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  • richardmitnick 8:43 am on December 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Young physicist ‘squares the numbers’ on time travel", , , The University of Queensland (AU)   

    From The University of Queensland (AU) Via “Science Alert (AU)” : “Young physicist ‘squares the numbers’ on time travel” 

    u-queensland-bloc

    From The University of Queensland (AU)

    Via

    ScienceAlert

    “Science Alert (AU)”

    12.19.22
    David Nield

    Media:
    Mr Germain Tobar
    g.tobar@uq.net.au
    +61 406 123 686

    Dr Fabio Costa
    f.costa@uq.edu.au
    +61 456 646 231

    Dominic Jarvis
    dominic.jarvis@uq.edu.au
    +61 413 334 924

    1
    A futuristic car from the 1980s … physicists seek to understand the Universe’s underlying laws.

    2
    (andrey_l/Shutterstock)

    No one has yet managed to travel through time – at least to our knowledge – but the question of whether or not such a feat would be theoretically possible continues to fascinate scientists.

    As movies such as The Terminator, Donnie Darko, Back to the Future and many others show, moving around in time creates a lot of problems for the fundamental rules of the Universe: if you go back in time and stop your parents from meeting, for instance, how can you possibly exist in order to go back in time in the first place?

    It’s a monumental head-scratcher known as the ‘grandfather paradox’, but a few years ago physics student Germain Tobar, from the University of Queensland in Australia, worked out how to “square the numbers” to make time travel viable without the paradoxes.

    “Classical dynamics says if you know the state of a system at a particular time, this can tell us the entire history of the system,” said Tobar.

    “However, Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity predicts the existence of time loops or time travel – where an event can be both in the past and future of itself – theoretically turning the study of dynamics on its head.”

    What the calculations show is that space-time can potentially adapt itself to avoid paradoxes.

    To use a topical example, imagine a time traveler journeying into the past to stop a disease from spreading – if the mission was successful, the time traveler would have no disease to go back in time to defeat.

    Tobar’s work suggested that the disease would still escape some other way, through a different route or by a different method, removing the paradox. Whatever the time traveler did, the disease wouldn’t be stopped.

    Tobar’s work isn’t easy for non-mathematicians to dig into, but it looks at the influence of deterministic processes (without any randomness) on an arbitrary number of regions in the space-time continuum, and demonstrates how both closed time-like curves (as predicted by Einstein) can fit in with the rules of free will and classical physics.

    “The maths checks out – and the results are the stuff of science fiction,” said physicist Fabio Costa from the University of Queensland, who supervised the research.

    2
    Fabio Costa (left) and Germain Tobar (right). (Ho Vu)

    The research smoothed out the problem with another hypothesis, that time travel is possible but that time travelers would be restricted in what they did, to stop them creating a paradox. In this model, time travelers have the freedom to do whatever they want, but paradoxes are not possible.

    While the numbers might work out, actually bending space and time to get into the past remains elusive – the time machines that scientists have devised so far are so high-concept that for they currently only exist as calculations on a page.

    We might get there one day – Stephen Hawking certainly thought it was possible – and if we do then this new research suggests we would be free to do whatever we wanted to the world in the past: it would readjust itself accordingly.

    “Try as you might to create a paradox, the events will always adjust themselves, to avoid any inconsistency,” said Costa.

    “The range of mathematical processes we discovered show that time travel with free will is logically possible in our Universe without any paradox.”

    The research has been published in Classical and Quantum Gravity.
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco, The University of Queensland (AU) Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery.

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of California, Washington University in St. Louis, The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
    • acharlescardozo1 9:28 am on December 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply

      Hi,

      One error. See below:

      …”the time machines that scientists have devised so far are so high-concept that for they currently only exist as calculations on a page.” – you can remove “for”.

      Thanks –

      Alice Charles

      Like

      • richardmitnick 11:08 am on December 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply

        Thanks for the comment. I have removed the errant usage. However, please note that the error occurred in the full article.
        Thanks again .

        Liked by 1 person

      • Nefero Tech 1:16 am on December 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply

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  • richardmitnick 11:51 am on November 1, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Superposition": particles on a quantum scale can exist in multiple states at the same time., "Uncovering the massive quantum mysteries of black holes", , , , , , , , , , , The scientists wanted to see whether black holes could have wildly different masses at the same time and it turns out they can., The University of Queensland (AU)   

    From The University of Queensland (AU) : “Uncovering the massive quantum mysteries of black holes” 

    u-queensland-bloc

    From The University of Queensland (AU)

    10.31.22
    Joshua Foo
    j.foo@uq.net.au
    +61 432 536 832;

    Magdalena Zych
    m.zych@uq.edu.au
    +61 475 058 394

    Faculty of Science Media
    science.media@uq.edu.au
    +61 (0)438 162 687

    Bizarre quantum properties of black holes – including their mind-bending ability to have different masses simultaneously – have been confirmed by University of Queensland physicists.

    A UQ-led team of theoretical physicists, headed by PhD candidate Joshua Foo, ran calculations that reveal surprising black hole quantum phenomena.

    “Black holes are an incredibly unique and fascinating feature of our universe,” Mr Foo said.

    “They’re created when gravity squeezes a vast amount of matter incredibly densely into a tiny space, creating so much gravitational pull that even light cannot escape.

    “It’s a phenomenon that can be triggered by a dying star.

    1
    Mass-quantized black hole – recreated using NightCafe Creator AI.

    “But, until now, we haven’t deeply investigated whether black holes display some of the weird and wonderful behaviors of quantum physics.

    “One such behavior is “superposition”, where particles on a quantum scale can exist in multiple states at the same time.

    “This is most commonly illustrated by Schrödinger’s cat, which can be both dead and alive simultaneously.

    “But, for black holes, we wanted to see whether they could have wildly different masses at the same time, and it turns out they can.

    “Imagine you’re both broad and tall, as well as short and skinny at the same time – it’s a situation which is intuitively confusing since we’re anchored in the world of traditional physics.

    “But this is reality for ‘quantum black holes’.”

    To reveal this, the team developed a mathematical framework allowing us to “place” a particle outside a theoretical mass-superposed black hole.

    Mass was looked at specifically, as it is a defining feature of a black hole, and as it is plausible that quantum black holes would naturally have mass superposition.

    Research co-supervisor, Dr Magdalena Zych, said that the research in fact reinforces conjectures raised by pioneers of quantum physics.

    “Our work shows that the very early theories of Jacob Bekenstein – an American and Israeli theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics – were on the money,” she said.

    “He postulated that black holes can only have masses that are of certain values, that is, they must fall within certain bands or ratios — this is how energy levels of an atom works, for example.

    “Our modelling showed that these superposed masses were, in fact, in certain determined bands or ratios – as predicted by Bekenstein.

    “We didn’t assume any such pattern going in, so the fact we found this evidence was quite surprising.

    “The universe is revealing to us that it’s always more strange, mysterious and fascinating than most of us could have ever imagined.”

    The research has been published in Physical Review Letters.
    https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.181301

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco,The University of Queensland (AU) Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of California, Washington University in St. Louis, The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
  • richardmitnick 1:54 pm on October 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tree Rings Chronicle a Mysterious Cosmic Storm That Strikes Every Thousand Years", A large spike in radiocarbon found in trees around the world means an uptick in cosmic radiation., , Based on available data there's roughly a one percent chance of seeing another event within the next decade., If one of these happened today it would destroy technology including satellites; internet cables; long-distance power lines and transformers., Linking spikes in this carbon isotope with the growth rings in trees can give us a reliable record of radiation storms going back thousands of years., Radiocarbon is relatively scarce. It forms only in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays collide with nitrogen atoms triggering a nuclear reaction that creates the radiocarbon., , , The history of Earth's encounters with storms of cosmic radiation is there to decipher if you know how to look. The main clue is a radioactive isotope of carbon called carbon-14 ., The most colossal of these events-known as "Miyake events"- occur around once every thousand years., The radiocarbon deposition can be traced back through time giving a record of radiation activity over tens of millennia., The science team modeled the global carbon cycle to reconstruct the process over a 10000-year period to gain insight into the scale and nature of the Miyake events.", The University of Queensland (AU), We have a constant but very small supply of the stuff raining down on the surface. Some of it gets caught up in tree rings., When radiation slams into Earth's atmosphere it can alter any nitrogen atoms it slams into to produce a form of carbon which is in turn absorbed by plants.   

    From The University of Queensland (AU) Via “Science Alert (AU)” : “Tree Rings Chronicle a Mysterious Cosmic Storm That Strikes Every Thousand Years” 

    u-queensland-bloc

    From The University of Queensland (AU)

    Via

    ScienceAlert

    “Science Alert (AU)”

    10.26.22
    Michelle Starr

    1
    (The University of Queensland)

    The history of Earth’s bombardment with cosmic radiation is written in the trees.

    Specifically, when radiation slams into Earth’s atmosphere, it can alter any nitrogen atoms it slams into to produce a form of carbon, which is in turn absorbed by plants. Linking spikes in this carbon isotope with the growth rings in trees can give us a reliable record of radiation storms going back thousands of years.

    This record shows us that the most colossal of these events, known as “Miyake events” (after the scientist who discovered them), occur around once every thousand years. However, we don’t know what causes them – and new research suggests that our leading theory, involving giant solar flares, could be off the table.

    Without an easy way to predict these potentially devastating events, we’re left with a serious problem.

    “We need to know more, because if one of these happened today, it would destroy technology including satellites, internet cables, long-distance power lines and transformers,” says astrophysicist Benjamin Pope of the University of Queensland in Australia.

    “The effect on global infrastructure would be unimaginable.”

    The history of Earth’s encounters with storms of cosmic radiation is there to decipher if you know how to look. The main clue is a radioactive isotope of carbon called carbon-14, often referred to as radiocarbon. Compared to other naturally occurring isotopes of carbon on Earth, radiocarbon is relatively scarce. It forms only in the upper atmosphere, when cosmic rays collide with nitrogen atoms, triggering a nuclear reaction that creates radiocarbon.

    Because cosmic rays are constantly colliding with our atmosphere, we have a constant but very small supply of the stuff raining down on the surface. Some of it gets caught up in tree rings. Since trees add a new growth ring every year, the radiocarbon deposition can be traced back through time, giving a record of radiation activity over tens of millennia.

    A large spike in radiocarbon found in trees around the world means an uptick in cosmic radiation. There are several mechanisms that can cause this, and solar flares are a big one. But there are some other possible sources of radiation storms that haven’t been conclusively ruled out. Nor have solar flares been conclusively ruled in.

    Because interpreting tree ring data necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle, a team of researchers led by mathematician Qingyuan Zhang of the University of Queensland set about reconstructing the global carbon cycle, based on every scrap of tree ring radiocarbon data they could get their hands on.

    “When radiation strikes the atmosphere it produces radioactive carbon-14, which filters through the air, oceans, plants, and animals, and produces an annual record of radiation in tree rings,” Zhang explains.

    “We modeled the global carbon cycle to reconstruct the process over a 10,000-year period, to gain insight into the scale and nature of the Miyake events.”

    The results of this modeling gave the team an extremely detailed picture of a number of radiation events – enough to conclude that the timing and profile is inconsistent with solar flares. The spikes in radiocarbon do not correlate with sunspot activity, which is itself linked with flare activity. Some spikes persisted across multiple years.

    And there was inconsistency in the radiocarbon profiles between regions for the same event. For one major event, recorded in 774 CE, some trees in some parts of the world showed sharp, sudden rises in radiocarbon for one year, while others showed a slower spike across two to three years.

    “Rather than a single instantaneous explosion or flare, what we may be looking at is a kind of astrophysical ‘storm’ or outburst,” Zhang says.

    The researchers don’t know, at this point, what might be causing those outbursts, but there are a number of candidates. One of those is supernova events, the radiation from which can blast across space. A supernova possibly did take place in 774 CE, and scientists have made links between radiocarbon spikes and other possible supernova events, but we have known supernovae with no radiocarbon spikes, and spikes with no linked supernovae.

    Other potential causes include solar superflares, but a flare powerful enough to produce the 774 CE radiocarbon spike is unlikely to have erupted from our Sun. Perhaps there’s some previously unrecorded solar activity. But the fact is, there’s no simple explanation that neatly explains what causes Miyake events.

    And this, according to the researchers, is a worry. The human world has changed dramatically since 774 CE; a Miyake event now could cause what the scientists call an “internet apocalypse” as infrastructure gets damaged, harm the health of air travelers, and even deplete the ozone layer.

    “Based on available data, there’s roughly a one percent chance of seeing another one within the next decade,” Pope says.

    “But we don’t know how to predict it or what harms it may cause. These odds are quite alarming, and lay the foundation for further research.”

    The research has been published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco,The University of Queensland (AU) Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of California, Washington University in St. Louis, The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
  • richardmitnick 9:44 am on September 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The laser breakthrough that could make tech even faster", , , , Lasers have become a major part of our day-to-day lives., The University of Queensland (AU)   

    From The University of Queensland (AU) : “The laser breakthrough that could make tech even faster” 

    u-queensland-bloc

    From The University of Queensland (AU)

    9.12.22

    Dr Martin Plöschner
    m.ploschner@uq.edu.au
    +61 431 134

    1
    The laser breakthrough that could make tech even faster. Credit: The University of Queensland.

    Lasers have become a major part of our day-to-day lives.

    From phones and tablets to self-driving cars and data communication – even the information you’re reading right now is likely being delivered to you via lasers.

    2
    Autonomous cars use laser technology to scan for hazards. Image: C.Castilla / Adobe Stock.

    The technology’s applications are so broad even the researchers who deal with lasers daily are continuously amazed.

    Among them is University of Queensland Research Fellow Dr Martin Plöschner from the School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ITEE).

    “I’ve been working with lasers for the past 15 years and yet I’m often surprised to find them in the most unexpected places,” Dr Plöschner said.

    “In many of their applications, lasers operate in part of the spectrum which is invisible to our eyes.

    “And what the eyes can’t see, the mind often doesn’t know about.

    One such hidden application of lasers is optical data communication – where laser light zips through optical fibres to deliver information.

    But the ever-increasing demand for faster and more frequent access to data is pushing optical fibre networks around the world to their limit – the so-called ‘capacity crunch’.

    Dr Joel Carpenter from UQ’s ITEE said the laser light pulses relayed along the glass or plastic fibres travel at different speeds and can overlap, slowing down the process.

    “Imagine yelling to a friend through a long concrete pipe,” Dr Carpenter said.

    “Your message will distort depending on how much the pipe echoes, and you’ll also have to wait for the echoes to die down from one message before you can send the next.

    “It’s a similar problem in large groups of computer servers, with the amount of echo dependent on the shape and colour of the lasers being launched into the optical fibre.”

    Measuring the properties of lasers is vital to making improvements, but there has been no method to fully capture this complexity.

    Until now.

    Dr Plöschner, Dr Carpenter and their team – with expertise in laser beam manipulation, shaping and characterization – were keen to solve the problem.

    They partnered with leading laser manufacturer II-VI Inc. and spent three years working on a way to make lasers faster and improve their performance.

    1
    The laser tool developed by the UQ team. Image: Dr Martin Plöschner.

    They developed a tool that measures the output of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and allows the examination of the large amounts of data their light carries.

    “The system itself is about the size of a shoebox and is simply inserted into the path of the laser beam,” Dr Plöschner said.

    “It can tell us how the laser beam evolves in time and changes its shape and colour.

    The results can now be used to improve the next generation of lasers.

    “Our tool will make it possible to identify the beam features that contribute to ‘pulse spreading’ in the optical link, which slows down data,” Dr Plöschner said.

    “Laser engineers can then design lasers without these rogue features, leading to optical links with higher speed and longer distance of operation.

    “And any tool that can facilitate faster data transfer over longer distances is helpful.”

    Dr Plöschner said improved laser technology is set to benefit a range of industries, from telecommunications to security and car manufacturing.

    “Autonomous cars use lasers to make a 3D image of the scene to help them navigate through traffic or reverse park in a tight spot,” he said.

    “And you’re scanned by hundreds of tiny lasers every time you use facial recognition to unlock your smartphone.

    “It comes as no surprise then that there’s a huge demand to make lasers with improved performance.

    The research has been published in Nature Communications.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco,The University of Queensland (AU) Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of California, Washington University in St. Louis, The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on May 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "8000 years of Great Barrier Reef climate history revealed", 1000 years later monsoonal rains eased and the water quality greatly improved., As El Niño-dominated weather patterns became established southern Great Barrier Reef water quality again improved to give us the beautiful Reef we know and love., Eight thousand years ago extreme runoff from an intense Indian-Australian summer monsoon affected water quality in the southern offshore Reef., New data allows researchers to understand for the first time what water quality was like on the Great Barrier Reef over an extended period., Poor water quality is known to be a major cause of reef decline around the world., The research team analyzed rare earth elements in drilled reef cores unveiling a deep history of wild weather., The University of Queensland (AU), This research is essential to help inform us how reefs can be better managed in the future., Water in the Great Barrier Reef was much dirtier eight thousand years ago., Water quality declined during times of dampened El Niño Southern Oscillation frequency.   

    From The University of Queensland (AU) : “8000 years of Great Barrier Reef climate history revealed” 

    u-queensland-bloc

    From The University of Queensland (AU)

    30 May 2022
    Media:
    Dr Marcos Salas-Saavedra
    msalassaavedra.e@gmail.com

    Prof. Gregory Webb
    g.webb@uq.edu.au
    +61 (0)400 269 188

    Faculty of Science Media
    science.media@uq.edu.au
    +61 (0)438 162 687

    1
    Fish swimming around coral on Heron Reef
    Water in the Great Barrier Reef was much dirtier eight thousand years ago. Image: Gregory Webb.

    A group of Australian scientists have for the first time unravelled the history of climate change upheaval on the Great Barrier Reef over the past eight millennia.

    Led by University of Queensland graduate Dr Marcos Salas-Saavedra, the team analysed rare earth elements in drilled reef cores unveiling a deep history of wild weather.

    “Eight thousand years ago extreme runoff from an intense Indian-Australian summer monsoon affected water quality in the southern offshore Reef,” Dr Salas-Saavedra said.

    “Water in the GBR was much dirtier, and poor water quality is known to be a major cause of reef decline around the world.

    “But 1000 years later monsoonal rains eased and the water quality greatly improved.

    “We noticed water quality declined during times of dampened El Niño Southern Oscillation frequency, which may have led to more La Niña-dominated wet climates in Queensland at those times – like the weather we have seen this year in Queensland.”

    “But as El Niño-dominated weather patterns became established southern Great Barrier Reef water quality again improved to give us the beautiful Reef we know and love.”

    The new data allows researchers to understand for the first time what water quality was like on the Great Barrier Reef over an extended period.

    Professor Gregory Webb said the study provides a new and independent source of palaeoclimate data, not only for the Great Barrier Reef, but potentially for reefs around the globe.

    2
    UQ’s R/V Dorothy Hill drilling reef cores for further analysis at the university’s Radiogenic Isotope Facility. Credit: Gregory Webb.

    “Knowing more about how the Great Barrier Reef responded to past environmental changes is essential to help inform us how reefs can be better managed in the future,” Professor Webb said.

    “We have created a toolkit to understand subtle differences in water quality – even in offshore reefs – and it can be applied over much longer time frames where reef core material is available.

    “Importantly, this type of analysis enables us to examine how ancient water quality may have impacted coral growth rates, overall reef growth rates, and any shifts in reef ecology at the same time.”

    Reef cores were recovered from Heron and One Tree reefs by UQ’s R/V Dorothy Hill , before Professor Jianxin Zhao dated and analysed the cores at UQ’s Radiogenic Isotope Facility.

    The analysis focused on rare earth elements preserved in microbialites – rocks made by microbes – that have been growing throughout the Great Barrier Reef’s history.

    The research is published in Chemical Geology.

    The study was part of an ARC-funded consortium of UQ (Professors Gregory Webb and Jianxin Zhao), the University of Sydney (Professor Jody Webster) and Queensland University of Technology (Dr Luke Nothdurft).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University, The University of Pennsylvania, The University of California, Washington University in St. Louis, The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
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