Tagged: The Johns Hopkins University Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 3:07 pm on December 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "An Unexpected Source Might Be Helping The Universe Glow More Than It Should", , A potential explanation for the cosmic optical background [COB] excess that is allowed by independent observational constraints., , , , , , Galaxies rotate faster than they should under the gravity generated by the mass of visible matter [see Coma Cluster]., Roughly 80 percent of the matter in the Universe is dark matter., , The Johns Hopkins University, Very very faintly the space between the stars was glowing with optical light., When the New Horizons probe reached the outer dark of the Solar System out past Pluto its instruments picked up something strange.   

    From The Johns Hopkins University Via “Science Alert (AU)” : “An Unexpected Source Might Be Helping The Universe Glow More Than It Should” 

    From The Johns Hopkins University

    Via

    ScienceAlert

    “Science Alert (AU)”

    12.5.22
    Michelle Starr

    When the New Horizons probe reached the outer dark of the Solar System out past Pluto its instruments picked up something strange.

    Very very faintly the space between the stars was glowing with optical light. This in itself was not unexpected; this light is called the cosmic optical background [COB], a faint luminescence from all the light sources in the Universe outside our galaxy [Nature Communications (below)].

    Figure 1: The trajectory of New Horizons through the solar system.
    2
    Data collection periods of relevance to this study are indicated. Both the x−y and r−z planes are shown (a,b, respectively), with the axes in solar ecliptic units [see formula in Nature Communications paper below]. New Horizons was launched from Earth at 1 a.u., and the data with the LORRI dust cover in place were acquired at 1.9 a.u., just beyond Mars’ orbit at 1.5 a.u. (inner blue dotted lines). The dust cover was ejected near 3.6 a.u., and the data were acquired before and during an encounter with Jupiter. The data considered here were taken between 2007 and 2010 while New Horizons was in cruise phase. The red vectors indicate the relative positions of fields 1−4 compared to the sun and plane of the ecliptic.

    Figure 2: Measurements of the COB surface brightness.
    3
    The [see formula in Nature Communications paper below] determined in this study are shown as both an upper limit (red) and a mean (red star). We also show previous results in the literature, including direct constraints on the COB (filled symbols) and the IGL (open symbols). The plotted LORRI errors are purely statistical and are calculated from the observed variance in the mean of individual 10 s exposures; see Fig. 3 for an assessment of the systematic uncertainties in the measurement. We include the measurements from HST-WFPC2 (ref. 7; green squares), combinations of DIRBE and 2MASS10,11,12,13 (diamonds; the wavelengths of these measurements have been shifted for clarity), a measurement using the ‘dark cloud’ method8 (grey circles), and previous Pioneer 10/11 measurements22,23 (blue upper limit leader and circles). The gold region indicates the H.E.S.S. constraints on the extragalactic background light29. We include the background inferred from CIBER5 (pentagons). The IGL points are compiled from HST-STIS in the ultraviolet (UV)62 (open square), and the Hubble Deep Field63 (downward open triangles) the Subaru Deep Field64,65 (upward open triangles and sideways pointing triangles) in the optical/near-IR. Where plotted, horizontal bars indicate the effective wavelength band of the measurement. Our new LORRI value from just 260 s of integration time is consistent with the previous Pioneer values.

    The strange part was the amount of light. There was significantly more than scientists thought there should be – twice as much, in fact.

    Now, in a new paper [PRL (below)], scientists lay out a possible explanation for the optical light excess: a by-product of an otherwise undetectable interaction of dark matter.

    “The results of this work,” write a team of researchers led by astrophysicist José Luis Bernal of Johns Hopkins University, “provide a potential explanation for the cosmic optical background [COB] excess that is allowed by independent observational constraints, and that may answer one of the most long-standing unknowns in cosmology: the nature of dark matter.”

    We have many questions about the Universe, but dark matter is among the most vexing. It’s the name we give to a mysterious mass in the Universe responsible for providing far more gravity in concentrated spots than there ought to be.

    Galaxies rotate faster than they should under the gravity generated by the mass of visible matter.

    The curvature of space-time around massive objects is greater than it should be if we calculated the warping of space based only on the amount of glowing material.

    But whatever it is creating this effect, we can’t detect it directly. The only way we know it’s there is that we just can’t account for this extra gravity.

    And there’s a lot of it. Roughly 80 percent of the matter in the Universe is dark matter.

    __________________________________
    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., and Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM, denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky.
    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble, the original example of Dark Matter discovered during observations by Fritz Zwicky and confirmed 30 years later by Vera Rubin.

    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.

    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.

    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.
    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).

    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970.

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter(Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).

    Dark Matter Research

    Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search from DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University at SNOLAB (Vale Inco Mine, Sudbury, Canada).

    LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment xenon detector at Sanford Underground Research Facility Credit: Matt Kapust.


    DAMA at Gran Sasso uses sodium iodide housed in copper to hunt for dark matter LNGS-INFN.

    Yale HAYSTAC axion dark matter experiment at Yale’s Wright Lab.

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB (CA) deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD.

    DAMA-LIBRA Dark Matter experiment at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics’ (INFN’s) Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.

    DARWIN Dark Matter experiment. A design study for a next-generation, multi-ton dark matter detector in Europe at The University of Zurich [Universität Zürich](CH).

    PandaX II Dark Matter experiment at Jin-ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in Sichuan, China.

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.

    3
    The University of Western Australia ORGAN Experiment’s main detector. A small copper cylinder called a “resonant cavity” traps photons generated during dark matter conversion. The cylinder is bolted to a “dilution refrigerator” which cools the experiment to very low temperatures.
    __________________________________

    There are some hypotheses about what it might be. One of the candidates is the axion, which belongs to a hypothetical class of particles first conceptualized in the 1970s to resolve the question of why strong atomic forces follow something called charge-parity symmetry when most models say they don’t need to.

    [See ADMX above]

    As it turns out, axions in a specific mass range should also behave exactly like we expect dark matter to. And there might be a way to detect them – because theoretically, axions are expected to decay into pairs of photons in the presence of a strong magnetic field.

    Several experiments are searching for sources of these photons, but they should also be streaming through space in excess numbers.

    The difficulty is in separating them from all the other sources of light in the Universe, and this is where the cosmic optical background comes in.

    The background is itself very difficult to detect since it’s so faint. The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard the New Horizons is possibly the best tool for the job yet. It’s far from Earth and the Sun, and LORRI is far more sensitive than instruments attached to the more distant Voyager probes that launched 40 years earlier.

    Scientists have presumed the excess detected by New Horizons to be the product attributed to stars and galaxies that we can’t see. And that option is still very much on the table. The work of Bernal and his team was to assess whether axion-like dark matter could possibly be responsible for the extra light.

    They conducted mathematical modeling and determined that axions with masses between 8 and 20 electronvolts could produce the observed signal under certain conditions.

    That’s incredibly light for a particle, which tends to be measured in megaelectronvolts. But with recent estimates putting the hypothetical piece of matter at a fraction of a single electronvolt, these numbers would demand axions to be relatively beefy.

    It’s impossible to tell which explanation is correct based solely on the current data. However, by narrowing down the masses of the axions that could be responsible for the excess, the researchers have laid the foundations for future searches for these enigmatic particles.

    “If the excess arises from dark-matter decay to a photon line, there will be a significant signal in forthcoming line-intensity mapping measurements,” the researchers write.

    “Moreover, the ultraviolet instrument aboard New Horizons (which will have better sensitivity and probe a different range of the spectrum) and future studies of very high-energy gamma-ray attenuation will also test this hypothesis and expand the search for dark matter to a wider range of frequencies.”

    The research has been published in Physical Review Letters.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications 2017
    See the science paper for instructive material with more images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, The Johns Hopkins University was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. For The American Academy of Arts and Sciences each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty-two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:02 pm on December 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Discovery of a novel quantum state analogous to water that won't freeze", , , Quantum sensing is considered a promising technology of the future., The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren ](DE), The Institute of Solid State Physics at The University of Tokyo[(東京大](JP), The Johns Hopkins University, The MPG Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems [MPG Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme](DE), The new quantum material could serve as a model system to develop novel and highly sensitive quantum sensors., The prerequisite was to have crystals of extreme purity and quality., The research group used a special material: a compound of the elements praseodymium and zirconium and oxygen., The scientists gradually cooled their sample down to 20 millikelvin—just one fiftieth of a degree above absolute zero.   

    From The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren ](DE) And The Institute of Solid State Physics at The University of Tokyo[(東京大](JP) And The Johns Hopkins University And The MPG Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems [MPG Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme](DE) Via “phys.org” : “Discovery of a novel quantum state analogous to water that won’t freeze” 

    From The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren ](DE)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    12.1.22

    1
    Cryostat used to achieve temperatures down to 20 millikelvin. Credit: HZDR/Jürgen Jeibmann.

    Water that simply will not freeze, no matter how cold it gets: a research group involving the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) has discovered a quantum state that could be described in this way.

    Experts from The Institute of Solid State Physics at The University of Tokyo[(東京大](JP), The Johns Hopkins University, and The MPG Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems [MPG Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme](DE), managed to cool a special material to near absolute zero temperature.

    They found that a central property of atoms—their alignment—did not “freeze,” as usual, but remained in a “liquid” state. The new quantum material could serve as a model system to develop novel and highly sensitive quantum sensors. The team has presented its findings in the journal Nature Physics [below].

    On first sight, quantum materials do not look different from normal substances—but they sure do their own thing: Inside, the electrons interact with unusual intensity, both with each other and with the atoms of the crystal lattice. This intimate interaction results in powerful quantum effects that not only act on the microscopic, but also on the macroscopic scale.

    Thanks to these effects, quantum materials exhibit remarkable properties. For example, they can conduct electricity completely loss-free at low temperatures. Often, even slight changes in temperature, pressure, or electrical voltage are enough to drastically change the behavior of the material.

    In principle, magnets can also be regarded as quantum materials; after all, magnetism is based on the intrinsic spin of the electrons in the material. “In some ways, these spins can behave like a liquid,” explains Prof. Jochen Wosnitza from the Dresden High Field Magnetic Laboratory (HLD) at HZDR. “As temperatures drop, these disordered spins can then freeze, much like water freezes into ice.”

    For example, certain kind of magnets, so-called ferromagnets, are non-magnetic above their “freezing”, or more precisely ordering point. Only when they drop below it can they become permanent magnets.

    High-purity material

    The international team intended to create a quantum state in which the atomic alignment that is associated with the spins did not order, even at ultracold temperatures—similar to a liquid that will not solidify, even in extreme cold. To achieve this state, the research group used a special material—a compound of the elements, praseodymium, zirconium, and oxygen. They assumed that in this material, the properties of the crystal lattice would enable the electron spins to interact with their orbitals around the atoms in a special way.

    “The prerequisite, however, was to have crystals of extreme purity and quality,” Prof. Satoru Nakatsuji of the University of Tokyo explains. It took several attempts, but eventually the team was able to produce crystals pure enough for their experiment: In a cryostat, a kind of super thermos flask, the scientists gradually cooled their sample down to 20 millikelvin—just one fiftieth of a degree above absolute zero.

    To see how the sample responded to this cooling process and inside the magnetic field, they measured how much it changed in length. In another experiment, the group recorded how the crystal reacted to ultrasound waves being directly sent through it.

    An intimate interplay

    The result: “Had the spins ordered, it should have caused an abrupt change in the behavior of the crystal, such as a sudden change in length,” Dr. Sergei Zherlitsyn, HLD’s expert in ultrasound investigations, describes. “Yet, as we observed, nothing happened! There were no sudden changes in either length or in its response to ultrasound waves.”

    The conclusion: The pronounced interplay of spins and orbitals had prevented ordering, which is why the atoms remained in their liquid quantum state—the first time such a quantum state had been observed. Further investigations in magnetic fields confirmed this assumption.

    This basic research result could also have practical implications one day: “At some point we might be able to use the new quantum state to develop highly sensitive quantum sensors,” Jochen Wosnitza speculates. “To do this, however, we still have to figure out how to generate excitations in this state systematically.”

    Quantum sensing is considered a promising technology of the future. Because their quantum nature makes them extremely sensitive to external stimuli, quantum sensors can register magnetic fields or temperatures with far greater precision than conventional sensors.

    Science paper:
    Nature Physics

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren ](DE)

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers(DE) was created in 1995 to formalize existing relationships between several globally-renowned independent research centres. The Helmholtz Association distributes core funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to its, now, 19 autonomous research centers and evaluates their effectiveness against the highest international standards.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:54 pm on November 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Webb Reveals an Exoplanet Atmosphere in ‘Once Impossible’ Detail", A Jupiter-sized exoplanet called WASP-39b, , , , , , The Applied Physics Lab, The Johns Hopkins University   

    From The Applied Physics Lab At The Johns Hopkins University: “Webb Reveals an Exoplanet Atmosphere in ‘Once Impossible’ Detail” 

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab

    From The Applied Physics Lab

    At

    The Johns Hopkins University

    11.23.22
    Jeremy Rehm
    240-592-3997 
    Jeremy.Rehm@jhuapl.edu

    1
    New observations of WASP-39b with Webb have provided a clearer picture of the exoplanet, showing the presence of sodium, potassium, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide in the planet’s atmosphere. This artist’s illustration also displays newly detected patches of clouds scattered across the planet. Credit: Melissa Weiss/Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian.

    2
    Webb made the first identification of sulfur dioxide in an exoplanet’s atmosphere. Its presence can only be explained by photochemistry — chemical reactions triggered by high-energy particles of starlight. Credit: Robert Hurt/NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory-Caltech; Melissa Weiss/Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian.

    3
    A transmission spectrum of WASP-39b captured by Webb’s Near InfraRed Spectrograph instrument [NIRSpec (below)] in July 2022. It reveals the rich soup of molecules in the planet’s steamy atmosphere, including the first detection of the light-produced molecule sulfur dioxide. The blue line is of a best-fit model, while the various rectangular colors each respectively highlight peaks attributable to a certain molecule. Credit: Leah Hustak/Joseph Olmsted (Space Telescope Science Institute) NASA/European Space Agency/Canadian Space Agency.

    Webb is dazzling scientists yet again, this time not with stunning images of the cosmos but instead with the first comprehensive list of molecular ingredients in the atmosphere of a planet roughly 700 light-years away.

    From that, an international team of researchers that included scientists from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, revealed not only the first detection of active chemistry happening in the atmosphere of an exoplanet — a planet orbiting another star — but also potentially how that exoplanet formed.

    “The quality and precision of these data are just outstanding,” said Kevin Stevenson, an astrophysicist at APL, co-author on all studies, and the primary advisor on the paper that used Webb’s Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam) during the observations [Nature (below)]. “What was once impossible a decade ago will soon become routine.”

    The findings, which will be published in a series of five upcoming scientific papers, bode well for the capability of Webb’s instruments to conduct the broad range of exoplanet investigations hoped for by the science community.

    “We expected Webb to be a powerful tool to study exoplanet atmospheres, and these observations are among the first real evidence that that is true,” said APL astrophysicist Erin May, who was a co-author on all of the new studies. “The precision of these measurements is unmatched by previous telescopes, and we’re really just scratching the surface of what we’ll be able to learn about exoplanets going forward.”

    The studies focused on a Jupiter-sized exoplanet called WASP-39b, which, at eight times closer to its star than Mercury is to the Sun, broils at roughly 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit (900 degrees Celsius). Previous observations with ground-based and space telescopes, including NASA’s Spitzer and Hubble telescopes, had determined isolated ingredients in the planet’s sweltering atmosphere.

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSpitzer Infrared Space Telescope no longer in service. Launched in 2003 and retired on 30 January 2020.

    But Webb was able to complete the picture thanks to its ability to see infrared light, which lies beyond what human eyes — and most space telescopes — can see.

    Operating under NASA’s Early Release Science program, researchers used Webb to track WASP-39b as it passed in front of its star. That allowed the star’s light to filter through the planet’s atmosphere. Different molecules in the atmosphere absorb different wavelengths of the starlight, so astronomers can tell which molecules are present just by looking at what wavelengths are missing when the filtered light reaches Earth.

    Among the most notable of molecules was the first detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) — a molecule produced from chemical reactions triggered by light. Such photochemical reactions regularly occur on Earth, including the photosynthetic process of plants for generating food from light, or Earth’s ozone layer that blocks harmful radiation from reaching the ground. But this was the first time researchers had confirmed such chemistry on a planet outside the solar system.

    “Finding sulfur dioxide in one of Webb’s first observed targets suggests photochemistry is likely common in the atmospheres of hot exoplanets like WASP-39b and that we can expect to find other photochemical byproducts in the near future,” Stevenson explained. “It opens up a whole new avenue of scientific inquiry.”

    Other atmospheric ingredients included sodium, potassium, carbon dioxide [Nature (below)], carbon monoxide and water vapor, confirming earlier observations while also complementing them with additional molecular signatures at other wavelengths that weren’t possible before.

    With the complete roster of atmospheric makings in hand, the team could gain insight into how WASP-39b formed from the disk of gas and dust that surrounded its parent star while in its infancy. For example, the planet’s smaller carbon-to-oxygen ratio and greater potassium-to-oxygen ratio than in the Sun’s atmosphere suggests the planet has had a history of smashups of small rocky bodies called planetesimals. These collisions eventually created the core of the giant planet seen today. The ratios also suggest WASP-39b likely formed much farther from its star where water is found only as ice, and later migrated inward, possibly collecting more material along the way.

    The implications of those details spread well beyond just WASP-39b, though. Because astronomers know of hundreds of hot, Jupiter-sized exoplanets throughout the galaxy, the team notes that WASP-39b’s characteristics offer important clues about how much planetesimal mergers generally contribute to such planets during their early evolution.

    Overall, the results confirm Webb’s instruments perform well beyond scientists’ expectations — a development that team members say promises a new phase of exploration among the wide variety of exoplanets in the galaxy.

    “We can look forward to a huge wave of new discoveries and intriguing results with JWST,” Stevenson said.

    Science papers:
    Nature
    Nature
    See the science papers for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    National Aeronautics Space Agency/European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganization](EU)/ Canadian Space Agency [Agence Spatiale Canadienne](CA) James Webb Infrared Space Telescope annotated, finally launched December 25, 2021, ten years late.

    There are four science instruments on Webb: The Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), The Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRspec), The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and The Fine Guidance Sensor/ Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS-NIRISS).

    Webb’s instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range. It will be sensitive to light from 0.6 to 28 micrometers in wavelength.
    National Aeronautics Space Agency Webb NIRCam.

    The European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganization](EU) Webb MIRI schematic.

    Johns Hopkins University campus

    JHUAPL campus

    Founded on March 10, 1942—just three months after the United States entered World War II— The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (US) -was created as part of a federal government effort to mobilize scientific resources to address wartime challenges.

    The Applied Physics Lab was assigned the task of finding a more effective way for ships to defend themselves against enemy air attacks. The Laboratory designed, built, and tested a radar proximity fuze (known as the VT fuze) that significantly increased the effectiveness of anti-aircraft shells in the Pacific—and, later, ground artillery during the invasion of Europe. The product of the Laboratory’s intense development effort was later judged to be, along with the atomic bomb and radar, one of the three most valuable technology developments of the war.

    On the basis of that successful collaboration, the government, The Johns Hopkins University, and APL made a commitment to continue their strategic relationship. The Laboratory rapidly became a major contributor to advances in guided missiles and submarine technologies. Today, more than seven decades later, the Laboratory’s numerous and diverse achievements continue to strengthen our nation.

    The Applied Physics Lab continues to relentlessly pursue the mission it has followed since its first day: to make critical contributions to critical challenges for our nation.

    Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of The National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of The National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. Each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:38 pm on November 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "This new interactive map lets you scroll through the universe", , , , , , The “HUB”, The Johns Hopkins University   

    From The “HUB” At The Johns Hopkins University: “This new interactive map lets you scroll through the universe” 

    From The “HUB”

    At

    The Johns Hopkins University

    11.17.22
    Jill Rosen

    The map charts a broad expanse of the universe, from the Milky Way to “the edge of what can be seen”

    A new map of the universe displays for the first time the span of the entire known cosmos with pinpoint accuracy and sweeping beauty.

    Created by Johns Hopkins University astronomers with data mined over two decades by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the map allows the public to experience data previously only accessible to scientists.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    Apache Point Observatory
    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    ___________________________________________________________________

    The interactive map, which depicts the actual position and real colors of 200,000 galaxies, is available online, where it can also be downloaded for free.


    New Interactive Map Offers Scroll Through Universe.

    “Growing up I was very inspired by astronomy pictures, stars, nebulae and galaxies, and now it’s our time to create a new type of picture to inspire people,” says map creator Brice Ménard, a professor at Johns Hopkins. “Astrophysicists around the world have been analyzing this data for years, leading to thousands of scientific papers and discoveries. But nobody took the time to create a map that is beautiful, scientifically accurate, and accessible to people who are not scientists. Our goal here is to show everybody what the universe really looks like.”

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey is a pioneering effort to capture the night sky through a telescope based in New Mexico. Night after night for years, the telescope aimed at slightly different locations to capture this unusually broad perspective.

    The map, which Ménard assembled with the help of former Johns Hopkins computer science student Nikita Shtarkman, visualizes a slice of the universe, or about 200,000 galaxies—each dot on the map is a galaxy and each galaxy contains billions of stars and planets. The Milky Way is simply one of these dots, the one at the very bottom of the map.

    2
    Image credit: Visualization by B. Ménard & N. Shtarkman.

    The expansion of the universe contributes to make this map even more colorful. The farther an object, the redder it appears. The top of the map reveals the first flash of radiation emitted soon after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago.

    “In this map, we are just a speck at the very bottom, just one pixel. And when I say we, I mean our galaxy, the Milky Way which has billions of stars and planets,” Ménard says. “We are used to seeing astronomical pictures showing one galaxy here, one galaxy there or perhaps a group of galaxies. But what this map shows is a very, very different scale.”

    Ménard hopes people will experience both the map’s undeniable beauty and its awe-inspiring sweep of scale.

    “From this speck at the bottom,” he says, “we are able to map out galaxies across the entire universe, and that that says something about the power of science.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    About the The Johns Hopkins University “HUB”strong>

    We’ve been doing some thinking — quite a bit, actually — about all the things that go on at Johns Hopkins. Discovering the glue that holds the universe together, for example. Or unraveling the mysteries of Alzheimer’s disease. Or studying butterflies in flight to fine-tune the construction of aerial surveillance robots. Heady stuff, and a lot of it.

    In fact, Johns Hopkins does so much, in so many places, that it’s hard to wrap your brain around it all. It’s too big, too disparate, too far-flung.

    We created the Hub to be the news center for all this diverse, decentralized activity, a place where you can see what’s new, what’s important, what Johns Hopkins is up to that’s worth sharing. It’s where smart people (like you) can learn about all the smart stuff going on here.

    At the Hub, you might read about cutting-edge cancer research or deep-trench diving vehicles or bionic arms. About the psychology of hoarders or the delicate work of restoring ancient manuscripts or the mad motor-skills brilliance of a guy who can solve a Rubik’s Cube in under eight seconds.

    There’s no telling what you’ll find here because there’s no way of knowing what Johns Hopkins will do next. But when it happens, this is where you’ll find it.

    The Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. For The American Academy of Arts and Sciences each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty-two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of The National Academies.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:08 am on April 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Re-imagining Renewable Energy", A major thrust at ROSEI is developing technologies that curb fossil fuels’ impacts., Fossil fuels will assuredly remain humanity’s primary sources of electricity generation and transportation fuel for years to come., In 2021 more than 90 percent of all the new electricity generation added around the world came from renewables like solar and wind., The fate of Earth’s climate and quite possibly that of modern industrialized humanity as we know it hinges on the far-bigger question of how many degrees our planet ultimately warms this century., The Johns Hopkins University, The Ralph S. O’Connor Sustainable Energy Institute At Johns Hopkins. Initialized as ROSEI and pronounced “rosy”, The world is transitioning to clean renewable sustainable energy—and fast.   

    From The Johns Hopkins University: “Re-imagining Renewable Energy” 

    From The Johns Hopkins University

    1

    Winter 2022
    Adam Hadhazy

    2
    The world is transitioning to clean renewable sustainable energy—and fast. Consider this: In 2021 more than 90 percent of all the new electricity generation added around the world came from renewables like solar and wind, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency.

    To see how renewable energy is on a roll, look no further than Johns Hopkins University. After committing in 2008 to slash greenhouse gas emissions by 51% by 2025, the university is now set to hit that target a full three years early, thanks to a substantial investment in off-site solar energy.

    Yet as heady as all that news is, it comes at a time of ever-increasing climatic peril. To wit, consider a multiple-choice question: Of the 10 hottest years on record, how many occurred in the last 10 years? A) zero, B) one, C) five, or D) nine.

    The answer — alarmingly — is D.

    The fate of Earth’s climate, and quite possibly that of modern, industrialized humanity as we know it, hinges on the far-bigger question of how many degrees our planet ultimately warms this century. Since 1880, the pumping of heat-trapping greenhouse gases (primarily carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere through humankind’s burning of fossil fuels has already warmed the world by 1 degree Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit). The 2015 Paris Agreement set a goal of limiting the total rise to 2 C (3.6 F) above pre-industrial levels, while recognizing that the avoidance of climate change’s most dire impacts means shooting for 1.5 C (2.7 F). Achieving either of these ambitious but critical goals mean somehow accelerating renewable energy’s development and adoption far faster than even its current clip.

    To help supercharge the ongoing energy transition, this past Earth Day, Johns Hopkins University and the Whiting School of Engineering announced the creation of the Ralph S. O’Connor Sustainable Energy Institute. Initialized as ROSEI and pronounced “rosy,” the new institute serves as an interdisciplinary home at Johns Hopkins for ongoing research and education. In a multipronged approach, ROSEI is bringing technical researchers together with social scientists university-wide to create and implement scalable, renewable energy technologies.

    “Embedded in the mission of the institute is trying to make things better for the world by focusing on a problem we’re all facing now, which is the need for transitioning our energy use,” says ROSEI Director Ben Schafer, who is the Willard and Lillian Hackerman Professor of Civil and Systems Engineering at the Whiting School.

    The urgency grows greater by the day. In August, the United Nations-led Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which has convened since the late 1980s, issued a new report authored by hundreds of international climate scientists. In some of the starkest language ever to appear in IPCC reports, the scientists wrote that it is “unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land.” This warming is “already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe,” observable “in extremes such as heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and tropical cyclones.”

    “What’s new in the latest IPCC report is that [climate change’s] warming impacts are worse and happening faster than we thought,” says Johannes Urpelainen, a ROSEI researcher and the Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Professor of Energy, Resources and Environment at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. “We’re already in a situation where we might blow past the 1.5 degrees Celsius mark in only 10 years, in the early 2030s. And that’s scary. It means we need to urgently act.”

    A Renewed Push for Renewables

    4

    Schafer and Urpelainen are two of ROSEI’s seven Leadership Council members, each of whom has contributed to bringing the institute to fruition and continues to guide initial investments.

    ROSEI was made possible by a $20 million gift from the estate of trustee emeritus and alumnus Ralph S. O’Connor ’51, and will serve as the catalyst of a new $75 million, 10-year total investment by the Whiting School and the university in energy-related research and education.

    An entrepreneur, civic leader, and philanthropist, O’Connor gave generously to Johns Hopkins for decades, providing financial aid, endowed faculty chairs, athletics, art, awards for undergraduate entrepreneurs, and facilities. Tying in with ROSEI’s mission, a Homewood campus recreation center named after O’Connor is part of the largest solar installation on campus, boasting nearly 1,400 solar panels on its roof and that of the adjacent Newton White Athletic Center.

    Besides the Leadership Council, an initial slate of 26 faculty members is affiliated with ROSEI, collectively bridging a rich array of disciplines. Expanding its expertise and influence, ROSEI will also partner with other Johns Hopkins divisions, including the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the School of Advanced International Studies, as well as government agencies in the Washington, D.C., area.

    Schafer explains that ROSEI is organized so that roughly two-thirds of its resource allocation and activities will center on enabling technologies for renewable energy. Within that realm, wind and solar are the primary areas for ROSEI faculty members, along with transforming conventional fossil fuel use. The remaining one-third of ROSEI’s overall efforts will center on equitable implementation, zeroing in on the energy policy, marketplace development, and education that will need to happen for sustainable energy to successfully turn the tide against climate change.

    “We’re trying to attack the full breadth of the problem,” says Schafer.

    “ROSEI is a unique way for Johns Hopkins to lead in addressing the challenges in sustainability in an interdisciplinary way,” says Chao Wang, associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, and an affiliated researcher in ROSEI. “We want to be very synergistic, taking advantage of what people here on campus are good at.”

    Susanna Thon, associate professor of electrical and computer engineering, and a member of the ROSEI Leadership Council, adds, “We’re reimagining renewable energy at Johns Hopkins by connecting all these researchers together and building something bigger than the sum of its parts.”

    Capturing the Sun’s Blaze

    5

    For their part, Thon and her group at Johns Hopkins are looking to revolutionize today’s solar power by expanding the range of light it can collect and where its energy-reaping cells could go. The solar story so far has been one of great success, surging from about 1 gigawatt of capacity worldwide in 2000 to knocking on the door of 1 terawatt (1,000 gigawatts) today. (One gigawatt is enough to power approximately 250,000 average homes.)

    That said, solar has significant room for improvement. For instance, conventional, photovoltaic solar power — provided by those rigid, blue-grayish panels arrayed in fields and on rooftops — has relied on the element silicon. As a semiconductor, silicon absorbs sunlight and transfers some of its energy to particles called electrons, the flow of which comprises electricity. The widely available commercial panels of today possess solar cells with about a 20% efficiency rate, meaning they convert 20% of the sunlight that strikes them into usable electricity, with much of the rest lost as heat. Even with anticipated advances, however, the theoretical maximum for conventional silicon cells tops out around 30% efficiency. “We’re close, and that’s it for silicon,” says Thon. The efficiency of traditional solar panel also drops precipitously for light coming in at angles.

    Thon’s group at Johns Hopkins is looking to address both issues. A key approach is manipulating materials at the nanoscale level, at mere billionths of a meter, in order to produce novel properties. For instance, so-called quantum dots — nano-specs of semiconductor material — can be grown to differing sizes and arranged to capture more colors of sunlight than bulk silicon, thus reaping energy more efficiently.

    Another approach along these lines is to devise solar cells that only absorb infrared light but let visible through. Panels made of this material would be nearly invisible and thus could go right over windows, greatly expanding places where solar generation can occur. One such place is glazing windows, especially of cars, trucks, and other transportation vehicles, which are still dominantly powered by fossil fuels and represent a tremendous source of global carbon emissions.

    Thon and her close colleagues are collaborating with other engineers and chemists across the university to realize all this potential. “I’ve already met lots of people at other schools at Johns Hopkins through ROSEI,” says Thon, “and it’s much easier when you have this entity that forms these natural connections.”

    Reaping the Wind

    Like solar, wind power has also done smashingly. Only around 20 gigawatts of capacity were in place worldwide in 2000, and with well over 700 gigawatts currently installed, according to the Global Wind Energy Council, wind is likewise knocking on terawatt’s door. Both generation technologies have plummeted in cost per watt and are now cheaper than traditional coal-fired and natural gas-fueled power stations.

    At the heart of wind power is the turbine, usually a vertical pole with three affixed blades. When it comes to engineering individual blades and stand-alone turbine units, wind power technology has already been highly optimized, says Charles Meneveau, the Louis M. Sardella Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Whiting School and an affiliated faculty member at ROSEI. Turbines keep getting bigger and more powerful, with the world’s largest soaring over 800 feet tall, in shouting distance of the approximately 1,000-foot-tall Eiffel Tower. Regarding today’s colossal turbine, “imagine an Eiffel Tower that moves,” says Meneveau. Blades can run nearly the length of a Boeing 737, whip around close to 200 miles per hour, and sweep out an area the size of several football fields.

    While bigger and more turbines equate to more power, there remains serious untapped energy-generating potential in better understanding the dynamics of how turbines in vast farms influence each other, as the incoming winds and other meteorological conditions inevitably vary. “We’re talking about gigantic machines interacting with the environment at scales we’re not used to,” says Meneveau. “I think we’ve just started scratching the surface of a lot of improvements.”

    Meneveau’s specialty is studying hydrodynamic turbulence, that which occurs in wind farms as a gust flows through a lead turbine’s blades, is weakened, and then flows through another nearby turbine. Meneveau and colleagues computationally model this fluid mechanical complexity, and their findings have already advanced turbine array arrangement designs. A new goal of the ongoing research is to democratize the information, Meneveau says, by making not only the results and insights publicly accessible but also the full-scale simulation data themselves. “We’re working on distributing outstanding data and analysis to the world,” he says.

    A close colleague of Meneveau’s in these matters of maximizing wind energy is ROSEI Leadership Council member Dennice Gayme, associate professor of mechanical engineering and the Carol Croft Linde Faculty Scholar at the Whiting School.

    Gayme focuses on understanding the impact of turbulence, atmospheric flow, and designing wind farm control and grid integration strategies to ensure that the wind farm efficiently delivers steadier, predictable, and more usable power to the electrical grid. Computational models that Gayme, Meneveau, and colleagues have recently developed can more accurately predict the power output from farms, thus optimizing turbine placement in the design stage. They have also shown that dynamic models that take these factors into account enable wind farms to participate in grid services. Gayme is also looking to build models that incorporate more forecasting to understand power output potential and improve real-time adjustments of turbine operations.

    Furthering their work, Gayme and Meneveau have received a grant through ROSEI to model the effects of the motion imparted to turbines as waves roll through offshore wind farms. The upshot should be performance gains that really add up over years of energy production. “This research is at the cutting edge of using mathematical tools to better understand variability in the environment,” says Gayme.

    Finding Sustainability in the Unsustainable

    6

    For all the progress renewables have made — and will continue to make, courtesy of the advances pursued by ROSEI researchers — fossil fuels will assuredly remain humanity’s primary sources of electricity generation and transportation fuel for years to come. Accordingly, a major thrust at ROSEI is developing technologies that curb fossil fuels’ impacts.

    “Fossil fuel use is going to be around for a while still,” says Schafer, “so we need technologies that help take away the danger and actually make something useful for us.”

    Wang, the ROSEI-affiliated chemical engineer, is spearheading multiple efforts toward this end. One focus is on the capture of carbon dioxide from air, followed by conversions into value-added products. His group is developing novel thermo- and electrochemical technologies to enable direct air capture, or DAC. The technology features the use of Earth-abundant materials, robust acid-base chemistries, and renewable but intermittent energy sources, such as solar and wind electricity. By substantially improving the energy efficiency, Wang’s group is targeting DAC at costs lower than $100 per metric ton of captured carbon dioxide, a threshold for commercial implementation.

    Rather than storing captured carbon in underground reservoirs, as has been widely proposed, Wang’s group is also exploring how to cost-effectively convert the captured carbon dioxide into useful products, such as chemicals, fertilizers, and structural materials. “There are a lot of things we’re working on with carbon-based chemicals and materials,” says Wang. “Our ultimate goal is to fix the carbon for a long lifetime so that we can offset the trend of accumulating carbon in the atmosphere.”

    In a similar vein, Wang’s group is conducting research into catalytic upcycling of end-of-life plastics. The concept: Convert solid waste plastics into liquid feedstocks for useful chemicals — essentially what the petrochemical industry already does, but in reverse. “Discarded hard plastics can be a source of hydrocarbons, just like crude oil,” says Wang. “The difference is one source is solid, the other is liquid.”

    Wang’s group is focused on low-quality, valueless plastic wastes — #3–7 mixtures, including grocery bags and packing peanuts — that hardly ever get recycled and accordingly end up in landfills and in the ocean, where they cause contamination to soil, water, and wildlife. The researchers already have demonstrated how these plastics, even when mixed up with regular household food trash and yard waste, can be readily transformed into aromatic compounds such as xylene, which has high industrial value. The group now plans to set up a pilot facility in Chao’s lab on Johns Hopkins’ campus to process 1 kilogram a day of plastic waste. In parallel, talks are underway with Maryland authorities and local waste management companies about establishing a pilot plant off Johns Hopkins’ campus to process 1 ton per day, starting perhaps as soon as next year.

    “We’ve already done the fundamental science,” says Wang. “Now we’re pushing toward commercialization.”

    Into the Real World

    7

    Getting renewable and sustainable energy technologies, like Wang’s plastics upcycling, out of the lab, into the real world, and scaled up in an equitably beneficial way is the second major thrust of ROSEI. Urpelainen is a key player in this regard. He brings his expertise in energy policy research and international issues relating to climate change and the transition to renewable energy.

    “ROSEI has a strong technical foundation but also has a clear interest in broader issues in society, like equity and feasibility of implementation,” says Urpelainen. “Our purpose is, ‘How do we take these wonderful technologies we’re developing and use them to encourage sustainable energy production and consumption across the global energy system?’”

    The implementation challenge is multifaceted, from gaining social acceptance and government support to developing markets where interested parties are incentivized to build out renewable energy — especially of the inventive, reimagined technologies ROSEI’s researchers will have to offer.

    Befitting the enterprising spirit of the institute, ROSEI will initially operate out of the second floor of FastForward R. House, a Johns Hopkins Technology Ventures innovation hub near the Homewood campus.

    “Through ROSEI, we will have sustainable, energy-related activities and efforts across all levels, from high school outreach to our undergraduate and graduate students, and from our postdocs and research scientists to young faculty and senior faculty,” says Schafer.

    As part of broadening academic opportunities at the university, Johns Hopkins is boosting energy-related curricula, including a potential minor program in energy. “The university is showing a commitment to attracting the best students,” says Thon, “and the current students are thrilled about the new academic resources that will be available to them.”

    ROSEI-affiliated faculty members have seen firsthand how the intertwined topics of renewable, sustainable energy, and the pan-national, generational fight against climate change resonate with their students. “It’s the critical challenge of our world,” says Thon.

    “Our students are getting more and more interested in this area,” adds Gayme. “That’s why it’s so important having a home for this research at Hopkins with ROSEI.”

    “For the students, it’s so new and exciting,” says Meneveau. “They have the sense that they might contribute to changing things for the better.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. For The American Academy of Arts and Sciences each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty-two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:20 am on April 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "This Alien World Is So Extreme It Has Literal Clouds of Vaporized Rock", , , , The exoplanet WASP-178b orbits WASP-178, The Johns Hopkins University, Tidal Locking of a planet around its star   

    From The Johns Hopkins University via Science Alert(AU): “This Alien World Is So Extreme It Has Literal Clouds of Vaporized Rock” 

    From The Johns Hopkins University

    via

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert(AU)

    9 APRIL 2022
    MICHELLE STARR
    L. Calçada
    1
    Artist’s impression of a hot Jupiter. Credit: L. Calçada/The European Southern Observatory [La Observatorio Europeo Austral] [Observatoire européen austral][Europaiche Sûdsternwarte] (EU)(CL).

    An exoplanet some 1,360 light-years away is so close to its star, its clouds consist of vaporized rock.

    Called WASP-178b, it orbits WASP-178, a young, white star twice the mass of the Sun, on an insanely short orbit of just 3.3 days. At that proximity, temperatures on the gaseous world are soaring – so hot that it is classified as an ‘ultra-hot Jupiter’, possibly the most extreme type of exoplanet we know of.

    A new study of the weather on this wild world has, for the first time, identified silicon monoxide (SiO) in the atmosphere of an exoplanet, giving us new insight into these truly alien worlds.

    “We still don’t have a good understanding of weather in different planetary environments,” said astrophysicist David Sing of Johns Hopkins University.

    “When you look at Earth, all our weather predictions are still finely tuned to what we can measure. But when you go to a distant exoplanet, you have limited predictive powers because you haven’t built a general theory about how everything in an atmosphere goes together and responds to extreme conditions.”

    Hot Jupiters in particular are absolutely fascinating and ripe for study. As the name suggests, these worlds are gas giants, like Jupiter, but they’re also very hot, because they’re on extremely close orbits with their stars – some whipping around in less than a day.

    They pose something of an interesting conundrum: they can’t have formed at their current orbit, because gravity, radiation, and intense stellar winds ought to have kept the gas from clumping together. However, over 300 hot Jupiters have been detected to date; astronomers believe that they form farther from their stars, and migrate inwards.

    WASP-178b is around 1.4 times the mass of Jupiter, and around 1.9 times its size. Puffed up by the heat of its star, the exoplanet reaches temperatures of 2,450 Kelvin (2,177 degrees Celsius, or 3,950 degrees Fahrenheit). That temperature is the sweet spot for detecting vaporized silicate: theoretical studies have shown that, above 2,000 Kelvin, silicon monoxide is expected to be detectable.

    Here’s how. The exoplanet passes between us and its host star. With each transit, some of the light from the star is absorbed by atoms in the exoplanet’s atmosphere; each element absorbs or emits on a different wavelength, meaning it can be identified as a signal in the spectrum of light received from the star.

    The signal is absolutely minute, as you can imagine, but by stacking transits, astronomers can amplify the spectrum to get a readable signal. Using this method, vaporized metals such as titanium, iron, and magnesium have been detected in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters.

    A team of researchers led by Sing and his colleague Josh Lothringer of Utah Valley University used the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain the spectrum of WASP-178b, and found a signal unlike anything ever seen before. According to their analysis, it turned out to be silicon and magnesium.

    “SiO, in particular, has not previously, to our knowledge, been detected in exoplanets,” they wrote in their paper, “but the presence of SiO in WASP-178b is consistent with theoretical expectations as the dominant Si-bearing species at high temperatures.”

    WASP-178b is, as all known hot Jupiters, tidally locked to its star. That means one side is permanently facing the star, in permanent day, and the other is facing away in permanent night. This produces a significant difference in temperature between the two hemispheres of the exoplanet, with a rotating atmosphere that whirls around between the two.

    On the exoplanet’s night side it may be cool enough for the vapors to condense into clouds that rain down deeper into the atmosphere, before being blown back to the dayside where the minerals are once again vaporized.

    The researchers could see no sign of this condensation on WASP-178b’s terminator, the line that separates day from night. But the results suggest silicon monoxide may be present on other exoplanets for which detailed terminator observations are more visible, namely WASP-76b. If rain of rocks is present on an exoplanet, this might be the place to find it.

    The team’s results also show that we’re getting better at peering into the mysterious atmospheres of distant worlds. This bodes well for looking at exoplanets that are smaller, and more distant from their stars.

    “If we can’t figure out what’s happening on super-hot Jupiters where we have reliable solid observational data, we’re not going to have a chance to figure out what’s happening in weaker spectra from observing terrestrial exoplanets,” Lothringer said.

    “This is a test of our techniques that allows us to build a general understanding of physical properties such as cloud formation and atmospheric structure.”

    The research has been published in Nature.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. For The American Academy of Arts and Sciences each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty-two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel