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  • richardmitnick 4:29 pm on January 24, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Novel method for controlling chemical reactions discovered", A special palladium catalyst that can for the first time selectively approach a previously impossible position within molecules., , , , Organic chemists develop new catalyst to selectively activate carbon-hydrogen bonds, Substituted aromatics are among the most important building blocks for organic compounds such as drugs and crop ­protecting agents and many materials., The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE)   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE): “Novel method for controlling chemical reactions discovered” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    1.24.23

    Organic chemists develop new catalyst to selectively activate carbon-hydrogen bonds

    Prof. Dr. Manuel van Gemmeren
    Otto Diels-Institut für Organische Chemie
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
    +49 431 880 1707
    vangemmeren@oc.uni-kiel.de

    Substituted aromatics are among the most important building blocks for organic compounds such as drugs, crop­protecting agents, and many materials. The function of the molecules is determined by the spatial arrangement of the different building blocks, the substitution pattern. A research team from the Otto Diels Institute of Organic Chemistry at Kiel University has now presented a method in the journal Chem [below] to produce compounds with a particularly attractive but typically challenging to access substitution pattern, more efficiently than before. To enable the required activation of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds, they developed a special palladium catalyst that can for the first time selectively approach a previously impossible position within molecules.

    Graphical abstract
    1

    Closing a long-time research gap

    With their new method, the scientists close a long-time research gap. “In principle, substituted aromatic compounds have three positions to which a catalyst can attach in order to induce a reaction – called ortho, meta and para. Depending on the position, different chemical products with fundamentally different properties are formed at the end,” says Manuel van Gemmeren, Professor of Organic Chemistry at Kiel University. For the ortho and para positions, it is already known how to allow catalysts to specifically attack there. Now, for the first time, Manuel van Gemmeren and his team can also selectively target the meta position directly. This allows them to produce meta-substituted benzyl ammonium species, which are versatile compounds for further elaboration in organic chemistry.

    Normally, these compounds only appear in small amounts mixed with other products. “Until now, they had to be separated from each other with a lot of effort. Alternatively, you needed tedious synthetic routes to produce them in a targeted manner. Both cases resulted in unnecessary waste products,” explains van Gemmeren.

    With the new method, meta-substituted benzyl ammonium compounds can now be produced much more efficiently. The research team around van Gemmeren used a principle that had not been described in the literature before: the palladium catalyst they designed can interact with charges in the molecule. This drastically changes the composition of the resulting products in favour of the substitution pattern that was previously difficult to produce. Calculations by colleagues at the Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Spain, showed that charge interactions are indeed responsible for this.

    Method also interesting for pharmaceutical or agricultural companies

    These findings from basic research can also be of interest to pharmaceutical or agricultural companies that build up huge libraries of structurally related molecules to study their biological activity. “Wherever the largest possible variety of compounds is systematically examined, our method can be a helpful tool to close previous knowledge gaps,” says van Gemmeren.

    The development of the new method is the result of many years of preliminary work that began at the University of Münster. Here van Gemmeren set up his own research group on the activation of C-H bonds via the Emmy Noether program of the German Research Foundation (DFG) before he came to Kiel University in 2022. In Kiel, he will also implement his ERC Starting Grant project “DULICAT”, from which the conceptual idea for the new method emerged. For this van Gemmeren had received funding of 1.8 million euros from the European Research Council (ERC).

    Introduction to the main image:

    The presence of multiple chemically different C–H bonds in organic molecules with only marginal differences in their stability and reactivity renders the control of regioselectivity one of the key challenges in the field of C–H activation and functionalization.
    In this context, unbiased monosubstituted arenes are highly interesting because of the three competing positions (ortho, meta, and para; Scheme 1). Proximal ortho-C–H activation reactions have been well explored with the assistance of chelation control using Lewis-basic moieties on the substrate (path A). Alternatively, distal meta- and para-positions have been reached through the use of either a transient mediator (path B) or the analogous introduction of a traceless directing group (DG) in the middle position and its subsequent removal after metafunctionalization.

    U-shaped (for meta, path C) and D-shaped (for para) templates can accommodate macrocyclic cyclophane-like transition states. Despite significant progress, these directed or template-assisted C–H activation methods suffer from the inherent limitations of requiring a covalent attachment of the transition metal to the often highly specialized structural motif of the DG. As a consequence, additional steps can become necessary to convert the DG into a desired simple organic functionality.In turn, non-directed methods, although delivering products starting from simple arenes, suffer from regioselectivity issues, especially for unbiased substrates.
    To overcome these limitations, non-directed methods have been supplemented with weak non-covalent interactions between the substrate and the ligands of the catalyst, an approach that was first introduced for Ir-catalyzed C–H borylation reactions.

    In 2017, the Yu group reported a bifunctional template with two distinct metal positions. One of these metal centers anchors the heterocyclic substrate through coordination and positions the substrate such that the other site can selectively engage in a meta-C–H activation and olefination (path D), an approach later extended by Xu, Jin, and co-workers to H-bonding interactions.
    Inspired by the studies describing non-covalent interactions in Ir-catalyzed borylation chemistry,
    we envisaged a charge-controlled meta-C–H activation using Pd catalysis, which would introduce a unique means of controlling regioselectivities in Pd-catalyzed C–H activation that to the best of our knowledge has not been described in the literature.
    3
    Scheme 1. Design of the charge-controlled site-selective C–H activation

    Chem
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 5:07 pm on December 24, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Christmastime at Sea - Research Cruise in the Subtropical Atlantic Ocean", Expedition team led by Kiel University investigates seafloor off Morocco and the Canary Islands., , Sediment waves are of great importance for the stability of continental slopes and thus also for technical infrastructure on the seafloor such as telecommunication cables., Sediment waves are one of the most common bedforms on our planet's seafloor yet remain largely unexplored in their formation., Strong currents above the sediment waves can destroy them., The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE), The team on board is investigating sediment waves off the Moroccan coast in the first part of the 32-day sea voyage., The underwater structure of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on the Canary Island of La Palma which was active in 2021 will be surveyed in the second part of the research cruise.   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE): “Christmastime at Sea – Research Cruise in the Subtropical Atlantic Ocean” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    12.22.22

    Scientific Contact:

    Prof. Dr. Sebastian Krastel
    Kiel University
    Institute of Geosciences
    sebastian.krastel@ifg.uni-kiel.de

     
    Press contact:
    Tobias Hahn
    Press, Digital and Science Communication Services
    Kiel Marine Science (KMS)
    thahn@kms.uni-kiel.de
    0431/880-7185

    Expedition team led by Kiel University investigates seafloor off Morocco and the Canary Islands.

    3800 kilometers straight distance to Kiel’s Christmas village, about 25 degrees Celsius warmer than northern Germany in Winter, and 24-hour work in shifts: these are the conditions under which an exhibition team of 19-members on the German research vessel MARIA S. MERIAN is spending Christmas and the New Year. Between technical measuring instruments, scientific analyses and unpredictable wave movements, Christmas preparations are also underway with a Christmas tree, Secret Santa, festive meals and other surprises on the swaying laboratory platform.

    1
    During expedition MSM113 with the research vessel MARIA S. MERIAN, oceanographic moorings are deployed to collect observational data for, among other things, determining internal waves in the ocean. © Sebastian Krastel, Uni Kiel.

    The expedition’s chief scientist is Sebastian Krastel. The geophysicist is a professor at the Institute of Geosciences at Kiel University in the priority research area Kiel Marine Science (KMS). Notwithstanding the holidays, his team on board is investigating sediment waves off the Moroccan coast in the first part of the 32-day sea voyage. Sediment waves are one of the most common bedforms on our planet’s seafloor, yet remain largely unexplored in their formation. They are of great importance for the stability of continental slopes and thus also for technical infrastructure on the seafloor such as telecommunication cables. Strong currents above the sediment waves can destroy them. The underwater structure of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on the Canary Island of La Palma, which was active in 2021, will be surveyed in the second part of the research cruise. Although the eruption seems to have subsided, it remains unclear what dangers continue to exist for us humans.

    2
    Researchers cut a sediment core on board the MARIA S. MERIAN.

    13 researchers from Kiel University are on board during the research cruise MSM113 . In addition, three scientists from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, two researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW) and one scientist from Durham University of the United Kingdom are also involved.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 10:38 am on October 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Magnetic nano mosaics", "Skyrmion lattices", , For about ten years magnetic skyrmions - particle-like stable magnetic whirls that can form in certain materials and possess fascinating properties - have been a focus of research., , Physics team from the universities of Kiel and Hamburg discovers new class of magnetic lattices., , , The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE),   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE) And The University of Hamburg [Universität Hamburg] (DE): “Magnetic nano mosaics” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    And

    1

    The University of Hamburg [Universität Hamburg] (DE)

    10.5.22

    PD Dr. Kirsten von Bergmann
    Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics
    University of Hamburg
    040 / 42838-6295
    kirsten.von.bergmann@physik.uni-hamburg.de

    Professor Dr. Stefan Heinze
    Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics
    Kiel University
    0431 / 880-4127
    heinze@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de

    Press Contact:
    Julia Siekmann
    Science Communication Officer
    Research area Kiel Nano Surface and Interface Sciences
    jsiekmann@uv.uni-kiel.de
    +49 (0)431/880-4855

    Physics team from the universities of Kiel and Hamburg discovers new class of magnetic lattices.

    1
    The image shows the different orientation of atomic “bar magnets” of an iron film: In a magnetic mosaic lattice (above), they are oriented in groups either upwards (purple) or downwards (white). In the skyrmion lattice (below), on the other hand, they point in all directions. © André Kubetzka.

    2
    A measurement using spin-polarised scanning tunnelling microscopy (SP-STM) makes the hexagonal arrangement in the magnetic mosaic lattice visible on the nanometre scale. Due to a twist of the mosaic lattice on the atomic lattice, two rotational domains appear which deviate from each other by about 13° (see markings and graphs on the right). © André Kubetzka.

    For about ten years, magnetic skyrmions – particle-like, stable magnetic whirls that can form in certain materials and possess fascinating properties – have been a focus of research: electrically easily controlled and only a few nanometers in size, they are suitable for future applications in spin electronics, quantum computers or neuromorphic chips. These magnetic whirls were first found in regular lattices, so-called “skyrmion lattices”, and later individual skyrmions were also observed at the University of Hamburg. Researchers from Kiel University and the University of Hamburg have now discovered a new class of spontaneously occurring magnetic lattices. They are related to skyrmion lattices, but their “atomic bar magnets” on the nanometer scale are oriented differently. A fundamental understanding of how such complex spin structures form, how they are arranged and remain stable is also needed for future applications. The results are published in the current issue of Nature Communications [below].

    Quantum mechanical interactions

    Attaching magnets to a refrigerator or reading data from a hard drive is only possible because of a quantum mechanical exchange interaction between the atomic bar magnets on the microscopic scale. This interaction, discovered by Werner Heisenberg in 1926, explains not only the parallel alignment of atomic bar magnets in ferromagnets, but also the occurrence of other magnetic configurations, such as antiferromagnets. Today many other magnetic interactions are known, which has led to a variety of possible magnetic states and new research questions. This is also important for skyrmion lattices. Here the atomic bar magnets show in all spatial directions, which is only possible due to the competition of different interactions.

    “In our measurements, we found a hexagonal arrangement of magnetic contrasts, and at first we thought that was also a skyrmion lattice. Only later did it become clear that it could be a nanoscale magnetic mosaic,” says PD Dr. Kirsten von Bergmann. With her team from the University of Hamburg, she experimentally studied thin metallic films of iron and rhodium using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. This allows magnetic structures to be imaged down to the atomic scale. The observed magnetic lattices occurred spontaneously as in a ferromagnet, i.e., without an applied magnetic field. “With a magnetic field, we can invert the mosaic lattices, because the opposing spins only partially compensate for each other,” explains Dr. André Kubetzka, also from the University of Hamburg.

    Surprising: Magnetically different alignment

    Based on these measurements, the group of Prof. Dr. Stefan Heinze (Kiel University) performed quantum mechanical calculations on the supercomputers of the North German High Performance Computing Network (HLRN). They show that in the investigated iron films the tilting of the atomic bar magnets in a lattice of magnetic vortices, i.e. in all spatial directions, is very unfavorable. Instead, a nearly parallel or antiparallel alignment of neighboring atomic bar magnets is favored.

    “This result completely surprised us. A lattice of skyrmions was thus no longer an option to explain the experimental observations,” says Mara Gutzeit, doctoral researcher and first author of the study. The development of an atomistic spin model made clear that it must be a novel class of magnetic lattices, which the researchers called “mosaic lattices”. “We found out that these mosaic-like magnetic structures are caused by higher-order exchange terms, predicted only a few years ago,” says Dr. Soumyajyoti Haldar from the group of Kiel.

    “The study impressively shows how diverse spin structures can be and that a close collaboration between experimentally and theoretically working research groups can be really helpful for their understanding. In this field a few more surprises can be expected in the future,” states Professor Stefan Heinze.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications
    See the science paper for instructive images.
    _________________________________________________
    About spin electronics:

    In addition to the charge of the electrons, spin electronics also uses their so-called spin. This electron spin is a quantum mechanical property and can be understood in simplified terms as the rotation of the electrons around their own axis. This is linked to a magnetic moment that leads to the formation of “atomic bar magnets” (atomic spins) in magnetic materials. They are suitable for processing and storing information. Through targeted electrical manipulation, it would be possible to create faster, more energy-saving and more powerful components for information technology.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Hamburg [Universität Hamburg] (DE) is the largest institution for research and education in northern Germany. As one of the country’s largest universities, we offer a diverse range of degree programs and excellent research opportunities. The University boasts numerous interdisciplinary projects in a broad range of fields and an extensive partner network of leading regional, national, and international higher education and research institutions.
    Sustainable science and scholarship

    Universität Hamburg is committed to sustainability. All our faculties have taken great strides towards sustainability in both research and teaching.
    Excellent research

    As part of the Excellence Strategy of the Federal and State Governments, Universität Hamburg has been granted clusters of excellence for 4 core research areas: Advanced Imaging of Matter (photon and nanosciences), Climate, Climatic Change, and Society (CliCCS) (climate research), Understanding Written Artefacts (manuscript research) and Quantum Universe (mathematics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology).

    An equally important core research area is Infection Research, in which researchers investigate the structure, dynamics, and mechanisms of infection processes to promote the development of new treatment methods and therapies.
    Outstanding variety: over 170 degree programs

    Universität Hamburg offers approximately 170 degree programs within its eight faculties:

    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Education
    Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Psychology and Human Movement Science
    Faculty of Business Administration (Hamburg Business School).

    Universität Hamburg is also home to several museums and collections, such as the Zoological Museum, the Herbarium Hamburgense, the Geological-Paleontological Museum, the Loki Schmidt Garden, and the Hamburg Observatory.
    History

    Universität Hamburg was founded in 1919 by local citizens. Important founding figures include Senator Werner von Melle and the merchant Edmund Siemers. Nobel Prize winners such as the physicists Otto Stern, Wolfgang Pauli, and Isidor Rabi taught and researched at the University. Many other distinguished scholars, such as Ernst Cassirer, Erwin Panofsky, Aby Warburg, William Stern, Agathe Lasch, Magdalene Schoch, Emil Artin, Ralf Dahrendorf, and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, also worked here.

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 12:43 pm on September 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Sharper than ever", , Physicists from Kiel make molecular vibrations more detectable., , The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE)   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE): “Sharper than ever” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    9.20.22
    Prof. Dr. Richard Berndt
    Surface Physics
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics
    +49 431 880-3946
    berndt@physik.uni-kiel.de

    Physicists from Kiel make molecular vibrations more detectable.

    1
    Dr. Alexander Weismann (left) and Dr. Jan Homberg investigate vibrating molecules in a scanning tunnelling microscope at Kiel University, which allows particularly precise experiments. © Julia Siekmann, Uni Kiel.

    In molecules, the atoms vibrate with characteristic patterns and frequencies. Vibrations are therefore an important tool for studying molecules and molecular processes such as chemical reactions. Although scanning tunnelling microscopes can be used to image individual molecules, their vibrations have so far been difficult to detect. Physicists at Kiel University (CAU) have now invented a method with which the vibration signals can be amplified by up to a factor of 50. Furthermore, they increased the frequency resolution by far. The new method will improve the understanding of interactions in molecular systems and to further develop simulation methods. The research team has now published the results in the journal Physical Review Letters [below].

    The discovery by Dr. Jan Homberg, Dr. Alexander Weismann and Prof. Dr. Richard Berndt from the Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, relies on a special quantum mechanical effect, the so-called inelastic tunnelling. Electrons that pass through a molecule on their way from a metal tip to the substrate surface in the scanning tunnelling microscope can release energy to the molecule or take it up from it. This energy exchange occurs in portions determined by the properties of the respective molecule.

    Normally, this energy transfer happens only rarely and is therefore difficult to measure. In order to amplify the measurement signal and simultaneously achieve a high frequency resolution, the team of the CAU used a special property of molecules on superconductors they had previously discovered: suitably arranged, the molecules show a state in the spectra that appears needle-shaped, very high and extremely sharp — the so-called Yu-Shiba-Rusinov resonance. The experiments were supported by theoretical work of Troels Markussen from the software company Synopsis in Copenhagen.

    2
    In this microscope image the lead phthalocyanine molecules on a superconducting lead surface appear as four-leaf clovers. The vibrations of these molecules were studied with the new method. © Jan Homberg.

    3
    The model shows the molecular arrangement on a lead substrate. © Jan Homberg

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters
    See further images in the science paper.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 3:11 pm on July 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Microbes support adaptation to climate change", , , , , Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, , The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE)   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE): “Microbes support adaptation to climate change” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    7.4.22
    Science Contact
    Prof. Sebastian Fraune,
    Zoology and Organismic Interactions, Department Biology,
    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU):
    +49 (0) 211 81-14991
    fraune@hhu.de

    Press contact:
    Christian Urban
    Science communication “Kiel Life Science”,
    Kiel University:
    +49 (0) 431-880-1974
    curban@uv.uni-kiel.de

    Researchers from Kiel and Düsseldorf use the example of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis to investigate the contribution of the microbiome to thermal adaptation of living organisms.

    1
    The offspring of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, shown here laying eggs, can directly inherit the temperature tolerance of the parent generation by passing on certain bacteria. © Hanna Domin.

    All multicellular organisms are colonized by an unimaginably large number of microorganisms and have co-evolved with them from the very beginning of life’s evolutionary history. The natural microbiome, i.e. the totality of these bacteria, viruses and fungi living in and on a body, is of fundamental importance for the organism as a whole: it performs vital tasks for the host, for example, it assists in nutrient uptake and it helps defend against pathogens. A research team from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and Kiel University has now investigated how the microbiome assists an organism in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In a study within the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1182 “Origin and Function of Metaorganisms”, they have investigated the involvement of the microbiome in thermal adaptation of anemones in a so-called acclimation experiment. The researchers led by Professor Sebastian Fraune of the HHU Institute of Zoology and Organismic Interactions, who is also project leader in the Kiel CRC 1182, were able to show that the bacterial colonization of the animals changes as a result of acclimation. Furthermore, the organism of the sea anemone becomes more resistant to heat stress. In addition, the research team succeeded in proving a causal relationship: If they transferred the microbiome of heat-adapted to non-acclimated anemones, the latter also became less sensitive to higher temperatures. The CRC 1182 research team published the results, which are particularly significant with regard to changing environmental conditions as a result of climate change, recently in the journal Nature Communications.

    Long-term acclimation experiment

    The new work is based on a long-term study funded by the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP), in which the researchers have been studying the adaptation of anemones to changing environmental conditions for more than four years. To do this, they worked with clones of a single original animal and compared 50 genetically identical anemones in each of 15 different colonies. The researchers divided these colonies into three groups that were kept at 15, 20 and 25 degrees Celsius in order to analyze their acclimation to different temperatures. In the course of the long observation period, characteristic changes in the so-called phenotype of the anemones, i.e. in their external shape including physiological features, became apparent: among other things, the animals grow significantly larger at lower temperatures and they changed their reproductive mode. Changes in temperature tolerance were also particularly interesting. “The anemones differed very significantly in their stress resistance to high temperatures. If we exposed them to a very high temperature stress of 40 degrees Celsius for six hours, the animals acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius almost exclusively survived,” says Laura Baldassarre, former member of Fraune’s group and lead author of the study.

    Previous research suggested that adaptation to temperature stress may be related to changes in the microbiome composition of the animals. Analysis of the bacterial colonization of the different colonies in the acclimation experiment again supported this hypothesis, as the microbiome of the acclimated animals also changed compared to their non-acclimated conspecifics. “That acclimation, the so-called phenotypic plasticity, can be partly controlled by bacteria seems very plausible. Their much shorter generation times allow a much faster adaptation than would be possible via genetic recombination of the host organism,” emphasizes Fraune. The fact that there is indeed a causal relationship between the change in the microbiome and temperature adaptation has now been proven.

    Microbiome transplantation provides confirmation

    “In a transplantation experiment, we transferred the microbiomes from anemones acclimated to 15, 20 and 25 degrees Celsius to non-adapted but genetically identical animals. It turned out that these animals, which received the microbiome of the anemones acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius, subsequently adopted tolerance to high temperatures as well,” says Baldassarre. Thus, when the entire microbiome of an animal is transferred, the phenotype with its altered temperature tolerance can also be transplanted. Fraune: “We were able to establish a causal relationship between microbiome composition and environmental adaptations. Thus, we experimentally confirm the so-called hologenome concept, which defines evolution as the development of host organisms with their colonizing microorganisms toward shared fitness benefits for the entire metaorganism.”

    The research team then analyzed whether the altered microbiome due to thermal acclimation can be passed on between anemones – a prerequisite for a lasting adaptation process. In previous work, the scientists already showed that in Nematostella, certain bacteria can be passed on from the parent generation to the offspring. The evolutionary advantage of thermal adaptation can therefore in principle be inherited directly and the related bacteria must not necessarily be taken up from the environment. The current study provides further evidence of the transmission of maternal bacteria to the offspring: Like their genetically identical parents, the offspring also showed a higher probability of survival under temperature stress when the maternal animals were acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius.

    Investigating mechanisms at the species level

    With their findings, the researchers are helping to better understand the role of the interplay between host organisms and microbes in adaption processes to rapidly changing environmental conditions. “Our results offer new explanations for the mechanisms of rapid thermal adaptation mediated by the microbiome and how they are transmitted to subsequent generations,” Fraune said.

    In further research, the scientists in Düsseldorf and Kiel now want to explore the mechanisms of acclimation in detail, with a particular focus on the role of individual bacterial species involved. To this end, detailed bacterial genomic analyses are in preparation for a planned third funding phase of the CRC 1182 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). They will shed light on possible individual relationships between bacteria and certain metabolic processes of the host cells and their influence on the temperature tolerance of the organism as a whole.

    “Overall, it is important to understand the bacterial component of thermal acclimation in more detail. It likely plays a fundamental role in many other living organisms from various animals and plants to overall ecosystems such as coral reefs. Deeper knowledge of the underlying processes is therefore crucial to better assess or possibly mitigate the effects of global change on species and habitats”, Fraune summarizes.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 10:13 am on January 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tipping point in Humboldt Current off Peru leads to species shift", , , Researchers reconstruct link between ocean warming and shift to smaller fish species using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System., The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE), The sea off the west coast of South America is one of the most vital and productive fishing grounds on earth.   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE): “Tipping point in Humboldt Current off Peru leads to species shift” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    01/06/2022

    Scientific contacts:
    Dr. Renato Salvatteci
    Kiel University
    Center for Ocean and Society
    rsalvatteci@kms.uni-kiel.de
    0431/880 6598

    Prof. Dr. Ralph Schneider
    Kiel University,
    Institute of Geosciences
    ralph.schneider@ifg.uni-kiel.de

    1
    Fishing vessel off the coast of Peru in the Humboldt upwelling system, one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. © Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE).

    Researchers reconstruct link between ocean warming and shift to smaller fish species using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System.

    Fundamental changes in the ocean, such as warming, acidification or oxygen depletion, may have significant consequences for the composition of fish stocks, including the displacement of individual species. Researchers at Kiel University (CAU), together with colleagues from Germany, Canada, the USA, and France, have reconstructed environmental conditions of the warm period 125,000 years ago (Eemian interglacial) using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System off Peru. They were able to show that, at warmer temperatures, mainly smaller, goby-like fish species became dominant and pushed back important food fish such as the anchovy (Engraulis ringens). The trend is independent of fishing pressure and fisheries management. According to the study, the greater warming of the Humboldt Current System as result of climate change has more far-reaching implications for the ecosystem and the global fishing industry than previously thought. The findings appeared in the journal Science, January 7.

    The sea off the west coast of South America is one of the most vital and productive fishing grounds on earth. Around eight percent of the global catch of marine species comes from the areas off the coasts of Peru, where the near-surface Humboldt Current provides a high nutrient supply and thus sufficient food for commercially exploited fish species such as the anchovy. Ten percent of the total global catch of anchovies alone comes from the region. Much of it is processed into fish meal and oil and used primarily for aquacultures in China and Norway. However, catches of anchovy in the Humboldt upwelling system are currently declining. The causes of species shifts are mainly due to climate change according to the results of the new study.

    Researchers from the Institute of Geosciences at Kiel University, together with colleagues from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research and international partners, have for the first time investigated the relationships between temperature, oxygen, nutrient supply and the occurrence of individual fish species using paleo-oceanographic data from the Humboldt Current region. The scientists focused on the warm period about 125,000 years ago (Eemian interglacial). During this time, conditions were similar to those predicted by climate projections (e.g., the IPCC report) for the end of the 21st century at the latest: comparable primary production but water temperatures two degrees Celsius higher than today and increased oxygen deficiency in mid-depth water masses.

    2
    First author of the study Renato Salvatteci taking samples on the research vessel Meteor during a cruise off Peru. © Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR.

    For their paleo-oceanographic studies, the researchers at Kiel University primarily analyzed small fish vertebrae that they were able to isolate from the sediment cores. According to the results, smaller, goby-like fish predominated in coastal waters during the ancient warm period, while anchovies made up only a small proportion. Fish with smaller body sizes can adapt better to warmer temperatures. They retain their high activity even in less oxygenated waters thanks to their larger gill surface area relative to their body volume.

    “The conditions of this past warm period that we were able to reconstruct from our samples can definitely be compared to the current development and put in context with future scenarios”, says first author of the study, Dr. Renato Salvatteci, who is currently working at the Center for Ocean and Society of the Kiel Marine Science (KMS) priority research area at Kiel University and in the BMBF-funded Humboldt-Tipping project. “According to this, there is a clear regime shift towards smaller fish that feel more comfortable in the warm, lower-oxygen conditions. We conclude from our results that the effects of human-induced climate change may have a stronger influence on the evolution of stocks in the region than previously thought”, Salvatteci added. Smaller fish are harder to catch and less palatable. According to the report, the impact on the Peru region, local fisheries income and global trade in anchovies could be far-reaching – potentially affecting global food security.

    “Our studies using sediment cores can give us fairly accurate information about the changes and their dynamics in highly productive coastal waters around the world that have occurred in the wake of different climate states and over different time scales”, explains Professor Ralph Schneider, a paleoclimate researcher at the Institute of Geosciences at Kiel University and co-author of the study.

    3
    Sediment cores provide decisive information about past conditions and species composition. © Renato Salvatteci, Kiel University.

    The results indicate that due to increasing warming in the Humboldt Current upwelling area, the ecosystem is heading towards a tipping point beyond which anchovy will begin to retreat and not continue to dominate nearshore fishing grounds. “Despite a flexible, sustainable and adaptive management strategy, anchovy biomass and landings have declined, suggesting that we are closer to the ecological tipping point than suspected”, summarizes lead author Renato Salvatteci.

    The results of the study help to better assess the extent to which a warming ocean can provide sufficient food for the world’s population and what changes should be expected for the development of important fish species such as the anchovy.

    The study was funded by the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 754 “Climate-Biogeochemical Interactions in the Tropical Ocean”, a collaborative project of Kiel University (CAU) and GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Additional support came from the BMBF project Humboldt-Tipping, coordinated at the Center for Ocean and Society, as well as funding from the Emmy-Noether Junior Research Group ICONOX at GEOMAR. First author Renato Salvatteci was further supported by a fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel(DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
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