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  • richardmitnick 3:09 pm on December 22, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Wormhole-like dynamics", , , , , , Insinuating that there is an actual wormhole traversal happening in our world is misleading. The authors of the article and press are engaging in irresponsible representations of the work., , or a shortcut connection between two distant points in space. But what they’ve been able to achieve here is a good step forward for quantum computing., , , , The researchers built a quantum system that realized a stripped-down version of the SYK model and demonstrated characteristic dynamics that would be associated with a traversable wormhole., The School of Arts & Sciences, , The work by the Caltech researchers was in the alternative-and equivalent-gravitational description., They haven’t created a wormhole, This is the so-called SYK model named after the condensed matter physicists who initially proposed it- Subir Sachdev and Jinwu Ye along with Alexei Kitaev who later modified it.   

    From “Penn Today” And The School of Arts & Sciences At The University of Pennsylvania : “Wormhole-like dynamics” 

    From “Penn Today”

    And

    The School of Arts & Sciences

    at

    U Penn bloc

    The University of Pennsylvania

    12.21.22
    Nathi Magubane

    Researchers from The California Institute of Technology recently claimed to have, for the first time, observed wormhole-like teleportation on a quantum computer. Penn Today spoke with two faculty members about the implications of this work to gain a better understanding of what it truly means to model a wormhole.

    1
    Theoretical physicists Vijay Balasubramanian and Jonathan Heckman of the School of Arts & Sciences explain the implications of new research claiming to have observed wormhole-like teleportation on a quantum computer.

    A recent Nature [below] publication continues to generate headlines over its findings that scientists from the California Institute of Technology developed a model of a traversable wormhole on the Google Sycamore quantum processing system.

    Penn Today spoke with physicists Vijay Balasubramanian and Jonathan Heckman from the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts & Sciences to better understand the implications of this work. The two explained a few key concepts and shared their thoughts and opinions on some of the main take aways.

    Can you explain what these researchers did?

    Balasubramanian: These Caltech researchers were able to represent wormhole-like conditions on a quantum computer.

    They’ve used a quantum computer to construct a simple version of a model often used to understand strongly correlated materials, that is materials in which the basic components strongly influence the behavior of each other. This is the so-called SYK model, named after the condensed matter physicists who initially proposed it, Subir Sachdev and Jinwu Ye, along with Alexei Kitaev, who later modified it. Famously, this SYK model has an equivalent description in terms of a certain theory of gravity in a universe with just one spatial dimension. In the Nature paper, the researchers built a quantum system that realized a stripped-down version of the SYK model and demonstrated characteristic dynamics that would be associated with a traversable wormhole in the alternative, and equivalent, gravitational description.

    So, they haven’t made an actual wormhole?

    Balasubramanian: No, they haven’t created a wormhole, or a shortcut connection between two distant points in space. But what they’ve been able to achieve here is still very impressive and a good step forward for quantum computing.

    What do you mean by quantum computing, and why was it needed for this experiment?

    Heckman: Well, as opposed to an ordinary computer system that uses binary bits corresponding to 0’s and 1’s in receiving, processing, storing, and communicating information, a quantum system has a ‘superposition’ of 0’s and 1’s, meaning its bits, known as qubits, are able to simultaneously exist as a zero or one.

    So, the hope and promise of a quantum computer is that you could do computations that you would not be able to do on a classical machine, if you have enough qubits.

    And from my understanding, it seems these researchers were motivated by what’s known as anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, which much like the SYK model is useful for studying phenomena in systems whose components interact strongly with each other. But the AdS/CFT correspondence is particularly useful for studying equivalencies between two different types of physical theories.

    Balasubramanian: The AdS/CFT correspondence can be likened to expressing an idea in one language, then using a dictionary and grammar book to convey that same idea in a completely different set of sounds and grammatical practices associated to another language.

    In a bit more detail, the AdS/CFT correspondence gives a dictionary and set of physical rules for translating phenomena in certain kinds of higher-dimensional gravitating universes (so-called Anti-de Sitter Spaces) to phenomena in other lower-dimensional systems (so-called Conformal Field Theories) that don’t experience gravity. This correspondence actually has roots in a well-established notion in physics dating back to the late 19th century, which we refer to as a duality, but the new incarnation of duality is one is one of the most important discoveries in physics in the last quarter century.

    It seems initially incredible, perhaps impossible, that theories in different numbers of dimensions could be equivalent.

    After all, you would think dimension is kind of fundamental to the nature of physics; normally you feel that dimensions of space are kind of like a stage, that you can go backwards, forwards, left, right, up, or down in. But it’s turned out that we can construct examples where, for instance, you have some interaction happening in a three-dimensional theory that doesn’t contain gravity and you can show that it is equivalent to some other process in a four-dimensional theory with gravity.

    Heckman: And based on that, the Caltech researchers had an expectation that they could use the quantum processor to teleport, or translate, pieces of quantum information from one region to another without losing any fidelity in the signal. Via the AdS/CFT duality, in the equivalent gravitational description with an extra dimension, you would say that the signal went through a wormhole. But in the actual machine they used there isn’t one.

    In fact, there’s a version of this Nature paper that you could have written that makes absolutely no reference to quantum gravity or the AdS/CFT model.

    How so? Wouldn’t that negate the point of studying wormhole-like environments for parsing information?

    Heckman: Basically, the idea here is that gravity encodes information via a sort of hologram. In an actual hologram, you can have a two-dimensional system (like an image etched on a surface) that can be used to fully encode the original three-dimensional shape. Similarly, in the AdS/CFT duality, information of a higher dimensional gravitational system is encoded in a lower-dimensional system.

    But in terms of what they did, it gets tricky here because they motivated the experiment based on using some special considerations of gravity: particularly, this idea of a wormhole configuration of gravity. And to get a wormhole, you’d have to create a bridge between two black holes. The black holes in question don’t exist in our world. Rather, they are present in an alternative, ‘dual,’ description of their quantum computing system in terms of a theory of gravity in a different number of dimensions.

    So, in a sense, they used this ‘dual’ notion of gravity to imagine a traversable bridge, or wormhole, connecting two different quantum mechanical systems, and translated this back into equivalent phenomena in the actual system they built on their quantum computer.

    Much of the media coverage of this Nature paper suggests that the researchers have created a wormhole. What do you make of these claims?

    Heckman: Insinuating that there is an actual wormhole traversal happening in our world is quite misleading. The authors of the article and the press covering it are engaging in very irresponsible representations of the work.

    This particular model of gravity works best when the number of qubits is really large, as in, it approaches infinity, which isn’t possible right now, so the researchers address this by using a deep learning network to help them build a small enough quantum system that retains enough gravitational properties to work on a nine-qubit system and still hold true. So, then we need to ask, Are you going to learn anything about quantum gravity from the Sycamore system in this case?

    I mean, a priori, you could have done the entire experiment without saying anything about AdS/CFT correspondence and linking back to wormholes. In fact, the entire experiment could have been done on a classical machine; it just would have taken a lot more time.

    Balasubramanian: And in terms of there being a lab-made wormhole, it’s more like a Pixar version of a wormhole except it’s not what’s seen on screen. It’s more like the raw code running in the background; it hasn’t been converted to a decipherable image, but in theory, it could be. The image could look like a traversable wormhole, but it’s not an actual one.

    Once again, they have not built a wormhole in our world. To say that they done so requires some mental gymnastics. You basically must regard the gravitational ‘dual’ description of their system as the real world.

    Regardless, they have still produced a fascinating quantum phenomenon in a system that is very hard to simulate on a computer. This is a step forward in simulating complex interacting systems in quantum computers, and that’s interesting because one of the most useful applications for quantum computing is simulating physical interactions like the folding of proteins in living cells. This is incredibly hard to do on an ordinary machine, so there is an impetus to improve this technology beyond gleaning insights into theoretical physics models.

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences is the academic institution encompassing the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Formerly known as the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the School of Arts and Sciences is an umbrella organization that is divided into three main academic components: The College of Arts & Sciences is Penn’s undergraduate liberal arts school. The Graduate Division offers post-undergraduate M.A., M.S., and Ph.D. programs. Finally, the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, originally called “College of General Studies”, is Penn’s continuing and professional education division, catered to working professionals.

    The School of Arts and Sciences contains the following departments:

    Africana Studies
    Anthropology
    Biology
    Chemistry
    Classical Studies
    Criminology
    Earth and Environmental Science
    East Asian Languages & Civilizations
    Economics
    English
    Germanic Languages and Literatures
    History
    History and Sociology of Science
    History of Art
    Linguistics
    Mathematics
    Music
    Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations
    Philosophy
    Physics and Astronomy
    Political Science
    Psychology
    Religious Studies
    Romance Languages
    Russian and East European Studies
    Sociology
    South Asia Studies

    U Penn campus

    Academic life at University of Pennsylvania is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

    The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered prior to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn’s founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

    Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Schools enrolling undergraduates include the College of Arts and Sciences; the School of Engineering and Applied Science; the Wharton School; and the School of Nursing. Penn’s “One University Policy” allows students to enroll in classes in any of Penn’s twelve schools. Among its highly ranked graduate and professional schools are a law school whose first professor wrote the first draft of the United States Constitution, the first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), and the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881).

    Penn is also home to the first “student union” building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896), the first Catholic student club in North America (Newman Center, 1893), the first double-decker college football stadium (Franklin Field, 1924 when second deck was constructed), and Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was developed at Penn and formally dedicated in 1946. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the sixth-largest endowment of all universities in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university’s athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.

    As of 2018, distinguished alumni and/or Trustees include three U.S. Supreme Court justices; 32 U.S. senators; 46 U.S. governors; 163 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and seven signers of the U.S. Constitution (four of whom signed both representing two-thirds of the six people who signed both); 24 members of the Continental Congress; 14 foreign heads of state and two presidents of the United States, including Donald Trump. As of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates; 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 64 billionaires; 29 Rhodes Scholars; 15 Marshall Scholars and 16 Pulitzer Prize winners have been affiliated with the university.

    History

    The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton University and Columbia University. The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

    In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin’s autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, “thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution”. However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, his vision for what he called a “Public Academy of Philadelphia”. Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard University, William & Mary, Yale Unversity, and The College of New Jersey—Franklin’s new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation’s first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith (1727-1803), who became the first provost, and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.

    Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the board of trustees on November 13, 1749, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as “Independence Hall”), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin’s group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the “Academy of Philadelphia”, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered on July 13, 1753 by the intentions of the original “New Building” donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the “College of Philadelphia” was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same board of trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution. The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.

    The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith’s “Loyalist” tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania. The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.

    Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).

    After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year that appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of “the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself”. The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn’s General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university’s founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.

    Research, innovations and discoveries

    Penn is classified as an “R1” doctoral university: “Highest research activity.” Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion. Penn’s research expenditures in the 2018 fiscal year were $1.442 billion, the fourth largest in the U.S. In fiscal year 2019 Penn received $582.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health.

    In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn’s research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing; the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School; the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center; the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton; and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees. To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the “Penn Integrates Knowledge” title awarded to selected Penn professors “whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge”. These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn’s schools.

    Penn is also among the most prolific producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia University and Cornell University (Harvard University did not report data). It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale University) and tenth nationally.

    In most disciplines Penn professors’ productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of epidemiology, business, communication studies, comparative literature, languages, information science, criminal justice and criminology, social sciences and sociology. According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top five rankings in these fields.

    Penn’s research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school; the first university teaching hospital; the first business school; and the first student union Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world). Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973 and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, “Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education”.

    Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.

    ENIAC UPenn

    It was here also where the world’s first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL programming language. Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med; the Rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn; the discovery of cancer’s link with genes; cognitive therapy; Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), Resistin; the Philadelphia gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers. More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.

    Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then-faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research; Simon Kuznets’s method of measuring Gross National Product; the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the “Wharton Model” developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then-President Nixon’s health reform in the 1970s.

    International partnerships

    Students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the London School of Economics(UK), University of Barcelona [Universitat de Barcelona](ES), Paris Institute of Political Studies [Institut d’études politiques de Paris](FR), University of Queensland(AU), University College London(UK), King’s College London(UK), Hebrew University of Jerusalem(IL) and University of Warwick(UK).

     
  • richardmitnick 5:38 pm on November 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stable and faster computer memory storage", , , , , Hafnium dioxide (HfO2)- a material that was found to retain a desirable property known as ferroelectricity even at the few-nanometer scale (~2nm)., HfO2 is special-it can rapidly switch between an up or down mode—corresponding to the ones and zeroes computers use—at reduced dimensions and retain this information until it is switched again., HfO2 undergoes a two-step transition resulting in a change in the arrangement of its atoms when grown on a thin film., , , Tension from being grown on a thin film and an unconventional change in HfO2’s polarization state drive a new reaction inducing an antiferroelectric state., The ability to have a material be both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric was a major surprise finding., The School of Arts & Sciences, , When computer “brains” evolve they get smaller and smaller.   

    From The School of Arts & Sciences At The University of Pennsylvania: “Stable and faster computer memory storage” 

    From The School of Arts & Sciences

    At:

    U Penn bloc

    The University of Pennsylvania

    11.28.22
    Nathi Magubane

    1
    Researchers in the School of Arts & Sciences offer a new explanation for how certain materials can be grown on silicon and offer stable information storage at the nanometer scale for smaller, faster, more multifunctional processors.

    Unlike in humans, when computer “brains” evolve, they get smaller and smaller. This is because the components that perform calculations and consolidate stored information work more efficiently when there are more of them tightly packed on a chip. 

    Yet when the chip feature sizes get too small, say, to the nanometer scale, their physical and material properties can change, rendering them less reliable at doing their jobs. In the last decade, scientists have made great strides in uncovering new substances that instead become increasingly stable as they scale down, hinting at the promise of smaller storage devices that can be integrated onto silicon computer processing units (CPUs) to increase speed and functionality. 

    One such compound is hafnium dioxide (HfO2), a material that was found to retain a desirable property, known as ferroelectricity, even at the few-nanometer scale (~2nm). When a ferroelectric material is exposed to a strong enough external electric field, it becomes strongly electrically polarized, which is a state where the material has plus-minus charge dipoles in alignment. What’s great about ferroelectric materials is that this polarization persists, even if the external electric field is removed, analogous to how an iron nail can become permanently magnetized. This persistent polarization means that the material remembers the last direction it was electrically polarized.  

    What makes HfO2 special is that it can rapidly switch between an up or down mode—corresponding to the ones and zeroes computers use—at reduced dimensions and then retain this information until it is switched again. But how it’s able to achieve this feat has remained a mystery. 

    Now, a group of researchers led by Andrew M. Rappe, the Blanchard Professor of Chemistry in the School of Arts & Sciences, has uncovered how HfO2 retains its ferroelectric phase in these conditions and explains how it remains stable.

    Their research, published in Science Advances [below], details how HfO2 undergoes a two-step transition resulting in a change in the arrangement of its atoms when grown on a thin film. This allows it to “transition from one phase, which isn’t very useful, to a special one that could be useful for the next generation of information storage devices,” says co-first author of the paper, Songsong Zhou, a postdoctoral researcher in the School of Arts & Sciences.

    “The popular belief explaining the mechanism of this phase transition was that it was either a simple single proper phase transition, or a rare and complicated improper phase transition,” says Zhou. “However, we were able to present a third alternative: Tension from being grown on a thin film and an unconventional change in HfO2’s polarization state are linked together to drive a wholly new reaction that induces an antiferroelectric state that actually stabilizes HfO2’s ferroelectric state.” 

    The ability to have a material be both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric was a major surprise finding. The researchers were under the impression that these were competing states because antiferroelectric materials have their charges alternate between up and down, as opposed to the unidirectional ferroelectric charges. “Our model presents a new framework for understanding phase transitions for materials capable of retaining polarization states at the nanometer scale,” says co-first author of the paper, Jiahao Zhang, a sixth-year Ph.D. student in the chemistry department. 

    “HfO2 and a few other materials are competing to become successful computer memory materials, but all of them currently have problems,” says Rappe. “In offering a greater insight into the mechanism of ferroelectricity in HfO2, our work addresses some of these issues and paves the way for developing the next generation of materials that could someday soon integrate both processing and memory onto a single chip.”

    Next, the researchers will build on their models as they continuously merge experimental and theoretical insights to harness the nanomaterials world.

    Science paper:
    Science Advances
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences is the academic institution encompassing the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Formerly known as the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the School of Arts and Sciences is an umbrella organization that is divided into three main academic components: The College of Arts & Sciences is Penn’s undergraduate liberal arts school. The Graduate Division offers post-undergraduate M.A., M.S., and Ph.D. programs. Finally, the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, originally called “College of General Studies”, is Penn’s continuing and professional education division, catered to working professionals.

    The School of Arts and Sciences contains the following departments:

    Africana Studies
    Anthropology
    Biology
    Chemistry
    Classical Studies
    Criminology
    Earth and Environmental Science
    East Asian Languages & Civilizations
    Economics
    English
    Germanic Languages and Literatures
    History
    History and Sociology of Science
    History of Art
    Linguistics
    Mathematics
    Music
    Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations
    Philosophy
    Physics and Astronomy
    Political Science
    Psychology
    Religious Studies
    Romance Languages
    Russian and East European Studies
    Sociology
    South Asia Studies

    U Penn campus

    Academic life at University of Pennsylvania is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

    The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered prior to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn’s founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

    Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Schools enrolling undergraduates include the College of Arts and Sciences; the School of Engineering and Applied Science; the Wharton School; and the School of Nursing. Penn’s “One University Policy” allows students to enroll in classes in any of Penn’s twelve schools. Among its highly ranked graduate and professional schools are a law school whose first professor wrote the first draft of the United States Constitution, the first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), and the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881).

    Penn is also home to the first “student union” building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896), the first Catholic student club in North America (Newman Center, 1893), the first double-decker college football stadium (Franklin Field, 1924 when second deck was constructed), and Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was developed at Penn and formally dedicated in 1946. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the sixth-largest endowment of all universities in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university’s athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.

    As of 2018, distinguished alumni and/or Trustees include three U.S. Supreme Court justices; 32 U.S. senators; 46 U.S. governors; 163 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and seven signers of the U.S. Constitution (four of whom signed both representing two-thirds of the six people who signed both); 24 members of the Continental Congress; 14 foreign heads of state and two presidents of the United States, including Donald Trump. As of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates; 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 64 billionaires; 29 Rhodes Scholars; 15 Marshall Scholars and 16 Pulitzer Prize winners have been affiliated with the university.

    History

    The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton University and Columbia University. The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

    In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin’s autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, “thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution”. However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, his vision for what he called a “Public Academy of Philadelphia”. Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard University, William & Mary, Yale Unversity, and The College of New Jersey—Franklin’s new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation’s first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith (1727-1803), who became the first provost, and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.

    Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the board of trustees on November 13, 1749, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as “Independence Hall”), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin’s group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the “Academy of Philadelphia”, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered on July 13, 1753 by the intentions of the original “New Building” donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the “College of Philadelphia” was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same board of trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution. The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.

    The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith’s “Loyalist” tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania. The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.

    Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).

    After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year that appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of “the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself”. The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn’s General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university’s founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.

    Research, innovations and discoveries

    Penn is classified as an “R1” doctoral university: “Highest research activity.” Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion. Penn’s research expenditures in the 2018 fiscal year were $1.442 billion, the fourth largest in the U.S. In fiscal year 2019 Penn received $582.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health.

    In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn’s research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing; the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School; the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center; the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton; and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees. To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the “Penn Integrates Knowledge” title awarded to selected Penn professors “whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge”. These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn’s schools.

    Penn is also among the most prolific producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia University and Cornell University (Harvard University did not report data). It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale University) and tenth nationally.

    In most disciplines Penn professors’ productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of epidemiology, business, communication studies, comparative literature, languages, information science, criminal justice and criminology, social sciences and sociology. According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top five rankings in these fields.

    Penn’s research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school; the first university teaching hospital; the first business school; and the first student union Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world). Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973 and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, “Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education”.

    Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.

    ENIAC UPenn

    It was here also where the world’s first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL programming language. Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med; the Rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn; the discovery of cancer’s link with genes; cognitive therapy; Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), Resistin; the Philadelphia gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers. More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.

    Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then-faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research; Simon Kuznets’s method of measuring Gross National Product; the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the “Wharton Model” developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then-President Nixon’s health reform in the 1970s.

    International partnerships

    Students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the London School of Economics(UK), University of Barcelona [Universitat de Barcelona](ES), Paris Institute of Political Studies [Institut d’études politiques de Paris](FR), University of Queensland(AU), University College London(UK), King’s College London(UK), Hebrew University of Jerusalem(IL) and University of Warwick(UK).

     
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