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  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on September 7, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New measurements point to silicon as a major contributor to performance limitations in superconducting quantum processors", "SQMS": Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center at Fermilab, , , Quantum decoherence is a critical obstacle to overcome to operate quantum processors., Qubits require near-perfect conditions to maintain the integrity of their quantum state - small environmental disturbances or flaws in the qubit’s materials can destroy the information., Sapphire is a less lossy material., Substitute sapphire in place of silicon, The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory   

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory : “New measurements point to silicon as a major contributor to performance limitations in superconducting quantum processors” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    9.7.22
    Hannah Adams
    Maxwell Bernstein

    Silicon is a material widely used in computing: It is used in computer chips, circuits, displays and other modern computing devices. Silicon is also used as the substrate, or the foundation of quantum computing chips.

    1
    A superconducting-based quantum processor, composed of several thin film materials deposited on top of a silicon substrate. Photo: Rigetti Computing.

    Researchers at the Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, demonstrated that silicon substrates could be detrimental to the performance of quantum processors. SQMS Center scientists have measured silicon’s effect on the lifespan of qubits with parts-per-billion precision. These findings have been published in Physical Review Applied [below].

    New approaches to computing

    Calculations once performed on pen and paper have since been handed to computers. Classical computers rely on bits, 1 or 0, which have limitations. Quantum computers offer a new approach to computing that relies on quantum mechanics. These novel devices could perform calculations that would take years or be practically impossible for a classical computer to perform.

    Using the power of quantum mechanics, qubits—the basic unit of quantum information held within a quantum computing chip—can be both a 1 and a 0 at the same time. Processing and storing information in qubits is challenging and requires a well-controlled environment. Small environmental disturbances or flaws in the qubit’s materials can destroy the information.

    Qubits require near-perfect conditions to maintain the integrity of their quantum state, and certain material properties can decrease the qubit lifespan. This phenomenon, called quantum decoherence, is a critical obstacle to overcome to operate quantum processors.

    Disentangling the architecture

    The first step to reduce or eliminate quantum decoherence is to understand its root causes. SQMS Center scientists are studying a broadly used type of qubit called the transmon qubit. It is made of several layers of different materials with unique properties. Each layer, and each interface between these layers, play an important role in contributing to quantum decoherence. They create “traps” where microwave photons—key in storing and processing quantum information—can be absorbed and disappear.

    Researchers cannot unequivocally distinguish where the traps are located or which of the various materials or interfaces are driving decoherence based on the measurement of the qubit alone. Scientists at the SQMS Center use uniquely sensitive tools to study these effects from the materials that make up the transmon qubits.

    “We are disentangling the system to see how individual sub-components contribute to the decoherence of the qubits,” said Alexander Romanenko, Fermilab’s chief technology officer, head of the Applied Physics and Superconducting Technology Division and SQMS Center quantum technology thrust leader. “A few years ago, we realized that our [superconducting radio frequency] cavities could be tools to assess microwave losses of these materials with a preciseness of parts-per-billion and above.”

    2
    The silicon sample connected to the holder appears in the foreground, while the SRF cavity used in the study rests in the background. Photo: SQMS Center.

    Measurements at cold temperatures

    SQMS Center researchers have directly measured the loss tangent—a material’s ability to absorb electromagnetic energy—of high-resistivity silicon. These measurements were performed at temperatures only hundreds of a degree above absolute zero. These cold temperatures offer the right conditions for superconducting transmon qubits to operate.

    “The main motivation for why we did this experiment was that there were no direct measurements on this loss tangent at such low temperatures,” said Mattia Checchin, SQMS Center scientist and the lead researcher on this project.

    Checchin cooled a metallic niobium SRF cavity in a dilution refrigerator and filled it with a standing electromagnetic wave. After placing a sample of silicon inside the cavity, Checchin compared the time the wave dissipated without the silicon present to the time with it present. He found that the waves dissipated more than 100 times faster with the silicon present—from 100 milliseconds without silicon to less than a millisecond with it.

    “The silicon dissipation we measured was an order of magnitude worse than the number widely reported in the [quantum information science] field,” said Anna Grassellino, director of the SQMS Center. “Our approach of disentangling the problem by studying each qubit sub-component with uniquely sensitive tools has shown that the contribution of the silicon substrate to decoherence of the transmon qubit is substantial.”

    Re-evaluating silicon

    Companies developing quantum computers based on quantum computing chips often use silicon as a substrate. SQMS Center studies highlight the importance of understanding which of silicon’s properties have negative effects. This research also helps define specifications for silicon that would ensure that substrates are useful. Another option is to substitute the silicon with sapphire or another less lossy material.

    “Sapphire, in principle, is like a perfect insulator—so much better than silicon,” said Checchin. “Even sapphire has some losses at really low temperatures. In general, you would like to have a substrate that is lossless.”

    3
    A scientist demonstrates the silicon sample assembly process used in the study. Photo: SQMS Center.

    Researchers often use the same techniques for fabricating silicon-based microelectronic devices to place qubits on silicon substrate. So sapphire has rarely been used for quantum computing.

    “It has taken years of material science and device physics studies to develop the niobium material specifications that would ensure consistently high-performances in SRF cavities,” said Romanenko. “Similar studies need to be done for materials that comprise superconducting qubits. This effort includes researchers working together with the material industry vendors.”

    Regardless of which material is used for qubits, eliminating losses and increasing coherence time is crucial to the success of quantum computing. No material is perfect. Through rigorous testing and studies, researchers are building a more comprehensive understanding of the materials and properties best suited for quantum computing.

    This loss tangent measurement is a substantial step forward in the search for the best materials for quantum computing. SQMS Center scientists have isolated a problem and can now explore whether a more refined version of silicon or sapphire will harness the computational power of a qubit.

    The Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center is one of the five U.S. Department of Energy National Quantum Information Science Research Centers. Led by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, SQMS is a collaboration of 23 partner institutions—national labs, academia and industry—working together to bring transformational advances in the field of quantum information science. The center leverages Fermilab’s expertise in building complex particle accelerators to engineer multiqubit quantum processor platforms based on state-of-the-art qubits and superconducting technologies. Working hand in hand with embedded industry partners, SQMS will build a quantum computer and new quantum sensors at Fermilab, which will open unprecedented computational opportunities. For more information, please visit sqms.fnal.gov.

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Applied

    See the full article here .


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    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelectron volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.
    __________________________________________________


    __________________________________________________

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.
    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 5:02 pm on August 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Current quantum computers are still too "noisy" and prone to error for useful computations., Elevating quantum science and engineering to special prominence in the U.S. and positioning the country to be a global leader in the field., Pushing the frontiers of computing and physics and chemistry and materials science to bring transformational new technologies to the nation., , Quantum information science examines nature’s quantum properties to build new and powerful ways to process information in areas as varied as medicine and energy and finance., , The centers are working to prototype and evaluate the performance and impact of quantum computers and sensors., The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, , , , , The interdisciplinary teams at the NQISRCs co-design quantum technologies to set the stage for future scientific discoveries., Understanding how current devices fail reveals to us the path forward., Understanding the quantum behavior of materials is crucial for overcoming these "noise" limitations.   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory For Argonne National Laboratory And Oak Ridge National Laboratory And Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory And Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: “How the Five National Quantum Information Science Research Centers Harness the Quantum Revolution” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    8.26.22
    Hannah Adams
    Pete Genzer
    Monica Hernandez
    Leah Hesla
    Scott Jones
    Elizabeth Rosenthal
    Denise Yazak

    1
    Mingzhao Liu explores thin film materials fabrication in a collaboration between Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University. These superconducting metal silicides are a promising material for the optimization of quantum computing architecture. (Photo: Brookhaven National Laboratory)

    Five National Quantum Information Science Research Centers are leveraging the behavior of nature at the smallest scales to develop technologies for science’s most complex problems. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the NQISRCs have been supporting DOE’s mission since 2020 to advance the energy, economic and national security of the United States. By building a national quantum ecosystem and workforce comprising researchers at roughly 70 institutions across the United States, the centers create a rich environment for quantum innovation and co-design.

    The NQISRCs integrate state-of-the-art DOE facilities, preeminent talent at national laboratories and U.S. universities, and the enterprising ingenuity of U.S. technology companies.

    As a result, the centers are pushing the frontier of what’s possible in quantum computers, sensors, devices, materials and much more.

    Each national center is led by a DOE national laboratory:

    Co-design Center for Quantum Advantage (C2QA), led by Brookhaven National Laboratory.
    Q-NEXT, led by Argonne National Laboratory.
    Quantum Science Center, led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
    Quantum Systems Accelerator, led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center, led by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    Leading with science

    “Each center is a formidable force for quantum information science on its own, pushing the frontiers of computing, physics, chemistry and materials science to bring transformational new technologies to the nation,” said Q-NEXT Director David Awschalom. “But together, they’re a national powerhouse, elevating quantum science and engineering to special prominence in the U.S. and positioning the country to be a global leader in the field.”

    A rapidly emerging field of research, quantum information science examines nature’s quantum properties to build new, powerful ways to process information in areas as varied as medicine, energy and finance. By manipulating matter’s most fundamental features, researchers could invent new sensors of unprecedented precision, powerful computers and secure communication networks.

    To that end, the centers are working to prototype and evaluate the performance and impact of quantum computers and sensors built using various technological platforms and architectures.

    “There are many choices and opportunities to be made in the development of quantum computing and understanding how current devices fail reveals to us the path forward,” said C2QA Director Andrew Houck. “The NQISRCs can tackle this surprisingly hard task because, despite great strides in the field, current quantum computers are still too “noisy” and prone to error for useful computations.”

    Understanding the quantum behavior of materials is crucial for overcoming these noise limitations and for the realization of devices that will offer a quantum advantage. The national labs are uniquely positioned to offer advanced facilities and knowledge that guide the understanding and overcoming of these limitations.

    “DOE has invested for years in cutting-edge technologies, tools and facilities at national labs, which offer unique opportunities to enable a leap in performance of quantum devices,” said SQMS Director Anna Grassellino. “We are excited to offer world-leading expertise to make transformational advances in QIS, especially because QIS can help advance our mission of understanding the world at its most fundamental level.”

    1
    Argonne’s Haidan Wen studies the structural dynamics of host materials of quantum sensors for Q-NEXT. Image by Argonne National Laboratory.

    Collaborating for quantum innovation

    The interdisciplinary teams at the NQISRCs co-design quantum technologies to set the stage for future scientific discoveries. Advances in QIS will bring about society wide benefits, such as new materials and powerful quantum sensors that, when combined with medical imagers, could measure tissue at the individual cell level, bringing far greater sensitivity to today’s magnetic resonance imaging machines.

    By understanding what enables and limits different quantum technologies and what tools need to be developed, the co-design effort across the NQISRCs could translate into faster drug and vaccine development, novel materials, improvements in transportation and logistics, and more secure financial networks.

    As a national ecosystem, NQISRCs researchers leverage world-class DOE Office of Science user facilities and programs, such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the National Synchrotron Light Source II at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the superconducting radio frequency cavity facilities and experience at Fermilab.

    Argonne APS



    “Through the funding of these strategic quantum centers, DOE has given researchers an incredible opportunity to make impactful and world-changing discoveries in QIS,” said QSC Director Travis Humble. “Based on the first two years of operation, there is every reason to believe these centers will make tremendous progress in the coming years in advancing QIS toward real-world innovation. We will see an increasing flow of discovery science through the innovation chain.”

    Similarly, laboratory and university scientists can leverage the market-driven technologies developed by their industry partners, such as test beds and simulation tools. Capitalizing on these networks, each center builds a pathway to commercializing quantum technologies and, eventually, bringing them to the public.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider (CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, it was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.


     
  • richardmitnick 11:35 am on August 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Excavation of huge caverns for DUNE particle detector is underway", , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory And The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF: “Excavation of huge caverns for DUNE particle detector is underway” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    And

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF

    8.15.22
    Diana Kwon

    1
    About 800,000 tons of rock need to be removed to create the seven-story-tall caverns and the connecting drifts for the LBNF far site location in South Dakota. Photo by Adam Gomez.

    Around a mile below the surface in South Dakota, construction crews are hard at work excavating around 1,000 tons of rock per day. Their goal is to make room for a large underground facility that will house an international effort aimed at studying neutrinos—highly elusive subatomic particles that may hold the key to many of the universe’s secrets.

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility will one day be home to the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. LBNF/DUNE involves more than 1,000 scientists and engineers from over 30 countries.

    DUNE has three main scientific aims: determine whether neutrinos might hold the key to the matter-antimatter asymmetry that gave rise to our matter-filled universe; look for neutrinos that indicate the birth of a neutron star or black hole, two of the most mysterious objects in space; and search for subatomic signals that could help scientists develop a theory that unifies the four forces of nature.

    “DUNE is a unique experiment,” said DUNE co-spokesperson Sergio Bertolucci. “It is the only experiment where you can measure all the parameters of neutrino oscillations in the same place.

    This will enable us to perform precision measurements of the mass ordering, of the matter-antimatter symmetry violation and of the mixing angles.”

    LBNF provides the space, infrastructure and particle beam for the experiment: the caverns that will house DUNE’s detectors—a near detector at the Fermilab site, and a far detector 800 miles away at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota; the space for cryogenic equipment to keep these instruments cold; the hall where neutrinos are produced; and the beamline that will deliver the protons that make the neutrinos.

    PIP-II, the Proton Improvement Plan II at Fermilab, will power the particle beam for the experiment. At the heart of PIP-II is the construction of a 700-foot-long particle accelerator that will boost a stream of protons to 84% of the speed of light. The construction of the first of two large buildings for PIP-II is almost complete. When operational, PIP-II will feed its protons into a chain of accelerators to create the world’s most intense neutrino beam.

    Excavation is in full swing

    On-site prep work for the excavation of the LBNF far site facility in South Dakota began in 2019. In 2021, construction crews started the excavation of the large caverns for DUNE. The three LBNF caverns [below] will house the far detector modules and the infrastructure needed to operate the detectors. Project managers expect the construction of the caverns to be complete in 2024.

    To date, approximately 274,000 tons of rock have been removed—more than a third of the whopping 800,000 tons that needs to be extracted from a mile underground. About 200 people in South Dakota directly work on LBNF during this phase of the project.

    Once complete, the underground facility with its three caverns will cover the area of about the size of eight soccer fields. Two of the caverns are about 500 feet long, 65 feet wide and 90 feet high—about the height of a seven-story building. These caverns will house the far detector modules, each of which will be more than 200 feet in length and contain 17,000 tons of ultrapure argon cooled to minus 184 degrees Celsius. The third cavern, which is about 625 feet long and 65 feet wide but is only 36 feet tall, will contain the cryogenic support systems, detector electronics and data acquisition equipment.

    Drill and blast

    The excavation of each cavern proceeds from the top to the bottom. The process is carried out by contractor Thyssen Mining Inc. and uses the so-called drill-and-blast technique. First, construction workers drill a series of holes, then load those holes with explosives that will blast away the rock. The workers then remove the blasted rock and transport it to large buckets called skips, which travel up a mile-long shaft to bring the rock to the surface. Once the rock is above ground, it is crushed, put on a conveyor, and then deposited into a former open mining pit called the Open Cut.

    Next, workers move into the excavated space to conduct ground support, which involves operating gigantic drills that insert 20-foot-long bolts into rock walls as anchors. Miners will install a total of about 16,000 rock bolts to secure all walls and ceilings of the excavated space.


    A mile underground: the large caverns and detectors of DUNE.

    “These secure the rock because sometimes, in the process of blasting, you create fractures in the surrounding rock, or there’s existing fractures,” said Syd De Vries, a mining engineer at Fermilab. “That creates zones of weakness, so you install these rock bolts, along with a wire mesh that secures the rock so that it’s safe to go in and repeat that cycle.”

    Once the ground support is complete, the drill-and-blast cycle begins anew. Some of the underground work can be carried out in parallel, with approximately 30 miners per shift working at different locations.

    The drill-and-blast phase will be complete in the fall of 2023. “That’s the last time we’ll use explosives,” said Josh Willhite, a mechanical engineer who grew up in South Dakota and started working on the early plans for this project in 2010.

    To complete the construction of the caverns, the floors and walls will be covered with concrete—and that work is expected to continue until May 2024.

    Advances at all levels

    While the excavation work proceeds, another set of contractors is preparing for the building and site infrastructure phase. During this phase, the LBNF space will be outfitted with the infrastructure needed to run the DUNE detectors. This includes setting up the lighting, electrical equipment, ventilation and piping that will direct argon delivered at the surface to the detectors deep underground.

    Work on the DUNE particle detectors is advancing as well. For example, scientists in the UK have begun the mass production of large detector components for the first detector module in South Dakota. At the European laboratory CERN, the DUNE collaboration is about to start tests for vertical-drift detector components, which will be used in the second detector module to be built in South Dakota. At Fermilab, scientists are getting ready to test near-detector components built in Switzerland.

    Prep work is paying off

    Before the drill-and-blast process could begin in South Dakota, the project team completed the pre-excavation phase, during which the LBNF far site was prepared for the excavation. It involved, among other things, renovating the Ross Shaft, updating the rock crushing system and building the 3/4-mile-long conveyor system that moves the rock from the shaft to the Open Cut. “That was a pretty major scope of work,” Willhite said. “Seeing all that functioning and working properly once we got into excavation was pretty exciting.”

    2
    A construction miner stands near a bolter, a huge machine that installs 20-foot-long rock bolts in the caverns that will house the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. About 16,000 bolts will need to be installed to provide ground support in the gigantic, seven-story-tall caverns a mile underground. Photo by Jason Hogan, Thyssen Mining Inc.

    During that phase, engineers also drilled a series of core samples to determine the geological characteristics of the rock, such as its strength and the presence of fractures, as well as the stresses that were present. Stresses on the rock exist both in the vertical and horizontal planes. The deeper you go, the greater the weight of the rock becomes, creating stress in the vertical plane. Horizonal stresses are caused by things like the tectonic activity of the Earth.

    This diligent pre-excavation work has paid off. Project managers think that any big issues would have come up during the first year of excavation, but so far, the miners have successfully excavated the tops of all three caverns and have opened one of the caverns to its full width without any major setbacks. “The sensors that have been installed and are monitoring the rock movement are all following the predicted paths,” said De Vries. “That gives everybody a higher sense of security.” The monitoring, of course, continues, and the safety of all workers remains the project’s top priority.

    Breaking the 625-foot-long utility cavern to its full length, then being able to walk along it, was an amazing feat, Willhite said: “It doesn’t matter how many times you see it—these caverns are gigantic. It’s very impressive to see.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The University of Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    The LUX Xenon dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.
    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

    SURF- the 3D DAS experiment is studying digital acoustic sensing techniques with a novel, three-dimensional seismic array. The University of Wisconsin-Madison. The Air Force Research Laboratory. Photo by Adam Gomez. The 3D DAS is led by Stanford University and includes industry partners and seven universities.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelectron volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.
    __________________________________________________

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota


    __________________________________________________

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 10:13 pm on August 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "First demonstration of a new particle beam technology at Fermilab", , , , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, The new technique is "optical stochastic cooling" measures how particles in a beam move away from their ideal course then uses a configuration of magnets; lenses and other optics to give corrections.   

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory : “First demonstration of a new particle beam technology at Fermilab” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    8.10.22
    Tracy Marc
    Fermilab
    media@fnal.gov
    224-290-7803

    Physicists love to smash particles together and study the resulting chaos. Therein lies the discovery of new particles and strange physics, generated for tiny fractions of a second and recreating conditions often not seen in our universe for billions of years. But for the magic to happen, two beams of particles must first collide.

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have announced the first successful demonstration of a new technique that improves particle beams. Future particle accelerators could potentially use the method to create better, denser particle beams, increasing the number of collisions and giving researchers a better chance to explore rare physics phenomena that help us understand our universe. The team published its findings in a recent edition of Nature [below].

    1
    The beam particles each emit ultrafast light pulses as they pass through a special magnet called a pickup undulator (bottom right). Information about each particle’s energy or trajectory error is encoded in its light pulse. The light pulses are captured, focused and tuned by various light optics. The particles then interact with their own pulses inside an identical kicker undulator (center). The interaction can be used to cool the particles or even control them depending on the configuration of the system. Image: Jonathan Jarvis, Fermilab.

    Particle beams are made of billions of particles traveling together in groups called bunches. Condensing the particles in each beam so they are packed closely together makes it more likely that particles in colliding bunches will interact—the same way multiple people trying to get through a doorway at the same time are more likely to jostle one another than when walking through a wide-open room.

    Packing particles together in a beam requires something similar to what happens when you put an inflated balloon in a freezer. Cooling the gas in the balloon reduces the random motion of the molecules and causes the balloon to shrink. “Cooling” a beam reduces the random motion of the particles and makes the beam narrower and denser.

    Scientists at Fermilab used the lab’s newest storage ring, the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator, known as “IOTA”, to demonstrate and explore a new kind of beam cooling technology with the potential to dramatically speed up that cooling process.

    “IOTA was built as a flexible machine for research and development in accelerator science and technology,” said Jonathan Jarvis, a scientist at Fermilab. “That flexibility lets us quickly reconfigure the storage ring to focus on different high-impact opportunities. That’s exactly what we’ve done with this new cooling technique.”

    The new technique is called “optical stochastic cooling”. It was first proposed in the early 1990s, and while significant theoretical progress was made, an experimental demonstration of the technique remained elusive until now.

    This kind of cooling system measures how particles in a beam move away from their ideal course and then uses a special configuration of magnets, lenses and other optics to give corrective nudges. It works because of a particular feature of charged particles like electrons and protons: As the particles move along a curved path, they radiate energy in the form of light pulses, giving information about the position and velocity of each particle in the bunch. The beam-cooling system can collect this information and use a device called a kicker magnet to bump them back in line.

    Conventional stochastic cooling, which earned its inventor, Simon van der Meer, a share of the 1984 Nobel Prize, works by using light in the microwave range with wavelengths of several centimeters. In contrast, optical stochastic cooling uses visible and infrared light, which have wavelengths around a millionth of a meter. The shorter wavelength means scientists can sense the particles’ activity more precisely and make more accurate corrections.

    To prepare a particle beam for experiments, accelerator operators send it on several passes through the cooling system. The improved resolution of optical stochastic cooling provides more exact kicks to smaller groups of particles, so fewer laps around the storage ring are needed. With the beam cooled more quickly, researchers can spend more time using those particles to produce experimental data.

    The cooling also helps preserve beams by continually reigning in the particles as they bounce off one another. In principle, optical stochastic cooling could advance the state-of-the-art cooling rate by up to a factor of 10,000.

    This first demonstration at IOTA used a medium-energy electron beam and a configuration called “passive cooling,” which doesn’t amplify the light pulses from the particles. The team successfully observed the effect and achieved about a tenfold increase in cooling rate compared to the natural “radiation damping” that the beam experiences in IOTA. They were also able to control whether the beam cools in one, two or all three dimensions. Finally, in addition to cooling beams with millions of particles, scientists also ran experiments studying the cooling of a single electron stored in the accelerator.

    “It’s exciting because this is the first cooling technique demonstrated in the optical regime, and this experiment let us study the most the essential physics of the cooling process,” Jarvis said. “We’ve already learned a lot, and now we can add another layer to the experiment that brings us significantly closer to real applications.”

    With the initial experiment completed, the team is developing an improved system at IOTA that will be the key to advancing the technology. It will use an optical amplifier to strengthen the light from each particle by about a factor of 1,000 and apply machine learning to add flexibility to the system.

    “Ultimately, we’ll explore a variety of ways to apply this new technique in particle colliders and beyond,” Jarvis said. “We think it’s very cool.”

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelecton volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.
    __________________________________________________

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota


    __________________________________________________

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 2:00 pm on July 25, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "PIP-II transportation test frame is ready for action", , , Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives or CEA, , In 2025 it will be CEA’s turn to put their own transportation frame to use., Science and Technology Facilities Council in the United Kingdom, Superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator, The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, The first particle accelerator on U.S. soil built with significant contributions from international partners., The linac will be made up of cryomodules which are vessels containing niobium cavities., The STFC will ship the production cryomodules in their own refined version of the shipping frame to Fermilab for the construction of PIP-II.   

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory : “PIP-II transportation test frame is ready for action” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory-an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    July 25, 2022
    Madeleine O’Keefe

    Cryomodules are essential components for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s accelerator complex upgrade, known as the Proton Improvement Plan II, or PIP-II.

    PIP-II features a brand-new, 800-million-electronvolt leading-edge superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator, or linac for short, that will enable Fermilab to produce more than 1 megawatt of beam power, 60% higher than current capabilities. To achieve this groundbreaking feat, the linac will be made up of cryomodules which are vessels containing niobium cavities.

    The first particle accelerator on U.S. soil built with significant contributions from international partners, PIP-II will receive three assembled cryomodules from partners at the Science and Technology Facilities Council in the United Kingdom and nine assembled cryomodules from Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives or CEA, in France.

    Safely transporting these delicate and expensive assembled components to Fermilab will be a major challenge for the PIP-II team. Based on a recent experience where a cryomodule for another experiment was damaged in transit, the team is taking extra precautions to ensure the safe transportation of PIP-II’s cryomodules, including extensive tests of the transportation system.

    1
    The concrete dummy load being lowered into the test frame at the Industrial Center Building. Photo: Mitchell Kane, STFC (UK).

    The first step was to design, build and test a transportation frame that will hold and protect the cryomodules. While PIP-II collaborators at STFC—and later, CEA—will eventually design and build their own frame, a prototype of the STFC frame was built at Fermilab where it will be used to ship a dummy load and prototype cryomodules. This design and validation are a team effort between the three labs, with the results and lessons learned influencing the design of the final shipping frames that will transport the production cryomodules from STFC and CEA to Fermilab.

    “The whole project is working as one to [achieve] one approach for transport,” said Jeremiah Holzbauer, a Fermilab scientist in the PIP-II Technical Integration Office. “We’re all learning through this first process together.”

    Mitchell Kane, a mechanical project engineer at STFC, designed the test frame in close collaboration with Fermilab, who then hired a U.S. company to build the frame.

    The most difficult part of the process, Kane said, was that there isn’t yet a finalized design for the cryomodule that the frame will eventually hold. “You have to have some flexibility in the design. With flexibility, there’s uncertainty,” said Kane.

    The Fermilab team fabricated a dummy load to be a replica of the cryomodule—essentially, concrete blocks with the dimensions, weight and mounting points of the cryomodule. They then demonstrated the complex installation of the dummy load into the test frame and prepared it for transportation tests.

    “We were able to actually have a pretty flawless first-time around of setting this thing up,” said Ryan Thiede, technical specialist for cryomodule assembly. “It turned out pretty well. Everything lined up. We had very few problems, and it seemed like everybody was pretty impressed with the first go-around of the setup.”

    Kane visited Fermilab in late April to oversee the frame assembly and dummy load test. “Because of COVID and everything, I hadn’t seen anything physically for two-and-a-half years. So actually going there and seeing my design in person and it actually [going] together without any problems was probably the best [part of this experience],” he said.

    On April 25, the test frame endured a three-hour highway road test to check the performance of the isolation system, which is designed to cushion the ride of the cryomodule. “It went extremely smoothly. The design is quite good,” said Holzbauer.

    This summer, the test frame holding the dummy load will be shipped to the UK where STFC technicians will disassemble it, put it back together and ship it back to Fermilab. This process will also check the transport logistics, such as customs inspections and airplane loading.

    “If that goes successfully, the transport system is verified,” said Holzbauer.

    Next, PIP-II will use the frame to ship a prototype cryomodule to the UK, which is currently planned for the end of this year. Once there, PIP-II partners at STFC will unload the prototype cryomodule and take it through instrumentation and vacuum checks before sending it back to Fermilab.

    “Once it’s shipped back to us, we’ll test it again and make sure it really still performs as well as it did,” said Holzbauer. “That’s the ultimate proof that we can ship cryomodules. And that basically is the core demonstration [that] we can ship all of our cryomodules.”

    Finally, in a few years’ time, the STFC will ship the production cryomodules in their own refined version of the shipping frame to Fermilab for the construction of PIP-II. Kane said they have already noted some small tweaks in the design that they’ll make to the UK frame.

    Then, in 2025, it will be CEA’s turn to put their own transportation frame to use. Once production begins, the French collaborators plan to ship cryomodules to Fermilab at a pace of one per month.

    Robin Cubizolles, an engineer at CEA and a PIP-II sub-project coordinator for cryomodules and transportation, observed the procedures for the assembly and design of this test frame and said he learned a lot that he will inform the CEA transportation system.

    “I want to thank Fermilab for the good collaboration. [There is] a lot of transparency in every aspect,” said Cubizolles. “For me, it’s my first project with this kind of [collaborative working arrangement], and it’s really nice to see that.”

    For now, the test frame assembly is an example of the successful collaboration of an international team—hopefully, one of many triumphs to come for PIP-II.

    “Working between the technical team here like myself, the instrumentation people here and the partners both at CEA and STFC, I think we made a lot of very good design changes in the pre-planning stage,” said Holzbauer. “We got a lot of our procedures really in line, really vetted, and all the specifications were very clean. They helped us with vendor oversight. And so that all built up to today, when we all came together real smoothly, really clean, very safely, and it all went exactly like we wanted it.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association. Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the The European Southern Observatory [La Observatorio Europeo Austral][Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts a series of fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as The MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment),

    NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance)

    and Seaquest

    .

    Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment).

    The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year.

    SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector.

    The ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.

    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory campus.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA. Photo Reidar Hahn.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryDAMIC | The Fermilab Cosmic Physics Center.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryMuon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Mu2e solenoid.

    The Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and hosts 1000 U.S. scientists who work on the CMS project.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 11:56 am on July 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Black Hole Hunters – A citizen science search for black hole self-lensing", , , , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, , The International European Southern Observatory, , The Science and Technology Facilities Council, The Square Kilometre Array Organization.,   

    From The Royal Astronomical Society (UK): “Black Hole Hunters – A citizen science search for black hole self-lensing” 

    From The Royal Astronomical Society (UK)

    7.11.22

    Media contacts

    Dr Robert Massey
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7292 3979
    Mob: +44 (0)7802 877 699
    nam-press@ras.ac.uk

    Ms Gurjeet Kahlon
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Mob: +44 (0)7802 877700
    nam-press@ras.ac.uk

    Ms Cait Cullen
    Royal Astronomical Society
    nam-press@ras.ac.uk

    Science contacts

    Adam McMaster
    The Open University
    adam.mcmaster@open.ac.uk

    Dr Hugh Dickinson
    The Open University
    hugh.dickinson@open.ac.uk

    Dr Matthew Middleton
    University of Southampton
    m.j.Middleton@soton.ac.uk

    1
    This simulation of a supermassive black hole shows how it distorts the starry background and captures light, producing a black hole silhouettes. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center; background, ESA/Gaia/DPAC.

    A research team from the Open University and the University of Southampton is asking for the public’s help to find some of the most mysterious, elusive objects in the Universe – black holes. By examining data from the SuperWASP survey, the UK’s leading extra-solar planet detection programme, the team hope to detect changes in starlight that may provide evidence for the existence of these black holes.

    The most massive stars explode when they get old, and what is left of the star after the explosion gets condensed into an extremely small area – a black hole. Containing roughly the same amount of mass as our Sun, and compressed into a space that’s only a few miles across, black holes have a very strong gravitational field that nothing – not even light – can escape. Because of this, black holes can be difficult to detect, but they can often be found when material is falling into them – a process known as feeding. Because of their strong gravitational pull, matter falls in so rapidly that it heats up and emits strong X-rays, allowing feeding black holes to be found.

    But not all black holes are feeding. The black holes that the team are trying to detect are hidden because nothing is falling in, so there are no tell-tale x-rays to give them away. Luckily, their gravity can still hint at where they might be. The gravity of a black hole is strong enough that it can bend light from stars, acting like a magnifying glass that makes the star’s light appear brighter for a short period of time.

    The team is looking in an archive of over 10 years’ worth of measurements from the SuperWASP survey, trying to find any stars that have been magnified by black holes. But there are a lot of stars to look at, and this isn’t a job that computers can do.

    Members of the public can join the search by visiting the Black Hole Hunters project site. All you need to do is look at a few simple graphs of how the brightness of stars changed and let the team know if any look like the types of changes they’re looking for.

    Adam McMaster, one of the co-leads of the project, says “I can’t wait to see what we find with the Black Hole Hunters project. The black holes we’re looking for should definitely exist, but none have been found yet. Our search should give us the first hints about how many black holes are quietly orbiting stars, eventually helping us to understand the way such systems form.” He adds, “Finding them is a huge task and it’s not something we could do alone, so it’s great that anyone with access to the Internet will be able to get involved no matter how much they know about astronomy.”

    About The Science and Technology Facilities Council

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) is part of UK Research and Innovation – the UK body which works in partnership with universities, research organizations, businesses, charities, and government to create the best possible environment for research and innovation to flourish. STFC funds and supports research in particle and nuclear physics, astronomy, gravitational research and astrophysics, and space science and also operates a network of five national laboratories, including the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Daresbury Laboratory, as well as supporting UK research at a number of international research facilities including CERN, FERMILAB, the ESO telescopes in Chile and many more.

    STFC’s Astronomy and Space Science programme provides support for a wide range of facilities, research groups and individuals in order to investigate some of the highest priority questions in astrophysics, cosmology and solar system science. STFC’s astronomy and space science programme is delivered through grant funding for research activities, and also through support of technical activities at STFC’s UK Astronomy Technology Centre and RAL Space at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. STFC also supports UK astronomy through The International European Southern Observatory and The Square Kilometre Array Organization.


    About The University of Warwick

    The University of Warwick is one of the world’s leading research institutions, ranked in the UK’s top 10 and world top 80 universities. Since its foundation in 1965 Warwick has established a reputation of scientific excellence, through the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Medicine (which includes WMG and the Warwick Medical School)

    The establishment of the The University of Warwick (UK) was given approval by the government in 1961 and received its Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1965.
    The University initially admitted a small intake of graduate students in 1964 and took its first 450 undergraduates in October 1965. In October 2013, the student population was over 23,000 of which 9,775 are postgraduates. Around a third of the student body comes from overseas and over 120 countries are represented on the campus.
    The University of Warwick is a public research university on the outskirts of Coventry between the West Midlands and Warwickshire, England. The University was founded in 1965 as part of a government initiative to expand higher education. The Warwick Business School was established in 1967, the Warwick Law School in 1968, Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG) in 1980, and Warwick Medical School in 2000. Warwick incorporated Coventry College of Education in 1979 and Horticulture Research International in 2004.
    Warwick is primarily based on a 290 hectares (720 acres) campus on the outskirts of Coventry, with a satellite campus in Wellesbourne and a central London base at the Shard. It is organised into three faculties — Arts, Science Engineering and Medicine, and Social Sciences — within which there are 32 departments. As of 2019, Warwick has around 26,531 full-time students and 2,492 academic and research staff. It had a consolidated income of £679.9 million in 2019/20, of which £131.7 million was from research grants and contracts. Warwick Arts Centre is a multi-venue arts complex in the university’s main campus and is the largest venue of its kind in the UK, which is not in London.

    Warwick has an average intake of 4,950 undergraduates out of 38,071 applicants (7.7 applicants per place).
    Warwick is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities (UK), the Association of MBAs, EQUIS, the European University Association (EU), the Midlands Innovation group, the Russell Group (UK), Sutton 13. It is the only European member of the Center for Urban Science and Progress, a collaboration with New York University. The university has extensive commercial activities, including the University of Warwick Science Park and Warwick Manufacturing Group.
    Warwick’s alumni and staff include winners of the Nobel Prize, Turing Award, Fields Medal, Richard W. Hamming Medal, Emmy Award, Grammy, and the Padma Vibhushan, and are fellows to the British Academy, the Royal Society of Literature, the Royal Academy of Engineering, and the Royal Society. Alumni also include heads of state, government officials, leaders in intergovernmental organizations, and the current chief economist at the Bank of England. Researchers at Warwick have also made significant contributions such as the development of penicillin, music therapy, Washington Consensus, Second-wave feminism, computing standards, including ISO and ECMA, complexity theory, contract theory, and the International Political Economy as a field of study.

    Twentieth century

    The idea for a university in Warwickshire was first mounted shortly after World War II, although it was not founded for a further two decades. A partnership of the city and county councils ultimately provided the impetus for the university to be established on a 400-acre (1.6 km^2) site jointly granted by the two authorities. There was some discussion between local sponsors from both the city and county over whether it should be named after Coventry or Warwickshire. The name “University of Warwick” was adopted, even though Warwick, the county town, lies some 8 miles (13 km) to its southwest and Coventry’s city centre is only 3.5 miles (5.6 km) northeast of the campus. The establishment of the University of Warwick was given approval by the government in 1961 and it received its Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1965. Since then, the university has incorporated the former Coventry College of Education in 1979 and has extended its land holdings by the continuing purchase of adjoining farm land. The university also benefited from a substantial donation from the family of John ‘Jack’ Martin, a Coventry businessman who had made a fortune from investment in Smirnoff vodka, and which enabled the construction of the Warwick Arts Centre.

    The university initially admitted a small intake of graduate students in 1964 and took its first 450 undergraduates in October 1965. Since its establishment Warwick has expanded its grounds to 721 acres (2.9 km^2), with many modern buildings and academic facilities, lakes, and woodlands. In the 1960s and 1970s, Warwick had a reputation as a politically radical institution.

    Under Vice-Chancellor Lord Butterworth, Warwick was the first UK university to adopt a business approach to higher education, develop close links with the business community and exploit the commercial value of its research. These tendencies were discussed by British historian and then-Warwick lecturer, E. P. Thompson, in his 1970 edited book Warwick University Ltd.

    The Leicester Warwick Medical School, a new medical school based jointly at Warwick and University of Leicester (UK), opened in September 2000.

    On the recommendation of Tony Blair, Bill Clinton chose Warwick as the venue for his last major foreign policy address as US President in December 2000. Sandy Berger, Clinton’s National Security Advisor, explaining the decision in a press briefing on 7 December 2000, said that: “Warwick is one of Britain’s newest and finest research universities, singled out by Prime Minister Blair as a model both of academic excellence and independence from the government.”

    Twenty-first century
    The university was seen as a favoured institution of the Labour government during the New Labour years (1997 to 2010). It was academic partner for a number of flagship Government schemes including the National Academy for Gifted and Talented Youth and the NHS University (now defunct). Tony Blair described Warwick as “a beacon among British universities for its dynamism, quality and entrepreneurial zeal”. In a 2012 study by Virgin Media Business, Warwick was described as the most “digitally-savvy” UK university.

    In February 2001, IBM donated a new S/390 computer and software worth £2 million to Warwick, to form part of a “Grid” enabling users to remotely share computing power. In April 2004 Warwick merged with the Wellesbourne and Kirton sites of Horticulture Research International. In July 2004 Warwick was the location for an important agreement between the Labour Party and the trade unions on Labour policy and trade union law, which has subsequently become known as the “Warwick Agreement”.

    In June 2006 the new University Hospital Coventry opened, including a 102,000 sq ft (9,500 m^2) university clinical sciences building. Warwick Medical School was granted independent degree-awarding status in 2007, and the School’s partnership with the University of Leicester was dissolved in the same year. In February 2010, Lord Bhattacharyya, director and founder of the WMG unit at Warwick, made a £1 million donation to the university to support science grants and awards.

    In February 2012 Warwick and Melbourne-based Monash University (AU) announced the formation of a strategic partnership, including the creation of 10 joint senior academic posts, new dual master’s and joint doctoral degrees, and co-ordination of research programmes. In March 2012 Warwick and Queen Mary University of London announced the creation of a strategic partnership, including research collaboration, some joint teaching of English, history and computer science undergraduates, and the creation of eight joint post-doctoral research fellowships.

    In April 2012 it was announced that Warwick would be the only European university participating in the Center for Urban Science and Progress, an applied science research institute to be based in New York consisting of an international consortium of universities and technology companies led by New York University and NYU Tandon School of Engineering.

    In August 2012, Warwick and five other Midlands-based universities — Aston University (UK), the University of Birmingham (UK), the University of Leicester (UK), Loughborough University (UK) and the University of Nottingham — formed the M5 Group, a regional bloc intended to maximise the member institutions’ research income and enable closer collaboration.

    In September 2013 it was announced that a new National Automotive Innovation Centre would be built by WMG at Warwick’s main campus at a cost of £100 million, with £50 million to be contributed by Jaguar Land Rover and £30 million by Tata Motors.

    In July 2014, the government announced that Warwick would be the host for the £1 billion Advanced Propulsion Centre, a joint venture between the Automotive Council and industry. The ten-year programme intends to position the university and the UK as leaders in the field of research into the next generation of automotive technology.

    In September 2015, Warwick celebrated its 50th anniversary (1965–2015) and was designated “University of the Year” by The Times and The Sunday Times.

    Research

    In 2013/14 Warwick had a total research income of £90.1 million, of which £33.9 million was from Research Councils; £25.9 million was from central government, local authorities and public corporations; £12.7 million was from the European Union; £7.9 million was from UK industry and commerce; £5.2 million was from UK charitable bodies; £4.0 million was from overseas sources; and £0.5 million was from other sources.

    In the 2014 UK Research Excellence Framework Warwick was again ranked 7th overall (as 2008) amongst multi-faculty institutions and was the top-ranked university in the Midlands. Some 87% of the University’s academic staff were rated as being in “world-leading” or “internationally excellent” departments with top research ratings of 4* or 3*.

    Warwick is particularly strong in the areas of decision sciences research (economics, finance, management, mathematics and statistics). For instance, researchers of the Warwick Business School have won the highest prize of the prestigious European Case Clearing House (ECCH: the equivalent of the Oscars in terms of management research).

    Warwick has established a number of stand-alone units to manage and extract commercial value from its research activities. The four most prominent examples of these units are University of Warwick Science Park; Warwick HRI; Warwick Ventures (the technology transfer arm of the University); and WMG.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The
    The Royal Astronomical Society is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. Its headquarters are in Burlington House, on Piccadilly in London. The society has over 4,000 members (“Fellows”), most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK.

    The society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, and the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The Royal Astronomical Society publishes the scientific journals MNRAS and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics.

    The Royal Astronomical Society maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognizes achievement in Astronomy and Geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of The Royal Astronomical Society. The Royal Astronomical Society is the UK adhering organization to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council.

    The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were ‘gentleman astronomers’ rather than professionals. It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women.

    One of the major activities of the RAS is publishing refereed journals. It publishes two primary research journals, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society [MNRAS] in astronomy and (in association with The German Geophysical Society [Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft e.V. ](DE)]) the Geophysical Journal International in geophysics. It also publishes the magazine A&G which includes reviews and other articles of wide scientific interest in a ‘glossy’ format. The full list of journals published (both currently and historically) by the RAS, with abbreviations as used for the NASA ADS bibliographic codes is:

    Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (MmRAS): 1822–1977[3]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS): Since 1827
    Geophysical Supplement to Monthly Notices (MNRAS): 1922–1957
    Geophysical Journal (GeoJ): 1958–1988
    Geophysical Journal International (GeoJI): Since 1989 (volume numbering continues from GeoJ)
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society (QJRAS): 1960–1996
    Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G): Since 1997 (volume numbering continues from QJRAS)

    Associated groups

    The RAS sponsors topical groups, many of them in interdisciplinary areas where the group is jointly sponsored by another learned society or professional body:

    The Astrobiology Society of Britain (UK) (with The NASA Astrobiology Institute)
    The Astroparticle Physics Group (with The Institute of Physics – London (UK))
    The Astrophysical Chemistry Group (with The Royal Society of Chemistry)
    The British Geophysical Association (with The Geological Society of London (UK).
    The Magnetosphere Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial group (UK)
    The UK Planetary Forum
    The UK Solar Physics group

     
  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on July 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Happy birthday Higgs boson! What we do and don’t know about the particle", , , , , , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory   

    From “Nature” : “Happy birthday Higgs boson! What we do and don’t know about the particle” 

    From “Nature”

    04 July 2022
    Elizabeth Gibney

    Physicists are celebrating ten years since the Higgs boson’s discovery. But many of its properties remain mysterious.

    On 4 July 2012, physicists at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory, declared victory in their long search for the Higgs boson.

    _______________________________________________
    Higgs


    _______________________________________________

    The elusive particle’s discovery filled in the last gap in the standard model — physicists’ best description of particles and forces — and opened a new window on physics by providing a way to learn about the Higgs field, which involves a previously unstudied kind of interaction that gives particles their masses.

    Since then, researchers at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, have been busy, publishing almost 350 scientific articles about the Higgs boson. Nevertheless, many of the particle’s properties remain a mystery.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    LHC

    LHC

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    ALICE

    CMS

    LHCb


    ___________________________________________________________________

    On the ten-year anniversary of the Higgs boson’s discovery, Nature looks at what it has taught us about the Universe, as well as the big questions that remain.

    5 things scientists have learned.

    The Higgs boson’s mass is 125 billion electronvolts.

    Physicists expected to find the Higgs boson eventually, but they didn’t know when.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelecton volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.]
    __________________________________________________________

    In the 1960s, physicist Peter Higgs and others theorized that what’s now called a Higgs field could explain why the photon has no mass and the W and Z bosons, which carry the weak nuclear force that is behind radioactivity, are heavy (for subatomic particles). The special properties of the Higgs field allowed the same mathematics to account for the masses of all particles, and it became an essential part of the standard model. But the theory made no predictions about the boson’s mass and therefore when the LHC might produce it.

    In the end, the particle emerged much earlier than expected. The LHC started gathering data in its search for the Higgs in 2009, and both ATLAS and CMS, the accelerator’s general-purpose detectors, saw it in 2012. The detectors observed the decay of just a few dozen Higgs bosons into photons, Ws and Zs, which revealed a bump in the data at 125 billion electronvolts (GeV), about 125 times the mass of the proton.

    The Higgs’ mass of 125 GeV puts it in a sweet spot that means the boson decays into a wide range of particles at a frequency high enough for LHC experiments to observe, says Matthew Mccullough, a theoretical physicist at CERN. “It’s very bizarre and probably happenstance, but it just so happens that [at this mass] you can measure loads of different things about the Higgs.”

    The Higgs boson is a spin-zero particle.

    Spin is an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a particle, often pictured as an internal bar magnet. All other known fundamental particles have a spin of 1/2 or 1, but theories predicted that the Higgs should be unique in having a spin of zero (it was also correctly predicted to have zero charge).

    In 2013, CERN experiments studied the angle at which photons produced in Higgs boson decays flew out into the detectors, and used this to show with high probability that the particle had zero spin. Until this had been demonstrated, few physicists were comfortable calling the particle they had found the Higgs, says Ramona Gröber, a theoretical physicist at the University of Padua in Italy.

    The Higgs’ properties rule out some theories that extend the standard model.

    Physicists know that the standard model is not complete. It breaks down at high energies and can’t explain key observations, such as the existence of dark matter or why there is so little antimatter in the Universe. So physicists have come up with extensions to the model that account for these. Discovering the Higgs boson’s 125-GeV mass has made some of these theories less attractive, says Gröber. But the mass is in a grey zone, which means it rules out very little categorically, says Freya Blekman, a particle physicist at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg. “What we have is a particle that’s consistent with more or less anything,” she says.

    The Higgs boson interacts with other particles as the standard model predicts.

    According to the standard model, a particle’s mass depends on how strongly it interacts with the Higgs field. Although the boson — which is like a ripple in the Higgs field — doesn’t have a role in that process, the rate at which Higgs bosons decay into or are produced by any other given particle provides a measure of how strongly that particle interacts with the field. LHC experiments have confirmed that — at least for the heaviest particles, produced most frequently in Higgs decays — mass is proportional to interaction with the field, a remarkable win for a 60-year-old theory.

    The Universe is stable — but only just.

    Calculations using the mass of the Higgs boson suggest that the Universe might be only temporarily stable, and there’s a vanishingly small chance that it could shift into a lower energy state — with catastrophic consequences.

    Unlike other known fields, the Higgs field has a lowest energy state above zero even in a vacuum, and it pervades the entire Universe. According to the standard model, this ‘ground state’ depends on how particles interact with the field. Soon after physicists discovered the Higgs boson’s mass, theorists used the value (alongside other measurements) to predict that there also exists a lower, more preferable energy state.

    Shifting to this other state would require it to overcome an enormous energy barrier, says Mccullough, and the probability of this happening is so small that it is unlikely to occur on the timescale of the lifetime of the Universe. “Our doomsday will be much sooner, for other reasons,” says Mccullough.

    5 things scientists still want to know.

    Can we make Higgs measurements more precise?

    So far, the Higgs boson’s properties — such as its interaction strength — match those predicted by the standard model, but with an uncertainty of around 10%. This is not good enough to show the subtle differences predicted by new physics theories, which are only slightly different from the standard model, says Blekman.

    More data will increase the precision of these measurements and the LHC has collected just one-twentieth of the total amount of information it is expected to gather. Seeing hints of new phenomena in precision studies is more likely than directly observing a new particle, says Daniel de Florian, a theoretical physicist at the National University of San Martín in Argentina. “For the next decade or more, the name of the game is precision.”

    Does the Higgs interact with lighter particles?

    Until now, the Higgs boson’s interactions have seemed to fit with the standard model, but physicists have seen it decay into only the heaviest matter particles, such as the bottom quark. Physicists now want to check whether it interacts in the same way with particles from lighter families, known as generations. In 2020, CMS and ATLAS saw one such interaction — the rare decay of a Higgs to a second-generation cousin of the electron called the muon1. Although this is evidence that the relationship between mass and interaction strength holds for lighter particles, physicists need more data to confirm it.

    Does the Higgs interact with itself?

    The Higgs boson has mass, so it should interact with itself. But such interactions — for example, the decay of an energetic Higgs boson to two less energetic ones — are extremely rare, because all the particles involved are so heavy. ATLAS and CMS hope to find hints of the interactions after a planned upgrade to the LHC from 2026, but conclusive evidence will probably take a more powerful collider.

    The rate of this self-interaction is crucial to understanding the Universe, says Mccullough. The probability of self-interaction is determined by how the Higgs field’s potential energy changes near its minimum, which describes conditions just after the Big Bang. So knowing about the Higgs self-interaction could help scientists to understand the dynamics of the early Universe, says Mccullough. Gröber notes that many theories that try to explain how matter somehow became more abundant than antimatter require Higgs self-interactions that diverge from the standard model’s prediction by as much as 30%. “I can’t emphasize enough how important” this measurement is, says Mccullough.

    What is the Higgs boson’s lifetime?

    Physicists want to know the lifetime of the Higgs — how long, on average, it sticks around before decaying to other particles — because any deviation from predictions could point to interactions with unknown particles, such as those that make up dark matter. But its lifetime is too small to measure directly.

    To measure it indirectly, physicists look at the spread, or ‘width’, of the particle’s energy over multiple measurements (quantum physics says that uncertainty in the particle’s energy should be inversely related to its lifetime). Last year, CMS physicists produced their first rough measurement of the Higgs’ lifetime: 2.1 × 10^−22 seconds2. The results suggest that the lifetime is consistent with the standard model.

    Are any exotic predictions true?

    Some theories that extend the standard model predict that the Higgs boson is not fundamental, but — like the proton — is made up of other particles. Others predict that there are multiple Higgs bosons, which behave similarly but differ, for example, in charge or spin. As well as checking whether the Higgs is truly a standard-model particle, LHC experiments will look for properties predicted by other theories, including decays into forbidden particle combinations.

    Physicists are just at the beginning of their efforts to understand the Higgs field, whose unique nature makes it “behave like a portal to new physics”, says de Florian. “There is a lot of room for excitement here.”

    References:

    The CMS collaboration et al. J. High Energ. Phys. 2021, 148 (2021).

    The CMS collaboration in Nature Physics.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Nature” is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:05 am on July 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "10 years later Higgs boson discoverers publish refined measurements", , , , , , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory   

    From “Symmetry”: “10 years later Higgs boson discoverers publish refined measurements” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From “Symmetry”

    07/06/22
    Madeleine O’Keefe

    1
    Courtesy of Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Corinne Mucha.

    In new papers by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations, physicists detail high-precision results from Higgs boson studies—but no new physics (yet).

    Particle physics changed forever on July 4, 2012. That was the day the two major physics experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, CMS and ATLAS, jointly announced the discovery of a particle that matched the properties of the Higgs boson—a particle theorized decades earlier. The discovery cemented the final piece in the Standard Model of particle physics.
    _______________________________________________
    Higgs


    _______________________________________________

    In the decade since, physicists on CMS and ATLAS have studied the Higgs boson doggedly, probing its properties and teasing out its secrets.

    Today, on the 10-year anniversary of the Higgs discovery, CMS and ATLAS have released comprehensive new measurements of this particle in a special edition of the journal Nature [This special article will be posted here]. Both collaborations have measured properties of the Higgs boson more precisely than ever before, but neither has uncovered any surprises—yet.

    “The particle that was discovered [in 2012] looks more and more like the Standard Model Higgs boson,” says Kétévi Assamagan, an ATLAS physicist at the US Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory who was convener for the experiment’s Higgs group from 2008-2010. “Nevertheless, there is room for new physics.”

    “What’s really surprising is how well the experiments have measured these properties,” says Sally Dawson, a theorist at Brookhaven and author of the book The Higgs Hunter’s Guide. “We would have never guessed it … It’s truly phenomenal.

    “Now we know a whole lot about the Higgs, because particle physics predicted how the Higgs would be produced, how it would decay, the signatures that we would see. And it appears to be that it’s happening just the way it’s predicted.”

    Liza Brost is an ATLAS physicist who has been studying the Higgs boson since its discovery—literally. (She started working at CERN on July 3, 2012.) “It’s really fun to have this new particle that we can analyze in detail and see what it is, how it behaves,” says Brost, who now works for Brookhaven.

    Daniel Guerrero, a CMS researcher at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, agrees: “After we discovered the Higgs boson, it’s like a complete new field of exploration opened for experiments at the LHC.”
    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelecton volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.]
    __________________________________________________________

    In the last 10 years, the LHC completed its second run of data-taking, called Run 2. During this time, the collision energy was raised from 8 teraelectronvolts to 13 TeV, increasing the rate of Higgs production and resulting in much more data for the experiments to collect and analyze.

    For example, ATLAS estimates that about 9 million Higgs bosons were produced in the ATLAS detector during Run 2—30 times more than in 2012 (though they only analyze a fraction of that number).

    In the last decade, “the Higgs boson has only gotten ‘bigger,’” says Fermilab CMS researcher Nicholas Smith, speaking metaphorically (the Higgs boson mass remains approximately 125 GeV, now measured to a precision of 0.1%). “We’ve only gotten better and better at seeing it.”

    Precision measurements

    Higgs bosons are created by accelerating beams of protons around the LHC’s 17-mile-circumference circular tunnel at close to the speed of light. Two beams travel in opposite directions and collide at four points along the ring, including at the CMS and ATLAS detectors. The collisions trigger the formation of new particles that interact—sometimes turning into Higgs bosons.

    Studying the combinations of particles that can create a Higgs boson—called production channels or modes—and the particles into which it decays—called decay modes—gives physicists a better understanding of the particle.

    The new CMS and ATLAS results were obtained by combining several separate analyses of Higgs boson production modes and their corresponding decay modes.

    “The combination is basically taking the division of labor [by separate analyses] and then recombining it into something that is interpretable as one physics result,” says Smith, who is a co-convener of the CMS Higgs combination group. “The more [decay modes] you can cover, the more stringent limits you can place on the way the Higgs production behaves, and vice versa: The more production modes you look at, the more you can place stringent constraints on how it decays.”

    Some of the key measurements include how the Higgs interacts with other particles. These interactions, or couplings, are part of the mechanism by which the Higgs gives mass to other fundamental particles.

    The ATLAS collaboration measured the Higgs couplings to the top quark, bottom quark and tau lepton with uncertainties ranging from about 7% to 12%, as well as the couplings to the W and Z bosons with uncertainties of about 5%.

    Many of the Higgs properties reported in the CMS paper were measured with accuracies better than 10%, a major improvement from their 20% uncertainties in 2012.

    All the new CMS and ATLAS measurements were consistent with predictions of the Standard Model within uncertainties. But that doesn’t mean there’s no new physics to be found, says Guerrero. “There is physics in the other beyond-Standard-Model theories that still can be hidden within those uncertainties, so that’s not a stopper,” he says. “Actually, we want to go further to see if, after we go to a higher precision, we can start to see deviations.”

    Room for discovery

    Indeed, there is plenty of room for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, as some of the Higgs boson’s key properties remain to be measured by both CMS and ATLAS. These include some of its rare decay modes and the coupling of the Higgs boson to itself.

    This Higgs boson self-coupling is a phenomenon intensely studied by CMS and ATLAS, both of which set constraints on it in their new papers. It’s also related to Higgs pair production, an extremely rare interaction in which two Higgs bosons, instead of just one, are created in a single production channel; CMS and ATLAS also established new limits on the probability of this process taking place, but did not observe it.

    Eventually observing Higgs self-coupling and Higgs pair production will allow physicists to better understand a property called the Higgs potential. This property of the field generated by the Higgs “has connections to the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe, electroweak symmetry breaking, baryogenesis—all of these huge questions that we usually don’t even get close to touching on in our line of work,” says Brost.

    Now, though, physicists are looking forward to the data to be collected during LHC Run 3, which began July 5 and will last for close to four years. They all agree that the next steps for Higgs research require more data—and lots of it.

    With more data, the experimental measurements can become even more precise, and that will push theorists to calculate their predictions more precisely as well, says Dawson. One day, if a more-precise prediction diverges from the experimental measurements of the Higgs boson, it could point to new physics.

    “The discovery of the Higgs allowed us to have a bit of direction,” says Assamagan. “In the process as well, we have come up with better techniques for doing analyses [and] we’ve improved our understanding of the detectors. So, a lot of progress has been made. And I think we are certainly in a better position now to discover new physics if it is there.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 8:32 am on July 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers model accelerator magnets' history using machine learning approach", , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: “Researchers model accelerator magnets’ history using machine learning approach” 

    From The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    June 15, 2022 [JUst today in social media.]
    David Krause

    Knowing a magnet’s past will allow scientists to customize particle beams more precisely in the future. As accelerators stretch for higher levels of performance, understanding subtle effects, such as those introduced by magnetic history, is becoming more critical.

    After a long day of work, you might feel tired or exhilarated. Either way, you are affected by what happened to you in the past.

    Accelerator magnets are no different. What they went through – or what went through them, like an electric current – affects how they will perform in the future.

    Without understanding a magnet’s past, researchers might need to fully reset them before starting a new experiment, a process that can take 10 or 15 minutes. Some accelerators have hundreds of magnets, and the process can quickly become time-consuming and costly.

    Now a team of researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and other institutions have developed a powerful mathematical technique that uses concepts from machine learning to model a magnet’s previous states and make predictions about future states. This new approach eliminates the need to reset the magnets and results in improvements in accelerator performance immediately.

    “Our technique fundamentally changes how we predict magnetic fields inside accelerators, which could improve the performance of accelerators across the world,” SLAC associate scientist Ryan Roussel said. “If the history of a magnet isn’t well-known, it will be difficult to make future control decisions to create the specific beam that you need for an experiment.”

    The team’s model looks at an important property of magnets known as hysteresis, which can be thought of as residual, or leftover, magnetism. Hysteresis is like the leftover hot water in your shower pipes after you have turned the hot water off. Your shower will not immediately become cold – the hot water that is left in the pipes must flow out of the showerhead before only cold water is left.

    “Hysteresis makes tuning magnets challenging,” SLAC associate scientist Auralee Edelen said. “The same settings in a magnet that resulted in one beam size yesterday might result in a different beam size today due to the effect of hysteresis.”

    The team’s new model removes the need to reset magnets as often and can enable both machine operators and automated tuning algorithms to quickly see their present state, making what was once invisible visible, Edelen said.

    Ten years ago, many accelerators did not need to consider sensitivity to hysteresis errors, but with more precise facilities like SLAC’s LCLS-II coming online, predicting residual magnetism is more critical than ever, Roussel said.

    The hysteresis model could also help smaller accelerator facilities, which might not have as many researchers and engineers to reset magnets, run higher-precision experiments. The team hopes to implement the method across a full set of magnets at an accelerator facility and demonstrate an improvement in predictive accuracy on an operational accelerator.

    This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The SLAC Metrology group and the Advanced Photon Source also supported this work.

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California. It is the site of the Stanford Linear Accelerator, a 3.2 kilometer (2-mile) linear accelerator constructed in 1966 and shut down in the 2000s, which could accelerate electrons to energies of 50 GeV.
    Today SLAC research centers on a broad program in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and a free-electron laser as well as experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics, astroparticle physics, and cosmology.

    Founded in 1962 as the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the facility is located on 172 hectares (426 acres) of Stanford University-owned land on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California—just west of the University’s main campus. The main accelerator is 3.2 kilometers (2 mi) long—the longest linear accelerator in the world—and has been operational since 1966.

    Research at SLAC has produced three Nobel Prizes in Physics

    1976: The charm quark—see J/ψ meson
    1990: Quark structure inside protons and neutrons
    1995: The tau lepton

    SLAC’s meeting facilities also provided a venue for the Homebrew Computer Club and other pioneers of the home computer revolution of the late 1970s and early 1980s.

    In 1984 the laboratory was named an ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark and an IEEE Milestone.

    SLAC developed and, in December 1991, began hosting the first World Wide Web server outside of Europe.

    In the early-to-mid 1990s, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) investigated the properties of the Z boson using the Stanford Large Detector [below].

    As of 2005, SLAC employed over 1,000 people, some 150 of whom were physicists with doctorate degrees, and served over 3,000 visiting researchers yearly, operating particle accelerators for high-energy physics and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) [below] for synchrotron light radiation research, which was “indispensable” in the research leading to the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Stanford Professor Roger D. Kornberg.

    In October 2008, the Department of Energy announced that the center’s name would be changed to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The reasons given include a better representation of the new direction of the lab and the ability to trademark the laboratory’s name. Stanford University had legally opposed the Department of Energy’s attempt to trademark “Stanford Linear Accelerator Center”.

    In March 2009, it was announced that the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was to receive $68.3 million in Recovery Act Funding to be disbursed by Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    In October 2016, Bits and Watts launched as a collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University to design “better, greener electric grids”. SLAC later pulled out over concerns about an industry partner, the state-owned Chinese electric utility.

    Accelerator

    The main accelerator was an RF linear accelerator that accelerated electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV. At 3.2 km (2.0 mi) long, the accelerator was the longest linear accelerator in the world, and was claimed to be “the world’s most straight object.” until 2017 when the European x-ray free electron laser opened. The main accelerator is buried 9 m (30 ft) below ground and passes underneath Interstate Highway 280. The above-ground klystron gallery atop the beamline, was the longest building in the United States until the LIGO project’s twin interferometers were completed in 1999. It is easily distinguishable from the air and is marked as a visual waypoint on aeronautical charts.

    A portion of the original linear accelerator is now part of the Linac Coherent Light Source [below].

    Stanford Linear Collider

    The Stanford Linear Collider was a linear accelerator that collided electrons and positrons at SLAC. The center of mass energy was about 90 GeV, equal to the mass of the Z boson, which the accelerator was designed to study. Grad student Barrett D. Milliken discovered the first Z event on 12 April 1989 while poring over the previous day’s computer data from the Mark II detector. The bulk of the data was collected by the SLAC Large Detector, which came online in 1991. Although largely overshadowed by the Large Electron–Positron Collider at CERN, which began running in 1989, the highly polarized electron beam at SLC (close to 80%) made certain unique measurements possible, such as parity violation in Z Boson-b quark coupling.


    Presently no beam enters the south and north arcs in the machine, which leads to the Final Focus, therefore this section is mothballed to run beam into the PEP2 section from the beam switchyard.

    The SLAC Large Detector (SLD) was the main detector for the Stanford Linear Collider. It was designed primarily to detect Z bosons produced by the accelerator’s electron-positron collisions. Built in 1991, the SLD operated from 1992 to 1998.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Large Detector

    PEP

    PEP (Positron-Electron Project) began operation in 1980, with center-of-mass energies up to 29 GeV. At its apex, PEP had five large particle detectors in operation, as well as a sixth smaller detector. About 300 researchers made used of PEP. PEP stopped operating in 1990, and PEP-II began construction in 1994.

    PEP-II

    From 1999 to 2008, the main purpose of the linear accelerator was to inject electrons and positrons into the PEP-II accelerator, an electron-positron collider with a pair of storage rings 2.2 km (1.4 mi) in circumference. PEP-II was host to the BaBar experiment, one of the so-called B-Factory experiments studying charge-parity symmetry.

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryBaBar

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratorySSRL

    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SLAC plays a primary role in the mission and operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in August 2008. The principal scientific objectives of this mission are:

    To understand the mechanisms of particle acceleration in AGNs, pulsars, and SNRs.
    To resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emission.
    To determine the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients.
    To probe dark matter and fundamental physics.

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationFermi Large Area Telescope

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationFermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

    KIPAC


    KIPAC campus

    The Stanford PULSE Institute (PULSE) is a Stanford Independent Laboratory located in the Central Laboratory at SLAC. PULSE was created by Stanford in 2005 to help Stanford faculty and SLAC scientists develop ultrafast x-ray research at LCLS.

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)[below] is a free electron laser facility located at SLAC. The LCLS is partially a reconstruction of the last 1/3 of the original linear accelerator at SLAC, and can deliver extremely intense x-ray radiation for research in a number of areas. It achieved first lasing in April 2009.

    The laser produces hard X-rays, 10^9 times the relative brightness of traditional synchrotron sources and is the most powerful x-ray source in the world. LCLS enables a variety of new experiments and provides enhancements for existing experimental methods. Often, x-rays are used to take “snapshots” of objects at the atomic level before obliterating samples. The laser’s wavelength, ranging from 6.2 to 0.13 nm (200 to 9500 electron volts (eV)) is similar to the width of an atom, providing extremely detailed information that was previously unattainable. Additionally, the laser is capable of capturing images with a “shutter speed” measured in femtoseconds, or million-billionths of a second, necessary because the intensity of the beam is often high enough so that the sample explodes on the femtosecond timescale.

    The LCLS-II [below] project is to provide a major upgrade to LCLS by adding two new X-ray laser beams. The new system will utilize the 500 m (1,600 ft) of existing tunnel to add a new superconducting accelerator at 4 GeV and two new sets of undulators that will increase the available energy range of LCLS. The advancement from the discoveries using this new capabilities may include new drugs, next-generation computers, and new materials.

    FACET

    In 2012, the first two-thirds (~2 km) of the original SLAC LINAC were recommissioned for a new user facility, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET). This facility was capable of delivering 20 GeV, 3 nC electron (and positron) beams with short bunch lengths and small spot sizes, ideal for beam-driven plasma acceleration studies. The facility ended operations in 2016 for the constructions of LCLS-II which will occupy the first third of the SLAC LINAC. The FACET-II project will re-establish electron and positron beams in the middle third of the LINAC for the continuation of beam-driven plasma acceleration studies in 2019.

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryFACET

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory FACET-II upgrading its Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) – a test bed for new technologies that could revolutionize the way we build particle accelerators.

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is a 60-120 MeV high-brightness electron beam linear accelerator used for experiments on advanced beam manipulation and acceleration techniques. It is located at SLAC’s end station B

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryNext Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA)

    DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory campus

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryLCLS

    SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryLCLS II projected view

    Magnets called undulators stretch roughly 100 meters down a tunnel at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, with one side (right) producing hard x-rays and the other soft x-rays.

    SSRL and LCLS are DOE Office of Science user facilities.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:27 am on July 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CERN’s Higgs boson discovery:: The pinnacle of international scientific collaboration?", , , , , , , , , The DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory   

    From “Physics Today” : “CERN’s Higgs boson discovery:: The pinnacle of international scientific collaboration?” 

    Physics Today bloc

    From “Physics Today”

    30 Jun 2022
    Michael Riordan

    Decades of effort to establish a global, scientist-managed high-energy-physics laboratory culminated in the discovery of the final missing piece of the discipline’s standard model.


    Credit: Abigail Malate for Physics Today

    Ten years ago, two of the largest scientific collaborations ever—spanning six continents and encompassing more than 60 nations—announced their discovery at CERN of the long-sought Higgs boson, the capstone of the standard model.

    Physicists from all the countries involved could take well-earned credit for what will surely stand as one of the 21st century’s greatest scientific breakthroughs. It was a remarkable diplomatic achievement, too, at a moment of relative world peace, perhaps the pinnacle of international scientific cooperation. And it would not have been possible without a series of farsighted decisions and actions.

    _______________________________________________
    Higgs


    _______________________________________________
    Part of CERN’s success as a citadel of modern physics is due to the early-1950s decision to establish it in Geneva, Switzerland, a city and nation widely recognized for cosmopolitanism and political neutrality. Many thousands of scientists of diverse nationalities, not just Europeans, have eagerly pursued high-energy-physics research in this highly appealing environment, given its many cultural amenities—plus world-class hiking, mountain climbing, and skiing in the nearby Alps.

    CERN grew steadily during more than five decades of increasingly important high-energy-physics research, reusing existing accelerators and colliders wherever possible in the construction of new facilities. It gradually developed a talented, cohesive staff that could effectively manage the difficult construction of the multibillion-euro Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its four gigantic detectors: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    LHC

    LHC

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    ALICE

    CMS

    LHCb


    ___________________________________________________________________

    After the 1993 demise of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), CERN leaders decided to pursue construction of the LHC, but they realized they needed to attract significant funds for the project from beyond Europe. That transformation—effectively to make it a “world laboratory”—required extending its organizational framework and lab culture to embrace those contributions and the large contingents of non-European physicists that would accompany them.

    Given that accomplishment, CERN will likely remain the focus of world high-energy physics as the discipline begins building the next generation of particle colliders.

    Especially after the savage Russian invasion of Ukraine and the looming bifurcation of the world order, the lab now offers an island of stability in a global sea of uncertainty. National governments require strong assurances that the money and equipment they send abroad for scientific megaprojects are being well managed on behalf of their scientists and citizenry. In that regard, CERN has a remarkably robust, decades-long track record.

    Funding international collaborations

    Establishing a vigorous, productive laboratory culture does not happen overnight. It requires years, if not decades. In the late 1980s, SSC proponents failed to appreciate that essential process. Rather than electing to build their gargantuan new collider in Illinois adjacent to Fermilab and adapt the lab’s existing Tevatron to serve as a proton injector, they selected a new, “green field” site just south of Dallas, Texas.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelecton volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.]
    __________________________________________________________

    Other factors were involved in the project’s collapse, too, among them the internecine politics of Washington, DC (see my article, Physics Today, October 2016, page 48). But mismanagement of the project (whether real or perceived) by a contentious, untested organization of accelerator physicists and military managers contributed heavily to the SSC’s October 1993 termination by the US Congress.

    When the US quest to build the SSC finally ended, CERN was ready to push ahead with plans for its fledgling LHC project—and to make it a global endeavor. Whereas the SSC project had severe difficulty in securing foreign contributions for building the collider, CERN reached beyond its 19 European member states for contributions to the LHC. By the time the CERN Council gave conditional approval to proceed with the project in December 1994, the lab could anticipate sufficient funding from Europe for an initial construction phase based on a proposed “missing magnet” scheme: Just two-thirds of the proton collider’s superconducting dipole magnets would at first be installed in the existing 27 km tunnel of the Large Electron–Positron (LEP) Collider after its physics research ended. Some doubted whether the scheme was feasible, but it permitted the project to begin hardly a year after the SSC termination. And CERN then opened the door to additional contributions from nonmember states that would allow LHC construction to occur in a single phase.

    In May 1995 Japan became the first non-European nation to offer a major contribution to LHC construction, committing a total of 5 billion yen (then worth about 65 million Swiss francs or $50 million). Russia made a similar commitment the following year, mainly for the construction of the LHC detectors. Canada, China, India, and Israel soon followed suit (although with smaller contributions). The US—still smarting from the SSC debacle—took longer. After lengthy negotiations with the Department of Energy and Congress, CERN director general Christopher Llewellyn Smith finally succeeded in securing a major US commitment worth $531 million in December 1997, including $200 million for collider construction. The US, Japan, and Russia were granted special “observer” status on the CERN Council, giving them a say in LHC management.

    Russia provides an excellent case history of the negotiations and agreements involved in extending CERN participation to include nonmember states. Soviet and Russian physicists had been involved in research there since the mid 1970s, when they began working on fixed-target experiments on the Super Proton Synchrotron.

    In the early 1990s, Russian physicists made major contributions to the design of the CMS detector for the LHC, for which the RDMS (Russia and Dubna member states) collaboration, led by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, played a formative role.

    4
    Cutaway view of the original Compact Muon Solenoid, or CMS, detector. Credit: CERN.

    The total cost of materials and equipment produced in Russia for the CMS has been estimated at $15 million, with part of the amount provided by CERN and its member states. Russian institutes contributed a similar value of equipment and materials to the ATLAS experiment—again funded partly by CERN and its member states. Hundreds of Russian physicists have since been involved in both experiments.

    And those globe-spanning experimental collaborations benefited extensively from the creation and development of the World Wide Web at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee.

    By the time CERN shut down the LEP in November 2000 and began full-fledged LHC construction, the lab had effectively been transformed from a European center for high-energy physics into a world laboratory for the discipline. The “globalization” of high-energy physics was off to a good start.

    A crucial aspect of that global scientific laboratory is the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, a multitier system of more than 150 computers linked by high-speed internet and private fiber-optic cables designed to cope with the torrent of information being generated by the LHC detectors—typically many terabytes of data daily. Initial event processing occurs on CERN mainframe computers, which send the results to 13 regional academic institutions (Fermilab and JINR, for example) for further processing and distribution. The grid enables experimenters to do much of the data analysis at their home institutions, supplemented by occasional in-person visits to CERN to interact directly with collaborators and detector hardware. In addition, thousands of these physicists make extensive use of the World Wide Web to share designs, R&D efforts, and initial results as well as to draft scientific articles for publication.

    CERN has been able to establish a successful laboratory culture, conducive to the best possible work by thousands of high-energy physicists, because the lab has essentially complete control of its budget, which exceeded a billion Swiss francs annually as the new century began. Accommodations have been made for specific national needs (for example, the costs of German reunification), but the resulting budget remains under CERN auspices. Important decisions are made by physicists—not bureaucrats or politicians—who better appreciate the ramifications of those decisions for the quality of the scientific research to be done. Contrary to the case of the SSC, meddlesome military managers were not involved.

    Discovering the Higgs boson

    Scientists’ control of their own workplace, which begins with laboratory design and construction and continues into its management and operations, is an important factor in doing successful research. When a meltdown of dozens of superconducting dipole magnets occurred shortly after LHC commissioning began in September 2008, for example, it was a crack team of CERN accelerator physicists who dealt with and solved the utterly challenging problem, taking more than a year to bring the machine back to life. Protons finally began colliding in November 2009, albeit at a reduced collision energy of 7 TeV and at very low luminosity (collision rate).

    Serious data taking began in 2011, as LHC operators nudged the luminosity steadily higher and proton collisions began to surge in. By year’s end, both the ATLAS and CMS experiments were experiencing small excesses of two-photon and four-lepton events—the decay channels expected to give the clearest indication of Higgs boson production—in the vicinity of 125 GeV. But both collaborations stopped short of claiming its discovery.

    When similar excesses appeared in the experiments during the spring 2012 run, their confidence swelled—especially after combinations of the two-photon and four-lepton events exceeded the rigorous five-sigma statistical significance required in high-energy physics. I was fortunate to be present at CERN (if a little groggy from jet lag) when that crucial threshold was crossed in late June by a group of ATLAS experimenters, many hailing from China and the US, who began noisily celebrating in an adjacent office. (See the accompanying essay by Sau Lan Wu.)

    The 4 July 2012 CERN press conference announcing the Higgs discovery—timed to coincide with the opening day of the 36th International Conference on High Energy Physics in Melbourne, Australia—was televised around the globe to rapt physicist audiences on at least six continents. Americans had to awaken in the early morning hours of their nation’s 236th birthday to watch the proceedings. In the packed auditorium, along with former CERN directors (including Llewellyn Smith) and current managers sitting prominently and proudly in the front row, sat theorists François Englert and Peter Higgs, who would soon share the Nobel Prize in physics for anticipating this epochal discovery (see Physics Today, December 2013, page 10). “I think we have it,” stated CERN director general Rolf-Dieter Heuer after the ATLAS and CMS presentations, perhaps a bit guardedly. “We have observed a new particle consistent with a Higgs boson.”

    5
    At the Higgs discovery announcement, CERN Director General Rolf Heuer congratulates François Englert and Peter Higgs, who would later receive the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical description of the origin of mass—which was confirmed by the Higgs boson detection.

    It was certainly a European triumph, a vindication of the continent’s patient and enduring support of science—but also a triumph for the global physics community. Both the ATLAS and CMS collaborations then involved about 3000 physicists. ATLAS physicists hailed from 177 institutions in 38 nations; CMS included 182 institutions in 40 nations. Physicists from Brazil, Canada, China, India, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, and the US, among many other nations, could rejoice in the superb achievement, along with those from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and other CERN member states.

    If the Higgs boson discovery does not represent the pinnacle of international scientific cooperation, it surely sets a high standard. It will be a difficult one to match in the coming decades, given the conflicts and cleavages that have been erupting since Russia’s brutal Ukraine invasion. Russian scientific institutes have been at least temporarily excluded from future CERN projects—and the ban may well become permanent. And the costs of European rearmament could easily impact the CERN budget in the coming years. The first two decades of the 21st century will certainly represent a special moment in history when so many nations could work together peacefully in a common scientific pursuit of the greatest significance.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Our mission

    The mission of ”Physics Today” is to be a unifying influence for the diverse areas of physics and the physics-related sciences.

    It does that in three ways:

    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of physical science research and its applications without regard to disciplinary boundaries;
    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of the often complex interactions of the physical sciences with each other and with other spheres of human endeavor; and
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