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  • richardmitnick 2:47 pm on December 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What’s next at the Large Hadron Collider? UB physicists are prepping for its new run", , , , , , , , The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US)   

    From The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US): “What’s next at the Large Hadron Collider? UB physicists are prepping for its new run” 

    SUNY Buffalo

    From The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US)

    December 14, 2021
    Charlotte Hsu
    News Content Manager
    Sciences, Economic Development
    Tel: 716-645-4655
    chsu22@buffalo.edu

    1
    Photo illustration: Left to right: University at Buffalo physicists Avto Kharchilava, Ia Iashvili and Salvatore Rappoccio. Credit: Douglas Levere / University at Buffalo / European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH).

    University at Buffalo physicists have received $1.65 million from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to support their work with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is scheduled to come back online in 2022 after a planned shutdown period devoted to upgrades and maintenance.

    “It is exciting, because it allows us to continue research that helps to answer these basic questions: What is the universe made of, and how do the most fundamental particles interact with each other?” says Ia Iashvili, PhD, professor of physics in the UB College of Arts and Sciences.

    Iashvili is principal investigator on the new NSF grant. Her colleagues in the physics department, Professor Avto Kharchilava, PhD, and Associate Professor Salvatore Rappoccio, PhD, are co-principal investigators.

    Probing the fundamental nature of the universe.

    The LHC is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, consisting of “a 27-kilometer ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way,” according to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the collider is located.

    Thousands of scientists work together on LHC experiments, smashing beams of protons into one another at near-light speeds to produce various subatomic particles (including, perhaps most famously, the Higgs boson).

    UB physicists have been part of this international collaboration for a long time, as Kharchilava outlined in a magazine article in The Innovation Platform earlier this year. Years ago, Iashvili and Kharchilava helped to build the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), one of the particle detectors that researchers use to observe the results of proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire(CH) CMS

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) (EU) [CERN] CMS Detector

    The new NSF grant supports UB’s continuing contributions to CMS activities. This encompasses research that will occur during the LHC run beginning in 2022, as well as work that will help prepare the CMS to handle conditions at the High-Luminosity LHC, an anticipated substantial upgrade of the collider.

    Experimental goals include conducting more precise measurements of known particles and forces, and performing searches for yet undiscovered particles.

    As Iashvili explains, “These are particles predicted by theories beyond the Standard Model. The Standard Model is basically our working theory in particle physics, and it has been very successful, because it describes interactions between particles, and their properties, but we know it’s not complete. For example, it doesn’t explain matter-anti-matter asymmetry. It doesn’t tell us, ‘Why do we have dark matter or dark energy?’ There are other open questions. The Standard Model of particle physics is a beautiful theory, but it is understood to be only a low-energy approximation of a more complete theory.”

    Engaging the next generation of scientists

    Students will play an active role in the research — a chance to work at the frontier of high-energy physics.

    One team member, AC Williams, a UB PhD candidate in physics, is stationed at CERN as the LHC gears up for its next run. Williams, whose research interests include the hunt for dark matter, is the recipient of a fellowship through the NSF Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate program, which seeks to improve access to STEM education for underrepresented minorities.

    UB physicists will also partner with UB’s Women in Science and Engineering initiative and engage high school teachers and students in hands-on science through the QuarkNet and Science Olympiad programs.

    “We have master classes where high school students are brought into contact with the type of research we do,” Iashvili says. “They learn about high-energy research and analyze some CMS data, and they get pretty excited about this, because the fundamental nature of this research is very appealing to them. It’s exciting to try to answer this question: What is the universe made of?”

    “Education of the younger generation is one of the most important responsibilities of scientists,” Rappoccio says. “We have a responsibility to ensure more equitable access to scientific endeavors for people from all backgrounds, especially those from underrepresented groups who have traditionally been excluded from academia.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SUNY Buffalo Campus

    The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college and merged with the State University of New York system in 1962. It is one of four university centers in the system, in addition to The University at Albany-SUNY (US), The University at Binghampton-SUNY (US), and The University at Stony Brook-SUNY (US) . As of fall 2020, the university enrolls 32,347 students in 13 colleges, making it the largest public university in the state of New York.

    Since its founding by a group which included future United States President Millard Fillmore, the university has evolved from a small medical school to a large research university. Today, in addition to the College of Arts and Sciences, the university houses the largest state-operated medical school, dental school, education school, business school, engineering school, and pharmacy school, and is also home to SUNY’s only law school. The University at Binghampton has the largest enrollment, largest endowment, and most research funding among the universities in the SUNY system. The university offers bachelor’s degrees in over 100 areas of study, as well as 205 master’s degrees, 84 doctoral degrees, and 10 professional degrees. The University at Buffalo and The University of Virginia (US) are the only colleges founded by United States Presidents.

    The University at Buffalo is classified as an R1 University, meaning that it engages in a very high level of research activity. In 1989, UB was elected to The Association of American Universities (US), a selective group of major research universities in North America. University at Buffalo’s alumni and faculty have included five Nobel laureates, five Pulitzer Prize winners, one head of government, two astronauts, three billionaires, one Academy Award winner, one Emmy Award winner, and Fulbright Scholars.

    The University at Buffalo intercollegiate athletic teams are the Bulls. They compete in Division I of the NCAA, and are members of the Mid-American Conference.

    The University at Buffalo is organized into 13 academic schools and colleges.

    The School of Architecture and Planning is the only combined architecture and urban planning school in the State University of New York system, offers the only accredited professional master’s degree in architecture, and is one of two SUNY schools that offer an accredited professional master’s degree in urban planning. In addition, the Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning also awards the original undergraduate four year pre-professional degrees in architecture and environmental design in the SUNY system. Other degree programs offered by the Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning include a research-oriented Master of Science in architecture with specializations in historic preservation/urban design, inclusive design, and computing and media technologies; a PhD in urban and regional planning; and, an advanced graduate certificate in historic preservation.
    The College of Arts and Sciences was founded in 1915 and is the largest and most comprehensive academic unit at University at Buffalo with 29 degree-granting departments, 16 academic programs, and 23 centers and institutes across the humanities, arts, and sciences.
    The School of Dental Medicine was founded in 1892 and offers accredited programs in DDS, oral surgery, and other oral sciences.
    The Graduate School of Education was founded in 1931 and is one of the largest graduate schools at University at Buffalo. The school has four academic departments: counseling and educational psychology, educational leadership and policy, learning and instruction, and library and information science. In academic year 2008–2009, the Graduate School of Education awarded 472 master’s degrees and 52 doctoral degrees.
    The School of Engineering and Applied Sciences was founded in 1946 and offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in six departments. It is the largest public school of engineering in the state of New York. University at Buffalo is the only public school in New York State to offer a degree in Aerospace Engineering
    The School of Law was founded in 1887 and is the only law school in the SUNY system. The school awarded 265 JD degrees in the 2009–2010 academic year.
    The School of Management was founded in 1923 and offers AACSB-accredited undergraduate, MBA, and doctoral degrees.
    The School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences is the founding faculty of the University at Buffalo and began in 1846. It offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in the biomedical and biotechnical sciences as well as an MD program and residencies.
    The School of Nursing was founded in 1936 and offers bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in nursing practice and patient care.
    The School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences was founded in 1886, making it the second-oldest faculty at University at Buffalo and one of only two pharmacy schools in the SUNY system.
    The School of Public Health and Health Professions was founded in 2003 from the merger of the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and the University at Buffalo School of Health Related Professions. The school offers a bachelor’s degree in exercise science as well as professional, master’s and PhD degrees.
    The School of Social Work offers graduate MSW and doctoral degrees in social work.
    The Roswell Park Graduate Division is an affiliated academic unit within the Graduate School of UB, in partnership with Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, an independent NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. The Roswell Park Graduate Division offers five PhD programs and two MS programs in basic and translational biomedical research related to cancer. Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center was founded in 1898 by Dr. Roswell Park and was the world’s first cancer research institute.

    The University at Buffalo houses two New York State Centers of Excellence (out of the total 11): Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences (CBLS) and Center of Excellence in Materials Informatics (CMI). Emphasis has been placed on developing a community of research scientists centered around an economic initiative to promote Buffalo and create the Center of Excellence for Bioinformatics and Life Sciences as well as other advanced biomedical and engineering disciplines.

    Total research expenditures for the fiscal year of 2017 were $401 million, ranking 59th nationally.

    SUNY – The State University of New York (US) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. The SUNY system has some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $13.08 billion budget.

    The SUNY system has four “university centers”: The University at Albany- SUNY (US) (1844), The University at Binghampton-(SUNY)(US) (1946), The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US) (1846), and The University at Stony Brook-SUNY (US) (1957). SUNY’s administrative offices are in Albany, the state’s capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D.C. With 25,000 acres of land, SUNY’s largest campus is The SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (US), which neighbors the State University of New York Upstate Medical University – the largest employer in the SUNY system with over 10,959 employees. While the SUNY system doesn’t officially recognize a flagship university, the University at Buffalo and Stony Brook University are sometimes treated as unofficial flagships.

    The State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University (1946–1948). The commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, who was at the time Chairman of General Electric. The system was greatly expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.

    Apart from units of the unrelated City University of New York (CUNY)(US), SUNY comprises all state-supported institutions of higher education.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:32 pm on November 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Let’s talk about the 1800-plus ‘young’ volcanoes in the U.S. Southwest", , , , Monogenetic volcanoes, The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US),   

    From The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US): “Let’s talk about the 1800-plus ‘young’ volcanoes in the U.S. Southwest” 

    SUNY Buffalo

    From The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US)

    November 3, 2021
    Charlotte Hsu
    News Content Manager
    Sciences, Economic Development
    Tel: 716-645-4655
    chsu22@buffalo.edu

    A study presents a broad survey of monogenetic volcanoes younger than 2.58 million years in the U.S. Southwest.

    1
    A view of the crater of Dotsero volcano, a monogenetic volcano that erupted in Colorado about 4,000 years ago. Credit: Greg Valentine.

    They’re born. They live once, erupting for a period that might last for days, years or decades. Then, they go dark and die.

    This narrative describes the life of a monogenetic volcano, a type of volcanic hazard that can pose important dangers despite an ephemeral existence.

    The landscape of the southwestern U.S. is heavily scarred by past eruptions of such volcanoes, and a new study marks a step toward understanding future risks for the region.

    The research, published on Nov. 2 in the journal Geosphere, provides a broad overview of what we know — and don’t know — about this type of volcanism in the U.S. Southwest over the past 2.58 million years, a geologic period known as the Quaternary.

    During this time, more than 1,800 monogenetic volcanoes erupted in the region, according to a count covering Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and parts of California’s eastern edge. Add in the Pinacate volcanic field, located mostly in the Mexican state of Sonora, bordering Arizona, and the number goes up to over 2,200, scientists say. (The volcanoes included are ones whose ages are estimated to be in the range of the Quaternary, but many have not been precisely dated.)

    “Monogenetic means ‘one life,’” says lead author Greg Valentine, a University at Buffalo volcanologist. “So a monogenetic volcano will erupt once, and that eruption may last for several days to several decades, but after that, the volcano is basically dead.

    “In the United States, most volcanic hazards-related attention has rightly gone to places like Hawaii, and to the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where we have big stratovolcanoes like Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens, which will have many eruptive episodes over a long life, with widespread hazardous effects. In the past, these smaller monogenetic volcanoes really haven’t been looked at from a focus on hazards; they have been instead studied mainly for what they tell us about the deep earth. Recently, however, there has been more buzz in the research community about how we need to take a look at the kinds of hazards these volcanoes might pose.

    “My experience with the general public is that most people are surprised to know that there are so many young volcanoes in the Southwest.”

    The paper’s authors are Valentine, PhD, professor of geology in the UB College of Arts and Sciences; Michael H. Ort, PhD, professor emeritus of geology at The Northern Arizona University (US); and Joaquín A. Cortés, PhD, senior lecturer of geology at Edge Hill University (UK).

    These volcanoes won’t erupt again. So why study them?

    2
    S P Crater, a monogenetic volcano near the city of Flagstaff in Arizona. Credit: Greg Valentine.

    The 2,000-plus volcanoes noted in the paper are done erupting, so they no longer pose a threat. But studying them is important because of the potential for new ones to bloom.

    “Monogenetic volcanoes tend to occur in areas that we call volcanic fields, and the American Southwest is just dotted with these,” says Valentine, who grew up in New Mexico. “These are areas of high volcanic activity where future eruptions could happen, but we don’t know when, and we don’t know exactly where.”

    The city of Flagstaff, Arizona, is located in a volcanic field where multiple monogenetic volcanoes have erupted in the past, so a better understanding of possible hazards is important for people who live there.

    “Two of the most recent eruptions in the Southwest occurred near Flagstaff about 1,000 years ago, one just outside of town and the other on the north rim of the Grand Canyon,” Ort says. Northern Arizona University is in Flagstaff. “People living there at the time adapted to the effects of the eruptions, changing agricultural and cultural practices as well as where they lived. We will need to do the same when the next one erupts. Albuquerque also has young volcanoes along its western margin.”

    Mercifully, most volcanoes in the southwestern U.S. are in remote locations, away from large population centers. In isolated areas, threats from eruptions could include ash plumes that disrupt travel (including air) or power distribution infrastructure, researchers say.

    “One of the younger eruptions in the Southwest occurred south of Grants, New Mexico a few thousand years ago, and flowed for many miles parallel to what is now Interstate 40 and part of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad,” Ort says. “A similar eruption today would take out one of the most important east-west transportation routes in the country. Several volcanic fields lie along these routes, from the Mojave Desert of California to eastern New Mexico, including the one around Flagstaff.”

    “The fundamental pieces of information that you need to have in order to start understanding the hazards and the chances of a future eruption are the number of volcanoes, their ages and the types of eruptions they have,” Valentine says. “What we set out to do in the study is find every bit of information that we could about these monogenetic volcanoes in the southwestern U.S. and compile it all in one place. How many of these are there? What are their characteristics? We got information from state geological surveys, published papers and other sources.”

    What are the chances of a new eruption within a century?

    3
    The peaks of monogenetic volcanoes, viewed across Lunar Lake in Nevada. Credit: Greg Valentine.

    Based solely on the total count of volcanoes that have erupted in the study region during the Quaternary Period, the chances of a new volcano emerging in the area within 100 years would be about 8%, Valentine says.

    But he notes that this figure embodies lots of uncertainty. It doesn’t account for buried volcanoes, or the fact that a single eruption can create multiple vents. More research will be needed to refine this estimate and to forecast likely locations for a new eruption.

    “There’s so much uncertainty here, and this is part of the problem,” he says. “It’s kind of a wide-open research field. When you look at the region from the perspective of volcanic hazards, we really have very little information. Most of the volcanoes have not been dated, so we don’t know how old they are, except that they likely formed sometime within the Quaternary Period. Very few have been studied in detail.”

    That said, the study’s findings indicate that the frequency of eruptions across the study region may approach that of individual volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest, Valentine and Ort say. The new paper highlights gaps in knowledge, and the scientists hope that it can act as a launchpad for future, more detailed research. As Ort and Valentine point out, a new Southwest volcano could appear anywhere in any active volcanic field.

    “We don’t have infinite resources, so we have to prioritize the efforts we put into forecasting and planning for hazards,” Valentine says. “But how do you set priorities? If you’re monitoring volcanic fields in the Southwest, where do you put the instruments? Being able to better answer questions like these is what we’re moving toward.”

    4
    A view of Marcath volcano, a monogenetic volcano in Nevada. Credit: Greg Valentine.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SUNY Buffalo Campus

    The University at Buffalo-SUNY (US) is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college and merged with the State University of New York system in 1962. It is one of four university centers in the system, in addition to The University at Albany-SUNY (US), The University at Binghampton-SUNY (US), and The University at Stony Brook-SUNY (US) . As of fall 2020, the university enrolls 32,347 students in 13 colleges, making it the largest public university in the state of New York.

    Since its founding by a group which included future United States President Millard Fillmore, the university has evolved from a small medical school to a large research university. Today, in addition to the College of Arts and Sciences, the university houses the largest state-operated medical school, dental school, education school, business school, engineering school, and pharmacy school, and is also home to SUNY’s only law school. The University at Binghampton has the largest enrollment, largest endowment, and most research funding among the universities in the SUNY system. The university offers bachelor’s degrees in over 100 areas of study, as well as 205 master’s degrees, 84 doctoral degrees, and 10 professional degrees. The University at Buffalo and The University of Virginia (US) are the only colleges founded by United States Presidents.

    The University at Buffalo is classified as an R1 University, meaning that it engages in a very high level of research activity. In 1989, UB was elected to The Association of American Universities (US), a selective group of major research universities in North America. University at Buffalo’s alumni and faculty have included five Nobel laureates, five Pulitzer Prize winners, one head of government, two astronauts, three billionaires, one Academy Award winner, one Emmy Award winner, and Fulbright Scholars.

    The University at Buffalo intercollegiate athletic teams are the Bulls. They compete in Division I of the NCAA, and are members of the Mid-American Conference.

    The University at Buffalo is organized into 13 academic schools and colleges.

    The School of Architecture and Planning is the only combined architecture and urban planning school in the State University of New York system, offers the only accredited professional master’s degree in architecture, and is one of two SUNY schools that offer an accredited professional master’s degree in urban planning. In addition, the Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning also awards the original undergraduate four year pre-professional degrees in architecture and environmental design in the SUNY system. Other degree programs offered by the Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning include a research-oriented Master of Science in architecture with specializations in historic preservation/urban design, inclusive design, and computing and media technologies; a PhD in urban and regional planning; and, an advanced graduate certificate in historic preservation.

    The College of Arts and Sciences was founded in 1915 and is the largest and most comprehensive academic unit at University at Buffalo with 29 degree-granting departments, 16 academic programs, and 23 centers and institutes across the humanities, arts, and sciences.

    The School of Dental Medicine was founded in 1892 and offers accredited programs in DDS, oral surgery, and other oral sciences.

    The Graduate School of Education was founded in 1931 and is one of the largest graduate schools at University at Buffalo. The school has four academic departments: counseling and educational psychology, educational leadership and policy, learning and instruction, and library and information science. In academic year 2008–2009, the Graduate School of Education awarded 472 master’s degrees and 52 doctoral degrees.

    The School of Engineering and Applied Sciences was founded in 1946 and offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in six departments. It is the largest public school of engineering in the state of New York. University at Buffalo is the only public school in New York State to offer a degree in Aerospace Engineering.

    The School of Law was founded in 1887 and is the only law school in the SUNY system. The school awarded 265 JD degrees in the 2009–2010 academic year.

    The School of Management was founded in 1923 and offers AACSB-accredited undergraduate, MBA, and doctoral degrees.

    The School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences is the founding faculty of the University at Buffalo and began in 1846. It offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in the biomedical and biotechnical sciences as well as an MD program and residencies.

    The School of Nursing was founded in 1936 and offers bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in nursing practice and patient care.

    The School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences was founded in 1886, making it the second-oldest faculty at University at Buffalo and one of only two pharmacy schools in the SUNY system.

    The School of Public Health and Health Professions was founded in 2003 from the merger of the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and the University at Buffalo School of Health Related Professions. The school offers a bachelor’s degree in exercise science as well as professional, master’s and PhD degrees.

    The School of Social Work offers graduate MSW and doctoral degrees in social work.

    The Roswell Park Graduate Division is an affiliated academic unit within the Graduate School of UB, in partnership with Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, an independent NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. The Roswell Park Graduate Division offers five PhD programs and two MS programs in basic and translational biomedical research related to cancer. Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center was founded in 1898 by Dr. Roswell Park and was the world’s first cancer research institute.

    The University at Buffalo houses two New York State Centers of Excellence (out of the total 11): Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences (CBLS) and Center of Excellence in Materials Informatics (CMI). Emphasis has been placed on developing a community of research scientists centered around an economic initiative to promote Buffalo and create the Center of Excellence for Bioinformatics and Life Sciences as well as other advanced biomedical and engineering disciplines.

    Total research expenditures for the fiscal year of 2017 were $401 million, ranking 59th nationally.

    SUNY’s administrative offices are in Albany, the state’s capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D.C.

    With 25,000 acres of land, SUNY’s largest campus is The SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (US), which neighbors the State University of New York Upstate Medical University – the largest employer in the SUNY system with over 10,959 employees. While the SUNY system doesn’t officially recognize a flagship university, the University at Buffalo and Stony Brook University are sometimes treated as unofficial flagships.

    The State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University (1946–1948). The commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, who was at the time Chairman of General Electric. The system was greatly expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.

    Apart from units of the unrelated City University of New York (CUNY)(US), SUNY comprises all state-supported institutions of higher education.

     
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