such as the simulation of QCD processes, dynamics in the early universe, and more generally simulating quantum field theories. Quantum-enhanced capabilities also open new opportunities to explore the universe and test theories of new particles, dark matter, gravitational waves and other new physics.

    Scientists in the Quantum Theory Department are developing new algorithms for quantum simulations, and they are proposing novel methods to search for new phenomena using quantum technology, including quantum optics, atomic physics, optomechanical sensors and superconducting systems. The department works in close collaboration with both the Fermilab Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center and the Fermilab Quantum Institute, as well as leads a national QuantISED theory consortium.

    Looking ahead

    The new Theory Division also intends to play a strong role in attracting and inspiring the next generation of theorists, training them in a data-rich environment, as well as promoting an inclusive culture that values diversity.

    “The best part about being a Fermilab theorist,” said Marcela Carena, “is working with brilliant junior scientists and sharing their excitement about exploring new ideas.”

    See the full article here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA Reidar Hahn.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.[/caption]

    FNAL Icon

     
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