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  • richardmitnick 10:40 am on November 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Revolution in imaging with neutrons", , , Measuring individual photons on a time-resolved and spatially-resolved basis., The neutron radiography instrument NECTAR, The new detector can be applied in medical fields., The prerequisite was a new chip technology as well as hardware and software that support computing speeds which enable real-time analysis., The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE)   

    From The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE) via phys.org : “Revolution in imaging with neutrons” 

    Techniche Universitat Munchen

    From The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE)



    November 18, 2021

    Instrument scientist Adrian Losko at the neutron radiography instrument NECTAR. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig / FRM II / TUM.

    An international research team at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a new imaging technology. In the future this technology could not only improve the resolution of neutron measurements by many times but could also reduce radiation exposure during X-ray imaging.

    Modern cameras still rely on the same principle they used 200 years ago: Instead of a piece of film, today an image sensor is exposed for a certain period of time in order to record an image. However, the process also records the noise of the sensor. This constitutes a considerable source of interference especially with longer exposure times.

    Together with colleagues from Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the U.S., Dr. Adrian Losko and his TUM colleagues at The Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) (DE) have now developed a new imaging method which measures individual photons on a time-resolved and spatially-resolved basis. This makes it possible to separate photons from noise, greatly reducing the interference.

    “Our new detector lets us capture every individual photon and thus overcome many of the physical limitations of traditional cameras,” says Dr. Adrian Losko, instrument scientist at the NECTAR neutron radiography facility of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum at the Technical University of Munich.

    Measuring individual photons

    Neutron radiography researchers typically use scintillators in their measurements to detect neutrons for example in the examination of fossilized dinosaur eggs. When the scintillator material absorbs a neutron, photons are generated which can then be measured.

    Until now all of these cameras have collected light during the entire exposure time, resulting in a lack of definition, depending on the thickness of the scintillator. The research team’s new concept on the other hand detects each individual photon generated by a neutron.

    Camera with image intensifier and zoom lens. The pink cable sends the signals of up to 80 million activated pixels per second to a high-performance PC for data analysis. Credit: Bernhard Ludewig / FRM II / TUM.

    “The prerequisite was a new chip technology as well as hardware and software that support computing speeds which enable real-time analysis. This lets us compose an image neutron by neutron,” explains Losko. Here neutron research offers an ideal test and application field.

    Instead of longer exposure times: Measuring exactly what happens.

    Since the absorption of a neutron in the detector generates several photons, the new system can use coincidence measurement of several photons to determine individual neutrons. “This takes us away from the traditional model of exposure time and we measure only those events which have occurred.”

    Compared to all technologies previously available on the market, the new concept is a dramatic improvement since it enables three times better spatial resolution and reduces the amount of noise by more than seven times. “This greatly reduces the limitations resulting from the thickness of the scintillator, which means higher efficiency for high-resolution measurements,” says Losko. And the afterglow of the scintillator, which creates what are referred to as ghost images, is eliminated as well.

    “Many of the instruments at the research neutron source reactor can benefit from our new concept,” observes Losko, citing as an example the instrument FaNGaS (Fast Neutron-induced Gamma-ray Spectrometry): “Since we know exactly when a neutron arrives, the time-span during which we measure the gamma particle can be reduced to a millionth of a second.” This would reduce the background noise by a factor of one million, he adds.

    Lower radioactive exposure and more details in X-rays.

    The new detector can also be applied in medical fields. When making an X-ray image of a broken bone for example, fine structures such as hairline fractures would be more easily detectable; at the same time, the patient’s exposure to radiation would be minimized.

    “Our method will definitely change detectors in the scientific world,” says Losko. And perhaps similar principles will also make their way into application in everyday cameras for personal use. Images made in the dark would be greatly improved, and photographers could adjust exposure time and resolution after the exposure is made. Noise could be practically eliminated from cameras.

    Science paper:
    Scientific Reports

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     Technische Universität München Campus

    From The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE) is one of Europe’s top universities. It is committed to excellence in research and teaching, interdisciplinary education and the active promotion of promising young scientists. The university also forges strong links with companies and scientific institutions across the world. TUM was one of the first universities in Germany to be named a University of Excellence. Moreover, TUM regularly ranks among the best European universities in international rankings.

  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on February 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Technologies for More Powerful Quantum Computers", , Development Will Be Made Available to Innovative First Users, , Fraunhofer Society [Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V.](DE), Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen–Nürnberg [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg](DE), Important Step towards the Development of Superconducting Quantum Circuits in Germany, Infineon, Novel Materials for Higher Quality of Qubits, , The collaboration project “German Quantum Computer Based on Superconducting Qubits” GeQCoS for short., , The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE), Walther Meißner Institute of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences(DE)   

    From The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-KIT [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE): “Technologies for More Powerful Quantum Computers” 


    From The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-KIT [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE)

    29.01.2021 [Just now in social media.]

    Monika Landgraf
    Head of Corporate Communications, Chief Press Officer
    Phone: +49 721 608-41150
    Fax: +49 721 608-43658
    presse∂kit edu

    Contact for this press release:
    Johannes Wagner
    Phone: +49 721 608-41175
    johannes wagner∂kit edu

    Visualization of a quantum processor: Its core contains a chip on which superconducting qubits are arranged in a checkered pattern. Credit: Christoph Hohmann.

    Quantum computers will efficiently solve problems that could not be solved in the past. Examples are calculations of properties of complex molecules for pharmaceutical industry or solutions of optimization problems for manufacturing processes in automotive industry or for calculations in the financial sector. Within the framework of the “GeQCoS“ collaboration project, Germany’s leading researchers in the area of superconducting quantum circuits are working on innovative concepts for designing better quantum processors. Researchers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) play an important role in the project.

    The collaboration project “German Quantum Computer Based on Superconducting Qubits,” GeQCoS for short, is aimed at developing a prototype quantum processor consisting of a few superconducting qubits with fundamentally improved components. The main components of a quantum computer, the quantum bits or qubits, will be implemented by zero-resistance currents in superconducting circuits. These currents are relatively robust against external disturbances and can preserve quantum states during operation.

    Novel Materials for Higher Quality of Qubits

    The planned improvements will consist in an increase in connectivity, that is the number of connections among the qubits, as well as in the quality of qubits, that is the possibility to rapidly and efficiently produce the desired quantum states. “ Currently, this is a big challenge,” says Dr. Ioan Pop from KIT’s Institute for Quantum Materials and Technologies. “Use of novel materials for the production of qubits is expected to result in better reproducibility and higher quality of the qubits.”

    Important Step towards the Development of Superconducting Quantum Circuits in Germany

    To achieve improvement, researchers collaborate closely in the areas of alternative components, change of architecture, coupling mechanisms, and higher precision of calculations. “This is a very important step towards the development of superconducting quantum circuits in Germany. This technology is preferred and pursued by IT managers in the area of quantum computers,” Professor Alexey Ustinov, Head of the research group at KIT’s Physikalisches Institut, emphasizes. “Localization and diagnosis of errors is rather challenging work. We have to improve fabrication methods to prevent faults that sustainably influence the quality of the qubits.”

    Today, quantum computers already are able to manage small specific problems and to exhibit basic functions, the experts say. In the long term, work is aimed at developing a so-called universal quantum computer that calculates important problems exponentially faster than a classical computer. An architecture suited for the calculation of practically relevant problems requires substantial improvement of both hardware and software.

    Development Will Be Made Available to Innovative First Users

    To reach this goal, scalable fabrication processes and optimized chip housings will be developed within the project. Eventually, the prototype quantum processor will be installed at the Walther Meißner Institute of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The technologies developed are not only expected to lead to new scientific findings. Close interconnection with companies will strengthen the quantum ecosystem in Germany and Europe. On both the hardware and software level, the quantum processor will be made available to innovative first users as early as possible.

    Apart from KIT, the Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen–Nürnberg [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg](DE) , Forschungszentrum Jülich Research Centre [Forschungszentrum Jülichs] (FZJ)(DE), Walther Meißner Institute of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences(DE), The Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München](DE), Infineon, and the Fraunhofer Society [Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V.](DE) are involved in the project. The “GeQCoS“ project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research with EUR 14.5 million. Of these, more than 3 million euros go to KIT.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    Mission Statement of KIT


    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-KIT [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE), briefly referred to as KIT, was established by the merger of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH and the Universität Karlsruhe ([TH] on October 01, 2009. KIT combines the tasks of a university of the state of Baden-Württemberg with those of a research center of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren] (DE) in the areas of research, teaching, and innovation.

    The KIT merger represents the consistent continuation of a long-standing close cooperation of two research and education institutions rich in tradition. The University of Karlsruhe was founded in 1825 as a Polytechnical School and has developed to a modern location of research and education in natural sciences, engineering, economics, social sciences, and the humanities, which is organized in eleven departments. The Karlsruhe Research Center was founded in 1956 as the Nuclear Reactor Construction and Operation Company and has turned into a multidisciplinary large-scale research center of the Helmholtz Association, which conducts research under eleven scientific and engineering programs.

    Being “The Research University in the Helmholtz Association”, KIT creates and imparts knowledge for the society and the environment. It is the objective to make significant contributions to the global challenges in the fields of energy, mobility, and information. For this, about 9,300 employees cooperate in a broad range of disciplines in natural sciences, engineering sciences, economics, and the humanities and social sciences. KIT prepares its 24,400 students for responsible tasks in society, industry, and science by offering research-based study programs. Innovation efforts at KIT build a bridge between important scientific findings and their application for the benefit of society, economic prosperity, and the preservation of our natural basis of life. KIT is one of the German universities of excellence.

    In 2014/15, the KIT concentrated on an overarching strategy process to further develop its corporate strategy. This mission statement as the result of a participative process was the first element to be incorporated in the strategy process.

    Mission Statement of KIT

    KIT combines the traditions of a renowned technical university and a major large-scale research institution in a very unique way. In research and education, KIT assumes responsibility for contributing to the sustainable solution of the grand challenges that face the society, industry, and the environment. For this purpose, KIT uses its financial and human resources with maximum efficiency. The scientists of KIT communicate the contents and results of their work to society.

    Engineering sciences, natural sciences, the humanities, and social sciences make up the scope of subjects covered by KIT. In high interdisciplinary interaction, scientists of these disciplines study topics extending from the fundamentals to application and from the development of new technologies to the reflection of the relationship between man and technology. For this to be accomplished in the best possible way, KIT’s research covers the complete range from fundamental research to close-to-industry, applied research and from small research partnerships to long-term large-scale research projects. Scientific sincerity and the striving for excellence are the basic principles of our activities.

    Worldwide exchange of knowledge, large-scale international research projects, numerous global cooperative ventures, and cultural diversity characterize and enrich the life and work at KIT. Academic education at KIT is guided by the principle of research-oriented teaching. Early integration into interdisciplinary research projects and international teams and the possibility of using unique research facilities open up exceptional development perspectives for our students.

    The development of viable technologies and their use in industry and the society are the cornerstones of KIT’s activities. KIT supports innovativeness and entrepreneurial culture in various ways. Moreover, KIT supports a culture of creativity, in which employees and students have time and space to develop new ideas.

    Cooperation of KIT employees, students, and members is characterized by mutual respect and trust. Achievements of every individual are highly appreciated. Employees and students of KIT are offered equal opportunities irrespective of the person. Family-friendliness is a major objective of KIT as an employer. KIT supports the compatibility of job and family. As a consequence, the leadership culture of KIT is also characterized by respect and cooperation. Personal responsibility and self-motivation of KIT employees and members are fostered by transparent and participative decisions, open communication, and various options for life-long learning.

    The structure of KIT is tailored to its objectives in research, education, and innovation. It supports flexible, synergy-based cooperation beyond disciplines, organizations, and hierarchies. Efficient services are rendered to support KIT employees and members in their work.

    Young people are our future. Reliable offers and career options excellently support KIT’s young scientists and professionals in their professional and personal development.

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