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  • richardmitnick 3:11 pm on July 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Microbes support adaptation to climate change", , , , , Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, , The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE)   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE): “Microbes support adaptation to climate change” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    7.4.22
    Science Contact
    Prof. Sebastian Fraune,
    Zoology and Organismic Interactions, Department Biology,
    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU):
    +49 (0) 211 81-14991
    fraune@hhu.de

    Press contact:
    Christian Urban
    Science communication “Kiel Life Science”,
    Kiel University:
    +49 (0) 431-880-1974
    curban@uv.uni-kiel.de

    Researchers from Kiel and Düsseldorf use the example of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis to investigate the contribution of the microbiome to thermal adaptation of living organisms.

    1
    The offspring of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, shown here laying eggs, can directly inherit the temperature tolerance of the parent generation by passing on certain bacteria. © Hanna Domin.

    All multicellular organisms are colonized by an unimaginably large number of microorganisms and have co-evolved with them from the very beginning of life’s evolutionary history. The natural microbiome, i.e. the totality of these bacteria, viruses and fungi living in and on a body, is of fundamental importance for the organism as a whole: it performs vital tasks for the host, for example, it assists in nutrient uptake and it helps defend against pathogens. A research team from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and Kiel University has now investigated how the microbiome assists an organism in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In a study within the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1182 “Origin and Function of Metaorganisms”, they have investigated the involvement of the microbiome in thermal adaptation of anemones in a so-called acclimation experiment. The researchers led by Professor Sebastian Fraune of the HHU Institute of Zoology and Organismic Interactions, who is also project leader in the Kiel CRC 1182, were able to show that the bacterial colonization of the animals changes as a result of acclimation. Furthermore, the organism of the sea anemone becomes more resistant to heat stress. In addition, the research team succeeded in proving a causal relationship: If they transferred the microbiome of heat-adapted to non-acclimated anemones, the latter also became less sensitive to higher temperatures. The CRC 1182 research team published the results, which are particularly significant with regard to changing environmental conditions as a result of climate change, recently in the journal Nature Communications.

    Long-term acclimation experiment

    The new work is based on a long-term study funded by the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP), in which the researchers have been studying the adaptation of anemones to changing environmental conditions for more than four years. To do this, they worked with clones of a single original animal and compared 50 genetically identical anemones in each of 15 different colonies. The researchers divided these colonies into three groups that were kept at 15, 20 and 25 degrees Celsius in order to analyze their acclimation to different temperatures. In the course of the long observation period, characteristic changes in the so-called phenotype of the anemones, i.e. in their external shape including physiological features, became apparent: among other things, the animals grow significantly larger at lower temperatures and they changed their reproductive mode. Changes in temperature tolerance were also particularly interesting. “The anemones differed very significantly in their stress resistance to high temperatures. If we exposed them to a very high temperature stress of 40 degrees Celsius for six hours, the animals acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius almost exclusively survived,” says Laura Baldassarre, former member of Fraune’s group and lead author of the study.

    Previous research suggested that adaptation to temperature stress may be related to changes in the microbiome composition of the animals. Analysis of the bacterial colonization of the different colonies in the acclimation experiment again supported this hypothesis, as the microbiome of the acclimated animals also changed compared to their non-acclimated conspecifics. “That acclimation, the so-called phenotypic plasticity, can be partly controlled by bacteria seems very plausible. Their much shorter generation times allow a much faster adaptation than would be possible via genetic recombination of the host organism,” emphasizes Fraune. The fact that there is indeed a causal relationship between the change in the microbiome and temperature adaptation has now been proven.

    Microbiome transplantation provides confirmation

    “In a transplantation experiment, we transferred the microbiomes from anemones acclimated to 15, 20 and 25 degrees Celsius to non-adapted but genetically identical animals. It turned out that these animals, which received the microbiome of the anemones acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius, subsequently adopted tolerance to high temperatures as well,” says Baldassarre. Thus, when the entire microbiome of an animal is transferred, the phenotype with its altered temperature tolerance can also be transplanted. Fraune: “We were able to establish a causal relationship between microbiome composition and environmental adaptations. Thus, we experimentally confirm the so-called hologenome concept, which defines evolution as the development of host organisms with their colonizing microorganisms toward shared fitness benefits for the entire metaorganism.”

    The research team then analyzed whether the altered microbiome due to thermal acclimation can be passed on between anemones – a prerequisite for a lasting adaptation process. In previous work, the scientists already showed that in Nematostella, certain bacteria can be passed on from the parent generation to the offspring. The evolutionary advantage of thermal adaptation can therefore in principle be inherited directly and the related bacteria must not necessarily be taken up from the environment. The current study provides further evidence of the transmission of maternal bacteria to the offspring: Like their genetically identical parents, the offspring also showed a higher probability of survival under temperature stress when the maternal animals were acclimated at 25 degrees Celsius.

    Investigating mechanisms at the species level

    With their findings, the researchers are helping to better understand the role of the interplay between host organisms and microbes in adaption processes to rapidly changing environmental conditions. “Our results offer new explanations for the mechanisms of rapid thermal adaptation mediated by the microbiome and how they are transmitted to subsequent generations,” Fraune said.

    In further research, the scientists in Düsseldorf and Kiel now want to explore the mechanisms of acclimation in detail, with a particular focus on the role of individual bacterial species involved. To this end, detailed bacterial genomic analyses are in preparation for a planned third funding phase of the CRC 1182 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). They will shed light on possible individual relationships between bacteria and certain metabolic processes of the host cells and their influence on the temperature tolerance of the organism as a whole.

    “Overall, it is important to understand the bacterial component of thermal acclimation in more detail. It likely plays a fundamental role in many other living organisms from various animals and plants to overall ecosystems such as coral reefs. Deeper knowledge of the underlying processes is therefore crucial to better assess or possibly mitigate the effects of global change on species and habitats”, Fraune summarizes.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel ] (DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
  • richardmitnick 10:13 am on January 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tipping point in Humboldt Current off Peru leads to species shift", , , Researchers reconstruct link between ocean warming and shift to smaller fish species using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System., The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE), The sea off the west coast of South America is one of the most vital and productive fishing grounds on earth.   

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (DE): “Tipping point in Humboldt Current off Peru leads to species shift” 

    From The Kiel University [Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel] (DE)

    01/06/2022

    Scientific contacts:
    Dr. Renato Salvatteci
    Kiel University
    Center for Ocean and Society
    rsalvatteci@kms.uni-kiel.de
    0431/880 6598

    Prof. Dr. Ralph Schneider
    Kiel University,
    Institute of Geosciences
    ralph.schneider@ifg.uni-kiel.de

    1
    Fishing vessel off the coast of Peru in the Humboldt upwelling system, one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. © Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE).

    Researchers reconstruct link between ocean warming and shift to smaller fish species using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System.

    Fundamental changes in the ocean, such as warming, acidification or oxygen depletion, may have significant consequences for the composition of fish stocks, including the displacement of individual species. Researchers at Kiel University (CAU), together with colleagues from Germany, Canada, the USA, and France, have reconstructed environmental conditions of the warm period 125,000 years ago (Eemian interglacial) using sediment samples from the Humboldt Current System off Peru. They were able to show that, at warmer temperatures, mainly smaller, goby-like fish species became dominant and pushed back important food fish such as the anchovy (Engraulis ringens). The trend is independent of fishing pressure and fisheries management. According to the study, the greater warming of the Humboldt Current System as result of climate change has more far-reaching implications for the ecosystem and the global fishing industry than previously thought. The findings appeared in the journal Science, January 7.

    The sea off the west coast of South America is one of the most vital and productive fishing grounds on earth. Around eight percent of the global catch of marine species comes from the areas off the coasts of Peru, where the near-surface Humboldt Current provides a high nutrient supply and thus sufficient food for commercially exploited fish species such as the anchovy. Ten percent of the total global catch of anchovies alone comes from the region. Much of it is processed into fish meal and oil and used primarily for aquacultures in China and Norway. However, catches of anchovy in the Humboldt upwelling system are currently declining. The causes of species shifts are mainly due to climate change according to the results of the new study.

    Researchers from the Institute of Geosciences at Kiel University, together with colleagues from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research and international partners, have for the first time investigated the relationships between temperature, oxygen, nutrient supply and the occurrence of individual fish species using paleo-oceanographic data from the Humboldt Current region. The scientists focused on the warm period about 125,000 years ago (Eemian interglacial). During this time, conditions were similar to those predicted by climate projections (e.g., the IPCC report) for the end of the 21st century at the latest: comparable primary production but water temperatures two degrees Celsius higher than today and increased oxygen deficiency in mid-depth water masses.

    2
    First author of the study Renato Salvatteci taking samples on the research vessel Meteor during a cruise off Peru. © Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR.

    For their paleo-oceanographic studies, the researchers at Kiel University primarily analyzed small fish vertebrae that they were able to isolate from the sediment cores. According to the results, smaller, goby-like fish predominated in coastal waters during the ancient warm period, while anchovies made up only a small proportion. Fish with smaller body sizes can adapt better to warmer temperatures. They retain their high activity even in less oxygenated waters thanks to their larger gill surface area relative to their body volume.

    “The conditions of this past warm period that we were able to reconstruct from our samples can definitely be compared to the current development and put in context with future scenarios”, says first author of the study, Dr. Renato Salvatteci, who is currently working at the Center for Ocean and Society of the Kiel Marine Science (KMS) priority research area at Kiel University and in the BMBF-funded Humboldt-Tipping project. “According to this, there is a clear regime shift towards smaller fish that feel more comfortable in the warm, lower-oxygen conditions. We conclude from our results that the effects of human-induced climate change may have a stronger influence on the evolution of stocks in the region than previously thought”, Salvatteci added. Smaller fish are harder to catch and less palatable. According to the report, the impact on the Peru region, local fisheries income and global trade in anchovies could be far-reaching – potentially affecting global food security.

    “Our studies using sediment cores can give us fairly accurate information about the changes and their dynamics in highly productive coastal waters around the world that have occurred in the wake of different climate states and over different time scales”, explains Professor Ralph Schneider, a paleoclimate researcher at the Institute of Geosciences at Kiel University and co-author of the study.

    3
    Sediment cores provide decisive information about past conditions and species composition. © Renato Salvatteci, Kiel University.

    The results indicate that due to increasing warming in the Humboldt Current upwelling area, the ecosystem is heading towards a tipping point beyond which anchovy will begin to retreat and not continue to dominate nearshore fishing grounds. “Despite a flexible, sustainable and adaptive management strategy, anchovy biomass and landings have declined, suggesting that we are closer to the ecological tipping point than suspected”, summarizes lead author Renato Salvatteci.

    The results of the study help to better assess the extent to which a warming ocean can provide sufficient food for the world’s population and what changes should be expected for the development of important fish species such as the anchovy.

    The study was funded by the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 754 “Climate-Biogeochemical Interactions in the Tropical Ocean”, a collaborative project of Kiel University (CAU) and GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Additional support came from the BMBF project Humboldt-Tipping, coordinated at the Center for Ocean and Society, as well as funding from the Emmy-Noether Junior Research Group ICONOX at GEOMAR. First author Renato Salvatteci was further supported by a fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Kiel University [ Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel(DE) was founded back in 1665. It is Schleswig-Holstein’s oldest, largest and best-known university, with over 26,000 students and around 3,000 members of staff. It is also the only fully-fledged university in the state. Seven Nobel prize winners have worked here. The CAU has been successfully taking part in the Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel](DE) in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University. The university has a great reputation for its focus on public international law. The oldest public international law institution in Germany and Europe – the Walther Schuecking Institute for International Law – is based in Kiel.

    History

    The University of Kiel was founded under the name Christiana Albertina on 5 October 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The citizens of the city of Kiel were initially quite sceptical about the upcoming influx of students, thinking that these could be “quite a pest with their gluttony, heavy drinking and their questionable character” (German: mit Fressen, Sauffen und allerley leichtfertigem Wesen sehr ärgerlich seyn). But those in the city who envisioned economic advantages of a university in the city won, and Kiel thus became the northernmost university in the German Holy Roman Empire.

    After 1773, when Kiel had come under Danish rule, the university began to thrive, and when Kiel became part of Prussia in the year 1867, the university grew rapidly in size. The university opened one of the first botanical gardens in Germany (now the Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel), and Martin Gropius designed many of the new buildings needed to teach the growing number of students.

    The Christiana Albertina was one of the first German universities to obey the Gleichschaltung in 1933 and agreed to remove many professors and students from the school, for instance Ferdinand Tönnies or Felix Jacoby. During World War II, the University of Kiel suffered heavy damage, therefore it was later rebuilt at a different location with only a few of the older buildings housing the medical school.

    In 2019, it was announced it has banned full-face coverings in classrooms, citing the need for open communication that includes facial expressions and gestures.

    Faculties

    Faculty of Theology
    Faculty of Law
    Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences
    Faculty of Medicine
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
    Faculty of Agricultural Science and Nutrition
    Faculty of Engineering

     
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