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  • richardmitnick 8:43 am on February 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Local nuclear reactor helps UChicago scientists catch and study neutrinos", , , , , The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “Local nuclear reactor helps UChicago scientists catch and study neutrinos” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Feb 24, 2022
    Louise Lerner

    1
    University of Chicago graduate student Mark Lewis observes the compact neutrino detector (visible as the black cube on top of a silver platform) next to the containment wall of a reactor at Constellation’s Dresden Generating Station. Photo courtesy Collar lab.

    ‘Ghost particles’ research could bolster physics, nuclear nonproliferation.

    A nuclear reactor at an Illinois energy plant is helping University of Chicago scientists learn how to catch and understand the tiny, elusive particles known as neutrinos.

    At Constellation’s (formerly Exelon) Dresden Generating Station in Morris, Illinois, the team took the first measurements of neutrinos coming off a nuclear reactor with a tiny detector. These particles are extremely hard to catch because they interact so rarely with matter, but power reactors are one of the few places on Earth with a high concentration of them.

    “This was an exciting opportunity to benefit from the enormous neutrino production from a reactor, but also a challenge in the noisy industrial environment right next to a reactor,” said Prof. Juan Collar, a particle physicist who led the research. “This is the closest that neutrino physicists have been able to get to a commercial reactor core. We gained unique experience in operating a detector under these conditions, thanks to Constellation’s generosity in accommodating our experiment.”

    With this knowledge, the group is planning to take more measurements that may be able to tease out answers to questions about the fundamental laws governing particle and nuclear interactions.

    The technique may also be useful in nuclear nonproliferation, because the neutrinos can tell scientists about what’s going on in the core of the reactor. Detectors could be placed next to reactors as a safeguard to monitor whether the reactor is being used for energy production or to make weapons.

    “Orders of magnitude”

    Neutrinos are sometimes called “ghost particles” because they pass invisibly through almost all matter.

    (Billions have already zipped through your body today without your notice, en route from elsewhere in outer space.) But if you can catch them, they can tell you about what’s happening where they came from, and about the fundamental properties of the universe.

    In particular, scientists would like to learn about specific aspects of neutrino behavior—whether they have electromagnetic properties (for instance, a “magnetic moment”), and whether they interact with as yet unknown particles hiding from our notice, or in new ways with known particles. Taking extensive measurements of as many neutrinos as possible can help narrow down these possibilities.

    The need for many neutrinos is what drew Collar’s team to nuclear reactors. “Commercial reactors are the largest source of neutrinos on Earth by orders of magnitude,” he said. In the normal course of operation, nuclear reactors produce astronomical numbers of neutrinos per second. They occur when atoms inside the reactor break up into lighter elements, and release some of the energy in the form of neutrinos.

    However, there’s a problem. Because neutrinos are so lightweight, and interact so rarely, scientists normally have to find them by filling an enormous tank with detecting fluids and then search for the telltale signal that a passing particle has produced one of a number of known reactions in it.

    But there’s no room inside a commercial nuclear reactor for a multi-ton detector. The researchers needed something much, much smaller. Luckily, Collar is an expert in building such devices; he previously lead a team that built the world’s smallest neutrino detector.

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    The international COHERENT Collaboration, which includes physicists at UChicago use a detector that’s small and lightweight enough for a researcher to carry. Their findings, which confirm the theory of The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US)’s Daniel Freedman, were reported Aug. 3 in the journal Science.

    In a second stroke of luck, Illinois is one of the leading nuclear energy states—about half the state’s electricity is generated at nuclear reactors. Constellation granted Collar permission to test the detector at Dresden Generating Station, one of the first-ever commercial nuclear plants in the nation.

    4
    An exterior view of Commonwealth Edison Company’s Dresden nuclear power station near Morris, Illinois.
    Credit: The Department of Energy (US).

    Previously, Collar and his team had tested their tiny detectors at a particle accelerator in The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, where they were able to carefully control much of the environment in order to get a good signal. But in order for the detector to work at Dresden, they had to build a new version adapted to deal with the much noisier environment of an operating commercial reactor.

    “You’re getting radiation, heat, vibration from the turbines, radiofrequency noise from the pumps and other machinery,” Collar said. “But we managed to work around all the challenges that were thrown our way.”

    They designed the detector with a complex multi-layered shielding to protect it from other stray particles that would contaminate the data. Eventually, they were able to leave the detector in place to function unattended for several months, taking data all the while.

    The team next hopes to take data at another reactor down the road at Constellation’s Braidwood Generating Station, or at the Vandellòs nuclear plant in coastal Spain. “This method can really contribute to our understanding of neutrino properties,” Collar said. “A lot of theoretical knowledge can be extracted from our data.”

    The knowledge about operating small detectors in such noisy environments is also in high demand. “There is an interest in the nuclear nonproliferation community to set detectors next to reactors, because they can tell you what’s going on in the core—revealing any deviations from the declared use,” Collar said.

    The output of neutrinos changes according to what kind of fuel the reactor is burning and what it’s producing, so detectors should be able to monitor for warning signs of weapons production, or whether fuel is being secretly diverted elsewhere. But to make this goal a reality, such detectors would have to be small, robust and easy to use; Collar said the Dresden work helps gather valuable data to make such detectors possible.

    There may also be many other uses for neutrino detectors. “For example, once we have sufficiently sensitive neutrino detectors, you could use them to map the interior of the Earth—perhaps even detect oil or other useful deposits,” Collar said. “A lot of thinking along these lines has been done, but it is still in the future.”

    While working on the design, Collar was reminded that his laboratory on campus continues a line of work initiated by Prof. Willard Libby in the 1950s to discover how to use carbon-dating to tell the age of an object.

    “These pioneers had to come up with techniques that we still use today to find a relatively small signal amongst a great deal of background noise,” he said. “It’s rewarding to think our work is part of a long local tradition. And Illinois is a special place for nuclear power generation, for similar reasons.”

    Science papers:

    Physical Review D

    Suggestive evidence for Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering from reactor antineutrinos

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:56 pm on December 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Ultraluminous X-ray sources in NGC 891 investigated by researchers", Fordham University, Long-term monitoring using a wide range of spectral models is required in order to fully determine and understand the nature of ULXs., , The University of Chicago (US), ULXs are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths.,   

    From The University of Chicago (US) and Fordham University via phys.org : “Ultraluminous X-ray sources in NGC 891 investigated by researchers” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    and

    4

    Fordham University

    via

    phys.org

    December 30, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    Jan 27, 2017 EPIC-pn observations of NGC 891 in the 0.3-10.0 keV band. Credit: Earley et al., 2021.

    Researchers from the University of Chicago and Fordham University have conducted a long-term monitoring of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the spiral galaxy NGC 891. Results of the research, presented in a paper published December 22 for Universe journal, provide more insights into the properties of these sources and could help us better understand the nature of the host galaxy.

    ULXs are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths. They are less luminous than active galactic nuclei (AGN), but more consistently luminous than any known stellar process. Although numerous studies of ULXs have been conducted, the basic nature of these sources still remains a puzzle.

    Long-term monitoring using a wide range of spectral models is required in order to fully determine and understand the nature of ULXs. Now, a team of astronomers led by Nicholas M. Earley has analyzed the data collected from 2000 to 2017 with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s XMM-Newton spacecraft.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Chandra X-ray telescope(US)

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) XMM Newton X-ray telescope. http://sci.esa.int/xmm-newton/

    Combing through the datasets, they focused on the observations of NGC 891 (an edge-on, barred spiral galaxy about 30 million light years away) and its ultraluminous X-ray sources, designated ULX-1, ULX-2 and ULX-3.

    “We perform empirical fits to the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra of three ultraluminous X-ray sources in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891, monitoring the region over a 17-year time window,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    According to the study, ULX-1 shows some spectral evolution of this source from 2003 to 2016, and its light curve exhibits a possible slight decrease in flux over time, particularly from 2000 to 2003. However, the long-term stability of the light curve suggests that the source is not a highly variable object over these timescales. The luminosity of ULX-1 was measured to be about 8.4 duodecillion erg/s, while its column density was estimated to be around 8 sextillion cm^-2.

    ULX-2 has a remarkably constant flux that appears to be between 20 and 50 percent higher than that of ULX-1, which is expected from the count rates. The source has a column density of around 0.2 sextillion cm^−2. with some variations. This value is lower than that found for ULX-1 by a factor of a few and turns out to be lower than any of the column densities calculated for the other known ULXs.

    ULX-3 is the faintest of the three studied sources, with a luminosity at a level of 2 duodecillion erg/s, which places it in the lower luminosity range of detected ULXs. The derived column density was found to be approximately 2 sextillion cm^-2. The research revealed that flux and column density around this source are both found to decrease by a factor of seven from November 2016 to January 2017. The astronomers added that at this time ULX-3 no longer qualifies as ‘ultraluminous’ as its lower luminosity value is more consistent with other high energy sources such as X-ray binaries.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    4

    3

    Fordham University is a private Jesuit research university in New York City. Established in 1841 and named for the Fordham neighborhood of the Bronx in which its original campus is located, Fordham is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit university in the northeastern United States, and the third-oldest university in New York State.

    Founded as St. John’s College by John Hughes, then a coadjutor bishop of New York, the college was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, and has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees. The college’s first president, John McCloskey, was later the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, and the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham is the only Jesuit tertiary institution in New York City.

    Fordham’s alumni and faculty include U.S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several U.S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U.S. Army, a U.S. Postmaster General,a U.S. Attorney General, the first female vice presidential candidate of a major political party in the United States, and a president of the United States (Donald Trump, attended two years before transferring).

    Fordham enrolls approximately 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, and is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan’s Upper West Side, and the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York. In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines.

    The university’s athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasted a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, and numerous NFL players; the Rams also participated in history’s first televised college football game in 1939 and history’s first televised college basketball game in 1940. Fordham’s baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, and holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.

    Academics

    Fordham University is composed of four undergraduate and six graduate schools, and its academic ethos is heavily drawn from its Jesuit origins. The university promotes the Jesuit principles of cura personalis, which fosters a faculty and administrative respect for the individual student and all of his or her gifts and abilities; magis, which encourages students to challenge themselves and strive for excellence in their lives; and homines pro aliis, which intends to inspire service, a universal charity, among members of the Fordham community.

    Through its International and Study Abroad Programs (ISAP) Office, Fordham provides its students with over 130 study abroad opportunities. The programs range in duration from six weeks to a full academic year and vary in focus from cultural and language immersion to internship and service learning. Some of the programs are organized by Fordham itself, such as those in London, United Kingdom; Granada, Spain; and Pretoria, South Africa; while others are operated by partner institutions like The Georgetown University (US), The University of Oxford (UK), and the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE). In addition to the ISAP programs, the university’s constituent schools offer a range of study abroad programs that cater to their specific areas of study. Fordham has produced 168 Fulbright scholars since 2003.

    Graduate programs

    Master’s and doctoral degrees are offered through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Service, the Gabelli School of Business, and the Graduate School of Religion and Religious Education. Fordham’s graduate programs in business, education, English, history, law, psychology, and social work are all ranked among the top 100 in the nation by the 2016 U.S. News and World Report. Fordham participates in the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium, which allows its doctoral students to take classes at a number of schools in the New York metropolitan area.

    Fordham’s medical school officially closed in 1919, and its College of Pharmacy followed suit in 1972. Nevertheless, the university continues its tradition of medical education through a collaboration with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at The Yeshiva University (US). The partnership allows Fordham undergraduate and graduate science students to take classes, conduct research, and pursue early admission to select programs of Einstein. In addition, it involves a physician mentoring program, which permits students to shadow an attending physician at Einstein’s Montefiore Medical Center.

    Research

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies Fordham as a doctoral university with high research activity R2:(RU/H). The Fordham University Library System contains over 2.4 million volumes and 3.1 million microforms, subscribes to 16,000 periodicals including electronic access, and has 19,300 audiovisual materials. It is a depository for 363,227 United States Government documents. In addition, the university’s Interlibrary Loan office provides students and faculty with virtually unlimited access to the over 20 million volumes of the New York Public Library System as well as to media from the libraries of Columbia University (US), New York University (US), The City University of New York (US), and other libraries around the world. Fordham’s libraries include the William D. Walsh Family Library, ranked in 2004 as the fifth best collegiate library in the country, and the Science Library at the Rose Hill campus; the Gerald M. Quinn Library and the Leo T. Kissam Memorial Law Library at the Lincoln Center campus; and the Media Center at the Westchester campus. In addition to the university’s formal libraries, several academic departments, research institutes, and student organizations maintain their own literary collections. The Rose Hill campus’s Duane Library, despite its name, is no longer a library but offers reading and study space for students.

    Fordham maintains several special collections housed in museums and galleries on campus. The Fordham Museum of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Art is at the Rose Hill campus and contains more than 200 artifacts from Classical antiquity, including: sculptures, mosaics, ceramics and pottery, coins, and inscriptions, among other items. A gift from alumnus William D. Walsh, it is the largest collection of its kind in the New York metropolitan area. In addition, the university maintains an extensive art collection, which is housed in exhibition spaces at the Rose Hill and Lincoln Center campuses and in galleries around New York City. Finally, the university possesses a sizable collection of rare books, manuscripts, and other print media, which is housed in the O’Hare Special Collections Room at the Walsh Library.

    Other research facilities include the Louis Calder Center, a 114-acre biological field station and the middle site along an 81-mile (130 km) urban-forest transect known as the Urban-Rural Gradient Experiment; the William Spain Seismic Observatory, a data collection unit for the US Geological Survey; and other facilities. It is a member of the Bronx Scientific Research Consortium, which also includes the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University, and Montefiore Medical Center. Furthermore, Fordham faculty have conducted research with such institutions as the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, DOE’s Los Alamos National Lab (US), and organizations worldwide.

    Fordham University Press, the university’s publishing house and an affiliate of Oxford University Press, primarily publishes humanities and social sciences research. The university also hosts an Undergraduate Research Symposium every year during the spring semester and publishes the Undergraduate Research Journal in conjunction with the symposium. In addition, it facilitates research opportunities for undergraduates with such organizations as The National Science Foundation (US), The Cloisters, and The American Museum of Natural History (US).

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:31 pm on December 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "To build the quantum internet UChicago engineer teaches atoms how to remember", “We believe as educators it’s our job to expose students to and train them on quantum concepts very early on” said Zhong., People involved in this project have discussed a roadmap of when that could happen and they think it can be done in the next five to ten years., Quantum mechanics is a theory created to explain fundamental properties of matter particularly on the subatomic scale., The University of Chicago (US), Tian Zhong's research focuses on the hardware needed to make the quantum internet a reality., Zhong has a strong commitment to educating the next generation of quantum engineers., Zhong’s current work centers on finding ways to fight against quantum decoherence which is when information stored on a quantum system degrades., Zhong’s lab is developing a system for temporarily storing and relaying quantum information using rare-earth atoms.   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “To build the quantum internet UChicago engineer teaches atoms how to remember” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Dec 17, 2021
    Andrew Nellis

    1
    To build the quantum internet, Asst. Prof. Tian Zhong creates qubits and other technologies that have the potential to dramatically transform modern computing. Photo by Andrew Nellis.

    Asst. Prof. Tian Zhong is using rare-earth atoms to fight quantum decoherence.

    When the quantum internet arrives, researchers predict it will shift the computing landscape on a scale unseen in decades. In their estimation, it will make hacking a thing of the past. It will secure global power grids and voting systems. It will enable nearly limitless computing power and allow users to securely send information across vast distances.

    But for Tian Zhong, assistant professor at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering (PME) at the University of Chicago, the most tantalizing benefits of the quantum internet have yet to be imagined.

    Zhong is a quantum engineer working to create this new global network. In his mind, the full impact of the quantum internet may only be realized after it’s been built. To understand his work and why the United States is spending $625 million on the new technology, it helps to consider the science behind it: quantum mechanics.

    Quantum mechanics is a theory created to explain fundamental properties of matter particularly on the subatomic scale. Its roots trace back to the late 19th and early 20th century, when scientists tried to explain the unusual nature of light, which behaves as both a wave and a particle. In the hundred years since then, physicists have learned a great deal, particularly concerning the strange behavior of subatomic particles.

    They’ve learned, for example, that some subatomic particles have the ability to be in two states at the same time, a principle called superposition. Another such principle is entanglement, which is the ability of two particles to “communicate” instantaneously despite being separated by hundreds of miles.

    Over time, scientists have found ways to manipulate those principles, entangling particles at will or controlling an electron’s spin. That new control allows researchers to encode, send, and process information using subatomic particles—laying the foundations of quantum computing and the quantum internet.

    At the moment, both technologies are still hampered by certain physical limitations—quantum computers, for example, need to be kept in giant sub-zero freezers—but researchers like Zhong are optimistic those limitations will be resolved in the near future.

    “We’re at a juncture where this is no longer science fiction,” Zhong said. “More and more, it’s looking like this technology will emerge from laboratories any day, ready to be adopted by society.”

    The right tools for the job

    Zhong’s research focuses on the hardware needed to make the quantum internet a reality, things like quantum chips that encrypt and decrypt quantum information, and quantum repeaters that relay information across network lines. To create that hardware, Zhong and his team work on the subatomic scale, using individual atoms to hold information and single photons to transmit it through optic cables.

    Zhong’s current work centers on finding ways to fight against quantum decoherence, which is when information stored on a quantum system degrades to the point that it’s no longer retrievable. Decoherence is an especially difficult obstacle to overcome because quantum states are extremely sensitive and any outside force—be it heat, light, radiation, or vibration—can easily destroy it.

    Most researchers address decoherence by keeping quantum computers at a temperature near absolute zero. But the instant any quantum state is transmitted outside the freezer, say on a network line, it begins to break down within a few microseconds, severely limiting the potential for expansive interconnectivity.

    2
    Tian Zhong’s research focuses on the hardware needed to make the quantum internet a reality—like quantum chips that encrypt and decrypt quantum information, and quantum repeaters that relay information across network lines. Photo by Andrew Nellis.

    To guard against quantum decoherence, Zhong’s lab is developing a system for temporarily storing and relaying quantum information using rare-earth atoms. Specifically, he’s working with erbium, a rare earth element that has unique electronic properties. Zhong uses it to capture and store quantum information within shielded atomic states, effectively creating quantum memory. In that way, he’s able to keep the information viable for milliseconds—more than enough time to re-transmit it through a network. Using this approach, Zhong is now developing quantum repeaters that will extend the reach of quantum communication networks toward a global scale.

    “We’re creating the building blocks of the quantum internet and this repeater is one of them,” Zhong said. “The technology has all the bits and pieces ready, and the next step is assembling the system. People involved in this project have discussed a roadmap of when that could happen and we think it can be done in the next five to ten years.”

    Expanding the quantum future

    In addition to his goal of connecting the world’s quantum computers, Zhong has a strong commitment to educating the next generation of quantum engineers. To that end, Zhong has created new course offerings in quantum science at UChicago and he’s been an active partner in PME’s STAGE lab, which explores how art can help convey scientific concepts to a broad audience.

    In January 2020, Zhong was awarded $500,000 through the National Science Foundation’s Faculty Early Career Development Program to fund his research and educational efforts, including the TeachQuantum program, which trains public high school teachers how to incorporate quantum science into their lesson plans and aims to engage students who are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

    The program’s inaugural cohort started in June 2021, meeting with PME faculty to develop new quantum-inspired activities for their classrooms. Participants and faculty will continue to meet periodically throughout the school year to share their results. The University now plans to expand the program to include more teachers at UChicago, The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (US), and The University of Wisconsin-Madison (US).

    “We believe as educators it’s our job to expose students to and train them on quantum concepts very early on,” said Zhong. “That’s why we design programs targeted at high school students and the general public. The goal is not to lecture on quantum physics, but to create an engaging experience for them to appreciate the importance and future potentials of quantum technologies and their impact on society.”

    4
    Asst. Prof. Tian Zhong (right) works with local high school teachers like Adam Davenport (left) as part of Zhong’s program TeachQuantum, which immerses teachers in research labs and prepares them to teach quantum-focused STEM concepts in their classrooms. Image courtesy of the Office of Civic Engagement.

    As Zhong looks to the future, he makes clear that while some benefits of the quantum internet are known, some may not be realized until after the technology is developed. That’s been true for other technological breakthroughs like the modern internet, which has spawned numerous applications that few could have imagined during the early years of its development.

    What does Zhong think will happen when the quantum internet is established?

    “Something very exciting,” he said. “With classical computers, if you want to double your computation power, you have to double the amount of hardware. But in quantum computing, you just need to add one qubit. With sixty qubits you can rival the world’s fastest supercomputer. So if you connect millions of quantum computers? That computational power will open doors to things we cannot even imagine.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:08 am on December 17, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "To find energetic particles from space a new detector will soar over Antarctic ice", , , The groundbreaking project is called PUEO-short for the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations., The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “To find energetic particles from space a new detector will soar over Antarctic ice” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Dec 16, 2021
    Louise Lerner

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US) gives go-ahead for $20M multi-institution balloon experiment led by UChicago scientists.

    1
    A rendering of what PUEO may look like when deployed. Each white dish is a radio antenna; the signals from each antenna are combined in order to pick up signals from high-energy neutrinos passing through Antarctic ice.

    Sometimes a question is so big that it takes a continent to answer it.

    University of Chicago physicist Abby Vieregg is leading an international experiment that essentially uses the ice in Antarctica as a giant detector to find extremely energetic particles from outer space. Recently approved by NASA, the $20 million project will build an instrument to fly above the Antarctic in a balloon, launching in December 2024.

    “We are searching for the very highest-energy neutrinos in the universe,” said Vieregg, an associate professor in the Department of Physics. “They are made in the most energetic and extreme places in the cosmos, and these neutrinos offer a unique glimpse into these places. Finding one or several of them could let us learn completely new things about the universe.”

    The 12-institution international collaboration will build a radio detector attached to a high-altitude balloon, which will be launched by NASA and travel over Antarctica at 120,000 feet, searching for signals from neutrinos. The groundbreaking project is called PUEO-short for the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations. (It shares its name with the only living owl native to Hawaii, where PUEO’s predecessor experiment was born.)

    “A beautiful way to look at the universe”

    Neutrinos are often called “ghost” particles because they very rarely interact with matter. Trillions pass harmlessly through your body every second.

    Because they can travel huge distances without getting distorted or sidetracked, neutrinos can serve as unique clues about what’s happening elsewhere in the universe—including the cosmic collisions, galaxies and black holes where they are created.

    “Neutrinos are a beautiful way to look at the universe, because they travel unimpeded across space,” said Vieregg. “They can come from very far away, and they don’t get scrambled along the way, so they point back to where they came from.”

    Scientists have detected a few such neutrinos from outer space coming into the Earth’s atmosphere. But they think there are even more neutrinos out there which carry extraordinarily high energies—several orders of magnitude higher than even the particles being accelerated at the Large Hadron Collider in Europe—and have never yet been detected. These neutrinos could tell us about the most extreme events in the universe.

    That is, if you can catch them.

    These neutrinos so rarely interact with other forms of matter that Vieregg would have to build an enormous, country-sized detector to catch them. Or she can use one that already exists: the sheet of ice atop Antarctica.

    “The ice cap is perfect—a homogeneous, dense, radiotransparent block that spans millions of square kilometers,” said Vieregg. “It’s almost like we designed it.”

    If one of these highly energetic neutrinos comes through the Earth, there’s a chance it will bump into one of the atoms inside the Antarctic ice sheet. This collision produces radio waves which pass through the ice. This radio signal is what PUEO would detect as it floats above Antarctica.

    To do so, it needs some very, very special equipment.

    The next generation

    PUEO is the next generation of a mission called ANITA, based out of The University of Hawaii (US), which flew over the Antarctic aboard NASA balloons four times between 2006 and 2016 to look for similar neutrinos. PUEO, however, will have a much more powerful detector.

    The new detector taps into the power of an old astronomy trick—a technique called interferometry, which combines signals from multiple telescopes. PUEO is studded all over with radio antennas, and a central data acquisition system will merge and analyze these signals to make a stronger signal.

    3
    PUEO will launch from Antarctica, as did its predecessor experiment ANITA in 2016 (above). From left to right: scientists Cosmin Deaconu, Eric Oberla and Andrew Ludwig, PhD’19.

    A stronger signal would be a significant leap forward, because it would help scientists pick out the important signals from the noise washing in from all directions. “There are terabytes of data coming into the detector every minute, and we expect at most a few events out of billions to be a neutrino,” said Cosmin Deaconu, a UChicago research scientist who is working on the software for PUEO. “You can’t write all of that data to disk, so we have to design a program to decide very quickly which signals to keep and which to discard.”

    Many common signals look like neutrinos, but aren’t. Those can range from satellite transmissions to someone flicking a cigarette lighter. “At least in Antarctica, there are only a few locations where humans would be generating these, so it’s easier to rule those out,” said Deaconu. “But we even need to account for things like static electricity, generated by wind.”

    Vieregg and the team tested the idea of the interferometric phased array on the ground in two experiments: one called ARA at the South Pole in 2018, and another called RNO-G in Greenland in the summer of 2021. Both showed a significant jump in performance over previous designs—which makes PUEO’s aerial detector all the more promising. “PUEO will have a factor of 10 better sensitivity than all previous flights of ANITA combined,” said Vieregg.

    In the next months, the team will build prototypes for PUEO and finalize the design. Once the layout is final, small teams at institutions around the country will build parts of the instrument, which will then be assembled and tested at UChicago. “For example, we want to make sure it can handle the vacuum of near-space,” said Eric Oberla, a UChicago research scientist who is building PUEO’s hardware. “It’s harder to dissipate heat when there’s no air to move it away, which can be a problem for electronics, so we’ll run tests in a vacuum chamber here on campus and later in a large NASA chamber during the instrument integration campaign.”

    From there, PUEO will ship to a NASA facility in Palestine, Texas, for final tests before being sent to the launch station in Antarctica.

    Depending on the weather conditions, the detector could fly for a month or more, collecting data and transmitting it back to the ground, where scientists will comb through it for evidence of the first-ever high-energy neutrino detection.

    “We are delighted to have the PUEO stratospheric balloon mission included in the inaugural group of Pioneers missions, and are looking forward to the great science it will return,” said Michael Garcia, lead at NASA/HQ for the Pioneers in Astrophysics Program, which is funding the experiment.

    The Pioneers program allowed the scientists to “dream big,” Vieregg said. “We could say, ‘If we could build anything we wanted to, what could we make?’”

    “It’s a discovery experiment, meaning nothing’s guaranteed,” she added. “But all the indications say there’s something out there for us to pick up—and even a few neutrinos would be an amazing scientific find.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:39 pm on December 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Beads of glass in meteorites help scientists piece together how solar system formed", , , , , Meteorites are snapshots that can reveal the conditions this early dust experienced—which has implications for the evolution of both Earth and other planets., Most meteorites are made of tiny beads of glass that date back to the earliest days of the solar system before the planets were even formed., , , The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US) and The Carnegie Institution for Science (US) : “Beads of glass in meteorites help scientists piece together how solar system formed” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    and

    Carnegie Institution for Science

    The Carnegie Institution for Science (US)

    Dec 2, 2021
    Louise Lerner

    1
    A cross-section of a piece of the Allende meteorite, containing beads of glass called chondrules. University of Chicago scientists analyzed such chondrules to find new clues about how our solar system evolved. Photo courtesy of James St. John.

    Research by UChicago, Carnegie scientists reveal conditions in early solar system.

    Ever since scientists started looking at meteorites with microscopes, they’ve been puzzled—and fascinated—by what’s inside. Most meteorites are made of tiny beads of glass that date back to the earliest days of the solar system before the planets were even formed.

    Scientists with the University of Chicago have published [Science Advances] an analysis laying out how these beads, which are found in many meteorites, came to be—and what they can tell us about what happened in the early solar system.

    “These are big questions,” said UChicago alum Nicole Xike Nie, PhD’19, a postdoctoral fellow at The Carnegie Institution for Science (US) and first author of the study. “Meteorites are snapshots that can reveal the conditions this early dust experienced—which has implications for the evolution of both Earth and other planets.”

    “This question goes back 50 years”

    The beads of glass inside these meteorites are called chondrules. Scientists think they are bits of rock left over from the debris that was floating around billions of years ago, which eventually coalesced into the planets we now know and love. These are immensely useful to scientists, who can get their hands on pieces of the original stuff that comprised the solar system—before the constant churn of volcanoes and tectonic plates of Earth changed all the rock we can find on the planet itself.

    But what exactly caused the formation of these chondrules remains unclear.

    “We have the same theories we had 50 years ago,” said study co-author and UChicago postdoctoral researcher Timo Hopp. “Even though there have been advances in many other areas, this one has been stubborn.”

    Scientists can find clues about the early days of the solar system by looking at the types of a given element in a rock. Elements can come in several different forms, called isotopes, and the proportion in each rock varies according to what happened when that rock was born—how hot it was, whether it cooled slowly or was flash-frozen, what other elements were around to interact with it. From there, scientists can piece together a history of likely events.

    To try and understand what had happened to the chondrules, Nie, Hopp and other scientists at the Dauphas Origins Lab at UChicago tried applying a unique angle to the isotopes.

    First, Nie took extremely rigorous, precise measurements of the concentrations and isotopes of two elements that are depleted in meteorites, potassium and rubidium, which helped narrow down the possibilities of what could have happened in the early solar system.

    From this information, the team pieced together what must have been happening as the chondrules formed. The elements would have been part of a clump of dust that got hot enough to melt, and then to vaporize. Then, as the material cooled, some of that vapor coalesced back into chondrules.

    “We can also tell you how fast it cooled, because it was fast enough that not everything condensed,” said Nicolas Dauphas, Professor of Geophysical Sciences at UChicago. “That must mean the temperature was dropping at a rate of around 500 degrees Celsius per hour, which is really fast.”

    3
    An artist’s conception shows dust and debris floating around a young star—similar to how the early days of our solar system might have looked. Illustration by Lynette Cook / SOFIA | The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US)/The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/DLR German Aerospace [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)SOFIA airborne telescope and cameras

    Based on these constraints, scientists can theorize what kind of event would have been sudden and violent enough to cause this extreme heating and cooling. One scenario that fits would be massive shockwaves passing through the early nebula. “Large planetary bodies nearby can create shocks, which would have heated and then cooled the dust as it passed through,” Dauphas said.

    Over the past half-century, people have proposed different scenarios to explain the formation of the chondrules— lightning, or collisions between rocks—but this new evidence tips the balance toward shockwaves as an explanation.

    This explanation may be the key to understanding a persistent finding that has bedeviled scientists for decades, involving a category of elements that are “moderately volatile,” including potassium and rubidium. The Earth has less of these elements than scientists would expect, based on their general understanding of how the solar system formed. They knew the explanation could be traced to some complex chain of heating and cooling, but no one know the exact sequence. “It’s a huge question in the field of cosmochemistry,” said Dauphas.

    Now, finally, the team is happy to have put a significant dent in the mystery.

    “We know other processes happened—this is just one part of the story—but this really solves one step in the formation of planets,” said Hopp.

    Nie agreed: “It’s really cool to be able to say quantitatively, this is what happened.”

    Other co-authors on the paper were from the Carnegie Institution for Science and the University of Washington.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    The Carnegie Institution for Science (US)

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner investigation; research; and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    The Carnegie Institution of Washington (US) (the organization’s legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (US) (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research. The institution is headquartered in Washington, D.C. As of June 30, 2020, the Institution’s endowment was valued at $926.9 million. In 2018 the expenses for scientific programs and administration were $96.6 million.

    History

    When the United States joined World War II Vannevar Bush was president of the Carnegie Institution. Several months before on June 12, 1940 Bush had been instrumental in persuading President Franklin Roosevelt to create the National Defense Research Committee (later superseded by the Office of Scientific Research and Development) to mobilize and coordinate the nation’s scientific war effort. Bush housed the new agency in the Carnegie Institution’s administrative headquarters at 16th and P Streets, NW, in Washington, DC, converting its rotunda and auditorium into office cubicles. From this location Bush supervised, among many other projects the Manhattan Project. Carnegie scientists cooperated with the development of the proximity fuze and mass production of penicillin.

    Research

    Carnegie scientists continue to be involved with scientific discovery. Composed of six scientific departments on the East and West Coasts the Carnegie Institution for Science is involved presently with six main topics: Astronomy at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (Washington, D.C.) and the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (Pasadena, CA and Las Campanas, Chile); Earth and planetary science also at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and the Geophysical Laboratory (Washington, D.C.); Global Ecology at the Department of Global Ecology (Stanford, CA); Genetics and developmental biology at the Department of Embryology (Baltimore, MD); Matter at extreme states also at the Geophysical Laboratory; and Plant science at the Department of Plant Biology (Stanford, CA).

    Mt Wilson Hooker 100 inch Telescope, Mount Wilson, California, US, Altitude 1,742 m (5,715 ft). Credit: Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Credit: Huntington Library in San Marino, California, USA.

    Carnegie 6.5 meter Magellan Baade and Clay Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    Carnegie Las Campanas 2.5 meter Irénée Dupont telescope, Atacama Desert, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena,Chile.[/caption]


    Carnegie Institution 1-meter Swope telescope at Las Campanas, Chile, 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena, near the north end of a 7 km (4.3 mi) long mountain ridge, Cerro Las Campanas, near the southern end and over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high, at Las Cam

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:26 pm on November 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "To understand biology scientists turn to the quantum world", , , , If the superposition of a system can be disturbed by a single molecule; a single atom; or even a single photon that system can be turned into a sensor to monitor these individual particles., , , Quantum biosensing, Quantum technology takes advantage of scientific phenomena that are only accessible on the smallest of scales., Superposition: where a system exists in a combination of possible states rather than in a single one., The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “To understand biology scientists turn to the quantum world” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Nov 29, 2021
    Meredith Fore

    1
    Many important phenomena in biology originate from single atoms. Quantum biosensing offers a way to investigate these biological events with unprecedented sensitivity. Above, an artistic representation of a method to use nano-sized particles to take a temperature reading inside a cell.Credit: Georg Kucsko.

    Researchers hope sensors using quantum tech could transform biology research.

    Scientists discovered nuclear magnetic resonance, a physical phenomenon where nuclei absorb and re-emit energy when placed in a magnetic field, in 1938. But it took almost 30 years for this fundamental physics discovery to find its most widely known application: MRI imaging, a crucial diagnostic tool in medical and biological research.

    Now in the 21st century, researchers can make quantum devices precise enough to sense single ions—and University of Chicago chemistry professor Greg Engel doesn’t want to wait 30 years to find their most useful applications.

    “It’s rapidly becoming clear that quantum sensing could be transformative in the next phases of biology research,” Engel says.

    The advantage of superposition

    Quantum technology takes advantage of scientific phenomena that are only accessible on the smallest of scales, such as the concept of superposition: where a system exists in a combination of possible states rather than in a single one. This unique characteristic of quantum systems is quite fragile—when a quantum system in superposition interacts with its environment in any way, its superposition “collapses” and it exists in one state instead of many.

    This incredible fragility is what makes quantum communication and computing technologies so difficult to implement. Keeping something as tiny as an atom isolated enough to exist in superposition takes a lot of energy, funding, and logistics.

    Quantum sensing, however, takes that fragility and makes it an advantage. If the superposition of a system can be disturbed by a single molecule; a single atom; or even a single photon that system can be turned into a sensor to monitor these individual particles.

    Many important phenomena in biology originate from single atoms, like the motion of an individual ion or a small change in the electric charge of a protein. These processes, however, are currently incredibly difficult or even impossible to measure. Quantum biosensing offers a way to investigate these biological events with unprecedented sensitivity.

    “With the convergence between the sensitivity that is possible with quantum measurement, and the absolute need in biology to understand things on exactly these scales: it’s just a match made in heaven,” says Engel, who is also the director of the new $25 million Quantum Leap Challenge Institute for Quantum Sensing for Biophysics and Bioengineering (QuBBE).

    The potential applications of quantum biosensing range from tracking a drug through the membrane and across the cytoplasm of a single cell, to precise demarcation of tumor margins during surgery.

    Quantum sensors might even be able to record critical biological processes like protein folding and the movement of particles through ion channels in cellular membranes, as well as the transmission of electrical signals through neurons.

    “Quantum sensing allows you to measure quantities that are traditionally hard to measure at those scales, such as temperature, pressure, or electromagnetic fields,” says UChicago molecular engineering professor Peter Maurer. Maurer’s research lab can use quantum sensors to track temperature changes across a single cell, which is important for understanding how cells respond to different kinds of stress.

    Developing new tools for manipulating sensors

    To get the measurements researchers want, quantum biosensors have to be positioned at the exact locations where interesting biological events are happening. But the fragility of quantum technology often requires extremely controlled environments, like a vacuum chamber with near-zero temperature—in this sort of setting, biological processes can only be seen as frozen “snapshots.” To access the full potential of quantum biosensors, researchers are finding new ways to manipulate quantum sensors in warmer, less-controlled environments, so they can see “movies” of events rather than snapshots.

    The go-to tool for controlling single molecules or particles are optical tweezers, which use highly focused laser beams to manipulate their targets. “But they can’t really trap anything smaller than a micron, unless you go to very low temperatures,” says UChicago molecular engineering professor Allison Squires. “That doesn’t really work for biology. Biology happens at room temperature, so these nanoscale processes take place in a wet and messy environment. To see those processes in action, we have to be able to work in that setting.”

    Squires’ research lab is developing tools to manipulate and control quantum sensors in a biological system, including a technique that uses electric potentials as “walls” to keep the quantum sensor floating in one place without touching it. Squires expects this “arsenal” of nanoscale biophysical tools to provide new kinds of information.

    Quantum sensors could measure the electric fields in a neuronal synapse, track a single ion moving through a cell membrane, or record the transfer of proteins between the smaller organelles inside a cell: all processes that are challenging to directly observe. Technology at the intersection of these two fields—quantum engineering and biology—has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of medical science at the smallest possible levels.

    “I see quantum biosensing as pushing the limits of measurement resolution in the life sciences,” Maurer says. “By probing very sensitive systems in their physiological environment, this technology could produce invaluable tools.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:13 am on November 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Statistics breakthrough helps calculate likelihood of worst-case scenarios", A new statistical method could help accurately analyze the risk of very worst (or best) case scenarios., New method to analyze low-probability high-risk events such as earthquakes and pandemics., Scientists are still cataloguing the best ways to crunch different kinds of data., Statistics is the science of using limited data to learn about the world—and the future., The discovery helps statisticians use math to figure out the shape of the underlying distribution of a set of data., The University of Chicago (US), Two powerful tools in statistics are the average and the variance.   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “Statistics breakthrough helps calculate likelihood of worst-case scenarios” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Nov 17, 2021
    Louise Lerner

    1
    Certain events, like major earthquakes, are known as “black swan events”— rare, but highly consequential when they do happen. Researchers developed a new way to help analyze the risk of such events. Copyright: Shutterstock.com

    New method to analyze low-probability, high-risk events such as earthquakes, pandemics.

    Quick—if you had to guess, what would you think is most likely to end all life on Earth: a meteor strike, climate change or a solar flare? (Choose carefully.)

    A new statistical method could help accurately analyze the risk of very worst (or best) case scenarios. Scientists have announced a new way to tease out information about events that are rare, but highly consequential—such as pandemics and insurance payouts.

    The discovery helps statisticians use math to figure out the shape of the underlying distribution of a set of data. This can help everyone from investors to government officials make informed decisions—and is especially helpful when the data is sparse, as for major earthquakes.

    “Though they are by definition rare, such events do occur and they matter; we hope this is a useful set of tools to understand and calculate these risks better,” said mathematical biologist Joel Cohen, a co-author of a new study published Nov. 16 in the PNAS. A visiting scholar with the University of Chicago’s statistics department, Cohen is a professor at The Rockefeller University (US) and at The Earth Institute of Columbia University (US).

    Varying the questions

    Statistics is the science of using limited data to learn about the world—and the future. Its questions range from “When is the best time of year to spray pesticides on a field of crops?” to “How likely is it that a global pandemic will shut down large swaths of public life?”

    At a century old, the statistical theory of rare-but-extreme events is a relatively new field, and scientists are still cataloguing the best ways to crunch different kinds of data. Calculation methods can significantly affect conclusions, so researchers have to tune their approaches to the data carefully.

    Two powerful tools in statistics are the average and the variance. You’re probably familiar with the average; if one student scores 80 on a test and one student scores 82, their average score is 81. Variance, on the other hand, measures how widely spread out those scores are: You’d get the same average if one student scored 62 and the other scored 100, but the classroom implications would be very different.

    In most situations, both the average and the variance are finite numbers, like the situation above. But things get stranger when you look at events that are very rare, but enormously consequential when they do happen. In most years, there isn’t a gigantic burst of activity from the sun’s surface big enough to fry all of Earth’s electronics—but if that happened this year, the results could be catastrophic. Similarly, although the vast majority of tech startups fizzle out, a Google or a Facebook occasionally comes along.

    “There’s a category where large events happen very rarely, but often enough to drive the average and/or the variance towards infinity,” said Cohen.

    These situations, where the average and variance approach infinity as more and more data is collected, require their own special tools. And understanding the risk of these types of events (known in statistical parlance as events with “heavy-tailed distribution”) is important for many people. Government officials need to know how much effort and money they should invest in disaster preparation, and investors want to know how to maximize returns.

    Cohen and his colleagues looked at a mathematical method recently used to calculate risk, which splits the variance in the middle and calculates the variance below the average, and above the average, which can give you more information about downside risks and upside risks. For example, a tech company may be much more likely to fail (that is, to wind up below the average) than to succeed (wind up above the average), which an investor might like to know as she’s considering whether to invest. But the method had not been examined for distributions of low-probability, very high-impact events with infinite mean and variance.

    Running tests, the scientists found that standard ways to work with these numbers, called semi-variances, don’t yield much information. But they found other ways that did work. For example, they could extract useful information by calculating the ratio of the log of the average to the log of the semi-variance. “Without the logs, you get less useful information,” Cohen said. “But with the logs, the limiting behavior for large samples of data gives you information about the shape of the underlying distribution, which is very useful.” Such information can help inform decision-making.

    The researchers hope this lays the foundation for new and better exploration of risks.

    “We think there are practical applications for financial mathematics, for agricultural economics, and potentially even epidemics, but since it’s so new, we’re not even sure what the most useful areas might be,” Cohen said. “We just opened up this world. It’s just at the beginning.”

    The other authors were Columbia University’s Mark Brown, Chuan-Fa Tang with The University of Texas-Dallas (US), and Sheung Chi Phillip Yam with The Chinese University of Hong Kong [香港中文大学] (HK).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:53 pm on November 17, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Advanced microscopes help scientists understand how cells break down proteins", , , , , The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US) via phys.org : “Advanced microscopes help scientists understand how cells break down proteins” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    via

    phys.org

    November 17, 2021

    1
    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) involves flash-freezing solutions of proteins and then using a powerful electron microscope to produce images of individual molecules or subcellular structures. Credit: University of Chicago.

    Proteins are the building blocks of all living things. A vast amount research takes place on how these proteins are made and what they do, from enzymes that carry out chemical reactions to messengers that transmit signals between cells. In 2004, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for a different but just as important process of protein machinery: how organisms break down proteins when they are finished doing their job.

    Protein degradation is a carefully orchestrated process. Proteins are marked for disposal with a molecular label called ubiquitin, and then fed into proteasomes, a kind of cellular paper shredder that chops up the proteins into small pieces. This process of ubiquitination, or labeling proteins with ubiquitin, is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, DNA repair, and immune responses.

    In a new study published in Nature on November 17, 2021, researchers from the University of Chicago used advanced electron microscopes to delve deeper into the process of protein degradation. They described the structure of a key enzyme that helps mediate ubiquitination in yeast, part of a cellular process called the N-degron pathway that may be responsible for determining the rate of degradation for up to 80% of equivalent proteins in humans. Malfunctions in this pathway can lead to accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins, which underlies the aging process, neurodegeneration, and some rare autosomal recessive disorders, so understanding it better provides an opportunity to develop treatments.

    Minglei Zhao, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and his colleagues studied an E3 ligase—a type of enzyme that helps join larger molecules together—called Ubr1. In baker’s yeast, Ubr1 helps initiate the ubiquitination process as it attaches ubiquitin to proteins and elongates it into a chain of molecules known as a polymer. Polymers, which are more commonly known as the building blocks of synthetic materials like plastics, also occur naturally when large molecules (in this case ubiquitin) are connected in repeating subunits.

    2
    In baker’s yeast, Ubr1 helps initiate the ubiquitination process as it attaches ubiquitin to proteins and elongates it into a chain of molecules known as a polymer. Credit: Pan, et al, University of Chicago.

    “Until this study, we didn’t know that much about how ubiquitin polymers are structurally formed,” Zhao said. “Now we are starting to get an idea of how it’s first installed onto the protein substrate, and then how the polymers are formed in a linkage-specific manner. This is a milestone in terms of understanding polyubiquitination at a near atomic level.”

    In this study, Zhao and his team used some chemical biology techniques to mimic the initial steps of the process for attaching ubiquitin to proteins. Then, they employed another Nobel Prize-winning innovation called cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to capture the process. Cryo-EM involves flash-freezing solutions of proteins and then using a powerful electron microscope to produce images of individual molecules or subcellular structures. About 10 years ago, breakthroughs in hardware and software produced microscopes and detectors that could capture molecular images at much higher resolution. In 2017, Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, and Richard Henderson won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing cryo-EM techniques, which allow researchers to create a snapshot that literally freezes “live” action of a biological process.

    Zhao’s team took advantage of a $10 million investment by the Biological Sciences Division in the Advanced Electron Microscope Facility to use cryo-EM to study ubiquitination in more detail. They were able to describe the structure of several intermediate enzyme complexes involved in the pathway, which will help researchers looking for ways to target proteins with drugs or intervene in a malfunctioning protein degradation process.

    “Cryo-EM is exciting because after the data processing is done, a new structure pops out that you’ve never seen before,” Zhao said. “Now we can use what we’ve learned and repurpose the enzymes by introducing small molecules or mixture of peptides to degrade the proteins we want.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:53 pm on November 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program expands to labs across the country", The University of Chicago (US), UChicago program teaches leadership skills to up-and-coming staff and scientists at national labs.   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program expands to labs across the country” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Nov 16, 2021
    Emily Ayshford

    1
    Participants in a Chicago Booth Executive Education program. The Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program, held in a hybrid format this fall, is a non-degree Chicago Booth Executive Education program.

    UChicago program teaches leadership skills to up-and-coming staff and scientists at national labs.

    In 2007, a new leadership training initiative for scientists at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US) and DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) launched as a small pilot project. This fall, the training initiative kicked off its latest cohort as a highly sought-after program that includes participants from The Department of Energy (US) laboratories across the country.

    The Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program is a non-degree Chicago Booth Executive Education program for high-potential lab scientists and staff to learn leadership skills from world-class professors, network with their peers, and prepare for more senior leadership roles. The program returned in September with a new hybrid format: 12 virtual sessions taught by University of Chicago Booth School of Business professors and a two-day, in-person capstone program.

    Over the years, the program has been so successful that it has expanded in size, offering two sessions to cohorts from six additional national laboratories. Since its inception, the program has trained more than 300 national lab professionals in the areas of strategy, change management, and innovation. Many past participants of the program have been promoted within their labs or have gone onto senior roles at other labs.

    “The Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program has become the gold standard for lab leadership development programs,” said Juan de Pablo, vice president for national laboratories, science strategy, innovation and global initiatives at UChicago. “As part of the University of Chicago’s Joint Task Force Initiative, it has been key to supporting success at Argonne and Fermilab. We have continually worked to ensure that these sessions help develop leaders who will take our national labs into the future, and labs across the country are beginning to notice just how successful this program has been.”

    Harnessing a great intellectual curiosity

    Key to the program’s success is Harry Davis, the Roger L. and Rachel M. Goetz Distinguished Service Professor of Creative Management at Booth, who helped develop the program back in 2006. At the time, he was participating in a committee at Argonne tasked with investigating some of the cultural issues that were impacting safety. That work led to a proposal for a leadership program involving both Argonne and Fermilab.

    When he spoke with staff at Argonne, he found that up-and-coming leaders wanted more training in cross-disciplinary collaboration and innovative and strategic thinking. Davis and others at the labs and Booth developed a curriculum to not only teach leadership skills but also to give Argonne and Fermilab lab members a chance to work together on a real assignment given by a senior leader involving a strategic challenge, then present their findings to UChicago and lab leadership.

    “We wanted to expose senior scientists and support staff to relevant concepts in leadership and strategy, but also provide an opportunity to apply these in a cross-functional team with members from both labs,” Davis said. “There was a great intellectual curiosity, and everyone realized that we must continue to do this, given the challenges that labs face.”

    Mark Peters was a member of that first cohort. At the time, he was a deputy associate lab director at Argonne. After the program, he went on to lead DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (US) and is now executive vice president of laboratory operations at Battelle, a non-profit applied science and technology development company. He counts Davis as a lifelong mentor.

    “I learned how to build a strategy, how to bring along a team, how your leadership role sometimes requires you to play different roles, depending on the situation,” Peters said. “But mostly, I remember how Harry taught us to lead with the heart. That is something I take with me everywhere I go.”

    Creating a new network

    Sandra Charles, now chief equity, diversity, and inclusion officer at Fermilab, participated in the program in 2019.

    “The SLLP helped to refine my skills in managing people and projects,” she said. “The program challenged me to think deeply about strategic planning and managing change, informed by the perspectives of peers from Fermilab and other national laboratories. In the years since I participated in the program, the lessons I learned from SLLP both through theory and introspection have helped to shape my approach to leadership in my role at Fermilab.”

    Participants have also become a go-to resource for the national labs as they come together to solve difficult problems. When former Fermilab Chief Operating Officer Kate Gregory and her colleagues began to think about centralizing facilities management in 2020, they knew that such a large and complex project would require the right kind of communication and implementation.

    So they turned to past participants of the Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program. Fermilab scientists and staff who had participated in the program had worked on a project involving change management, and senior leadership were eager to share their knowledge.

    “They were able to coach our senior leaders through the process,” Gregory said. “It made this big change much less risky and much more successful.”

    Finding the best leadership approach

    When Mike Edelen began SLLP in 2019, he was already rising through the ranks at Argonne. A former Navy submarine officer, he was used to regimented military life, and initially had trouble adjusting to the new rhythm and hierarchies of the lab. When he learned about Davis’s approach to leadership—bringing different “characters” to different situations, depending on what was needed—he realized that he already practiced that in his role as interim division director for environmental safety and health.

    “Now I’m able to internalize which style is the best approach for a situation,” said Edelen, who is now a division director. “It helps me to better prepare for difficult conversations. The program also taught me to do self-reflections—what worked, what didn’t—which I still do on a regular basis.”

    That, said Argonne Chief Operating Officer Kim Sawyer, is one of the great benefits of the program.

    “I always say that we don’t take the time to learn about ourselves,” she said. “We are great at studying scientific systems, but this program allows individuals to learn about how situations impact them and how they can approach situations differently. It has become a rite of passage.”

    Each year, Argonne receives so many nominations for the program that they must prioritize enrollment. “There is a huge appetite to develop leaders within national labs,” said Paul Kearns, director of Argonne. “Many of our senior leaders here at Argonne have gone through the program, and we consider it an essential part of building and maintaining our world-class community of talent.”

    Becoming a courageous leader

    For Yun He at Fermilab, the program offered a chance to think about the lab beyond her role as a project manager.

    “I was more technically oriented, focused on my own work in my own silo,” she said. “But through the program, I learned a different mindset. Now I look at areas to make improvements, make impact, and develop a community that will allow our members to get connected and have a better sense of belonging.”

    Now a group leader, she even brings that mindset outside of her job. As co-leader of the Asian-Pacific Association Laboratory Resource Group at Fermilab, she took the initiative to promote cross-cultural communication and resources within the group and allies after the COVID-19 pandemic led to a rise in anti-Asian sentiment.

    “It was a wake-up call for me to step out of my comfort zone, seize the opportunity, and to be a courageous leader,” she said.

    “Many people believe that leadership is based on a position,” said Nigel Lockyer, director of Fermilab. “But we believe that leadership is based on how you act and perform. Anyone can be a leader, and this program helps our scientists and staff realize that and help us be the best we can be.”

    Establishing a peer network

    Six national laboratories outside Chicago are now part of the cohort: Idaho National Laboratory, DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (US), DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US), DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US), DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and DOE’s Ames Laboratory US).

    This year, the cohort will follow three learning tracks—a classroom track with online and in-person sessions; a strategic discovery experiment track that places participants in teams to work on a broad strategic project that looks at the future of work in laboratories; and a personal development track that teaches personal leadership with feedback from professional coaches. New sessions include lessons on artificial intelligence and communicating effectively.

    Now that the program has expanded to labs across the country, participants will get the benefit of a nationwide network with whom they can work to solve problems and benchmark solutions. Because of demand, the program has also added a second cohort that will begin in January.

    “Participants not only learn about leadership—they find a network that re-energizes them, that gives them a way to continue learning throughout their whole lives,” Davis said.

    The Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program is supported by the University of Chicago Joint Task Force Initiative, a program dedicated to helping Argonne and Fermilab achieve mission success by opening channels of frequent communication and collaboration across institutions.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:19 pm on November 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Black holes have tantrums and scientists have finally captured the resulting gamma rays", , , , The University of Chicago (US)   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “Black holes have tantrums and scientists have finally captured the resulting gamma rays” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Nov 12, 2021

    Findings could advance understanding of ultra-fast outflows’ role in evolution of galaxies

    1
    An artist’s conception of a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy that is spewing out jets (shown in orange) as well as via ultra-fast outflows of ionized gas (shown in gray/blue). Scientists have released a new direct observation of the gamma rays from such ultra-fast outflows from black holes. Image courtesy of The European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/AOES Medialab.

    When supermassive black holes have tantrums, galaxies sit up and take notice.

    A group of scientists announced they had detected the gamma rays from a phenomenon known as an ultra-fast outflow—a powerful wind launched from very near a supermassive black hole—for the first time. Scientists believe these outflows play an important role in regulating the growth of the black hole itself and its host galaxy.

    Using data gathered by the Large Area Telescope onboard NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and a stacking technique combining signals too weak to be observed on their own, researchers detected gamma rays from ultra-fast outflows in several nearby galaxies. The team, including scientists with the University of Chicago, Clemson University (US), The College of Charleston (US) and many others, published the results Nov. 10 in The Astrophysical Journal.

    They results, they said, should help us understand what happened as our own Milky Way galaxy formed and grew.

    “Our gamma-ray observations show how supermassive black holes can transfer a large amount of energy to their host galaxy,” said Chris Karwin, a postdoctoral fellow at Clemson University and leader of the study. “Although these winds are challenging to detect, it is thought that they play a significant role in how a massive black hole and the host galaxy itself grow.”

    “Tsunami-like winds”

    Every galaxy has a supermassive black hole at its center. Some are dormant. Others, called active galactic nuclei, are active, meaning that they draw in and “eat” the surrounding matter.

    But contrary to popular assumption, black holes don’t eat literally everything near them. “Black holes are like powerful vacuum cleaners that eject some of the dirt that gets near them instead of sucking in everything,” said Marco Ajello, an associate professor at Clemson University who is co-leading the study. “These ejections, which are tsunami-like winds, are made of highly ionized gas.”

    When this gas interacts with the matter that exists between star systems, it creates powerful shock waves. In this way, black holes transfer an enormous amount of energy to their host galaxies, explained Karwin.

    “These ultra-fast outflows act like a piston and actually accelerate charged particles, known as cosmic rays, to near the speed of light,” he said.

    These cosmic rays go on to collide with particles in the host galaxy, eventually producing the gamma rays that the scientists detected.

    “That gamma-ray emission encodes a ton of information,” said Rebecca Diesing, a graduate student at the University of Chicago and co-author on the paper. “That includes how it evolved, how it accelerates cosmic rays, and how it interacts with material in the host galaxy.”

    Working with Asst. Prof. Damiano Caprioli of UChicago’s Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Diesing developed state-of-the-art computational modeling techniques to calculate how particles can be accelerated in astrophysical environments, especially at the powerful shock waves produced by the winds, and how such very energetic particles emit gamma-rays. Together, this information helps understand how these ultra-fast outflows evolve.

    These outflows affect the galaxies around them in multiple ways. For example, scientists think that these ultra-fast outflows inject energy into the galaxy, which breaks apart clouds of gas that might otherwise form into stars and feed the supermassive black hole. “This becomes a self-regulating processes, which physically links supermassive black holes with their host galaxies, causing them to grow together,” said Diesing.

    “The black hole at the center of the galaxy and the galaxy itself have a mechanism to grow together in mass—and this is the mechanism,” Ajello said.

    Understanding the Milky Way

    The findings of the study could help scientists understand what happened in our own Milky Way galaxy.

    Sagittarius A* is the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way with about four million times the sun’s mass.

    SGR A* Credit: Pennsylvania State University(US) and National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) Chandra X-ray Observatory (US)

    Sgr A* from ESO [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) (CL) VLT.

    Extending above and below the Milky Way’s disc are “Fermi bubbles,” enormous round structures of hot gas emanating from the galactic center. (They’re called Fermi bubbles because the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, the source of the data in the current study, discovered them in 2010.)

    Extending above and below the Milky Way’s disc are Fermi bubbles, enormous round structures of hot gas emanating from the galactic center.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Fermi Large Area Telescope

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

    “Today, our black hole, Sagittarius A*, is not active, but it’s possible it was active in the recent past, maybe up until a few hundred years ago,” Karwin said. “Our model supports the hypothesis that these Fermi bubbles may be remnants of past ultra-fast outflow-like activity from the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy.”

    Ajello said future work includes studying galaxies that have had active ultra-fast outflow winds for tens of millions of years that have already traveled to the outskirts of the galaxy.

    See the full article here .

    See original story from Clemson here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
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    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
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    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
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