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  • richardmitnick 7:47 pm on October 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Study concludes: not enough - Protecting algae-eating fish insufficient to save imperiled coral reefs", A new study that analyzed long-term data from 57 coral reefs around the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea challenges this canon of coral reef ecology., , How can we boost the resilience of the world’s coral reefs which are imperiled by multiple stresses including mass bleaching events linked to climate warming?, It makes more sense to support strategies that promote the conservation of diverse habitats and coral reef types at various stages of degradation., , , , Millions of people depend on coral-reef fisheries for food and income., One strategy advocated by some researchers resource managers and conservationists is to restore populations of algae-eating reef fish such as parrotfish., Protecting the fish that keep algae in check leads to healthier corals and can promote the recovery of distressed reefs according to this idea which is known as fish-mediated resilience., The University of Michigan, We should consider management efforts that promote sustainable harvest throughout the food web to disperse the impacts of fishing.   

    From The University of Michigan: “Study concludes: not enough – Protecting algae-eating fish insufficient to save imperiled coral reefs” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    10.3.22 [Just today in social media]
    Jim Erickson
    734-647-1842
    ericksn@umich.edu

    1
    Bright blue Chromis fish on acropora coral at a back reef on the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    How can we boost the resilience of the world’s coral reefs, which are imperiled by multiple stresses including mass bleaching events linked to climate warming?

    One strategy advocated by some researchers, resource managers and conservationists is to restore populations of algae-eating reef fish, such as parrotfish. Protecting the fish that keep algae in check leads to healthier corals and can promote the recovery of distressed reefs, according to this idea, which is known as fish-mediated resilience.

    But a new study that analyzed long-term data from 57 coral reefs around the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea challenges this canon of coral reef ecology.

    The study, published online Oct. 3 in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution [below], provides compelling new evidence that fish don’t regulate coral over time, according to University of Michigan marine ecologist and study co-senior author Jacob Allgeier.

    2
    Jacob Allgeier

    The other author is former U-M postdoctoral researcher Timothy Cline.

    “This paper very well might radically change how we think about the conservation of coral reefs,” said Allgeier, assistant professor in the U-M Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

    “People have been saying for years that we can protect coral through fisheries management, and our work on Mo’orea reefs shows that this is unlikely to work—there are too many other things going on. There is functionally no measurable effect of fishes on coral cover over time.”

    Support for the idea of fish-mediated coral reef resilience has led to calls for moratoriums on fishing for algae-eating reef fish to prevent algae overgrowth and reef degradation. Such well-intentioned but misguided management strategies could have huge implications for the millions of people who depend on coral-reef fisheries for food and income, according to the authors of the new study.

    Instead, it makes more sense to support strategies that promote the conservation of diverse habitats and coral reef types at various stages of degradation, the researchers said.

    “We do need to manage fisheries in these ecosystems, but instead of things like wholesale restrictions on parrotfish, we should consider management efforts that promote sustainable harvest throughout the food web to disperse the impacts of fishing,” Allgeier said.

    3
    Shallow forereef locations off the northern shore of Mo’orea. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    4
    Forereef locations off the northern shore of the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    5
    Turbinaria algae coat the corals, foreground, at a north shore reef on the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Turbinaria is a genus of brown algae found primarily in tropical marine waters. Yellow-and-black convict tangs, an algae-eating fish, are in the background. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    6
    A relatively healthy backreef location locally on the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but they are also among the most imperiled and rapidly changing.

    Threats to coral reefs include predatory species, nutrient pollution, ocean acidification, overfishing, sedimentation and coral bleaching, which is caused by sustained, warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures. As the climate warms, mass bleaching events are lasting longer, becoming more frequent, and are affecting reefs that are completely protected from all human impacts other than climate change, Allgeier said.

    The new study involves a series of statistical analyses of coral reef data collected between 2006 and 2017 by two long-term monitoring projects: the Mo’orea Coral Reef Ecosystem LTER (funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation) and the Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l’Environnement (funded by the French government).

    The Mo’orea coral reef datasets contain some of the longest continuous observations of fish populations and algae growth on coral reefs.

    7
    School of striped convict tangs on a relatively healthy backreef on the French Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Image credit: Kelly Speare.

    Macroalgae, commonly known as seaweed, compete with corals for seafloor space and can smother them if they grow too dense. If corals are weakened by a bleaching event or some other disturbance, macroalgae often move in and displace them.

    During the 2006-17 data-collection period analyzed in the study, Mo’orea coral reefs were significantly impacted by two major disturbances: an outbreak of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish and a direct hit from Cyclone Oli in winter 2010.

    The two events allowed Allgeier and Cline to study the degradation and subsequent recovery of the Mo’orea reefs and to assess the factors that contributed to the recovery. They used mathematical models to test the hypothesis that the rate at which corals recovered correlated with various attributes of the fish community, including species diversity, biomass and richness.

    “We found no evidence that the substantial variation in fish community biomass and diversity had any influence on how sites recovered from disturbances,” Cline said. “Instead, we suggest additional location-specific attributes are critical in recovery, and the fish community is just one component of a suite of variables that must be considered.”

    Support for the study was provided by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

    Science paper:
    Nature Ecology & Evolution

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:05 pm on October 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Dinosaur-killing asteroid triggered global tsunami that scoured seafloor thousands of miles from impact site", , , , , , The University of Michigan   

    From The University of Michigan: “Dinosaur-killing asteroid triggered global tsunami that scoured seafloor thousands of miles from impact site” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    10.4.22
    Jim Erickson


    Dinosaur-killing asteroid triggered global tsunami

    The miles-wide asteroid that struck Earth 66 million years ago wiped out nearly all the dinosaurs and roughly three-quarters of the planet’s plant and animal species.

    It also triggered a monstrous tsunami with mile-high waves that scoured the ocean floor thousands of miles from the impact site on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, according to a new University of Michigan-led study.

    The study, published online Oct. 4 in the journal AGU Advances [below], presents the first global simulation of the Chicxulub impact tsunami to be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, U-M researchers reviewed the geological record at more than 100 sites worldwide and found evidence that supports their models’ predictions about the tsunami’s path and power.

    “This tsunami was strong enough to disturb and erode sediments in ocean basins halfway around the globe, leaving either a gap in the sedimentary records or a jumble of older sediments,” said lead author Molly Range, who conducted the modeling study for a master’s thesis under U-M physical oceanographer and study co-author Brian Arbic and U-M paleoceanographer and study co-author Ted Moore.

    Energy impact

    The review of the geological record focused on “boundary sections,” marine sediments deposited just before or just after the asteroid impact and the subsequent K-Pg mass extinction, which closed the Cretaceous Period.

    “The distribution of the erosion and hiatuses that we observed in the uppermost Cretaceous marine sediments are consistent with our model results, which gives us more confidence in the model predictions,” said Range, who started the project as an undergraduate in Arbic’s lab in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

    The study authors calculated that the initial energy in the impact tsunami was up to 30,000 times larger than the energy in the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake tsunami, which killed more than 230,000 people and is one of the largest tsunamis in the modern record.

    The team’s simulations show that the impact tsunami radiated mainly to the east and northeast into the North Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest through the Central American Seaway (which used to separate North America and South America) into the South Pacific Ocean.

    21
    Modeled tsunami sea-surface height perturbation, in meters, 24 hours after the asteroid impact. This image shows results from the MOM6 model, one of two tsunami-propogation models used in the University of Michigan-led study. Image credit: From Range et al. in AGU Advances, 2022.

    In those basins and in some adjacent areas, underwater current speeds likely exceeded 20 centimeters per second (0.4 mph), a velocity that is strong enough to erode fine-grained sediments on the seafloor.

    In contrast, the South Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the region that is today the Mediterranean were largely shielded from the strongest effects of the tsunami, according to the team’s simulation. In those places, the modeled current speeds were likely less than the 20 cm/sec threshold.

    Geological corroboration

    For the review of the geological record, U-M’s Moore analyzed published records of 165 marine boundary sections and was able to obtain usable information from 120 of them. Most of the sediments came from cores collected during scientific ocean-drilling projects.

    The North Atlantic and South Pacific had the fewest sites with complete, uninterrupted K-Pg boundary sediments. In contrast, the largest number of complete K-Pg boundary sections were found in the South Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean.

    “We found corroboration in the geological record for the predicted areas of maximal impact in the open ocean,” said Arbic, professor of earth and environmental sciences. He oversaw the project. “The geological evidence definitely strengthens the paper.”

    Of special significance, according to the authors, are outcrops of the K-Pg boundary on the eastern shores of New Zealand’s north and south islands, which are more than 12,000 kilometers (7,500 miles) from the Yucatan impact site.

    The heavily disturbed and incomplete New Zealand sediments, called olistostromal deposits, were originally thought to be the result of local tectonic activity. But given the age of the deposits and their location directly in the modeled pathway of the Chicxulub impact tsunami, the U-M-led research team suspects a different origin.

    “We feel these deposits are recording the effects of the impact tsunami, and this is perhaps the most telling confirmation of the global significance of this event,” Range said.

    Comparing models

    The modeling portion of the study used a two-stage strategy. First, a large computer program called a hydrocode simulated the chaotic first 10 minutes of the event, which included the impact, crater formation and initiation of the tsunami. That work was conducted by co-author Brandon Johnson of Purdue University.

    Based on the findings of previous studies, the researchers modeled an asteroid that was 14 kilometers (8.7 miles) in diameter, moving at 12 kilometers per second (27,000 mph). It struck granitic crust overlain by thick sediments and shallow ocean waters, blasting a roughly 100-kilometer-wide (62-mile-wide) crater and ejecting dense clouds of soot and dust into the atmosphere.

    Two and a half minutes after the asteroid struck, a curtain of ejected material pushed a wall of water outward from the impact site, briefly forming a 4.5-kilometer-high (2.8-mile-high) wave that subsided as the ejecta fell back to Earth.

    Ten minutes after the projectile hit the Yucatan, and 220 kilometers (137 miles) from the point of impact, a 1.5-kilometer-high (0.93-mile-high) tsunami wave—ring-shaped and outward-propagating—began sweeping across the ocean in all directions, according to the U-M simulation.

    At the 10-minute mark, the results of Johnson’s iSALE hydrocode simulations were entered into two tsunami-propagation models, MOM6 and MOST, to track the giant waves across the ocean. MOM6 has been used to model tsunamis in the deep ocean, and NOAA uses the MOST model operationally for tsunami forecasts at its Tsunami Warning Centers.

    3
    Modeled tsunami sea-surface height perturbation, in meters, four hours after the asteroid impact. This image shows results from the MOM6 model, one of two tsunami-propogation models used in the University of Michigan-led study. Image credit: From Range et al. in AGU Advances, 2022.

    “The big result here is that two global models with differing formulations gave almost identical results, and the geologic data on complete and incomplete sections are consistent with those results,” said Moore, professor emeritus of earth and environmental sciences. “The models and the verification data match nicely.”

    According to the team’s simulation:

    One hour after impact, the tsunami had spread outside the Gulf of Mexico and into the North Atlantic.
    Four hours after impact, the waves had passed through the Central American Seaway and into the Pacific.
    Twenty-four hours after impact, the waves had crossed most of the Pacific from the east and most of the Atlantic from the west and entered the Indian Ocean from both sides.
    By 48 hours after impact, significant tsunami waves had reached most of the world’s coastlines.

    Dramatic wave heights

    For the current study, the researchers did not attempt to estimate the extent of coastal flooding caused by the tsunami.

    However, their models indicate that open-ocean wave heights in the Gulf of Mexico would have exceeded 100 meters (328 feet), with wave heights of more than 10 meters (32.8 feet) as the tsunami approached North Atlantic coastal regions and parts of South America’s Pacific coast.

    4
    Maximum tsunami wave amplitude, in centimeters, following the asteroid impact 66 million years ago. Image credit: From Range et al. in AGU Advances, 2022.

    As the tsunami neared those shorelines and encountered shallow bottom waters, wave heights would have increased dramatically through a process called shoaling. Current speeds would have exceeded the 20 centimeters per second threshold for most coastal areas worldwide.

    “Depending on the geometries of the coast and the advancing waves, most coastal regions would be inundated and eroded to some extent,” according to the study authors. “Any historically documented tsunamis pale in comparison with such global impact.”

    The follow-up

    A follow-up study is planned to model the extent of coastal inundation worldwide, Arbic said. That study will be led by Vasily Titov of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Pacific Marine Environmental Lab, who is a co-author of the AGU Advances paper.

    In addition to Range, Arbic, Moore, Johnson and Titov, the study authors are Alistair Adcroft of Princeton University, Joseph Ansong of the University of Ghana, Christopher Hollis of Victoria University of Wellington, Jeroen Ritsema of the University of Michigan, Christopher Scotese of the PALEOMAP Project, and He Wang of NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

    Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation and the University of Michigan Associate Professor Support Fund, which is supported by the Margaret and Herman Sokol Faculty Awards. The MOM6 simulations were carried out on the Flux supercomputer provided by the University of Michigan Advanced Research Computing Technical Services.

    Science paper:
    AGU Advances

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:43 am on September 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Building algorithms that could quickly and accurately turn electron microscopy images into 3D visualizations., , , , , , The University of Michigan   

    From The University of Michigan: “Visualizing nanoscale structures in real time” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    8.18.22 [Received via Brookhaven Laboratory 9.16.22.]
    Written by Jim Lynch | College of Engineering

    Media contact
    Kate McAlpine
    Research News Editor
    (734) 647-7087
    kmca@umich.edu


    A real-time reconstruction of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanowire produced with the weighted back projection algorithm in tomviz.

    Computer chip designers, materials scientists, biologists and other scientists now have an unprecedented level of access to the world of nanoscale materials thanks to 3D visualization software that connects directly to an electron microscope. It enables researchers to see and manipulate 3D visualizations of nanomaterials in real time.

    Developed by a University of Michigan-led team of engineers and software developers, the capabilities are included in a new beta version of tomviz, an open-source 3D data visualization tool that’s already used by tens of thousands of researchers. The new version reinvents the visualization process, making it possible to go from microscope samples to 3D visualizations in minutes instead of days.

    In addition to generating results more quickly, the new capabilities enable researchers to see and manipulate 3D visualizations during an ongoing experiment. That could dramatically speed research in fields like microprocessors, electric vehicle batteries, lightweight materials and many others.

    “It has been a longstanding dream of the semiconductor industry, for example, to be able to do tomography in a day, and here we’ve cut it to less than an hour,” said Robert Hovden, assistant professor of materials science and engineering at U-M and corresponding author on the study published in Nature Communications [below]. “You can start interpreting and doing science before you’re even done with an experiment.”


    A real-time reconstruction of cobalt phosphate hyberbranched nanoparticles produced with the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique algorithm in tomviz.

    2
    This rendering of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon support shows how tomviz interprets microscopy data as it’s created, resolving from a shadowy image to a detailed rendering.

    Hovden explains that the new software pulls data directly from an electron microscope as it’s created and displays results immediately, a fundamental change from previous versions of tomviz. In the past, researchers gathered data from the electron microscope, which takes hundreds of two-dimensional projection images of a nanomaterial from several different angles.

    Next, Hovden and colleagues took the projections back to the lab to interpret and prepare them before feeding them to tomviz, which would take several hours to generate a 3D visualization of an object. The entire process took days to a week, and a problem with one step of the process often meant starting over.

    The new version of tomviz does all the interpretation and processing on the spot. Researchers get a shadowy but useful 3D render within a few minutes, which gradually improves into a detailed visualization.

    “When you’re working in an invisible world like nanomaterials, you never really know what you’re going to find until you start seeing it,” Hovden said. “So the ability to begin interpreting and making adjustments while you’re still on the microscope makes a huge difference in the research process.”

    The sheer speed of the new process could also be useful in industry—semiconductor chip makers, for example, could use tomography to run tests on new chip designs, looking for failures in 3D nanoscale circuitry far too small to see. In the past, the tomography process was too slow to run the hundreds of tests required in a commercial facility, but Hovden believes tomviz could change that.

    Hovden emphasizes that tomviz can be run on a standard consumer-grade laptop. It can connect to newer or older models of electron microscopes. And because it’s open-source, the software itself is accessible to everyone.

    “Open-source software is a great tool for empowering science globally. We made the connection between tomviz and the microscope agnostic to the microscope manufacturer,” he said. “And because the software only looks at the data from the microscope, it doesn’t care whether that microscope is the latest model at U-M or a 20-year-old machine.”

    3
    This diagram illustrates the process of pulling two-dimensional projection images from an electron microscope and rendering them into a three-dimensional visualization.

    To develop the new capabilities, the U-M team drew on its longstanding partnership with software developer Kitware and also brought on a team of scientists who work at the intersection of data science, materials science and microscopy. At the start of the process, Hovden worked with Marcus Hanwell of Kitware and The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory to hone the idea of a version of tomviz that would enable real-time visualization and experimentation.

    Then, Hovden and Kitware’s developers collaborated with U-M materials science and engineering graduate researcher Jonathan Schwartz, microscopy researcher Yi Jiang and machine learning and materials science expert Huihuo Zheng, both of The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, to build algorithms that could quickly and accurately turn electron microscopy images into 3D visualizations.

    Once the algorithms were complete, Cornell University professor of applied and engineering physics David Muller and Peter Ericus, a staff scientist at the The DOE’s Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, worked with Hovden to design a user interface that would support the new capabilities.

    Finally, Hovden teamed up with materials science and engineering professor Nicholas Kotov, undergraduate data scientist Jacob Pietryga, biointerfaces research fellow Anastasiia Visheratina and chemical engineering research fellow Prashant Kumar, all at U-M, to synthesize a nanoparticle that could be used for real-world testing of the new capabilities, to both ensure their accuracy and show off their capabilities.

    They settled on a nanoparticle shaped like a helix, about 100 nanometers wide and 500 nanometers long. The new version of tomviz worked as planned; within minutes, it generated an image that was shadowy but detailed enough for the researchers to make out key details like the way the nanoparticle twists, known as chirality. About 30 minutes later, the shadows resolved into a detailed, three-dimensional visualization.

    4
    A screenshot from tomviz 2.0.

    The source code for the new beta version of tomviz is freely available for download at GitHub. Hovden believes it will open new possibilities to fields beyond materials-related research; fields like biology are also poised to benefit from access to real-time electron tomography. He also hopes the project’s “software as science” approach will spur new innovation across the fields of science and software development.

    “We really have an interdisciplinary approach to research at the intersections of computer science, material science, physics, chemistry,” Hovden said. “It’s one thing to create really cool algorithms that only you and your graduate students know how to use. It’s another thing if you can enable labs across the world to do these state-of-the-art things.”

    Kitware collaborators on the project were Chris Harris, Brianna Major, Patrick Avery, Utkarsh Ayachit, Berk Geveci, Alessandro Genova and Hanwell. Kotov is also the Irving Langmuir Distinguished University Professor of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Joseph B. and Florence V. Cejka Professor of Engineering, and a professor of chemical engineering and macromolecular science and engineering.

    “I’m excited for all the new science discoveries and 3D visualizations that will come out of the material science and microscopy community with our new real-time tomography framework,” Schwartz said.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:38 am on September 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "First light at the most powerful laser in the U.S.", "ZEUS": Zetawatt-Equivalent Ultrashort pulse laser System, , , , , , In this first run the ZEUS team is starting at a power of 30 terawatts (30 trillion watts) or about 3% of the current most powerful lasers in the U.S. and 1% of ZEUS’s eventual maximum power., , , , The first test using the target area for ZEUS’s signature experiment is anticipated in 2023., The University of Michigan, The ZEUS laser at the University of Michigan has begun its commissioning experiments.   

    From The University of Michigan: “First light at the most powerful laser in the U.S.” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    9.14.22
    Kate McAlpine

    The ZEUS laser at the University of Michigan has begun its commissioning experiments.


    The ZEUS Laser – the most powerful laser in the U.S.
    The ZEUS laser system will be the most powerful laser in the United States, located exclusively at the University of Michigan. Funded by the National Science Foundation, it will be a destination for researchers studying extreme plasmas around the U.S. and internationally.

    The laser that will be the most powerful in the United States is preparing to send its first pulses into an experimental target at the University of Michigan.

    Funded by the National Science Foundation, it will be a destination for researchers studying extreme plasmas around the U.S. and internationally.

    Called ZEUS, the Zetawatt-Equivalent Ultrashort pulse laser System, it will explore the physics of the quantum universe as well as outer space, and it is expected to contribute to new technologies in medicine, electronics and national security.

    “ZEUS will be the highest peak power laser in the U.S. and among the most powerful laser systems in the world. We’re looking forward to growing the research community and bringing in people with new ideas for experiments and applications,” said Karl Krushelnick, director of the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, which houses ZEUS, and the Henry J. Gomberg Collegiate Professor of Engineering.

    The first target area to get up and running is the high-repetition target area, which runs experiments with more frequent but lower power laser pulses. Michigan alum Franklin Dollar, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California-Irvine, is the first user, and his team is exploring a new kind of X-ray imaging.

    They will use ZEUS to send infrared laser pulses into a gas target of helium, turning it into plasma. That plasma accelerates electrons to high energies, and those electron beams then wiggle to produce very compact X-ray pulses.

    Dollar’s team investigates how to make and use these new kinds of X-ray sources. Because soft tissues absorb X-rays at very similar rates, basic medical X-ray machines have to deliver high doses of radiation before they can distinguish between a tumor and healthy tissue, he said.

    But during his doctoral studies under Krushelnick, Dollar used ZEUS’s predecessor to image a damselfly, showing the promise of laser-like X-ray pulses. Different soft tissues within the damselfly’s carapace delayed X-rays to different degrees, creating interference patterns in the X-ray waves. Those patterns revealed the soft structures with very short X-ray pulses—a few millionths of a billionth of a second—and hence small X-ray doses.

    “We could see every little organ as well as the tiny micro hairs on its leg,” Dollar said. “It’s very exciting to think of how we could use these laser-like X-rays to do low-dose imaging, taking advantage of the fact that they’re laser-like rather than having to rely on the absorption imaging of the past.”

    In this first run, the ZEUS team is starting at a power of 30 terawatts (30 trillion watts), about 3% of the current most powerful lasers in the U.S. and 1% of ZEUS’s eventual maximum power.

    “During the experiment here, we’ll put the first light through to the target chamber and develop towards that 300 terawatt level,” said John Nees, a research scientist in electrical and computer engineering.

    Nees leads the building of the laser alongside Anatoly Maksimchuk, a research scientist in electrical and computer engineering, who leads the development of the experimental areas.

    2
    (From left) Laser engineer Lauren Weinberg, research scientist John Nees and research engineer Galina Kalinchenko pose for photos while working on the ZEUS laser at the NSF ZEUS laser facility in a Michigan Engineering lab. Image credit: Marcin Szczepanski, Michigan Engineering.

    Dollar’s team plans to return late in the fall for another run, aiming for the full power intended for the high repetition target area, 500 terawatts. The maximum power of 3 petawatts, or quadrillion watts, will go to different target areas to be completed later. The first test using the target area for ZEUS’s signature experiment is anticipated in 2023.

    That experiment will use the laser to generate a beam of high-speed electrons and then run the electrons directly into the laser pulses. For the electrons, that simulates a zetawatt laser pulse—a million times more powerful than ZEUS’s 3 petawatts. In addition to probing the foundations of our understanding of the quantum universe, ZEUS will enable researchers to study what’s going on inside some of the most extreme objects in space.

    “Magnetars, which are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields around them, and objects like active galactic nuclei surrounded by very hot plasma—we can recreate the microphysics of hot plasma in extremely strong fields in the laboratory,” said Louise Willingale, associate director of ZEUS and an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering.

    ZEUS offers not only scientific and technological opportunities, but with the discipline-wide effort to grow the laser physics workforce, it creates career opportunities as well. Dollar brought his whole team to get the hands-on experience of a commissioning experiment at a world-class laser.

    “At Michigan Engineering, we’re fortunate to have some of the strongest academic and research capabilities in the world, and we’re leveraging that strength to improve the lives of real people. ZEUS exemplifies our commitment to fundamental science—using engineering to understand matter at its most basic levels and then using that knowledge to build solutions to real-world problems,” said Alec D. Gallimore, the Robert J. Vlasic Dean of Engineering.

    The first experiment milestone feels especially hard-earned because of the way the pandemic disrupted construction early on, when the team was still reconfiguring the building to accommodate a much larger laser. Project manager Franko Bayer reconsidered the schedules, identifying work that could be done in parallel rather than in sequence, to keep as close as possible to the initial timelines.

    “Our team at ZEUS is very excited that our hard work paid off, and despite all the post-pandemic equipment delivery delays, we are on schedule to our original timeline. This experiment is the beginning to gradually ramp up the power until full commissioning in the fall of 2023,” Bayer said.

    Krushelnick is also a professor of nuclear engineering and radiological sciences and electrical and computer engineering. Gallimore is also the Richard F. and Eleanor A. Towner Professor of Engineering, an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor and a professor of aerospace engineering.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    The University of Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, The University of Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, The University of Michigan signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, The University of Michigan ‘s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The University of Michigan is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s The University of Michigan researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    The University of Michigan is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The The University of Michigan library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. The University of Michigan was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the The University of Michigan library system.

    In the late 1960s The University of Michigan, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by The University of Michigan. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:49 am on August 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "tomviz": an open-source 3D data visualization tool that’s already used by tens of thousands of researchers., , , , , , Open-source software enables researchers to see materials in 3D while they're still on the electron microscope., The University of Michigan   

    From The University of Michigan: “Visualizing nanoscale structures in real time” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    8.18.22
    Kate McAlpine

    Open-source software enables researchers to see materials in 3D while they’re still on the electron microscope.


    Real-time 3D visualization with tomviz of platinum nanoparticles on carbon nanowire. Credit: University of Michigan Engineering.

    Computer chip designers, materials scientists, biologists and other scientists now have an unprecedented level of access to the world of nanoscale materials thanks to 3D visualization software that connects directly to an electron microscope. It enables researchers to see and manipulate 3D visualizations of nanomaterials in real time.

    Developed by a University of Michigan-led team of engineers and software developers, the capabilities are included in a new beta version of “tomviz”, an open-source 3D data visualization tool that’s already used by tens of thousands of researchers. The new version reinvents the visualization process, making it possible to go from microscope samples to 3D visualizations in minutes instead of days.

    In addition to generating results more quickly, the new capabilities enable researchers to see and manipulate 3D visualizations during an ongoing experiment. That could dramatically speed research in fields like microprocessors, electric vehicle batteries, lightweight materials and many others.

    “It has been a longstanding dream of the semiconductor industry, for example, to be able to do tomography in a day, and here we’ve cut it to less than an hour,” said Robert Hovden, assistant professor of materials science and engineering at U-M and corresponding author on the study published in Nature Communications [below]. “You can start interpreting and doing science before you’re even done with an experiment.”


    A real-time reconstruction of cobalt phosphate hyberbranched nanoparticles produced with the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique algorithm in tomviz.

    2
    This rendering of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon support shows how tomviz interprets microscopy data as it’s created, resolving from a shadowy image to a detailed rendering.

    Hovden explains that the new software pulls data directly from an electron microscope as it’s created and displays results immediately, a fundamental change from previous versions of tomviz. In the past, researchers gathered data from the electron microscope, which takes hundreds of two-dimensional projection images of a nanomaterial from several different angles.

    Next, Hovden and colleagues took the projections back to the lab to interpret and prepare them before feeding them to tomviz, which would take several hours to generate a 3D visualization of an object. The entire process took days to a week, and a problem with one step of the process often meant starting over.

    The new version of tomviz does all the interpretation and processing on the spot. Researchers get a shadowy but useful 3D render within a few minutes, which gradually improves into a detailed visualization.

    “When you’re working in an invisible world like nanomaterials, you never really know what you’re going to find until you start seeing it,” Hovden said. “So the ability to begin interpreting and making adjustments while you’re still on the microscope makes a huge difference in the research process.”

    The sheer speed of the new process could also be useful in industry—semiconductor chip makers, for example, could use tomography to run tests on new chip designs, looking for failures in 3D nanoscale circuitry far too small to see. In the past, the tomography process was too slow to run the hundreds of tests required in a commercial facility, but Hovden believes tomviz could change that.

    Hovden emphasizes that tomviz can be run on a standard consumer-grade laptop. It can connect to newer or older models of electron microscopes. And because it’s open-source, the software itself is accessible to everyone.

    “Open-source software is a great tool for empowering science globally. We made the connection between tomviz and the microscope agnostic to the microscope manufacturer,” he said. “And because the software only looks at the data from the microscope, it doesn’t care whether that microscope is the latest model at U-M or a 20-year-old machine.”

    3
    This diagram illustrates the process of pulling two-dimensional projection images from an electron microscope and rendering them into a three-dimensional visualization.

    To develop the new capabilities, the U-M team drew on its longstanding partnership with software developer Kitware and also brought on a team of scientists who work at the intersection of data science, materials science and microscopy. At the start of the process, Hovden worked with Marcus Hanwell of Kitware and The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory to hone the idea of a version of tomviz that would enable real-time visualization and experimentation.

    Then, Hovden and Kitware’s developers collaborated with U-M materials science and engineering graduate researcher Jonathan Schwartz, microscopy researcher Yi Jiang and machine learning and materials science expert Huihuo Zheng, both of The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, to build algorithms that could quickly and accurately turn electron microscopy images into 3D visualizations.

    Once the algorithms were complete, Cornell University professor of applied and engineering physics David Muller and Peter Ericus, a staff scientist at the Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, worked with Hovden to design a user interface that would support the new capabilities.

    Finally, Hovden teamed up with materials science and engineering professor Nicholas Kotov, undergraduate data scientist Jacob Pietryga, biointerfaces research fellow Anastasiia Visheratina and chemical engineering research fellow Prashant Kumar, all at U-M, to synthesize a nanoparticle that could be used for real-world testing of the new capabilities, to both ensure their accuracy and show off their capabilities.

    They settled on a nanoparticle shaped like a helix, about 100 nanometers wide and 500 nanometers long. The new version of tomviz worked as planned; within minutes, it generated an image that was shadowy but detailed enough for the researchers to make out key details like the way the nanoparticle twists, known as chirality. About 30 minutes later, the shadows resolved into a detailed, three-dimensional visualization.

    The source code for the new beta version of tomviz is freely available for download at GitHub. Hovden believes it will open new possibilities to fields beyond materials-related research; fields like biology are also poised to benefit from access to real-time electron tomography. He also hopes the project’s “software as science” approach will spur new innovation across the fields of science and software development.

    “We really have an interdisciplinary approach to research at the intersections of computer science, material science, physics, chemistry,” Hovden said. “It’s one thing to create really cool algorithms that only you and your graduate students know how to use. It’s another thing if you can enable labs across the world to do these state-of-the-art things.”

    Kitware collaborators on the project were Chris Harris, Brianna Major, Patrick Avery, Utkarsh Ayachit, Berk Geveci, Alessandro Genova and Hanwell. Kotov is also the Irving Langmuir Distinguished University Professor of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Joseph B. and Florence V. Cejka Professor of Engineering, and a professor of chemical engineering and macromolecular science and engineering.

    “I’m excited for all the new science discoveries and 3D visualizations that will come out of the material science and microscopy community with our new real-time tomography framework,” Schwartz said.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    The University of Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, The University of Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, The University of Michigan signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, The University of Michigan ‘s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The University of Michigan is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s The University of Michigan researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    The University of Michigan is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The The University of Michigan library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. The University of Michigan was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the The University of Michigan library system.

    In the late 1960s The University of Michigan, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by The University of Michigan. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:21 am on June 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The quiet life of Messier 94", Astronomers use a galaxy’s stellar halo as a “fossil record” to study these bulges., , Scientists are doing extragalactic archaeology in the stellar halo around Messier 94., Stars within classical bulges move a bit randomly-resembling elliptical galaxies-and seem to be older than their galaxy., Stars within pseudobulges move by rotation-like spiral galaxies-and don’t differ in age from their galaxy., Stellar halos can-for example-tell astronomers whether a galaxy has merged with another galaxy in its past., The scientists found no evidence of a massive merger in the Messier 94's history., The scientists looked at a type of star called a red-giant branch star-or an RGB star., The scientists used the Subaru data to catalog stars in Messier 94’s stellar halo according to their brightness., The stellar halo extends far beyond what a galaxy appears to be at first glance., The University of Michigan, Tightly packed stars of a similar age within the center of a galaxy have a collective name: a bulge.   

    From The University of Michigan: “The quiet life of Messier 94” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    June 14, 2022

    Contact:
    Morgan Sherburne

    1
    Messier 94 is a spiral galaxy located 16 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. University of Michigan doctoral student Katya Gozman investigated the galaxy’s halo to examine the galaxy’s merger history. Image credits: NASA ESA Hubble.

    Just like a murder of crows, a shrewdness of apes and a murmuration of starlings, tightly packed stars of a similar age within the center of a galaxy have a collective name: a bulge.

    Most galaxies have bulges at their centers. Depending on their properties—specifically, the kinematics of their stars—the bulges have different names. Stars within classical bulges move a bit randomly-resembling elliptical galaxies-and seem to be older than their galaxy, while stars within pseudobulges move by rotation-like spiral galaxies-and don’t differ in age from their galaxy.

    Astronomers use a galaxy’s stellar halo as a “fossil record” to study these bulges.

    Stellar halos can-for example-tell astronomers whether a galaxy has merged with another galaxy in its past.

    A University of Michigan doctoral student has examined the pseudobulge of the nearby disk galaxy Messier 94 and has found that despite the galaxy having the largest pseudobulge in the local universe, likely no massive galaxies crashed into Messier 94 in the past.

    “Astronomers believe that when a galaxy merges with another galaxy, the merger will deposit material into the stellar halo of the galaxy it merged with,” said lead author Katya Gozman. “By investigating and learning about the stars and stellar populations in the stellar halo, we can study and find out information about the past mergers a galaxy had. You could say we’re doing extragalactic archaeology in the stellar halo around Messier 94.”

    But Gozman and her co-authors found no evidence of a massive merger in the galaxy’s history. Instead, a smaller merger likely happened, with a galaxy the size of the Small Magellanic Cloud—a dwarf galaxy approximately three times smaller than the Milky Way—crashing into Messier 94.

    Gozman used observational data generated by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, located in Hawaii, to look at Messier 94’s stellar halo, the diffuse halo of stars that surrounds a galaxy.

    The stellar halo extends far beyond what a galaxy appears to be at first glance, and astronomers can examine this halo to look for remnants of past mergers. One way of learning about these remnants is to calculate the mass of a galaxy’s halo.

    2
    University of Michigan doctoral student Katya Gozman used images from the Subaru Suprime-Cam, a massive digital camera mounted to the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, to study the merger history of galaxy M94. Image credit: Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

    For this study, Gozman used the Subaru data to catalog stars in Messier 94’s stellar halo according to their brightness. She plotted stars in what’s called a color magnitude diagram, which organizes stars according to their brightness as seen through certain filters used in astronomy to determine how much light a star is emitting.

    Specifically she looked at a type of star called a red-giant branch star-or an RGB star. These stars are luminous—a benefit for imaging them, Gozman says—and how red or blue the star is strongly correlates with what kinds of heavier, metallic elements they contain.

    Gozman then divided the RGBs in the galaxy into two regions: RGBs whose light appeared more blue, and RGBs whose light appeared more red. The blue RGBs were metal poor while the red RGBs were more metal rich. She also plotted the stars’ distribution in the galaxy, determining that the red RGBs are concentrated in a ring around the center of the galaxy while the blue RGBs are dispersed around the outer parts of its halo.

    Focusing on the blue RGBs, Gozman divided the galaxy into circular annuli, or concentric rings overlying the disk like a bullseye. By calculating the surface brightness of the stars in each ring, she was able to determine the mass of the stellar halo—which was not at all massive. The halo’s mass lets us infer the mass of the galaxy that merged into it.

    “We use the mass of the halo to infer the mass of the galaxy that last crashed into the galaxy we’re examining,” Gozman said. “One might think that if a really large galaxy crashed into M94 a long time ago, that might have significantly altered the morphology, the components, of the galaxy and maybe that could have given rise to this really large pseudobulge in the center.”

    But there was no large merger, Gozman found. The largest galaxy that crashed into Messier 94 in the past was not massive at all. Instead, she says the pseudobulge likely formed just through the typical evolution of the galaxy.

    However, very few studies have mapped the size of galaxy halos in this way. Gozman’s work to resolve the stars in M94’s stellar halo provides more information for astronomers who study galaxy mergers and evolution.

    “This data is the first data we’ve ever had of the resolved stellar population of this galaxy. Resolving stars is a pretty hard thing to do, but it is one of the best ways you can actually look at the halos and learn about the merger history of the galaxy,” she said. “So this is another datapoint in a field of very few data points.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:44 am on May 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers find ‘gold standard’ star in Milky Way", , , The astronomers used an instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope that can collect ultraviolet spectra., The star HD 222925 is a ninth-magnitude star located toward the southern constellation Tucana., The University of Michigan   

    From The University of Michigan: “Astronomers find ‘gold standard’ star in Milky Way” 

    U Michigan bloc

    From The University of Michigan

    May 10, 2022
    Morgan Sherburne
    morganls@umich.edu

    1
    The star HD 222925 is a ninth-magnitude star located toward the southern constellation Tucana. Image credit: The STScI Digitized Sky Survey.

    In our sun’s neighborhood of the Milky Way Galaxy is a relatively bright star, and in it, astronomers have been able to identify the widest range of elements in a star beyond our solar system yet.

    The study, led by University of Michigan astronomer Ian Roederer, has identified 65 elements in the star, HD 222925. Forty-two of the elements identified are heavy elements that are listed along the bottom of the periodic table of elements.

    Identifying these elements in a single star will help astronomers understand what’s called the “rapid neutron capture process,” or one of the major ways by which heavy elements in the universe were created. Their results have been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series.

    “To the best of my knowledge, that’s a record for any object beyond our solar system. And what makes this star so unique is that it has a very high relative proportion of the elements listed along the bottom two-thirds of the periodic table. We even detected gold,” Roederer said. “These elements were made by the rapid neutron capture process. That’s really the thing we’re trying to study: the physics in understanding how, where and when those elements were made.”

    The process, also called the “r-process,” begins with the presence of lighter elements such as iron. Then, rapidly—on the order of a second—neutrons are added to the nuclei of the lighter elements. This creates heavier elements such as selenium, silver, tellurium, platinum, gold and thorium, the kind found in HD 222925, and all of which are rarely detected in stars, according to the astronomers.

    “You need lots of neutrons that are free and a very high energy set of conditions to liberate them and add them to the nuclei of atoms,” Roederer said. “There aren’t very many environments in which that can happen—two, maybe.”

    One of these environments has been confirmed: the merging of neutron stars. Neutron stars are the collapsed cores of supergiant stars, and are the smallest and densest known celestial objects. The collision of neutron star pairs causes gravitational waves and in 2017, astronomers first detected gravitational waves from merging neutron stars. Another way the r-process might occur is after the explosive death of massive stars.

    “That’s an important step forward: recognizing where the r-process can occur. But it’s a much bigger step to say, ‘What did that event actually do? What was produced there?” Roederer said. “That’s where our study comes in.”

    The elements Roederer and his team identified in HD 222925 were produced in either a massive supernovae or a merger of neutron stars very early in the universe. The material was ejected and thrown back into space, where it later reformed into the star Roederer is studying today.

    This star can then be used as a proxy for what one of those events would have produced. Any model developed in the future that demonstrates how the r-process or nature produces elements on the bottom two-thirds of the periodic table must have the same signature as HD 222925, Roederer says.

    Crucially, the astronomers used an instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope that can collect ultraviolet spectra. This instrument was key in allowing the astronomers to collect light in the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum—light that is faint, coming from a cool star such as HD 222925.

    The astronomers also used one of the Magellan telescopes—a consortium of which U-M is a partner—at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile to collect light from HD 222925 in the optical part of the light spectrum.

    These spectra encode the “chemical fingerprint” of elements within stars, and reading these spectra allows the astronomers not only to identify the elements contained in the star, but also how much of an element the star contains.

    Anna Frebel is a co-author of the study and professor of physics at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She helped with the overall interpretation of the HD 222925’s element abundance pattern and how it informs our understanding of the origin of the elements in the cosmos.

    “We now know the detailed element-by-element output of some r-process event that happened early in the universe,” Frebel said. “Any model that tries to understand what’s going on with the r-process has to be able to reproduce that.”

    Many of the study co-authors are part of a group called the R-Process Alliance, a group of astrophysicists dedicated to solving the big questions of the r-process. This project marks one of the team’s key goals: identifying which elements, and in what amounts, were produced in the r-process in an unprecedented level of detail.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:27 pm on April 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Graphene-hBN breakthrough to spur new LEDs and quantum computing", A University of Michigan research team has developed the first reliable scalable method for growing single layers of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on graphene., , Because graphene and hBN are so thin they can be used to build electronic devices that are much smaller and more energy-efficient than those available today., , , hBN is the world’s thinnest insulator while graphene is the thinnest of a class of materials called “semimetals"., , , Study uncovers first method for producing high-quality wafer-scale hexagonal boron nitride., The University of Michigan   

    From Michigan Engineering: “Graphene-hBN breakthrough to spur new LEDs and quantum computing” 

    1

    From Michigan Engineering

    at

    U Michigan bloc

    The University of Michigan

    April 14, 2022
    Gabe Cherry

    Study uncovers first method for producing high-quality wafer-scale hexagonal boron nitride.

    In a discovery that could speed research into next-generation electronics and LED devices, a University of Michigan research team has developed the first reliable scalable method for growing single layers of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on graphene. The process, which can produce large sheets of high-quality hBN with the widely used molecular-beam epitaxy process, is detailed in Advanced Materials.


    Building larger graphene-hBN sheets with molecular beam epitaxy.

    Graphene-hBN structures can power LEDs that generate deep-UV light, which is impossible in today’s LEDs, explained Zetian Mi, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at U-M and a corresponding author of the paper. Deep-UV LEDs could drive smaller size and greater efficiency in a variety of devices including lasers and air purifiers.

    “The technology used to generate deep-UV light today is mercury-xenon lamps, which are hot, bulky, inefficient and contain toxic materials,” Mi said. “If we can generate that light with LEDs, we could see an efficiency revolution in UV devices similar to what we saw when LED light bulbs replaced incandescents.”

    hBN is the world’s thinnest insulator while graphene is the thinnest of a class of materials called “semimetals,” which have highly malleable electrical properties and are important for their role in computers and other electronics. Bonding hBN and graphene together in smooth, single-atom-thick layers unleashes a treasure trove of exotic properties. In addition to deep-UV LEDs, graphene-hBN structures could enable quantum computing devices, smaller and more efficient electronics and optoelectronics and a variety of other applications.

    “Researchers have known about the properties of hBN for years, but in the past, the only way to get the thin sheets needed for research was to physically exfoliate them from a larger boron nitride crystal, which is labor-intensive and only yields tiny flakes of the material,” Mi said. “Our process can grow atomic-scale-thin sheets of essentially any size, which opens a lot of exciting new research possibilities.”

    Because graphene and hBN are so thin they can be used to build electronic devices that are much smaller and more energy-efficient than those available today. Layered structures of hBN and graphene can also exhibit exotic properties that could store information in quantum computing devices, like the ability to switch from a conductor to an insulator or support unusual electron spins.

    While researchers have tried in the past to synthesize thin layers of hBN using methods like sputtering and chemical vapor deposition, they struggled to get the even, precisely ordered layers of atoms that are needed to bond correctly with the graphene layer.

    “To get a useful product, you need consistent, ordered rows of hBN atoms that align with the graphene underneath, and previous efforts weren’t able to achieve that,” said Ping Wang, a postdoctoral researcher in electrical engineering and computer science. “Some of the hBN went down neatly, but many areas were disordered and randomly aligned.”

    The team, made up of electrical engineering and computer science, materials science and engineering and physics researchers, discovered that neat rows of hBN are more stable at high temperature than the undesirable jagged formations. Armed with that knowledge, Wang began experimenting with molecular-beam epitaxy, an industrial process that amounts to spraying individual atoms onto a substrate.

    2
    Ping Wang checks the monolayer hexagonal boron nitride/graphene samples grown by an ultrahigh temperature MBE system. Photo: Brenda Ahearn/Michigan Engineering.

    Wang used a terraced graphene substrate—essentially an atomic-scale staircase—and heated it to around 1600 degrees Celsius before spraying on individual boron and active nitrogen atoms.The result far exceeded the team’s expectations, forming neatly ordered seams of hBN on the graphene’s terraced edges, which expanded into wide ribbons of material.

    “Experimenting with large-amounts of pristine hBN was a distant dream for many years, but this discovery changes that,” Mi said. “This is a big step toward the commercialization of 2D quantum structures.”

    This work would not have been possible without researchers from a variety of disciplines. Mi and his team, including Ping Wang, David Laleyan, Yuanpeng Wu, Ayush Pandey and Ding Wang developed the materials synthesis process and performed structural and optical studies.

    For the mathematical theory that underpins some of the work, Mackillo Kira, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at U-M, and his PhD students Woncheol Lee (electrical and computer engineering) and Qiannan Wen (applied physics), worked with Emmanouil Kioupakis, an associate professor of materials science and engineering professor at U-M, and Diana Y. Qiu, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Yale University.

    Detailed structural and electrical characterization were performed by Jay Gupta, a professor of department of physics at The Ohio State University, and his group members Joseph Corbett and William Koll, and by Robert Hovden and John Heron, assistant professors of materials science and engineering at U-M, and their group members Jiseok Gim and Nguyen M. Vu.

    The project was conducted under the U-M College of Engineering Blue Sky Initiative, which supports high-risk, high-reward research that can lead to transformational change in areas like quantum engineering, carbon capture and reuse and next-generation drug development.

    The research was supported by the Michigan Engineering Blue Sky Initiative, the Army Research Office (grant number (W911NF-17-1-0312) and the National Science Foundation (grant numbers DMR-1807984, DMR-2118809, and MPS-1936219), the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231 and DE-SC0021965), and the W.M. Keck Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please support STEM education in your local school system

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan Engineering provides scientific and technological leadership to the people of the world. Through our people-first engineering approach, we’re committed to fostering a community of engineers who will close critical gaps and elevate all people. We aspire to be the world’s preeminent college of engineering serving the common good.

    Values

    Leadership and excellence
    Creativity, innovation and daring
    Diversity, equity and social impact
    Collegiality and collaboration
    Transparency and trustworthiness

    U MIchigan Campus

    The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. Originally, founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state, the University of Michigan is the state’s oldest university. The university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (781 acres or 3.16 km²), and has two satellite campuses located in Flint and Dearborn. The University was one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities.

    Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university has very high research activity and its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as well as professional degrees in business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work and dentistry. Michigan’s body of living alumni (as of 2012) comprises more than 500,000. Besides academic life, Michigan’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference.

    At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan’s endowment is among the largest of any university. As of October 2019, 53 MacArthur “genius award” winners (29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight heads of state or government, including President of the United States Gerald Ford; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also has many alumni who are Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows.

    Research

    Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests.

    In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over 170 acres (0.69 km^2) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m^2) of wet laboratory space, and 400,000 square feet (37,000 m^2) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university’s intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.

    The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG and the gastroscope. The university’s 13,000-acre (53 km^2) biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.

    In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM’s Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “M” stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67’s virtual memory features.

    U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation’s longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.

    The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.

    In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state’s three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan’s economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar’), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.

     
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