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  • richardmitnick 7:43 am on November 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CCM": The University of Delaware’s Center for Composite Materials, "The TuFF age", "TuFF": Tailored Universal Feedstock for Forming, A single layer of TuFF material is approximately 100 microns thick-about the diameter of the average human hair., , Boeing 747: 404600 pounds; B2 Stealth Bomber: 43000 pounds, , Reducing a material’s weight will reduce fuel consumption and emissions and can result in thousands of dollars in savings over time., The carbon-nanotube sensors the engineers plan to integrate into the material are smaller still-one billionth the width of a human hair., The goal is to enable lighter-weight composites to become cost-competitive with aluminum for creating small parts found in air vehicles., The University of Delaware, TuFF thermosets have a high temperature threshold making them useful for aerospace applications., University of Delaware researchers tackle new task in making complex material more viable for building aircraft.   

    From The University of Delaware : “The TuFF age” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    11.28.22
    Karen B. Roberts

    1
    The goal of Tailored Universal Feedstock for Forming — TuFF — is to enable lighter-weight composites to become cost-competitive with aluminum for creating small parts found in aircraft of many kinds. Photo illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase.

    University of Delaware researchers tackle new task in making complex material more viable for building aircraft.

    “TuFF” — Tailored Universal Feedstock for Forming — is a strong, highly aligned, short-fiber composite material that can be made from many fiber and resin combinations. Created at The University of Delaware’s Center for Composite Materials (CCM), it can be stamped into complex shapes, just like sheet metal, and features high-performance and stretchability up to 40%.

    Since its introduction, CCM researchers have explored applications for TuFF, from materials for repairing our nation’s pipelines to uses in flying taxis of the future.

    Now, armed with $13.5 million in funding from the U.S. Air Force, UD mechanical engineers and co-principal investigators Suresh Advani and Erik Thostenson along with industry collaborators Composites Automation and Maher and Associates are working on ways to improve manufacturing methods for TuFF. 

    “I am really excited at the opportunity to mature the TuFF pre-pregging process and demonstrate high-throughput composite thermoforming for Air Force relevant components,” said David Simone of the U.S. Air Force.

    The goal is to enable lighter-weight composites to become cost-competitive with aluminum for creating small parts found in air vehicles.

    Advani explained that when it comes to making aircraft materials more cost-efficient, reducing a material’s weight even a mere kilogram, just 2.2. pounds, will reduce fuel consumption and emissions and can result in thousands of dollars in savings over time. 

    This is because aircraft are heavy. A Boeing 747, for example, weighs a whopping 404,600 pounds. A B2 Stealth Bomber in the U.S. Air Force, meanwhile, tips the scale at over 43,000 pounds.

    “In general, the aerospace industry wants to reduce weight and replace metals,” said Advani, George W. Laird Professor of Mechanical Engineering. TuFF is a good option because the material can achieve properties equivalent to the best continuous fiber composites used in aerospace applications. 

    Advancing TuFF thermosets

    Until now, most of the work around TuFF has focused on thermoplastic composite materials that melt when heated, becoming soft and pliable, which is useful for forming. By contrast, TuFF thermosets have a higher temperature threshold, making them useful for aerospace applications. But TuFF thermosets have manufacturing challenges, too, including the long manufacturing times necessary to make a part. 

    In this new project, Thostenson and Advani will work on ways to improve the viability of thermoset TuFF composites. To start, the researchers will characterize the starting materials’ mechanical properties to understand how to make TuFF thermosets reliably and consistently. The research team will explore whether they can make the material in a new way, using thin resin films and liquid resins. They will test the limits of how the material forms and behaves under pressure and temperature, too.

    “How does it stretch during forming in a mold? What shapes can we make? When does it tear or thin or develop voids that can compromise material integrity?” said Advani.

    Having a database for such properties and behaviors will be useful in understanding TuFF material capabilities and limits, and to inform efforts to model and design parts with TuFF.

    Thostenson, professor of mechanical engineering, is an expert in structural health monitoring of materials. He will advance ways to embed sensor technology into TuFF thermosets. This would allow the researchers to see from the inside how the material is forming and curing during its manufacture, in hopes of being able to gauge—and improve— the material’s damage tolerance. 

    It’s intricate work. To give you an idea of scale, a single layer of TuFF material is approximately 100 microns thick, about the diameter of the average human hair. The carbon-nanotube sensors Thostenson plans to integrate into the material are smaller still—one billionth the width of a human hair. 

    “This would allow us to do health monitoring for the materials and parts during service life, but you could also imagine using sensor technology to detect a defect during manufacturing,” said Thostenson. 

    While it remains to be seen whether this is possible, Thostenson said having this ability could result in real cost savings for manufacturing methods, where real-time knowledge of how a material is curing could help the researchers speed up production. Additionally, if there is a material failure, such as a tear, the sensors could point the researchers where to look in the process.

    The research team also plans to develop a virtual modeling system to refine the material-forming process through computer simulation instead of by trial and error. In this way, the team will better understand each step in the material-forming process, enhancing the team’s ability to make TuFF materials consistently and reliably — a must for aerospace applications.

    “I am hoping this work will allow us finally to make composites cost competitive with the metal industry,” said Advani.

    In addition to Thostenson and Advani, the team includes, from CCM, Jack Gillespie, Dirk Heider, Shridhar Yarlagadda, Thomas Cender, John Tierney and Pavel Simacek, along with four to five graduate students.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 1:17 pm on November 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Working with nature", A four-year project will examine how living shoreline systems such as oyster or mussel reefs can help communities adapt to and maybe even restore some of this damage., An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water often containing wetlands and marshes where salt water from the ocean and fresh water from rivers and streams meet and mix., Approximately 40% of the population in the United States and globally lives in a coastal environment., Delaware’s Inland Bays support $4.5 billion in economic activity annually including over 35000 jobs statewide., Natural coastal protection strategies study sea level rise, Researchers and students involved in the project will conduct fieldwork at several sites in the Inland Bays and the Delaware Bay and the Chesapeake Bay., Sea level rise places coastal communities and areas farther inland at risk for flooding and other effects., The Delaware Estuary runs from Trenton New Jersey and Morrisville Pennsylvania to Cape Henlopen Delaware and Cape May New Jersey on opposite sides of the Delaware Bay., The hope is to detail approaches for natural coastal protection systems that can be readily used., The project will be managed by the Delaware Environmental Institute at The University of Delaware., The University of Delaware, Unfortunately the Delaware Estuary is losing about an acre per day of tidal wetlands.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Working with nature” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    11.22.22
    Karen B. Roberts

    Natural coastal protection strategies study sea level rise

    1
    The Delaware Estuary is losing about an acre per day of tidal wetlands, a problem that could worsen as sea level rise accelerates and land development intensifies along coastlines, causing what’s known as “coastal squeeze.” Photo courtesy of Danielle Quigley.

    An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water, often containing wetlands and marshes, where salt water from the ocean and fresh water from rivers and streams meet and mix. Somewhat of an in-between area, estuaries serve a vital role for the surrounding ecosystem, while offering natural recreation space for communities. 

    The Delaware Estuary runs from Trenton, New Jersey and Morrisville, Pennsylvania to Cape Henlopen, Delaware and Cape May, New Jersey on opposite sides of the Delaware Bay. It is home to the Atlantic migratory flyway, critical animal habitat and tidal wetlands. Coastal wetlands in estuaries help reduce pollution. They provide habitat and storm and flood protection, too.

    Unfortunately, the Delaware Estuary is losing about an acre per day of tidal wetlands, a problem that could worsen as sea level rise accelerates and land development intensifies along coastlines, causing what’s known as “coastal squeeze.” Modeling estimates suggest that as little as three feet of sea level rise could cause the loss of over 42,500 acres of tidal wetlands by 2100. That’s more than 25% of the total wetlands in the Delaware Estuary.

    Armed with nearly $10 million in funding from the Department of Defense, University of Delaware coastal engineer Jack Puleo and University of Florida landscape architect Jules Bruck are leading an interdisciplinary team of experts to look at this problem from both the landward and the seaward sides, in hopes of developing methods to overcome this challenge. In particular, the four-year project will examine how living shoreline systems, such as oyster or mussel reefs, can help communities adapt to and maybe even restore some of this damage.

    “Sea level rise places coastal communities and areas farther inland at risk for flooding and other effects,” said Puleo, professor and chair, civil and environmental engineering at UD. “We want to keep these coastal communities viable and resilient for current and future generations. We’re trying to understand how to protect coastal communities in ways that are harmonious with nature.”

    The project will be managed by the Delaware Environmental Institute at UD. In addition to Bruck, director of the School of Landscape Architecture and Planning and chair of landscape architecture at University of Florida, collaborators from UD include: Monique Head, associate professor and associate chair, civil and environmental engineering; Ed Hale, assistant professor of marine science and policy and marine advisory specialist with Delaware Sea Grant; Eric Bardenhagen, associate professor of landscape architecture; and Yao Hu, assistant professor of geography and spatial sciences. Other partners include Danielle Kreeger, an ecologist, Joshua Moody, restoration manager, and Kurt Cheng, shellfish programs manager, from the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and Chris Overcash, senior engineer, and others at EA Engineering, Science and Technology, Inc., an environmental consulting firm.

    A problem that isn’t going away

    Approximately 40% of the population in the United States and globally lives in a coastal environment. This doesn’t mean people are living right on the sand or directly on the marsh, but they reside within a coastal region. And the numbers are growing.

    “When you consider that a large portion of the global population lives near a coast, you better figure out the special processes that are happening there and how to protect those communities,” said Puleo. “It’s not just vacation homes. There are all kinds of critical infrastructure, businesses, schools, real estate, military installations.” 

    For example, a recent report [below] by Delaware Sea Grant and the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary revealed that Delaware’s Inland Bays support $4.5 billion in economic activity annually, including over 35,000 jobs statewide.

    Researchers and students involved in the project will conduct fieldwork at several sites in the Inland Bays, the Delaware Bay and the Chesapeake Bay to determine where living shorelines make sense and to offer guidance for how they can be optimally designed. This includes sites near Dover Air Force Base, the Coast Guard Base near Lewes, and Aberdeen Proving Ground in Aberdeen, Maryland, which is situated along the northern part of the Chesapeake Bay, 

    The hope is to detail approaches for natural coastal protection systems that can be readily used by contractors, consulting companies and state agencies in Delaware or elsewhere. Part of the work will involve assessing and offering solutions for areas with military installations, which tend to be situated along the coast and are inextricably linked to the surrounding community and regional economy.

    “You can’t just pick the base up and move it, so how do we work with nature to try to protect shorelines in these communities,” Puleo said. “We want to understand the processes and, as one approach, ways we can mitigate this rising water level.” Existing data from UD-led research already underway to understand soil impacts from climate change at several established Delaware research sites may inform the work.

    “We will perform preliminary investigations to collect water-level data, wave data, as well as gather data on suitability for mussel or oyster habitat,” Puleo said. “We already have started developing quantification rubrics to identify which sites make the most sense.”

    Working with the Army Corps of Engineers, the team ultimately plans to deploy two installations and perform detailed modeling and data collection to understand how proposed living solutions behave in the real world. For example, while an oyster reef situated in a marsh or tidal wetland might successfully slow down erosion resulting from fast-moving currents due to storm events or boat wake, another location might be more suitable for mussels or oysters in combination with grasses and sediments, or something else entirely.

    Puleo isn’t a landscape architect. He’s not an ecologist either. But he does understand the physics of how water moves and how momentum is transferred. Some of the work will include installing a natural solution in a marsh and then watching it and nearby unprotected areas over time, to determine whether the mechanism offers the desired protection.

    “For us, a big one is whether we can dissipate the wave energy that can lead to erosion and/or flooding more naturally,” he said. “If we’re able to decrease that energy, it’s less energy available to cause erosion at a marsh.”

    In addition to mitigating rising water levels, other issues under consideration include methods to improve the larval recruitment of potential shellfish species, such as mussels, and understanding how coastal communities adapt, respond or have interest in some of these approaches. The project also will address infrastructure and land-use patterns that might threaten these natural ecosystems.

    recent report

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 1:06 pm on November 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The quest for miniaturization", A capacitor consists of an electrolyte sandwiched between two conducting metal plates called electrodes., , Filter capacitors, Filter capacitors are found on electronic circuits. They work at any frequency including the 120 hertz frequency range where most of today’s devices operate., In the 1960s mainframe computers took up entire rooms. By the 1980s there were individual workstations and just a few decades later laptops and smartphones became ubiquitous., , Next steps in the work include developing a demonstration device to integrate the proposed capacitor with other components for multi-functional smart devices., One limiting factor for the miniaturization of many electronics is the size of the internal components that comprise them., The carbon capacitors can be connected in series to increase the operating voltage several-fold without sacrificing their electrochemical performance at the high frequency., The researcher’s design could provide the ability to create filter capacitors that are at least 100 times (two orders of magnitude) smaller maybe even 1000 times smaller than what is available today, The University of Delaware, Today’s technology is smaller still: millimeter-scale sensors far tinier than a penny enable highly integrated circuits to power our electronics and other devices., UD mechanical engineer reports capacitor advance which could help electronic device components., Using a carbon tube grid-based capacitor is a promising way to overcome this limiting factor of size that causes today's capacitors to be slow.   

    From The University of Delaware : “The quest for miniaturization” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    11.1.22
    Karen B. Roberts

    1
    Photo illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase.

    UD mechanical engineer reports capacitor advance which could help electronic device components.

    In the 1960s, mainframe computers took up entire rooms. By the 1980s, there were individual workstations and just a few decades later, laptops and smartphones became ubiquitous. Today’s technology is smaller still: millimeter-scale sensors far tinier than a penny enable highly integrated circuits to power our electronics and other devices.

    Consumers continue to demand devices that are smaller, faster and more powerful than before. They want multi-functionality, too. Consider smartphones, it’s not enough for the device to enable a phone call, it also needs to serve as a handheld computer, television and gaming system.

    One limiting factor for the miniaturization of many electronics is the size of the internal components that comprise them.

    University of Delaware mechanical engineer Bingqing Wei and colleagues have targeted their research to a specific component in electronics called a filter capacitor. Wei explained that alternating current (AC) electricity often must be converted into a direct current (DC) signal to operate our televisions, computers, appliances, smartphones and other small electronics.

    “Devices need a constant current. The filter capacitor does this work of converting the AC signal,” said Wei, professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Center for Fuel Cells and Batteries at UD.

    Important for a device’s function, filter capacitors are found on electronic circuits, alongside other components such as diodes or transistors that help the electrical current flow. They work at any frequency, including the 120 hertz frequency range where most of today’s devices operate.

    The most used filter capacitor today is the aluminum electrolytic capacitor, which offers high-power and fast frequency response. Its shortcomings are that it is big in size and cannot store large amounts of energy. Wei and his colleagues have been looking for a higher-energy substitute that will do the job.

    The researchers recently demonstrated that using a carbon tube grid-based capacitor is a promising way to overcome this limiting factor that causes today’s capacitors to be slow.

    “By using a grid-based system made of a 3D tightly interconnected carbon network, the filter capacitor can hold a very high amount of energy in a smaller package,” said Wei. “This means faster moving current and better performance for our small devices, without interference or unwanted frequency or disruption.”

    The research team recently reported their results in Science.

    Previous work leads to new research

    A capacitor consists of an electrolyte sandwiched between two conducting metal plates, called electrodes. The microstructure of the electrodes plays a crucial role in determining how well the capacitor performs. In this current work, Wei has been working to design electrode structures with 3D-interconnected channels that would allow electrical current to flow quickly while simultaneously enabling the capacitor to store high-energy electric charges at frequencies around 120 Hz.

    It’s an area he has been exploring in his research for over 20 years. In previous work, he and colleagues found that capacitors with better electrical-conducting channels promote the movement of electrical current through devices and can promote high energy storage capacity. Typically, this has been done by aligning carbon nanotubes only in a single direction, say vertically. So, the research team decided to try to interconnect the vertical tubes with horizontal tubes to help the electrical current move more quickly via a three-dimensional interconnected network.

    The research team began with a template of pure aluminum containing vertical channels. They oxidized the aluminum template, introducing beneficial impurities that chiseled horizontal holes in the structure’s existing vertical tubes, creating an interconnected network. When the impurities were removed, the researchers were left with a 3D template of vertically and horizontally integrated holes (channels). The research team deposited carbon tubes into the template holes, then used a sodium-hydroxide solution to etch the template away, leaving behind a freestanding flexible film of interconnected 3D carbon tubes.

    They then tested the performance of three different types of carbon-nanotube networks:

    a regular 3D carbon-tube network,

    a 3D carbon-tube network treated with an acid solution to increase the material’s surface roughness, and

    a 3D carbon-tube network that had been immersed in a nickel-salt solvent to create additional smaller nanotubes inside the carbon tubes.

    In their experiments, the research team measured the ability of each network to control the frequency’s performance. While all three structures performed similarly, the rough-surface 3D carbon tube performed the best, which Wei attributed to increased available surface area to allow more energy storage.

    When they compared the frequency response of each sample to current state-of-the-art technology, they found that all samples exhibited high energy capacity. In addition, the capacitors can be connected in series to increase the operating voltage several-fold without sacrificing their electrochemical performance at the high frequency.

    “This tells us that the flexible two-tiered carbon nanotube structure provides the same quality of frequency response as current commercial technology, but its tightly integrated structure enables it to be made into smaller devices,” said Wei.

    In practice, Wei said the researcher’s design could provide the ability to create filter capacitors that are at least 100 times (two orders of magnitude) smaller, maybe even 1,000 times smaller than what is available today, while offering the same or better storage capacity at high frequencies.

    Next steps in the work include developing a demonstration device to integrate the proposed capacitor with other components for multi-functional smart devices.

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 9:09 pm on October 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A better way to predict crystal structures", "autoPES": an automatic and reliable method of generating force fields, "SAPT": symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, Accurate theoretical predictions of how crystalline structures will form and behave are critical to preventing unintended and undesirable results in many applications., , Developing and manufacturing effective safe reliable new drugs or critical new materials for use in semiconductors or applications involving dangerous materials requires many layers of knowledge., Hundreds of thousands of plausible crystal structures are generated and the most stable are selected by their lattice energy - the energy that causes the crystal to bind., Investigations of crystal structures are an important field of science as evidenced by 15 Nobel prizes awarded for research on crystals., , , The approach developed by the scientists uses the probabilistic equations of quantum mechanics without the need for experiments., The interaction energy can be computed using quantum mechanics and extends to the interactions between molecules., The University of Delaware, This may become a leading method in developments of novel crystalline materials.   

    From The University of Delaware : “A better way to predict crystal structures” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    10.25.22
    Beth Miller

    1
    University of Delaware physicist Krzysztof Szalewicz, an expert in molecular behavior, has recently published a new, more reliable way to predict crystal structures.

    UD’s Prof. Krzysztof Szalewicz and graduate student Rahul Nikhar use quantum mechanics to improve predictions

    Developing and manufacturing effective, safe, reliable new drugs or critical new materials for use in semiconductors or applications involving dangerous materials requires many layers of knowledge.

    You need to know which molecules are best suited to the mission, what formation they will take when assembled and how this form might change in the manufacturing process. You also need to know whether those changes will affect their ability to perform as desired.

    In a recent publication of the journal Nature Communications [below], University of Delaware Prof. Krzysztof Szalewicz, an expert in molecular behavior, and graduate student Rahul Nikhar explained a promising new approach to predicting the structure of crystals that could reduce the cost and increase the reliability of such predictions.

    Crystal structures are common and familiar to us in substances such as salt, ice and sand. Scientists define them by their regular patterns and symmetry — the way the atoms and molecules are organized — but most atoms and molecules can crystallize in several forms, called polymorphs. Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of carbon, for example. Some molecules can crystallize in as many as a dozen or so different forms, Szalewicz said.

    “Investigations of crystal structures are an important field of science as evidenced by 15 Nobel prizes awarded for research on crystals,” he said.

    Measuring those structures is routinely possible using X-ray diffraction techniques, but accurate, theoretical predictions of how crystalline structures will form and behave are critical to preventing unintended and undesirable results in many applications.

    These predictions of structure and stability are no easy task, though.

    The analysis starts with a two-dimensional graph of a molecule. Next, three-dimensional conformations are mapped by determining all of the possible shapes this molecule could take around various chemical bonds. Then hundreds of thousands of plausible crystal structures are generated and the most stable are selected by their lattice energy, the energy that causes the crystal to bind.

    Lattice energy is the sum of the energies resulting from interactions between atoms or molecules in a crystal, Szalewicz said.

    He pointed to a pair of argon atoms as an example. Depending on the distance between the atoms, they will either attract or repel each other. If the energy decreases with distance, the atoms repel each other. If it increases, they attract each other.

    This interaction energy can be computed using quantum mechanics, Szalewicz said, and extends to the interactions between molecules.

    These regions of attraction and repulsion represent potential energy surfaces — force fields. Once the force field is known, Szalewicz said, the lattice energy can be calculated by adding up the interaction energies of all the molecules in the crystal.

    Until recently, though, these computations were too expensive to use extensively. Accuracy was limited and there was no method to improve the calculations.

    The approach developed by Szalewicz and Nikhar uses the equations of quantum mechanics, without need of experiments.

    The method developed did away with the need for months of computation and effort, expanded the range of molecules for which predictions could be made, dramatically reduced the cost and increased the reliability of the predictions.

    The new developments include the use of a method created by the Szalewicz group, known as symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), along with the creation of an automatic and reliable method of generating force fields (called autoPES), which requires minimal human involvement and was developed by Mike Metz, another grad student in the Szalewicz group. Metz won the 2020 Theodore Wolf Prize for this work.

    The approach then uses these force-field calculations to minimize lattice energy and, finally, applies quantum mechanics calculations for the whole crystal to make final refinements and rank the polymorphs.

    “This should increase the reliability of predictions and may become a leading method in developments of novel crystalline materials,” Szalewicz said.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications
    See the science paper for detailed material with images.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 11:31 am on October 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Harnessing the power of the world’s fastest computer", "PIConGPU": Particle-in-Cell algorithm, , , , , , The University of Delaware, UD Prof. Sunita Chandrasekaran and students play key roles in exascale computing.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Harnessing the power of the world’s fastest computer” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    10.18.22
    Tracey Bryant

    UD Prof. Sunita Chandrasekaran and students play key roles in exascale computing.

    1
    UD’s Sunita Chandrasekaran, David L. and Beverly J.C. Mills Career Development Chair in the Department of Computer and Information Sciences, and her students have been working to ensure that key software will be ready to run on Frontier — the fastest computer in the world — when it “opens for business” to the scientific community in 2023.

    From fast food to rapid COVID tests, the world has an unrelenting “need for speed.”

    The fastest drive-thru in the U.S. this year, with the shortest average service time from placing your order to getting your food, was Taco Bell at 221.99 seconds.

    The fastest car, the Bugatti Chiron Super Sport 300+, sped into the record books at 304.7 miles per hour in 2019 and, as of this writing, still holds the title.

    And then there is Frontier, the supercomputer at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Lab in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In May 2022, it was named the fastest computer in the world, clocking in at 1.1 exaflops, which is more than a quintillion calculations per second. That’s a whole lot of math problems to solve — more than 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 of them — in the blink of an eye, a feat that earned Frontier the coveted status as the first computer to achieve exascale computing power.

    Scientists are eager to harness Frontier for a broad range of studies, from mapping the brain to creating more realistic climate models, exploring fusion energy, improving our understanding of new materials at the nanoscience level, bolstering national security, and achieving a clearer, deeper view of the universe, from particle physics to star formation. And that’s barely scratching the surface.

    At the University of Delaware, Sunita Chandrasekaran, associate professor and David L. and Beverly J.C. Mills Career Development Chair in the Department of Computer and Information Sciences, and her students have been working to ensure that key software will be ready to run on Frontier when the exascale computer is “open for business” to the scientific community in 2023.

    Because existing computer codes don’t automatically port over to exascale, she has worked with a team of researchers in the U.S. and at HZDR in Germany to stress-test a workhorse computer application called “Particle in Cell” (PIConGPU).

    A key tool in plasma physics, the Particle-in-Cell algorithm describes the dynamics of a plasma — matter rich in charged particles (ions and electrons) — by computing the motion of these charged particles based on Maxwell’s equations. (James Maxwell was a 19th-century physicist best known for using four equations to describe electromagnetic theory. Albert Einstein said Maxwell’s impact on physics was the most profound since Sir Issac Newton.) Such tools are critical to evolving radiation therapies for cancer, as well as expanding the use of X-rays to probe the structure of materials.

    “I tell my students, imagine your laptop connected to millions of other laptops and being able to harness all of that power,” Chandrasekaran said. “But then in comes exascale — that’s a 1 followed by 18 zeros. Think about how big and powerful such a massive system can be. Such a system could potentially light up an entire city.”

    3
    Sunita Chandrasekaran and her research group have been working on coding and testing that will help validate tools for the world’s newest, biggest, fastest supercomputer called Frontier. Pictured are doctoral students Fabian Mora and Mauricio Ferrato, Christian Munley, undergraduate student in physics; Jaydon Reap and Michael Carr, undergraduate students in computer and information sciences; Nolan Baker, undergraduate student in computer engineering; and Thomas Huber, who recently graduated with his master’s degree in computer science.

    Executing instructions on an exascale system requires a “different programming framework” from other systems, Chandrasekaran explained, given the unique architectural design consisting of many parallel processing units and unique high-performance graphics processing units.

    Overall, Frontier contains 9,408 central processing units (CPUs), 37,632 graphics processing units (GPUs) and 8,730,112 cores, all connected by more than 90 miles of networking cables. All of this computing power helped Frontier leap the exascale barrier, and Chandrasekaran is working to ensure that the software will make the leap, too.

    To take advantage of the system’s specialized architecture, she and her fellow researchers are working to make sure the computer code in high-priority software is literally up to Frontier’s speed — and that it’s bug-free — some of the key components of the Exascale Computing Project SOLLVE, which Chandrasekaran now leads. It is a collaboration of The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Georgia Tech and UD.

    “Our team has been working together since 2017 to stress-test the software to improve the system,” Chandrasekaran said, noting that the work involves collaborations with several compiler developers that provide implementations for Frontier.

    “The machine is so new that the tools we need for operating it are also immature,” Chandrasekaran said. “Our goal is to have programs ready for scientists to use. We assist by filing bugs, offering fixes, testing beta versions, and helping vendors prepare robust tools for the scientists to use.”

    UD students de-bug vital programming tools

    Thomas Huber, who earned his bachelor’s degree at UD, worked on the project with Chandrasekaran for more than two years before graduating with his master of science in computer and information sciences from the University this past May. A native of Linwood, New Jersey, he is now employed as a software engineer at Cornelis Networks, a computer hardware company.

    “When we started working on this a few years ago, we knew we had Frontier coming at exascale speed, and that required getting a ton of people together to work on the 20 or so core applications that had been deemed mission critical,” Huber said. “All of this software needs to run flawlessly.”

    Thanks to this unique opportunity that Chandrasekaran made possible, Huber gained valuable research and real-world experience. He also trained four undergrads on the project, as they worked together to validate that OpenMP, a popular programming tool, could run on Frontier.

    As the group’s work progressed in assessing the compilers that provide implementations for novel programming features, they found a few bugs, and then a few more bugs. And that’s when they decided to start a GitHub — a software developer forum — to share their findings and open source code, as part of ECP–SOLLVE.

    “We started a GitHub to review the OpenMP specification releases. They come out every few years, and they are like new features — 600 pages of what you can and can’t do,” Huber said. “Most importantly, the section at the end states all the differences among the versions of the program. We take the list of all the new features and go through and create test cases for all of them. We write code that no one else has written before, and we make all of our code public.”

    Huber estimates that the UD team, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Lab, has written 500 or so tests, and 50,000 lines of code, so far.

    “The whole thing with high-performance computing is parallel programming,” Huber said. “Imagine you’re in a ton of traffic heading to a toll booth with only one EZ pass lane. Parallel programming allows you to split into many EZ pass lanes. OpenMP allows you to do that parallel work and run extremely fast. What we’ve done with OpenMP ensures that scientists and others will be able to use the program on Frontier. We’re the guinea pigs for it.”

    Huber was attracted to the research through the Vertically Integrated Program (VIP) in the College of Engineering. Chandrasekaran was the group leader for the project. He stuck around for a semester, got to work on a research paper (“That was amazing,” he said) and met colleagues who became best friends. They even won a poster competition.

    He credits Chandrasekaran for engaging him in the field.

    “Being so enthusiastic and emphasizing how important this stuff is to helping researchers, and the real world, she made the difference,” Huber said. “She’s a top-tier professor in high-performance computing.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 11:28 am on September 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fast-melting ice may contribute to ocean acidification", , , , Marine Chemistry, , The University of Delaware, UD’s Wei-Jun Cai and collaborators find correlation between Arctic meltwater and changing ocean chemistry.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Fast-melting ice may contribute to ocean acidification” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    9.29.22
    Beth Miller
    Photos courtesy of Zhangxian Ouyang, Wei-Jun Cai and Liza Wright-Fairbanks
    Illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase

    1
    A polar bear and two cubs visited the ice station where researchers — including Zhangxian Ouyang of the University of Delaware — were working during a recent visit to the Arctic ocean.

    UD’s Wei-Jun Cai and collaborators find correlation between Arctic meltwater and changing ocean chemistry.

    Wei-Jun Cai, an expert in marine chemistry at the University of Delaware, is sounding new alarm bells about the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean, where he and an international team of collaborators have found acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere.

    They also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice in the region and the rate of ocean acidification, a perilous combination that threatens the survival of plants, shellfish, coral reefs and other marine life and biological processes throughout the planet’s ecosystem.

    The new study, published on Thursday, Sept. 30 in Science [below], the flagship journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from more than two decades, spanning the period from 1994 to 2020.

    Scientists have predicted that by 2050 — if not sooner — Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summer seasons. As a result of this sea-ice retreat each summer, the ocean’s chemistry will grow more acidic, with no persistent ice cover to slow or otherwise mitigate the advance.

    That creates life-threatening problems for the enormously diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean for survival. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans’ diets.

    That makes acidification of these distant waters a big deal for many of the planet’s inhabitants.

    First, a quick refresher course on pH levels, which indicate how acidic or alkaline a given liquid is. Any liquid that contains water can be characterized by its pH level, which ranges from 0 to 14, with pure water considered neutral with a pH of 7. All levels lower than 7 are acidic, all levels greater than 7 are basic or alkaline, with each full step representing a tenfold difference in the hydrogen ion concentration. Examples on the acidic side include battery acid, which checks in at 0 pH, gastric acid (1), black coffee (5) and milk (6.5). Tilting toward basic are blood (7.4), baking soda (9.5), ammonia (11) and drain cleaner (14). Seawater is normally alkaline, with a pH value of around 8.1.

    2
    Wei-Jun-Cai, the Mary A.S. Lighthipe Professor in UD’s School of Marine Science and Policy, has been studying the changing chemistry of the world’s oceans. A recent study of Arctic Ocean waters showed rapid acidification and Cai and his collaborators have published their findings in the journal Science.

    Cai, the Mary A.S. Lighthipe Professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy in UD’s College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, has published significant research on the changing chemistry of the planet’s oceans and this month completed a cruise from Nova Scotia to Florida, serving as chief scientist among 27 aboard the research vessel. The work, supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), includes four areas of study: The East Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Coast and the Alaska/Arctic region.

    The new study in Science included UD postdoctoral researcher Zhangxian Ouyang, who participated in a recent voyage to collect data in the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin in the Arctic Ocean.

    3
    Researchers, including UD’s Zhangxian Ouyang, traveled aboard the icebreaker R/V Xue Long into an active melting zone in the Arctic Ocean to get samples for analysis.

    The first author on the publication was Di Qi, who works with Chinese research institutes in Xiamen and Qingdao. Also collaborating on this publication were scientists from Seattle, Sweden, Russia and six other Chinese research sites.

    “You can’t just go by yourself,” Cai said. “This international collaboration is very important for collecting long-term data over a large area in the remote ocean. In recent years, we have also collaborated with Japanese scientists as accessing the Arctic water was even harder in the past three years due to COVID-19. And we always have European scientists participating.”

    Cai said he and Qi both were baffled when they first reviewed the Arctic data together during a conference in Shanghai. The acidity of the water was increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere.

    That was stunning indeed. But why was it happening?

    Cai soon identified a prime suspect: the increased melt of sea ice during the Arctic’s summer season.

    Historically, the Arctic’s sea ice has melted in shallow marginal regions during the summer seasons. That started to change in the 1980s, Cai said, but waxed and waned periodically. In the past 15 years, the ice melt has accelerated, advancing into the deep basin in the north.

    For a while, scientists thought the melting ice could provide a promising “carbon sink,” where carbon dioxide from the atmosphere would be sucked into the cold, carbon-hungry waters that had been hidden under the ice. That cold water would hold more carbon dioxide than warmer waters could and might help to offset the effects of increased carbon dioxide elsewhere in the atmosphere.

    4
    UD’s Zhangxian Ouyang collects samples on the ice.

    When Cai first studied the Arctic Ocean in 2008, he saw that the ice had melted beyond the Chukchi Sea in the northwest corner of the region, all the way to the Canada Basin — far beyond its typical range. He and his collaborators found that the fresh meltwater did not mix into deeper waters, which would have diluted the carbon dioxide. Instead, the surface water soaked up the carbon dioxide until it reached about the same levels as in the atmosphere and then stopped collecting it. They reported this result in a paper in Science in 2010.

    That would also change the pH level of the Arctic waters, they knew, reducing the alkaline levels of the seawater and reducing its ability to resist acidification. But how much? And how soon? It took them another decade to collect enough data to derive a sound conclusion on the long-term acidification trend.

    Analyzing data gathered from 1994 to 2020 – the first time such a long-term perspective was possible — Cai, Qi and their collaborators found an extraordinary increase in acidification and a strong correlation with the increasing rate of melting ice.

    They point to sea-ice melt as the key mechanism to explain this rapid pH decrease, because it changes the physics and chemistry of the surface water in three primary ways:

    The water under the sea ice, which had a deficit of carbon dioxide, now is exposed to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and can take up carbon dioxide freely.

    The seawater mixed with meltwater is light and cannot mix easily into deeper waters, which means the carbon dioxide taken from the atmosphere is concentrated at the surface.

    The meltwater dilutes the carbonate ion concentration in the seawater, weakening its ability to neutralize the carbon dioxide into bicarbonate and rapidly decreasing ocean pH.

    Cai said more research is required to further refine the above mechanism and better predict future changes, but the data so far show again the far-reaching ripple effects of climate change.

    “If all of the multiple-year ice is replaced by first-year ice, then there will be lower alkalinity and lower buffer capacity and acidification continues,” he said. “By 2050, we think all of the ice will be gone in the summer. Some papers predict that will happen by 2030. And if we follow the current trend for 20 more years, the summer acidification will be really, really strong.”

    No one knows exactly what that will do to the creatures and plants and other living things that depend on healthy ocean waters.

    “How will this affect the biology there?” Cai asked. “That is why this is important.”

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 8:42 am on September 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "'I was there when the volcano erupted.'", , , , Petrology, The University of Delaware,   

    From The University of Delaware : “‘I was there when the volcano erupted.'” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    August 1, 2022
    Tracey Bryant

    1
    Abigail Nalesnik, doctoral student in geology at the University of Delaware, looks through a rangefinder at the eruption in Kīlauea‘s Halema‘uma‘u crater the evening of September 30, 2021. She was on the first response team from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to visit the eruption and helped make measurements of the active fountains and monitor the lava lake level to track how quickly it was rising. Photo taken from a closed area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park by Kendra Lynn, USGS.

    2
    Kilauea on the southeastern shore of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. Credit USGS June 12, 2018.

    It is Wednesday, September 29, 2021, 3:21 p.m. Hawai‘i Standard Time (HST). Abigail Nalesnik is finishing up her fieldwork for the day. The University of Delaware doctoral student had been collecting samples of volcanic rock along a gully west of the summit of Kīlauea — one of the most active volcanoes in the world — working alongside Kendra J. Lynn, geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey and an affiliated professor at UD.

    3
    Kendra Lynn, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, collects fragments of rock, called tephra, ejected from the volcano. Photo courtesy of USGS.

    Then the alert came.

    “There was an earthquake swarm under the summit, although we hadn’t felt anything,” Nalesnik said. “As we began driving from my field site, we saw the smoke rising out of Halema‘uma‘u crater. It was an amazing first view of a volcanic plume!”

    Witnessing a volcano erupt is an unforgettable experience. And Kīlauea — one of the world’s youngest volcanoes, known to Hawai’ians as the home of the revered goddess Pelehonuamea (Pele) — has offered up this incredible spectacle with some frequency. At this rupture in Earth’s crust, lava and gas have exploded from a magma chamber below the surface dozens of times since 1952 like a giant pressure cooker blowing its top.

    Within minutes after seeing the plume, the USGS team began deploying to the eruption site in a closed area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.

    “We drove down an old portion of park road around the summit crater and began to study the fresh lava that had been thrown up and out of the crater,” Lynn said. “Now cooled, these freshly made rocks, ranging from a millimeter to 15 centimeters in diameter, were very vesicular – meaning they had a lot of gas bubbles – when they were quenched. These feather-light pumices were already rolling across the road and landscape, being buffeted about by the wind.”
    _________________________________________________________________
    Where is Kīlauea volcano?

    Kīlauea is the youngest and southeasternmost volcano on the island of Hawaii, which is known as the “Big Island” because it is larger than all of the other Hawaiian islands combined. It is also the largest island in the U.S.

    How hot is erupting lava?

    According to the U.S. Geological Survey, Kīlauea lava’s eruption temperature is about 1170° Celsius (2140° Fahrenheit). Once exposed to the air, the lava cools down quickly — by hundreds of degrees per second.

    A rising lava lake

    Since the 2021 eruption, lava in Halema‘uma‘u crater has risen 70 meters (230 feet) — that’s taller than a 20-story building. This molten rock, estimated at 10.5 billion gallons, would fill 200 million bathtubs — one for about every person in Brazil!

    Read the USGS Report

    HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Thursday, January 13, 2022, 10:50 AM HST (Thursday, January 13, 2022, 20:50 UTC)

    How many active volcanoes are there on Earth?

    Most of the world’s volcanoes are underwater, on the ocean floor, where Earth’s tectonic plates — giant slabs of the planet’s crust — are being pulled apart. Outside of these, about 1,350 potentially active volcanoes exist around the globe, and about 500 are estimated to have erupted in human history. The Pacific Rim has so many volcanoes it is known as the “Ring of Fire.”


    _________________________________________________________________

    Q: What does an erupting volcano sound like?

    Lynn was impressed by the sound of the rocks and particles called tephra being ejected from the volcano.

    “The rolling clasts made a light ‘tink, tink, tink’ that made me instantly think of Christmas ornaments. When the wind gusts died down, there was an incredible sloshing sound, like waves on a beach. This was the lava and the active eruption, which was out of sight deep in the crater beyond where we were working.”

    Nalesnik will never forget the sound of the lava fountains.

    “Somewhat like very heavy water splashing down onto the lava lake, but unlike anything I’ve heard before. You could hear the fountains without being very close to the edge of the crater.”

    Q: And what about the smell?

    “Not fantastic,” Nalesnik said, due to the sulfur dioxide, which smells like burnt matches. What’s more, sulfur dioxide irritates the eyes, nose and throat, causing you to cough and have a tight feeling in the chest. Headache, nausea, fatigue are other effects. Thus, gas masks were necessary to be in the area. But the view more than made up for it.

    “Arriving at the edge of the crater to do measurements, the glow of the lava lake was surreal, with each small fountain and bubble of lava a fiery orange-red.”

    Q: What do you wear working near a volcano?

    With the eruption occurring deep inside Halema‘uma‘u crater, the researchers monitored the event from a distance and were not close enough to sample the lava. Still, they could feel the heat due to the vast size of the lava lake — estimated to be 70 floors deep if the Empire State Building were plopped into it.

    “You can feel the heat on your face, but it is surprisingly chilly at the summit with the strong winds,” Nalesnik said.

    Each team member wears a respirator, a critical piece of personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be worn when sulfur dioxide is present, Lynn said. They also wear an electronic gas badge calibrated to vibrate and beep to signal the concentration levels of sulfur dioxide, so they can quickly get out of areas inundated with gas. Other essentials include high-visibility uniforms, hard hats, cotton pants (synthetic materials melt when close to an active lava field), sturdy leather boots, and when windy, goggles to protect the eyes from blowing ash.

    Q: How do you study an erupting volcano, and why is it important?

    Volcanoes are among Nature’s greatest wonders, but they also can be extremely dangerous. Kīlauea’s eruption in 2018 caused evacuations in residential areas southeast of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, as fissures opened up in the Earth’s crust — some 22 of these long, narrow cracks — and the large flows of lava destroyed more than 700 homes, as well as roads, schools and businesses. For months, residents downwind had to wear N95 masks to protect themselves from toxic ash and sulfur dioxide gas.

    The scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have wide-ranging skills for studying such an explosive phenomenon. As a field geologist, Lynn works with her team to monitor the eruption on site. In addition to a permanent network of time-lapse and networked cameras, they capture the volcanic activity with high-resolution photographs and videos. They also use a rangefinder to measure the height of the lava lake and other features in the crater, which helps them to make important calculations such as lava fountain heights and effusion rates, which might increase if an eruption is gaining intensity or decrease if an eruption is waning.

    Lynn is also a petrologist — a scientist who studies the composition, texture and structure of rocks and minerals to understand how and when they formed — so she collects samples of tephra and olivine, a mineral rich in iron and manganese, for polishing and chemical analysis back in the lab. Olivine can provide clues as to when and where the magma was stored in the volcano prior to the eruption.

    “I look for patterns in the chemistry of erupted lavas that might help us to understand how the volcano behaves over decades to centuries,” Lynn said. “This might give us a better idea of what to expect in the future and be better prepared for the hazards associated with such events. In general, our monitoring observations help assess hazards and risk in real time, and the information allows the National Park Service and other agencies to make decisions.”

    Q: What’s the most surprising thing about working around an active volcano?

    “I was surprised at how much there is to do!” Nalesnik said. “There are various specialties at HVO, such as the gas team that measures the volcano emissions, the seismology team that monitors the earthquakes, and of course the geology team that studies the physical deposits. These and several other teams have so many different avenues for study and analyses that reflect on different aspects of the volcano. It was great to see them all working together to navigate this current eruption and learn all that we can.”

    For Lynn, the sheer scale of Earth’s outburst never gets old.

    “I am shocked every time I see an eruption at how big it is — that we can have fountains of lava over 60 feet tall — that’s taller than a four-story building!”

    Q: Where does this experience rank on your geo-bucket list?

    “Participating in an active eruption response was definitely #1 on my bucket list!” said Nalesnik, who had received funding from the National Science Foundation to do work at the site for her UD doctoral research under the guidance of her adviser, Professor Jessica Warren. “Driving from my field site, seeing the plume rising out of Halema‘uma‘u, feeling so excited and nervous, will be a memory I keep for the rest of my life. As volcanoes are such dynamic landforms, I am thankful I had my gear packed and was prepared in case something happened during my short visit. Five weeks isn’t a very long time.”

    For Lynn, Kīlauea has always been a very special place. “Growing up, I dreamed of studying it, and when I finally got that opportunity in graduate school, visiting the volcano changed my life forever,” she said. “Kīlauea is my favorite place on Earth, and is also a special and sacred place in Hawaii, home to Pelehonuamea, goddess of the volcano. As a guest in Hawaii and at Kīlauea, I am constantly in awe of Pele.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 11:11 am on September 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Key research tool", A new time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer, , , , Conservation Science, , , , The University of Delaware   

    From The University of Delaware : “Key research tool” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    9.22.22
    Karen B. Roberts
    Photos by Evan Krape and courtesy of Jocelyn Alcántara-García and Xu Feng.

    1
    University of Delaware’s Surface Analysis Facility is home to a new time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer. The instrument offers critical techniques for understanding surface composition and reactivity across chemistry, material science, environmental science, chemical engineering, conservation science and physics.

    The University of Delaware’s chemical detection capabilities gained some extra-powerful research muscle recently, with the acquisition of a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS).

    The instrument was purchased from ION-TOF USA, Inc., a leading electronics manufacturing company. The purchase was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation, and it will enable faculty, researchers and students to rapidly analyze the surface of a sample and detect precisely what it’s made of and its reactivity. It’s the kind of information that can help advance research relevant to nanotechnology and materials design, catalysis, solar, cultural heritage, microplastics and more.

    ToF-SIMS mass spectrometry uses a pulsed ion beam to remove the outermost layer of a sample. It’s not like scraping a layer of paint from a piece of furniture, though.

    “Basically, you shoot high-energy clusters of ions at the surface of a material sample and look at the ions that are coming off. This is different from conventional mass spectrometry, and it allows researchers to have an extremely high-resolution look at, for example, biological samples, plastics and even solid films,” said Andrew Teplyakov, professor of chemistry and biochemistry, who led the proposal that brought the instrument to UD.

    It is a critical technique needed to understand surface composition and reactivity across chemistry, material science, environmental science, chemical engineering, conservation science and physics. Before its arrival, no other instrument like it was available to researchers in the state of Delaware.

    The instrument can analyze chemical information from the original surface in the parts-per-million range. It is like detecting a single defective tile among those covering the entire sports complex at UD. It also has the capability to reveal the distribution of elements and molecules on a surface with a lateral resolution down to 70 nanometers, about 1,000 times smaller than a human hair. This resolution is higher than any optical microscope can provide.

    Additionally, ToF-SIMS provides researchers the ability to construct a 3D depth profile of materials at a depth resolution better than one nanometer. For a simple comparison, if the diameter of a marble was one nanometer, then the diameter of our planet would be about one meter.

    This is essential when working with interfaces.

    “My field is surface functionalization and surface chemistry,” Teplyakov said. “My research group focuses on applications for making or controlling molecules at the surface and interfaces between materials. We’re talking about applications where entire devices could be 400 times smaller than a human hair. If you’re making a sensor based on a certain material, having this extremely high-resolution surface and in-depth chemical information that’s accurate down to about one billionth of a meter is critical. This is pretty much the only selective technique that can do this.”

    Among his projects, Teplyakov’s research group will use this instrument to illuminate how organic molecules bond at a solid surface. He also plans to investigate why and how solar cells degrade to develop ways to make solar technology last longer. Understanding where defects occur could be key — and the ToF-SIMS instrument can provide this information.

    Jocelyn Alcántara-García, associate professor in art conservation with a joint appointment in chemistry and biochemistry, as well as at Winterthur Museum’s Scientific Research and Analysis laboratory, is excited to apply the ToF-SIMS to explore how colored historical textiles decay and why some substances applied as part of conservation methods fail, aging and degrading much like the materials they are meant to preserve. Part of studying dyed textiles requires extracting the dye or color molecules, called chromophores, through sampling. Some of these extraction techniques are aggressive and can destroy the fragile color molecules, while others are so mild that the extractions are incomplete and require larger-than-wanted samples.

    “TOF-SIMS will help us to learn how color molecules chemically bond to textile fibers, leading to more efficient extraction procedures from smaller samples,” said Alcántara-García.

    Alcántara-García also is eager to understand how historical materials, such as dyed textiles, painted surfaces and coatings were made to drive better methods for studying and preserving material culture.

    “Studying textiles at different stages of deterioration can help us see, for example, which bond is more prone to a specific type of degradation, say light sensitivity. This would be central for display and storage decisions,” she said.

    The instrument will enable the work of over 25 research groups on campus.

    For instance, for researchers developing microelectronics technologies, the ability to analyze a sample’s depth profile will provide atomic-scale knowledge to advance the creation of very precise and repeatable materials, information useful for design processes or equipment manufacturing. Meanwhile, extreme close-ups of biological devices, films, microfluidic channels and more could one day enable next-generation nanosystems, such as those used in biomedical device interfaces for cardiac stimulation and mapping devices, cochlear and retinal implants, or brain-machine interfaces.

    It also could help researchers better understand microplastics, problematic particles found in various states of repair in the ocean and other waterways. Each microplastic particle degrades at a different rate, so having chemical information about the surface of different samples will provide important clues about what’s happening to the material at different stages and how that affects the surrounding environment.
    ===
    Equipping students for a bright future

    From undergraduate students to postdoctoral fellows, access to this highly sophisticated instrumentation provides unique training opportunities that can help set them apart in the job market.

    “There are not many opportunities for students to gain hands-on experience on these highly-sought instruments in the country. Here at UD, we are proud to offer comprehensive operation training and practical courses to our students at various levels to enrich their skillset in analytical chemistry,” said Xu Feng, director of the Surface Analysis Facility. “As the U.S. works to bring back the manufacturing of semiconductors, it’s a huge boost to get them noticed in the job market of microelectronics and semiconductors.”

    This includes students involved in two UD Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) programs: the REU program for students with disabilities and a recently established REU program for undergraduate students from South America.

    “Normally REU students come to UD for a reasonably short period of time. The expectation that you can have a result, or maybe even a paper, after a few months’ work … that’s exciting and attractive to students,” said Teplyakov.

    State-of-the-art shared facility

    The ToF-SIMS complements a suite of other contemporary instruments in the Surface Analysis Facility, including an atomic force-Raman microscope (AFM-Raman) to help researchers acquire topographical information about materials and an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer for securing molecular information on solid surfaces. Having these highly complementary techniques available in one laboratory allows researchers to be strategic in considering what information they want to capture.

    “With these three instruments, we now have a first-rate surface analysis capability to support new lines of academic research and attract industrial collaborators,” said Teplyakov.

    Already, the new instrument has drawn inquiries and interest from local companies interested in analyzing samples, including Chemours, Air Liquide, DuPont and others. Feng and his staff, meanwhile, are standing by to help with these inquiries and discuss possible research approaches.

    “We warmly welcome researchers within and beyond the university to come in and enjoy these top-notch surface analysis techniques,” Feng said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 8:54 am on September 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Experiments in space", The University of Delaware, University of Delaware engineering students develop zero-gravity turbulence experiment bound for the ISS.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Experiments in space” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    9.1.22
    Maddy Lauria
    Photos courtesy of Tyler Van Buren and NASA
    Photo illustration by Joy Smoker

    1
    Valerie Moore, a senior studying mechanical engineering, holds up the first prototype of her research team’s zero-gravity turbulent flow facility, which has been selected as one of a handful of projects to make a journey into space on the International Space Station.

    University of Delaware engineering students develop zero-gravity turbulence experiment bound for the ISS.

    The International Space Station isn’t just for astronauts exploring the great beyond. It also offers an opportunity for scientists of all ages and disciplines to test the limits of their research, if they’re able to propose a project worthy of the 200-plus-mile trek into space.

    A small team of researchers from The University of Delaware’s College of Engineering, largely students, will soon be among the lucky few to send their own ideas to the ISS to further their research on how particles move in turbulence.

    “I’ve always been interested in space, so it’s really cool to come onto a project that will hopefully be going to the ISS,” said lead student researcher Valerie Moore, a senior studying mechanical engineering.

    The University of Delaware is one of five universities selected to receive $100,000 in grant funding through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) for an experiment to be conducted on the ISS.

    “Each of these projects has the potential to contribute to critical innovations in human spaceflight on the International Space Station and beyond,” NASA EPSCoR Project Manager Jeppie Compton said in a press release. “We’re very impressed with the ideas put forward in these investigation concepts and look forward to seeing how these technologies perform.”

    2
    Evan Battaglia, a recent electrical engineering graduate, solders critical motor components and control systems to autonomously drive the von Karman flow facility, named in part for the aerospace engineer Theodore Von Kármán, who used math to study fluid flow.

    Since Spring 2022, several undergraduate engineering students, led by Department of Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor Tyler Van Buren, spent months designing a device that will fit within a “CubeSat” that will be sent to the ISS, where it will collect information about how turbulence affects particles in a zero-gravity environment. A cubesat is a small (100-by-100-by-300 millimeters), rectangular compartment that holds experiments like theirs — like a suitcase of science headed for space.

    “Things on Earth that want to sink or rise really fast, in space, they’ll stay put,” Van Buren said, adding that their experiment will require no intervention or assistance from astronauts. “The goal is it would go up, plug in, run uncrewed and we’d get status updates.”

    The datasets they’re hoping to collect with their small “zero-gravity turbulent flow facility” are impossible to get on Earth, but are necessary to confirm Earth-based simulations exploring turbulence in fluid mechanics.

    Think about swimming somewhere shallow, close to the bottom of the waterway, and how the kicks of a flipper — or in the case of a fish, fins — kick up particles. Researchers would like to know how particle sizes interact or suspend.

    “This kind of fills that gap where we start to understand how particles impact the fluid flow without worrying about the gravity being involved,” Van Buren said.

    2
    The rotor for the zero-gravity turbulent flow facility prints on a Prusa 3D printer.

    Basically, explained Moore, their device is made of two cubes, each with a cylinder cut out of the center. The ends can spin in opposite directions to create the flow the researchers need, and eventually they will put liquid, bubbles and both heavy and light sediment inside. They’re utilizing something known in mechanical engineering as the Von Kármán flow, named for the aerospace engineer Theodore Von Kármán, who used math to study fluid flow and eventually helpd found the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. More informally known as the French washing machine, to create the turbulence needed to study how their materials react.

    In between the two cubes is a data collection “brain,” explained Van Buren. The set-up also includes cameras that are used to record the flow.

    Because the device houses water — albeit purified, deionized water, which is less conductive and safer than regular old H2O — mechanisms are needed to ensure the water stays put without human interference. Their hands-off experiment may have given them an advantage in gaining NASA’s approval for the idea, but they also have to make sure that it doesn’t break when met with the strong G-Forces that come during a rocket launch.

    Joining the project team as a junior allowed Moore to learn such complex concepts that she hadn’t even encountered in her studies yet.

    “I didn’t take fluids yet, so it was really cool to go into class and already know what they’re talking about,” she said. Van Buren said the project wouldn’t exist without Moore’s work.

    While Moore handles the fluid mechanics side of their work, electrical engineering student Evan Battaglia, who graduated in Spring 2022 and is headed to Columbia University for graduate studies this fall, helped drive the programming. For the small facility to work, it needs a control system for the moving parts, for when researchers need motors to spin on lights to turn on. That will be controlled by Arduino technology. Then there’s the “brain” on the system, which is a Raspberry Pi miniaturized computer-on-a-chip (and definitely not the dessert) that allows the researchers to collect data and categorize it as needed.

    These electronic devices, each with their own particular features and capabilities, will be the part of the experiment that handles instructions from operators, collects data and runs the cameras during the six months the device is in space. During that time, Van Buren said they will likely collect more than 10 terabytes of data. They’re working with NASA to determine how they’ll retrieve the data — either through transmission from space or by having a small component, such as the hard drive, sent back to Earth once the mission is completed.

    In summer 2022, Van Buren and recent mechanical engineering graduate Hannah Wiswell were the only members of the team actively working. Over the summer, Wiswell — who dreams of becoming an astronaut herself — worked on all of the subsystems of the device, from the motors that drive the rotating flow to image processing to the particles themselves.

    “I’m more of an interim editor, swooping in to help,” she said, noting that she didn’t know she’d be working on a project at UD that will someday soon go to space. “It’s crazy that you could be doing something so small that could have such a giant impact. I’m incredibly happy to be here.”

    When Wiswell leaves for Princeton to pursue a doctorate in mechanical and aerospace engineering in the fall, Moore and a new team of students will step back in to take over the final year of designing the device.

    As the school year gets underway, another small group of senior engineering students will be handling the thermal management, including 3-D printing the frame for their device out of flame-resistant material for their senior capstone project. Meanwhile, the team is planning an outreach effort with the Early Learning Center in Newark, where young children could learn the basics of fluid dynamics (more simply, flow, mixing and what a liquid is) and possibly even contribute a small note to be sent into space along with the experiment.

    If all goes well, the device should be in working condition by the end of Summer 2023. Then it has to go through NASA’s safety testing before it can be approved for space travel. It will likely take at least another year (or more) until their device is approved to exit Earth’s atmosphere.

    “Once it’s ready, then you get in line for a flight,” Van Buren said. “We could learn a lot about a very difficult problem, and this project can also just help bring eyes to fluid mechanics in general.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 7:26 am on August 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Promoting nuclear fusion", , Inertial confinement fusion, , , The University of Delaware   

    From The University of Delaware : “Promoting nuclear fusion” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    8.11.22
    Beth Miller
    Photo by Kathy F. Atkinson
    Video and photo illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase

    The University of Delaware’s Arijit Bose and collaborators find new ways to steer fusion with lasers and magnetic fields.

    1
    Assistant Professor Arijit Bose is a new member of the University of Delaware’s Department of Physics and Astronomy. He has a grant from The DOE’s Sandia National Lab to study inertial confinement fusion which uses magnetized pressure to produce nuclear fusion.

    Imagine trying to summon the sun to your research laboratory.

    Yes, you, big bright star! Bring your searing heat, the drama of your core’s constant nuclear fusion and your off-the-charts energy levels with you. We want to know how to make this fusion energy happen here on Earth — at will and efficiently — so we can cross “energy supply” off our list of worries forever.

    But, of course, the sun can’t actually get to the lab. It lives too far away — some 93 million miles — and it is way too big (about 864,000 miles in diameter). It’s also way too hot and denser than anything on Earth. That’s why it can sustain the reactions that generate all the energy that powers life on Earth.

    This has not discouraged scientists from pursuing their quest for nuclear fusion, of course.

    Instead, they have found extraordinary ways — using intense lasers and hydrogen fuel — to produce extreme conditions like those that exist in the sun’s core, producing nuclear fusion in tiny 1 millimeter plastic capsules. This approach is called “inertial confinement fusion.”

    The challenge is to create a system that generates more fusion energy than is required to create it.

    This is exceptionally challenging because it requires high-precision experiments at extreme conditions, but researchers have made major advances in the science and technology required to produce controlled laboratory fusion in recent decades.

    Now University of Delaware researcher Arijit Bose and his collaborators are pursuing a promising variation of this approach. Their work was published recently in Physical Review Letters [below].

    They have applied powerful magnetic fields to the laser-driven implosion, which may allow them to steer fusion reactions in ways previously unexplored in experiments.

    Bose, an assistant professor in UD’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, started his study of nuclear fusion during graduate school at the University of Rochester.

    After touring the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at Rochester, where lasers are used to implode spherical capsules and create plasmas, known as “inertial confinement fusion,” he found a focus for his own research.

    “Fusion is what powers everything on Earth,” he said. “To have a miniature sun on Earth — a millimeter-sized sun — that’s where the fusion reaction would happen. And that blew my mind.”

    Laser-driven nuclear fusion research has been around for decades, Bose said.

    It started at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Lab in the 1970’s. Livermore now hosts the largest laser system in the world, the size of three football fields.

    The fusion research done there uses an indirect approach. Lasers are directed into a small 100-millimeter-sized can of gold. They hit the inner surface of the can and produce X-rays, which then hit the target — a tiny sphere made of frozen deuterium and tritium — and heat it to temperatures near the core of the sun.

    “Nothing can survive that,” Bose said. “Electrons are stripped from the atoms and the ions are moving so fast that they collide and fuse.”

    The target implodes within a nanosecond — a billionth of a second — first driven by the laser, then continuing to compress on its own inertia. Finally, it expands because of the increasing central pressure caused by the compression.

    “Getting a self-heated fusion chain reaction to start is called ignition,” Bose said. “We are remarkably close to achieving ignition.”

    Researchers at Livermore reported impressive new gains in that effort on Aug. 8.

    Rochester’s OMEGA laser facility is smaller and is used to test a direct-drive approach. That process uses no gold can. Instead, lasers hit the target sphere directly.

    The new piece is the powerful magnetic field — in this case, forces up to 50 Tesla — that is used to control the charged particles. By comparison, typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets of about 3 Tesla. And the magnetic field that shields the Earth from the solar wind is many orders of magnitude smaller than 50T, Bose said.

    “You want the nuclei to fuse,” Bose said. “The magnetic fields trap the charged particles and make them go around the field lines. That helps create collisions and that helps boost fusion. That’s why adding magnetic fields has benefits for producing fusion energy.”

    Fusion requires extreme conditions, but it has been achieved, Bose said. The challenge is getting more energy output than input and the magnetic fields provide the push that can make this approach transformative.

    The experiments published in Physical Review Letters were done when Bose was doing postdoctoral research at MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center. That collaboration continues.

    Bose said he was drawn to the University of Delaware, in part, because of the plasma physics focus in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, including William Matthaeus, Michael Shay and Ben Maruca.

    “They do studies and analysis of data coming from the NASA solar program and all its missions,” he said. “We conduct laboratory astrophysics experiments where these phenomena are scaled down in space and time to the lab. This gives us a means to unravel some of the intricate physics questions posed by NASA missions.”

    Students are important drivers of this work, Bose said, and their careers can see great advancement in this new field of study.

    “It is a fascinating part of science and students are a very important part of workforce development for the national labs,” he said. “Students experienced in this science and technology often end up as scientists and researchers at the national labs.”

    There is much more work to do, he said.

    “We won’t have a solution tomorrow. But what we’re doing is contributing to a solution for clean energy.”

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
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