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  • richardmitnick 10:24 am on March 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "UArizona to help NASA understand solar wind and plasma with HelioSwarm mission", The University of Arizona (US),   

    From The University of Arizona (US): “UArizona to help NASA understand solar wind and plasma with HelioSwarm mission” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    3.2.22
    Mikayla Mace Kelley
    Science Writer, University Communications
    mikaylamace@arizona.edu
    520-621-1878

    Researcher contact(s)
    Kristopher Klein
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
    kgklein@lpl.arizona.edu
    520-621-2806

    Most visible matter in the universe exists as plasma, and NASA has funded a new mission to study this state of matter that’s rarely found on Earth.

    1
    Aurora are the product of plasma interacting with the Earth’s magnetic field. Plasma is also found in stars, nebula and throughout the solar wind, which HelioSwarm will study in depth.

    Plasma is rare on Earth, but it fills the sky. From stars and nebulas to auroras at the poles and solar wind, plasma is the most common visible state of matter – the more familiar ones being liquid, gas and solid.

    To more deeply understand this state of matter that makes up 99% of the visible universe, NASA has selected the HelioSwarm mission, an array – or “swarm” – of nine spacecraft, which is tentatively scheduled to launch in 2028 and collect data for at least one year. Kristopher Klein, University of Arizona assistant professor of planetary sciences in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, will serve as the mission’s deputy principal investigator.

    Plasma is matter so incredibly hot that atoms are stripped of their electrons to create what’s called ionized gas.

    “This mission is leveraging the fact that we have a powerful source of plasma nearby – the sun – that we can use like a natural laboratory to understand this universal process,” Klein said.

    The sun’s plasma is so superheated and energetic that it escapes the sun’s gravity and rushes outward as solar wind.

    The mission will provide scientists with data to study turbulence in the solar wind. As the solar wind expands to fill the heliosphere – the outermost atmosphere of the sun, which encompasses much of the solar system – it interacts with the magnetic fields of Earth and the sun, so the mission will study the interaction between these fields as well.

    “Studying the interaction between the solar wind and Earth’s magnetic field is important from a basic physics perspective, and it’s also important to understand how energy moves through the system and evolves,” Klein said. “And during periods of heightened solar activity, these processes also affect things like global positioning and communications satellites, other spacecraft and astronauts.”

    “As a species, we’re launching more spacecrafts and are becoming more reliant on having more satellites for everyday activities, so understanding how to live with our star is important,” he said.

    Most of Klein’s research is theoretical. He studies how energy moves through different kinds of plasma. With that background, Klein’s role as mission deputy principal investigator is to ensure that the science questions can be answered with the instruments onboard the HelioSwarm spacecraft.

    Klein has been involved in two other NASA missions to study the sun: the Wind Spacecraft and the Parker Solar Probe. Many other UArizona Lunar and Planetary Lab faculty will also provide support as the HelioSwarm mission progresses.

    HelioSwarm is so named because rather than measuring the solar wind at a single point in space at a given time, the mission will consist of one hub spacecraft and eight co-orbiting small satellites, which will swing in large 14-day-long flower-petal-shaped orbits around Earth to allow for multiple measurements in many different configurations.

    1
    HelioSwarm. The University of New Hampshire (US)

    At its farthest point in orbit, a satellite will reach 60 times the distance between Earth and the moon. The hub spacecraft will maintain radio contact with the other satellites, and radio contact between the swarm and Earth will be conducted through the hub spacecraft and the NASA Deep Space Network of spacecraft communication antennas.

    The spacecrafts’ ever-changing orbital patterns were intentionally designed to provide a more holistic picture of the solar wind as it evolves.

    “Think about the solar wind like a waterfall,” Klein said. “If you want to understand a waterfall, you have to measure at multiple points throughout its flow. There have been previous missions that have had a few spacecrafts providing multipoint measurement, but the dream is to have a set of spacecrafts that will be separated in such a way that some of them will be relatively close and others far. By doing that, we can measure both large- and small-scale physics at the same time and get a better understanding of how energy flows and evolves as it moves through the solar system.”

    The HelioSwarm mission’s principal investigator is Harlan Spence from the University of New Hampshire. NASA’s Alan Zide is the program executive. NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California, will provide project management. Funding and management oversight for the mission is provided by the Heliophysics Explorers Program, managed by the Explorers Program Office at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association (US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University (US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency (US) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea][Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ASI Italian Space Agency [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana](IT) Cassini Spacecraft.

    The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    U Arizona NASA Mars Reconnaisance HiRISE Camera.

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech (US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    3
    NASA – GRAIL Flying in Formation (Artist’s Concept. Credit: NASA.
    National Aeronautics Space Agency (USA) Juno at Jupiter.

    NASA/Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    NASA/Mars MAVEN

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (US).
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US) Wise/NEOWISE Telescope.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory (US) just outside Tucson.

    National Science Foundation(US) NOIRLab (US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory (US) Kitt Peak National Observatory (US) on Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers (55 mi) west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft). annotated.

    Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope (CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory (US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory (US) operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.,

    University of Arizona Radio Observatory(US) at NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory(US), AZ USA, U Arizona Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory(US) at altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft).

    The National Science Foundation (US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why The University of Arizona is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:20 am on February 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The two types of climate coping and what they mean for your health", , , , , The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US): “The two types of climate coping and what they mean for your health” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    1.31.22

    Media contact
    Alexis Blue
    Director of News Content and Communications, University Communications
    ablue@arizona.edu
    520-626-4386

    Researcher contact
    Sabrina Helm
    Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences
    helm@email.arizona.edu
    520-621-7130

    1
    When it comes to coping with climate change, there may be two types of people: those who take action to try to improve the environment and those who don’t bother because they don’t believe their actions will make a difference.

    Knowing how different people cope with climate change could help policymakers communicate more effectively about the issue, new research suggests.

    Knowing who’s who could help public policymakers better target their messaging around climate change, suggests a new study [Anxiety, Stress & Coping] led by University of Arizona researcher Sabrina Helm.

    Helm, an associate professor in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences’ Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences, studies climate anxiety and consumer behavior.

    In her latest research, published in the journal Anxiety, Stress and Coping, Helm set out to identify how different people cope, psychologically and behaviorally, with the stressor of a changing climate.

    She and her collaborators surveyed 334 parents who had children between the ages of 3 and 10 living with them. They were asked about their general climate change beliefs, how stressed they feel about environmental issues, how they cope with that stress and how effective they think consumers can be in combating climate change. They also were asked how often they engage in certain behaviors, such as eating meat, traveling by air or making efforts to conserve energy and water. And they were asked questions about their mental and overall health.

    Based on the survey responses, the researchers identified two prevailing climate change coping profiles: adaptive approach coping and maladaptive avoidance coping.

    About 70% of survey respondents belonged to the first group – the adaptive approach coping profile. They tended to have higher levels of environmental concern, and related stress, and believed more in consumer effectiveness. They expressed more wishful thinking and a desire to problem solve, and were more likely to engage in pro-environmental behaviors.

    The remaining 30% were in the maladaptive avoidance coping group. They were less likely than those in the first group to feel guilt or personal responsibility for climate change. They also had less wishful thinking and were less likely to engage in pro-environmental behaviors or believe that their actions would make a difference.

    Helm and her collaborators wondered whether people in the adaptive approach group – who tend to feel more climate-related stress – would have worse mental health overall, since previous studies have linked environmental stress to negative mental health outcomes.

    Surprisingly, Helm said, they found no differences between the two groups with regard to general health, anxiety or depressive symptoms.

    “Overall, we know that climate change-related anxiety is on the rise, and that may be the case for both of these profiles,” Helm said. “We didn’t look at climate anxiety specifically, but we looked at depressive and anxiety symptoms in general; the two groups didn’t differ in their level of anxiety or mental health outcomes.”

    There also were not significant differences in the demographic makeup of the two groups when it came to factors such as race, income, education level or employment status. However, women were more likely to be in the adaptive approach coping group, which is consistent with the findings of prior research, Helm said.

    “There’s a whole host of literature suggesting that females have more environmental concern,” she said.

    The fact that the demographics of the two groups were so similar suggests that targeting climate change-related messaging based on demographic information alone might not be the most effective strategy, Helm said. While it might be tougher to do, determining a person’s climate change coping profile could be more useful for those attempting to communicate about environmental issues and what people can do to make a difference.

    “If you think in terms of messaging about climate change or environmental problems, very often we look at social demographic targeting, and according to our findings, that’s not very useful because those two profiles should probably be receiving different kinds of messaging,” Helm said. “Those who are already acting pro-environmentally need reinforcement of that behavior, versus those who are in the maladaptive avoidance coping profile who don’t do much at all and need to be incentivized to start doing something.”

    Helm said future research should look at whether the same two coping profiles exist in children and teenagers, who may be experiencing greater anxiety about climate change.

    “It seems from other data that climate change concern and climate-related anxiety are particularly high among young people,” Helm said. “Our study didn’t cover the below-18 group, so understanding what’s going on in that demographic might be interesting, to see if our findings hold there.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea][Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ASI Italian Space Agency [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana](IT) Cassini Spacecraft.

    The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    U Arizona NASA Mars Reconnaisance HiRISE Camera.

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    3
    NASA – GRAIL Flying in Formation (Artist’s Concept. Credit: NASA.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(USA) Juno at Jupiter.

    NASA/Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    NASA/Mars MAVEN

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (US).
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Wise/NEOWISE Telescope.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson.

    National Science Foundation(US) NOIRLab (US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory (US) Kitt Peak National Observatory (US) on Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers (55 mi) west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft). annotated.

    Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    University of Arizona Radio Observatory(US) at NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory(US), AZ USA, U Arizona Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory(US) at altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft).

    U Arizona Steward Observatory at NSF’s NOIRLab NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory (US) in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert 88 kilometers 55 mi west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona in the Quinlan Mountains of the Tohono O’odham Nation, altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why The University of Arizona is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:16 pm on January 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Invasive Plants and Climate Change Will Alter Desert Landscapes", , , , , , Invasive buffelgrass weathers higher temperatures and drought conditions better than its native brethren., The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) via Eos : “Invasive Plants and Climate Change Will Alter Desert Landscapes” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    via

    AGU
    Eos news bloc

    Eos

    13 January 2022
    Katherine Kornei

    In experiments conducted in Biosphere 2 at The University of Arizona (US), invasive buffelgrass weathers higher temperatures and drought conditions better than its native brethren.

    1
    In Arizona’s Saguaro National Park, volunteers remove buffelgrass, an invasive species, from the desert ecosystem. Credit: National Park Service (US).

    The towering saguaro cactus may be the icon of the American Southwest, but an invasive plant is steadily encroaching into desert ecosystems. The interloper, a knee-high species of grass known as buffelgrass, will likely become even more of a presence in arid landscapes in the future, new research has revealed. That’s because buffelgrass weathers increased temperatures and drought conditions—two hallmarks of climate change—more readily than its native brethren. According to the researchers, arid environments are slated to experience pronounced changes in vegetation in the coming decades, a shift that will have far-reaching implications not only for desert ecosystems themselves but also for human-built infrastructures.

    Guaranteed from the Start

    Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) was first introduced to North America from Africa in the 1930s. The tough grass was originally intended as food for foraging cattle. Like other plants such as kudzu that have thrived in their nonnative environments, buffelgrass’s biological success was just about guaranteed from the start: Its seedlings survive at high rates, it can rapidly colonize bare soil, it makes efficient use of water, and it’s capable of tolerating extreme drought.

    Today buffelgrass is a common sight in the vast Sonoran Desert, which spans the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. But it’s an unwelcome guest—buffelgrass has been labeled a “noxious weed” by the Arizona Department of Agriculture, and the National Park Service regularly hosts “buffelgrass pulls.”

    “It invades deserts and crowds out native plants,” said Perry Grissom, a restoration ecologist at Saguaro National Park in Tucson who was not involved in the research and who has led many buffelgrass pulls. “It’s better adapted to our desert than our plants that are endemic.”

    Biodiversity to Monoculture

    Buffelgrass’s bad reputation is well earned, said Sujith Ravi, an environmental scientist at Temple University (US), lead author of the study. It slashes ecosystem biodiversity by outcompeting native grasses, leading to landscapes that are veritable monocultures, he said. “Whereas there used to be a mixture of different communities, now it’s more of a single-community landscape.”

    That’s bad news, because biodiversity has been shown to make ecosystems more stable and resilient to potentially adverse changes. And when an inevitable “crash” occurs—when essentially all vegetation dies off for a period of time—the soil that’s exposed is readily eroded by wind and water. “There’s an irreversible loss of resources from the system,” explained Ravi. Furthermore, when buffelgrass thrives, the thick vegetation facilitates the spread of fire in an otherwise patchy landscape, and larger fires are more likely to affect human-built infrastructure.

    With climate models predicting increasing temperatures and more frequent droughts in arid landscapes, an open question is how well buffelgrass will fare in the future compared with native plants. Several years ago, Ravi and his colleagues began an experimental investigation of buffelgrass and its native counterpart, tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus), in the glass-walled Biosphere 2 research facility in southern Arizona.

    A Harbinger of the Future

    Biosphere 2 is an ideal laboratory for studying the effects of climate change because it can be tuned to create different environmental conditions. The facility, which tops 3 acres, reproduces several of the planet’s major biomes—including the ocean, wetlands, rain forest, savannah, and desert. “It’s like a field experiment because it’s so huge,” said Ravi.

    The team grew hundreds of buffelgrass and tanglehead plants and divided them between Biosphere 2’s savannah biome, maintained at ambient conditions, and its desert biome, which is warmed by roughly 5°C. The idea was to repeat the experiments in two conditions to mimic the effects of climate change, said Ravi.

    After watering the plants regularly for a few months, the researchers then withheld irrigation from half of the plants for several months, effectively exposing them to drought-like conditions. The water-starved grasses responded as they would in nature: They went dormant. The team accordingly irrigated the plants again the following spring before finally quantifying what fraction of grasses of each species, exposed to each set of temperature and moisture conditions, survived.

    Ravi and his colleagues found that grasses of both species rallied after experiencing drought-like conditions at ambient temperatures. But the combination of warmer temperatures and lack of moisture killed 100% of the native tanglehead plants compared with only roughly 80% of the invasive buffelgrass plants. That’s a significant difference in mortality, said Ravi. “If something is going to come back, it’s going to be the invasive grass.”

    This finding wasn’t wholly unexpected given the nature of buffelgrass, said Grissom. “After seeing how it behaves, I’m not surprised. It’s really tough.”

    These results are a harbinger of what’s to come in arid regions, the researchers suggested. Drought- and heat-adapted invasive plants like buffelgrass will increasingly gain a toehold, at the expense of native species. Climate change and biological invasions work in tandem to alter desert landscapes for the worse, said Ravi. “They can synergistically act to drive landscapes into degradation.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Eos is the leading source for trustworthy news and perspectives about the Earth and space sciences and their impact. Its namesake is Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, who represents the light shed on understanding our planet and its environment in space by the Earth and space sciences.

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why The University of Arizona is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on January 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "$10M elevates UArizona hypersonics facilities to national prominence", Automation to Speed Up Testing, Mach 5 Nozzle, Supersized Air Compression, The funding positions the university as a leading educational institution in the hypersonics field., The funding will support a suite of upgrades for both UArizona hypersonics facilities., The University of Arizona (US), UArizona is home to two hypersonic facilities and additional wind tunnels that permit testing from Mach 0 to Mach 5., University of Arizona aerospace and mechanical engineering researchers have received $3.5 million in funding from the state of Arizona and $6.5 million in federal Department of Defense (US) funding.   

    From The University of Arizona (US): “$10M elevates UArizona hypersonics facilities to national prominence” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    1.13.22

    Media contact(s)
    Emily Dieckman
    College of Engineering
    edieckman@email.arizona.edu
    520-621-1992
    760-981-8808

    Researcher contact(s)
    Alex Craig
    Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
    sacraig@arizona.edu

    Jesse Little
    Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
    jesselittle@arizona.edu

    The funding will allow for upgrades to the College of Engineering’s wind tunnels, strengthening UArizona’s position as an academic leader in hypersonics research.

    1
    Alex Craig (left), assistant professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering, and associate professor Jesse Little with the 15-inch-diameter Mach 5 Ludwieg tube in the UArizona College of Engineering’s Boundary-Layer Stability and Transition Laboratory. New state and federal funding totaling $10 million will support a suite of upgrades for the university’s hypersonics facilities.

    University of Arizona aerospace and mechanical engineering researchers have received $3.5 million in funding from the state of Arizona’s investment in the New Economy Initiative and $6.5 million in federal support through The Department of Defense’s (US) Test Resource Management Center to upgrade hypersonic facilities and related research infrastructure.

    The funding positions the university as a leading educational institution in the hypersonics field, said Alex Craig, an assistant professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering.

    “We’re moving our wind tunnel complex into a more capable realm that you typically don’t see at universities, because it’s usually reserved for government facilities like NASA,” Craig said. “With these upgrades, we’ll be able to provide impactful ground testing services to DOD and its contractors, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), and emerging private ventures supporting space and commercial travel, while still fulfilling our educational mission.”

    Wind tunnels blast air at high speeds past fixed objects, helping researchers better understand how similarly shaped objects, such as aircraft and missiles, behave in flight. Wind tunnel speed is represented by Mach number, with Mach 1 being equal to the speed of sound – about 761 mph at sea level.

    UArizona is home to two hypersonic facilities and additional wind tunnels that permit testing from Mach 0 to Mach 5.

    The Boundary-Layer Stability and Transition Laboratory, led by Craig, houses a 15-inch-diameter Mach 5 Ludwieg tube, also known as LT5. The Turbulence and Flow Control Laboratory is led by aerospace and mechanical engineering associate professor Jesse Little. Its newest addition is the Arizona Supersonic Wind Tunnel, which currently operates at speeds ranging from Mach 1.75 to Mach 4. The Mach number is changed by adding different nozzle blocks – 12 in total – which weigh about 1,800 pounds each.

    The funding will support a suite of upgrades for both UArizona hypersonics facilities.

    “The University of Arizona is a leader in hypersonics, and this new investment in our unique facilities will allow us to take this exciting research to new level,” said University of Arizona President Robert C. Robbins. “We are grateful for the support of this program from the Arizona Board of Regents, Gov. Doug Ducey and the state legislature, and the funding from the federal government will amplify the impact of Arizona’s investment in this important area of research.”

    “As a developer of tactical and strategic missile systems, wind tunnel testing is a core engineering discipline that we employ on nearly every product we design,” said Roy Donelson, executive director and product area director of Strategic Engagement Systems, Strategic Missile Defense for Raytheon Missiles and Defense. “It often becomes a pacing item in our development programs due to a limited number of capable facilities, coupled with high demand across the aerospace industry. These upgrades will enable us to expand our relationship with UArizona to include not only accelerated product development, but also to grow the next generation of aerodynamicists through early, hands-on test experience.”

    Mach 5 Nozzle

    The university’s Arizona Supersonic Wind Tunnel, or ASWT, has a cross section that measures 15 inches high by 15 inches wide and is the largest of its kind at a U.S. academic institution. Most university wind tunnels of this type are 6 inches by 6 inches or smaller, with only a couple as large as 12 inches by 12 inches. ASWT also can run at six Mach numbers between 1.75 and 4. The new funding will extend its operating range to Mach 5.

    In addition, Little recently received funding from the DOD’s Minority-Serving Institution Program to extend the wind tunnel down to subsonic (below Mach 0.8) and transonic (Mach 0.8 to Mach 1.2) conditions. This will enable subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic testing – transforming the wind tunnel into the Arizona Polysonic Wind Tunnel.

    Supersized Air Compression

    Moving at thousands of miles per hour, the air rushing through the wind tunnel needs to be compressed and stored in specialized tanks before use. The new funding will allow the university to invest in a system to increase air generation by a factor of 10 and storage capacity by a factor of three. Additionally, the researchers plan to purchase a more sophisticated filtration and drying system, which is especially necessary for operation at Mach 5.

    “At present, we can perform one to three 15-second runs per day in ASWT,” Little said. “The new air supply system will increase our capacity to eight to 10 30-second runs per day. This type of throughput is necessary to attract industry, and places us on par with some government facilities.”

    Automation to Speed Up Testing

    In the LT5 tunnel, which operates at Mach 5, the team can run about five tests a day. Between each test, an operator must reprogram the system to simulate new conditions such as pressure, temperature and model position.

    The planned upgrades include a fast-opening valve and automation system that will vastly improve the lab’s efficiency. The system enables an operator to input several pieces of information at once before a series of runs, then have those factors automatically adjusted between runs.

    “The automation process is the most exciting part of this, for me,” Craig said. “All of those things are putting us in a realm where LT5 can run 50, 60, 70 times a day with minimal operator input. Similar tunnels at universities can’t get close to that in this type of facility, with the exception of the Air Force Academy.”

    Quiet Nozzle to Better Mirror Flight

    The funds also will help support the installation of a quiet nozzle for LT5. Currently, the tunnel produces noisy flow, in which the velocity and pressure fluctuations of the air flow are considerably higher than what would be encountered in actual flight. The nozzle, also funded by the DOD’s Minority-Serving Institution Program, will allow the tunnel to create quiet flow, more closely imitating what flight is like in the Earth’s atmosphere.

    “The end result is a nationally unique pair of Mach 5 wind tunnels at UArizona offering both quiet and conventional testing at an industry-relevant scale,” Little said.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:00 pm on January 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New treasure trove of globular clusters holds clues about galaxy evolution", , , , , , , The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) : “New treasure trove of globular clusters holds clues about galaxy evolution” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    1.11.22

    Daniel Stolte
    Science Writer, University Communications
    stolte@arizona.edu
    520-626-4402

    Using observations of the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A, a team of astronomers led by the University of Arizona found an unprecedented number of possible globular clusters – old, dense groups of thousands of stars that all formed at the same time.

    1
    Centaurus A is an elliptical galaxy located about 13 million light-years from Earth. This color composite image reveals the lobes and jets emanating from the active galaxy’s central black hole. ESO Wide Field Imager on MG/ESO 2.2 millimeter telescope at Cerro LaSilla (Optical); A.Weiss et al. (Submillimetre)/ESO MPIfR Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (CL)/ R.Kraft et al. (X-ray) NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory(US).

    WFI Wide Field Imager on the 2.2 meter MPG/ESO telescope at Cerro LaSilla (CL).

    MPG Institute for Astronomy [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie](DE)European Southern Observatory(EU)2.2 meter telescope at Cerro La Silla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO operates the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, APEX, for The MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) at one of the highest observatory sites on Earth, at an elevation of 5100 metres, high on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama region.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Chandra X-ray telescope(US).

    A survey completed using a combination of ground and space-based telescopes yielded a treasure trove of previously unknown globular clusters – old, dense groups of thousands of stars that all formed at the same time – in the outer regions of the elliptical galaxy Centaurus A. The work presents a significant advance in understanding the architecture and cosmological history of this galaxy and offers new insights into galaxy formation in general and the distribution of dark matter in the universe.

    Allison Hughes, a doctoral student in the University of Arizona Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, is the first author of a peer-reviewed paper summarizing the findings, which was published in The Astrophysical Journal in June. She presented the study Tuesday during an American Astronomical Society (US) press briefing. While the in-person AAS 239th meeting was canceled due to COVID-19 concerns, press briefings were held virtually on Zoom.

    Centaurus A, also known as NGC 5128, is a visually stunning, elliptical galaxy featuring a relativistic jet spewing from a supermassive black hole at its center and spectacular streams of scattered stars left behind by past collisions and mergers with smaller galaxies orbiting Centaurus A. Located in the constellation Centaurus, 13 million light-years from Earth, Centaurus A is too far away to allow astronomers to see individual stars, but star clusters can be identified and used as “fossil evidence” of the galaxy’s tumultuous evolution.

    Hughes and her colleagues present a new catalog of approximately 40,000 globular cluster candidates in Centaurus A, recommending follow-up observations focused on a set of 1,900 that are most likely to be true globular clusters. The researchers surveyed globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of approximately 150 kiloparsecs, nearly half a million light-years from the galaxy’s center. The data combines observations from the following sources: the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor, or PISCeS; Gaia, a space observatory of the European Space Agency; and the NOAO Source Catalog, which combines publicly accessible images from telescopes in both hemispheres covering nearly the entire sky.

    Centaurus A has been a leading target for extragalactic globular cluster studies due to its richness and proximity to Earth, but the majority of studies have focused on the inner 40 kiloparsecs (about 130,500 light-years) of the galaxy, Hughes explained, leaving the outer reaches of the galaxy largely unexplored. Ranking the candidates based on the likelihood that they are true globular clusters, the team found that approximately 1,900 are highly likely to be confirmed as such and should be the highest priority for follow-up spectroscopic confirmation.

    “We’re using the Gaia satellite, which mostly focuses on surveys within our own galaxy, the Milky Way, in a new way in that we link up its observations with telescopes on the ground, in this case the Magellan Clay telescope in Chile and the Anglo-Australian Telescope in Australia.”

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) GAIA satellite.

    Carnegie Institution for Science (US) Las Campanas Clay Magellan telescope, located at Carnegie Las Campanas Observatory(US)(CL), approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    Carnegie Institution for Science (US)’s Las Campanas Observatory in the southern Atacama Desert of Chile in the Atacama Region approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena,near the southern end and over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The Australian Astronomical Observatory AAT Anglo Australian Telescope, at Siding Spring Observatory, near Coonabarabran, New South Wales, Australia, at an altitude of 1,165 m (3,822 ft).

    Centaurus A’s structure tells astronomers that it went through several major mergers with other galaxies, leading to its glob-like appearance with river-like regions that have many more stars than the surrounding areas, Hughes said. Providing the closest example of an elliptical galaxy, Centaurus A offers astronomers an opportunity to study up close a galaxy that is very unlike our own. The Milky Way, as well as its closest neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy, are both spiral galaxies.
    Credit: R. Hurt/NASA JPL-Caltech(US) Milky Way The bar is visible in this image.

    Andromeda Galaxy Messier 31 with Messier 32 -a satellite galaxy Credit:Terry Hancock- Down Under Observatory (US).

    [The future:

    Milkdromeda with Andromeda on the left-Earth’s night sky in 3.75 billion years. No one will be here on Earth to see it. Maybe humans will have escaped the Sun’s becoming a Red Giant and observe it from a new home. Credit: NASA.

    The Milky Way and Andromeda will merge in 4-5 biollion years. After quite some time (millions of years) when the merger is complete the result will be an elliptical galaxy.]

    With their familiar, pinwheel-like appearance, spiral galaxies may seem like the “typical” galaxy, but it turns out that their less orderly elliptical cousins outnumber them in the cosmos.

    “Centaurus A may look like an odd outlier, but that’s only because we can get close enough to see its nitty gritty details,” Hughes said. “More likely than not, both elliptical and spiral galaxies like the Milky Way are messier than we realize as soon as we look a little bit deeper than just on the surface.”

    Globular clusters serve as evidence of processes that happened a long time ago, Hughes said.

    “For example, if you see a line of these globular clusters that all have similar metallicity (chemical composition) and move with similar radial velocity, we know they must have come from the same dwarf galaxy or some similar object that collided with Centaurus A and is now in the process of being assimilated.”

    Star clusters form from dense patches of gas in the interstellar medium. Almost every galaxy has globular clusters, including the Milky Way, which boasts around 150 of them, but most stars are not arranged in such clumps. By studying globular clusters, astronomers can gather clues about the galaxy hosting them, such as its mass, its history of interactions with nearby galaxies and even the distribution of Dark Matter within, according to Hughes.

    “Globular clusters are interesting because they can be used as tracers of structures and processes in other galaxies where we can’t resolve individual stars,” Hughes said. “They hold on to chemical signatures, such as the elemental composition of their individual stars, so they tell us something about the environment in which they formed.”

    The researchers specifically looked for globular clusters far from the center of the galaxy because Centaurus A’s substructure hints at a large, undiscovered population of such clusters, Hughes explained. Previous observations had found just under 600 clusters in the more central regions, but the outer regions of the galaxy had remained largely uncharted.

    “We looked farther out and discovered more than 100 new clusters already, and most likely there are more, because we haven’t even finished processing the data,” Hughes said. “We can then use that data to reconstruct the architecture and movements in that galaxy, and also figure out its mass. From that, we can eventually subtract all its stars and see what’s left – that invisible mass must be its Dark Matter.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:25 am on December 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Distant quasar J0439+1634 explored in X-rays", , , Astronomers are especially interested in studying high-redshift quasars (at redshift higher than 5.0), BAL: broad absorption line quasar, , , High-redshift quasars could serve as a powerful tool to probe the early universe., , , The most distant known gravitationally lensed quasar., The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) via phys.org : “Distant quasar J0439+1634 explored in X-rays” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    via

    phys.org

    December 29, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    The XMM-Newton EPIC image of J0439+1634, combined from the pn, MOS1, and MOS2 images, in the 0.2–0.5 keV (left), 0.5–2 keV (middle) and 2–10 keV (right) X-ray bands. Credit: Yang et al., 2021.

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) XMM Newton X-ray telescope. http://sci.esa.int/xmm-newton/

    Using ESA’s XMM-Newton spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has conducted X-ray observations of the most distant known gravitationally lensed quasar—J0439+1634. Results of the study, published December 20 for The Astrophysical Journal Letters shed more light on the properties of this source.

    Quasars, or quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), are extremely luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) containing supermassive central black holes with accretion disks. Their redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet spectra.

    Astronomers are especially interested in studying high-redshift quasars (at redshift higher than 5.0) as they are the most luminous and most distant compact objects in the observable universe. Spectra of such QSOs can be used to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes that constrain the evolution and formation models of quasars. Therefore, high-redshift quasars could serve as a powerful tool to probe the early universe.

    At a redshift of 6.52, J0439+1634 the first known gravitationally lensed high-redshift quasar.

    Gravitational Lensing Gravitational Lensing National Aeronautics Space Agency (US) and European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU).

    Its high lensing magnification makes it an excellent target for the study of X-ray emission from a reionization-era QSO that is intrinsically less luminous.

    J0439+1634 is also the so-called broad absorption line (BAL) quasar. In general, BAL quasars are assumed to be highly absorbed in the soft X-ray band and are generally X-ray weak in observations of low-redshift quasars. However, to date no such studies of high-redshift BAL QSOs have been carried out, due to their faint X-ray emission.

    So a team of researchers led by Jinyi Yang of The University of Arizona (US) decided to explore J0439+1634 with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) system onboard XMM-Newton.

    3
    European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) system onboard XMM-Newton. Credit: The European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU).

    They investigated the X-ray properties of this source through spectral analysis and compared the results with other quasar populations.

    J0439+1634 was identified as an X-ray source with XMM-Newton in the 0.5–10 keV band by all three EPIC cameras, while it was not detected in the 0.2–0.5 keV band. The EPIC spectra show that the quasar has a flat photon index—at a level of approximately 1.45.

    The observations found that the optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of J0439+1634 is about −2.07 suggesting that this quasar is underluminous by a factor of 18 in X-rays, which is consistent with the behavior of BAL QSOs observed at lower redshift. The astronomers noted that their study marks the first time when an X-ray weak BAL quasar at a redshift of above 6.0 has been observed spectroscopically.

    Furthermore, spectral fitting using an absorbed power-law model suggests a high intrinsic column density in the case of J0439+1634—more than 200 sextillion cm-2. This finding, according to the researchers, suggests that J0439+1634 is the first highly obscured quasar with X-ray spectroscopy in the reionization epoch. They assume that this source could be an intrinsically X-ray weak quasar.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:39 pm on December 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "The most ancient supermassive black hole is bafflingly big", A quasar is a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy wrapped in a bright disk of material., , , , , Finding such a huge supermassive black hole so early in the universe’s history challenges astronomers’ understanding of how these cosmic beasts first formed., Quasar J0313-1806 is two times heavier and 20 million years older than the last record-holder for earliest known black hole., The most ancient black hole ever discovered is so big it defies explanation., The quasar is dubbed J0313-1806., The University of Arizona (US), This active supermassive black hole-a quasar-boasts a mass of 1.6 billion suns and lies at the heart of a galaxy more than 13 billion light-years from Earth.   

    From The University of Arizona (US) via Science News (US) : “The most ancient supermassive black hole is bafflingly big” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    via

    Science News (US)

    January 18, 2021 [Just found this in a year-end round up.]
    Maria Temming

    1
    A quasar is a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy wrapped in a bright disk of material. The most distant quasar now known is J0313-1806, which dates back to when the universe was a mere 670 million years old. Credit: J. da Silva NOIRLab (US)/The National Science Foundation (US)/The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)(US).

    The most ancient black hole ever discovered is so big it defies explanation.

    This active supermassive black hole, or quasar, boasts a mass of 1.6 billion suns and lies at the heart of a galaxy more than 13 billion light-years from Earth. The quasar is dubbed J0313-1806, dates back to when the universe was just 670 million years old, or about 5 percent of the universe’s current age. That makes J0313-1806 two times heavier and 20 million years older than the last record-holder for earliest known black hole (SN: 12/6/17).

    Finding such a huge supermassive black hole so early in the universe’s history challenges astronomers’ understanding of how these cosmic beasts first formed, researchers reported January 12 at a virtual meeting of the American Astronomical Society and in a paper posted for [The Astrophysical Journal Letters] on January 8, 2021.

    Supermassive black holes are thought to grow from smaller seed black holes that gobble up matter. But astronomer Feige Wang of the University of Arizona and colleagues calculated that even if J0313-1806’s seed formed right after the first stars in the universe and grew as fast as possible, it would have needed a starting mass of at least 10,000 suns. The normal way seed black holes form — through the collapse of massive stars — can only make black holes up to a few thousand times as massive as the sun.

    A gargantuan seed black hole may have formed through the direct collapse of vast amounts of primordial hydrogen gas, says study coauthor Xiaohui Fan, also an astronomer at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Or perhaps J0313-1806’s seed started out small, forming through stellar collapse, and black holes can grow a lot faster than scientists think. “Both possibilities exist, but neither is proven,” Fan says. “We have to look much earlier [in the universe] and look for much less massive black holes to see how these things grow.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:42 pm on December 20, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers Detect Signature of Magnetic Field on an Exoplanet", A magnetosphere is formed by the object's interaction with the solar wind emitted by its host star., A strong magnetic field on a planet like Earth can protect its atmosphere., , , , , , The exoplanet HAT-P-11b, The University of Arizona (US), This is the first time the signature of an exoplanet's magnetic field has been directly detected on a planet outside our solar system.   

    From The University of Arizona (US) : “Astronomers Detect Signature of Magnetic Field on an Exoplanet” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    12.20.21

    Media contact
    Daniel Stolte
    Science Writer, University Communications
    stolte@arizona.edu
    520-626-4402

    Researcher contact
    Gilda Ballester
    Adjunct Research Professor, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
    gilda@lpl.arizona.edu
    520-621-4305

    1
    Artist’s impression of HAT-P-11b, an exoplanet orbiting its host star at just just one-twentieth of the distance from the Earth to the sun. Credit: Denis Bajram/The University of Geneva[Université de Genève](CH).

    An international team of astronomers used data from the Hubble Space Telescope to discover the signature of a magnetic field in a planet outside our solar system. The finding, described in a paper in the journal Nature Astronomy, marks the first time such a feature has been seen on an exoplanet.

    A magnetic field best explains the observations of an extended region of charged carbon particles that surround the planet and stream away from it in a long tail. Magnetic fields play a crucial role in protecting planetary atmospheres, so the ability to detect the magnetic fields of exoplanets is a significant step toward better understanding what these alien worlds may look like.

    The team used Hubble to observe the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, a Neptune-sized planet 123 light-years from Earth, pass directly across the face of its host star six times in what is known as a “transit.” The observations were made in the ultraviolet light spectrum, which is just beyond what the human eye can see.

    Hubble detected carbon ions – charged particles that interact with magnetic fields – surrounding the planet in what is known as a magnetosphere. A magnetosphere is a region around a celestial object (such as Earth) that is formed by the object’s interaction with the solar wind emitted by its host star.

    “This is the first time the signature of an exoplanet’s magnetic field has been directly detected on a planet outside our solar system,” said Gilda Ballester, an adjunct research professor at the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and one of the paper’s co-authors. “A strong magnetic field on a planet like Earth can protect its atmosphere and surface from direct bombardment of the energetic particles that make up the solar wind.

    Magnetosphere of Earth, original bitmap from NASA. SVG rendering by Aaron Kaase.

    These processes heavily affect the evolution of life on a planet like Earth because the magnetic field shelters organisms from these energetic particles.”

    The discovery of HAT-P-11b’s magnetosphere is a significant step toward an improved understanding of the habitability of an exoplanet. Not all planets and moons in our solar system have their own magnetic fields, and the connection between magnetic fields and a planet’s habitability still needs more study, according to the researchers.

    2
    Hubble’s observations of an extended region of charged carbon particles that surround the exoplanet HAT-P-11b and streaming away in a long tail are best explained by magnetic field, the first such discovery on a planet outside of our solar system. The planet is depicted as the small circle near the center. Carbon ions fill an immense region it. In the magnetotail, not shown to its full extent, ions escape at the observed average speeds of about 100,000 mph. 1 AU equals the distance between the Earth and the sun.
    Lotfi Ben-Jaffel/Institute of Astrophysics [Institut Astrophysique de Paris](FR)

    “HAT-P-11 b has proven to be a very exciting target, because Hubble’s UV transit observations have revealed a magnetosphere, seen as both an extended ion component around the planet and long tail of escaping ions,” Ballester said, adding that this general method could be used to detect magnetospheres on a variety of exoplanets and to assess their role in potential habitability.

    Ballester, a principal investigator of one of the Hubble Space Telescope programs that observed HAT-P-11b, contributed to the selection of this specific target for UV studies. A key discovery was the observation of carbon ions not only in a region surrounding the planet, but also extending in a long tail that streamed away from the planet at average speeds of 100,000 mph. The tail reached into space for at least 1 astronomical unit, the distance between Earth and sun.

    Researchers led by the paper’s first author, Lotfi Ben-Jaffel at the Institute of Astrophysics in Paris, then used 3D computer simulations to model interactions between the planet’s uppermost atmospheric regions and magnetic field with the incoming solar wind.

    “Just like Earth’s magnetic field and its immediate space environment interact with the impinging solar wind, which consists of charged particles traveling at about 900,000 mph, there are interactions between HAT-P-11b’s magnetic field and its immediate space environment with the solar wind from its host star, and those are very complex,” Ballester explained.

    The physics in the magnetospheres of Earth and HAT-P-11b are the same; however, the exoplanet’s close proximity to its star – just one-twentieth of the distance from the Earth to the sun – causes its upper atmosphere to warm and essentially “boil off” into space, resulting in the formation of the magnetotail.

    Researchers also found that the metallicity of HAT-P-11b’s atmosphere – the number of chemical elements in an object that are heavier than hydrogen and helium – is lower than expected. In our solar system, the icy gas planets, Neptune and Uranus, are rich in metals but have weak magnetic fields, while the much larger gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have low metallicity and strong magnetic fields. HAT-P-11b’s low atmospheric metallicity challenges current models of exoplanet formation, the authors say.

    “Although HAT-P-11b’s mass is only 8% of that of Jupiter, we think the exoplanet more resembles a mini-Jupiter than a Neptune,” Ballester said. “The atmospheric composition we see on HAT-P-11b suggests that further work needs to be done to refine current theories of how certain exoplanets form in general.”

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. The observations were made through the following programs: Small HST Program #14625 dedicated to HAT-P-11b (principal investigator Gilda E. Ballester) and the HST Treasury Program #14767 named PanCET: The Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanetary Treasury program (co- principal investigators David K. Sing and Mercedes López-Morales).

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on December 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Student-Led Initiative Will Launch Satellites as 'Ambassadors for World Peace'", , Once the cubesats are in orbit Space Trust plans to use them as platforms to transmit messages of peace around the world using the spacecraft communication system., The 1KUNS satellite-the first CubeSat mission of the Kenya Space Agency., The mission is named 0G2030 because it will advocate for making space the new frontier for peace., The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) : “Student-Led Initiative Will Launch Satellites as ‘Ambassadors for World Peace'” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    12.16.21

    Daniel Stolte
    Science Writer, University Communications
    stolte@arizona.edu
    520-626-4402

    A partnership that builds on the University of Arizona’s extensive track record in space exploration is dedicated to promoting collaborative and sustainable space exploration and helping educate a workforce fluent in space-faring technology.

    1
    Sunrise over the ocean, as seen from the International Space Station. The experience of viewing our world from above – called the overview effect – is a central element of the collaboration between Space Trust and the University of Arizona. Credit: Reid Wiseman/The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US).

    The University of Arizona has joined a collaboration with Space Trust – a nongovernmental organization based in the United Kingdom – The University of Nairobi(KE) to develop a series of Earth-orbiting spacecraft built by university students.

    The Peace Satellite Project aims to promote global peace and international cooperation, while providing university students hands-on opportunities in science, technology engineering and math.

    Dante Lauretta, a Regents Professor of Planetary Sciences in UArizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and principal investigator for NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission, has been appointed chief scientist of the project.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft.

    The project’s first mission will train future space technology leaders in the U.S. and Kenya with an integrated engineering curriculum focused on the design, construction, development, launch and operation of ‎student-built small satellites. The mission is named 0G2030 because it will advocate for making space the new frontier for peace. The 0G stands for “zero gravity,” a common shorthand for an environment with little or no gravity, and 2030 refers to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

    “The 0G2030 mission seeks to advocate its founding principle of making space the new frontier for peace on Earth and to utilize outer space for innovative space diplomacy on Earth,” said Namira Salim, founder and executive chair of Space Trust, which champions world peace through space-themed initiatives.

    “A central idea of the project is to provide people on Earth with an experience similar to what astronauts call the ‘overview effect’ – the experience of viewing our world from above and realizing how fragile it is,” Lauretta said. “We want to make it accessible to anyone, not just the tiny fraction of people who are given the opportunity to view the Earth from space.”

    At the heart of the Peace Satellite Project are CubeSats, small satellites that provide a user-friendly and cost-effective platform for getting hardware and software into space.

    MIT/NASA JPL/Caltech ASTERIA cubesat, developed by Sara Seager of MIT.

    CubeSats consist of a modular, standardized design built on cubes or “units” measuring 10 centimeters (about 4 inches) along each side.‎ These CubeSats will be designed and built by students at the University of Nairobi in collaboration with students at UArizona, with mentorship provided by faculty at both universities.

    Once the satellites are in orbit Space Trust plans to use them as platforms to transmit messages of peace around the world using the spacecraft communication system. These peace messages will be uploaded in the voices of political, social and religious leaders, as well as members of the general public and young people.

    “At this time of the democratization of space, we want to send messages that promote equitable and sustainable space exploration as a tool for accomplishing world peace,” Salim said. “We conceived the 0G2030 mission to directly support the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda of 2030.”

    Students from the University of Nairobi have satellite design and development experience from the 1KUNS satellite, the first CubeSat mission of the Kenya Space Agency, and UArizona students have learned from working on CatSat1, a CubeSat currently being developed at the University of Arizona.

    The UArizona students will develop the broadcasting antenna for the 0G2030 CubeSat, provide ground system support for spacecraft operation and lead the environmental qualification program for the satellite, which certifies survivability through launch and in space.

    On Oct. 23, the two universities and Space Trust participated in an international symposium where they discussed the development of the UArizona CatSat1 and the University of Nairobi’s CubeSat platform, and exchanged experiences including current progress and the applications of this technology to the planned 0G2030 CubeSat.

    “I’m most excited about continuing our CubeSat development in collaboration with our Kenyan colleagues,” Lauretta said. “Through this unique opportunity, students will build a one-unit CubeSat that will serve as a pathfinder project. They will gain hands-on experience on how to ship, test and commission an actual space satellite.”

    Following the one-unit CubeSat, the universities plan to develop a larger three-unit CubeSat.

    “Our students will gain experience in design of mobile applications that help incorporate, integrate and disseminate satellite data such as peace messages and develop and transform it into a three-unit CubeSat,” said J. Mwangi Mbuthia, principal investigator of the Nanosatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi. Mbuthia is a professor of engineering and holds the Kenya Space Agency Research Chair at the University of Nairobi.

    The project will use a specialized testing lab that is currently being constructed at the University of Arizona. The lab will put hardware through the paces by mimicking the environmental conditions of launch and operation in space.

    “Our collaboration dovetails perfectly with UArizona’s investments in space development,” Lauretta said. “Drawing from our extensive track record in robotic space exploration, we will provide technical advice and expertise to help educate a workforce fluent in space-faring technology.”

    “We hope the initiative will galvanize our common humanity, harness the power of space to unite nations in the midst of an increasingly divisive world and encourage global partnerships,” Salim said.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:30 pm on December 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Meet the Husband-and-Wife Team that Helped Get Infrared Astronomy off the Ground", James Webb Space Telescope, The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) : “Meet the Husband-and-Wife Team that Helped Get Infrared Astronomy off the Ground” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    12.16.21
    Daniel Stolte
    Science Writer, University Communications
    stolte@arizona.edu
    520-626-4402

    Astronomers Marcia and George Rieke helped the field of infrared astronomy flourish into a powerful discipline. They are key players in NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(USA)/European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ Canadian Space Agency [Agence Spatiale Canadienne](CA) Webb Infrared Space Telescope(US) James Webb Space Telescope annotated. Scheduled for launch in October 2021 delayed to December 2021.

    1
    Credit: Marcia and George Rieke Chris Richards/University of Arizona.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US) is preparing to launch its most ambitious astronomical observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, to an outpost four times farther away from the Earth than the moon.

    LaGrange Points map. NASA.

    With their respective research teams, Marcia and George Rieke, both Regents Professors in the University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory, have been instrumental in developing technology that will enable the telescope to peer deeper back in time and space than any instrument before it.

    U Arizona Steward Observatory at NSF’s NOIRLab NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory (US) in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert 88 kilometers 55 mi west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona in the Quinlan Mountains of the Tohono O’odham Nation, altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

    The husband-and-wife research team also helped the field of infrared astronomy, once a niche endeavor fraught with extreme technical challenges, flourish into a powerful discipline that has allowed us to see the universe in ways that were deemed impossible 50 years ago.

    Ahead of the launch, now planned for no earlier than Dec. 24, Lo Que Pasa spoke with the Riekes about what they hope to see with Webb, and how they became first involved with studying the cosmos – and with each other.

    Now that the James Webb Telescope is stowed away in a rocket nose cone, awaiting launch, it’s probably fair to say no human being will ever again lay hands on the instruments you designed and built. How do you feel?

    George: When NASA built Spitzer (a previous generation space telescope), I remember being ushered into a clean room and there were the three instruments, including mine, all mounted on the cryostat (the device that keeps the telescope cool enough for operation).

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope no longer in service. Launched in 2003 and retired on 30 January 2020.

    And I said a little prayer to myself: “Please never let me see these again.” Because, obviously, I thought if I saw them again, it meant there was a big problem.

    What are you most excited about?

    Marcia: I’m excited to get off the ground, then I’m excited to have the solar array deploy half an hour later, and I’m excited to have midcourse correction. All those steps, I’m excited about seeing every one of them go by.

    George: I’m excited for our teams of young researchers who are counting on JWST data to further their careers. They have spent years working with us to make this happen, and this is a big deal for them, especially after all these delays the project experienced, which can be demoralizing.

    What are some of the science highlights that you’re hoping to get with the James Webb Telescope?

    George: We do not really understand the origin of quasars and active galactic nuclei, because some of them may be so hidden in dust that they just can’t be found with current observatories. But they cannot hide from MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument that George Rieke’s group helped develop).

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne](EU) Webb MIRI schematic.

    Marcia: I’ve always wanted to find the most distant galaxies and trace how galaxies changed from that epoch all the way down to the current times. My other goal is to look at the atmospheres of exoplanets and understand their composition.

    George: JWST will only look a little bit further than we already have – with Hubble – BUT it will look much closer to the Big Bang. So, if you’re counting from the Big Bang, it’s going to get twice as close, rather than 5% further back than we have looked, and that is a very important distinction.

    Marcia: On my optimistic days, I hope that we can see back to only 200 million years after the Big Bang.

    Will Webb be able to look back to the time when we expect to see the very first galaxies, or were there galaxies even before that time?

    Marcia: That’s the $95 question.

    George: No, that’s the $10 billion question!

    Marcia: We don’t know.

    George: As far back as we’ve been able to look, everything still looks pretty darn familiar. There are galaxies, there are stars and, yes, compared to modern galaxies, these early galaxies have slightly different shapes. They’re a little smaller, but all that is kind of “so what.” By getting twice as close to the Big Bang, we’re really pushing back to the time when things SHOULD look different. But we don’t know HOW they’re different. Who knows what we’ll find.

    Can you tell us a little bit about how you both got started at the University of Arizona?

    Marcia: My first job out of graduate school was here at the university. I was working with George as a postdoc, and I’ve not ever left. He was assistant professor at the time I showed up. When I was doing my thesis research, George arranged for the telescope and detector package that I used and he helped me figure out how to use it, so he was quite important for getting my thesis done.

    George: I was offered a job here at the university, and I took it because I thought that it would broaden my science if I got into this new field. Just to show you how simple things were in those days compared to today: I went observing with a postdoc who worked for Frank Low (late Regents Professor Emeritus who helped establish modern infrared astronomy) at the time. After spending three nights observing with him, I went to the same telescope to start my own observations, and Frank drew a little diagram of how to find the telescope and he wished me luck. He did not come along to check things out. It was that simple. I could take the instrument, a very crude instrument detecting infrared light at 10 microns, to the telescope, mount it, get it going and get data. And when he says “simple,” think of a single pixel that measures how bright a circular spot on the sky is. Now that’s OK if you’re measuring something that’s a simple point source, like a single star. But if you want to map something so that you can make it look like a photo, you have to measure a spot, move the telescope, measure another spot, move the telescope and so on. It’s very tedious way to make a photo.

    Why was it initially difficult for the field of infrared astronomy to gain acceptance?

    Marcia: Because astronomers are skeptical of other wavelengths.

    George: I’m going to put it more succinctly: Nobody liked us.

    Marcia: Part of it was that most of the people who started out doing infrared astronomy were actually not astronomers. They were physicists like us. We speak a different language. In one of the early papers that we published together, we used a strange unit of energy, the “watt.” (Laughing) Astronomers weren’t used to that.

    George: Science works by paradigms; there’s a structure of thinking. Scientists have learned to be very suspicious of anything outside their paradigm, and so, when there’s a totally new initiative, like infrared astronomy, the optical astronomers were automatically suspicious that there’s something wrong with this.

    You obviously are a very successful husband-and-wife research team. What are the challenges? What are the perks?

    Marcia: (Laughing) Well, the perks are that we get to go on trips together.

    George: We have a lot to talk about on business, we have less to talk about on other things so, you know, in some sense it’s a little limiting. But in another sense, it is very expansive because we can talk in depth about the things we’re both working on.

    Marcia: We read each other’s papers and grant proposals, we tend to share a lot, we run ideas past each other and so on.

    What does a typical debate between the two of you look like?

    Marcia: I will say, “You forgot that this fact is XYZ,” and he’ll say, ‘Oh, but you’re misinterpreting THAT fact.'” (Both laugh.)

    Where are you going to be on launch day, and how are you going to celebrate?

    Marcia: I hope that we’ll be in the big lecture hall at Steward Observatory, and that we’ll have our teams there and watch on the big screen. Since the launch is at 5:20 in the morning, I suspect we’ll do the celebrating a bit later. We’re going to have such a collective sigh of relief when we see that rocket go up.

    George: We’re having an argument about that. I think we should bring Champagne, but Marcia thinks it’s too early to drink. (Both laugh.)

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
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