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  • richardmitnick 10:07 am on May 25, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DLR presents tech­nolo­gies for de­car­bon­i­sa­tion in the en­er­gy and in­dus­tri­al and mo­bil­i­ty sec­tors", Hannover Messe 2022, Insights into its research for a climate-friendly energy supply system and for the decarbonization of industry and mobility., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “DLR presents tech­nolo­gies for de­car­bon­i­sa­tion in the en­er­gy and in­dus­tri­al and mo­bil­i­ty sec­tors” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    5.25.22

    At the Hannover Messe 2022, DLR will provide insights into its research for a climate-friendly energy supply system and for the decarbonisation of industry and mobility.
    The focus is on technologies, innovations and transfer and spin-off projects.
    Focus: Energy, energy storage, hydrogen, decarbonisation, emission-free flight, digitalisation, technology transfer

    1
    Evora Molten Salt PLatform

    2
    High-temperature Heat Pump

    3
    Krummendeich Research Wind Farm

    4
    Fuel Cell Cargo Bicycle

    5
    Electrisity Based Fuels for Climate Friendly Mobility

    The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) will be presenting technologies, innovations and successful transfer and spin-off projects at Hannover Messe 2022. From 30 May to 2 June, at the 120-square-metre stand (Energy Solutions, Hall 13, D18), visitors will be able to gain an insight into DLR’s research for a future climate-friendly energy supply system and for the decarbonization of industrial processes and mobility.

    “Every day, new technologies emerge and valuable expertise is gained at DLR in the field of applied science. Together with partners from industry – from small and medium-sized companies to start-ups and global corporations – DLR brings these from the laboratory into practical use,” says Karsten Lemmer, the DLR Executive Board member responsible for ‘Innovation, Transfer and Research Infrastructure’. He will present selected projects during the live event (31 May 2022, 12:00 CEST, livestream) and will be available to answer questions.

    Solar thermal with salt – for low-cost and controllable electricity from renewable sources

    With the Évora Molten Salt Platform (EMSP), DLR is operating a unique test facility together with the Portuguese University of Évora and European industrial partners. The goal is to further develop the technologies of solar thermal power plants and make them more competitive. To achieve this, the partners are using molten salt as a heat transfer medium instead of thermal oil. The advantage of molten salt is that it is more cost-effective and enables higher operating temperatures. This means that electricity can be provided up to 20 percent cheaper. Solar thermal power plants use concentrated sunlight to first generate heat and then electricity. They are one of the few options currently available for producing power using renewable resources in a continuous and controllable way. During a live event at the DLR stand (31 May 2022, 10:00 CEST, livestream), a direct link will be established to Portugal, which will broadcast an overview of the plant and short interviews with the researchers on site.

    Technologies for low-carbon-dioxide industrial processes – process heat from renewable sources

    Many industrial processes and plants require heat at high temperatures – which, at present, are often still generated using fossil fuels. Together with industry, DLR is working on solutions to use renewable sources in the future and thus substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions. These solutions include a prototype of a special high-temperature heat pump in Cottbus and a pilot plant that is being constructed in Italy. This will supply a factory operated by the Italian pasta manufacturer Barilla with process heat generated by renewable solar power around the clock. The centrepiece is a special radiation receiver in a solar tower power plant. This receiver works with ceramic particles that are heated to temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius. The receiver system is manufactured by the company Heliogen under a DLR licence.

    Wind energy research – on a large scale

    The DLR stand at the Hannover Messe also provides an exclusive insight into the wind energy research farm WiValdi (Wind Validation), which is currently under construction. This unique test infrastructure will enable wind energy research on full-size equipment – for DLR and partners from science and industry. The common goal is to make wind power more efficient, more cost-effective and quieter – as one of the pillars of a reliable and sustainable energy system. Using an instrumented rotor blade model, visitors to the DLR stand can experience and explore for themselves the forces and effects acting on the rotor blade of a wind turbine. Multimedia exhibits show data from the research park, convey the structure and focal points, and provide an insight into the production of rotor blades by DLR’s industrial partner in the Hannover Messe partner country Portugal.

    Climate-friendly mobility – bringing power-based fuels into use

    Electricity-based fuels – also referred to as e-fuels or Power-to-Liquid (PtL) fuels – are liquid fuels. To produce them, carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen obtained using renewable electricity for electrolysis are used. In addition to alternative powertrains and further improvement options, power-based fuels are necessary to achieve climate protection targets in road transport and shipping. They are also indispensable for emission-free air transport – particularly on medium- and long-haul routes, where there are currently no technological alternatives. DLR is working with partners from industry and research to transfer the manufacturing processes from the laboratory – with the help of demonstration and pilot plants – to an industrial scale. This ‘scaling up’ is an essential step to make the technology suitable for industrial use and to be able to produce the large quantities required.

    Industrialization of hydrogen technologies

    Whether for energy, mobility or industry – hydrogen technologies will play a central role in all three sectors in order to produce less carbon dioxide. At the Hannover Messe, DLR is showing a fuel-cell-powered cargo bicycle that will be used primarily for delivering packages in inner cities. Compared to other powertrain technologies such as batteries, it offers a much greater range of 150 kilometres per tank filling, a longer daily period of use and short refuelling times of around three minutes.

    Further insights – ExoMatter spin-off project and DLR Quantum Computing Initiative

    Also part of the DLR stand are the spin-off project ExoMatter and the DLR Quantum Computing Initiative. The company ExoMatter digitalises material searches. The basis of this service is a cloud-based platform that also works with artificial intelligence methods. Within the framework of the DLR Quantum Computing Initiative, prototype quantum computers of different architectures are to be built and the associated technologies and applications developed within the next four years. DLR is contributing its own skills and expertise from research and development. The establishment of an industrially sustainable ecosystem and the implementation in commercially relevant applications are the focal points.

    DLR contributions to the Hannover Messe conference programme

    DLR is represented in the Hannover Messe conference programme (Main Stage, Hall 18, H’Up) by high-profile speakers and panellists. Topics include Space and Sustainability, Satellite Data for Industry, and Space Technology – Industrial Use Cases.

    All information about DLR at Hannover Messe can also be found on the DLR special page: https://event.dlr.de/en/hannover-messe-2022/

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:45 am on May 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tak­ing the pulse of our plan­et", , , , Earth and environmental observation are blind to borders., , Living Planet Symposium, Observing our planet and understanding how it is changing is more important than ever., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The European Space Agency   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Tak­ing the pulse of our plan­et” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    1
    The ESA and DLR Living Planet Symposium opened on 23 May 2022.

    The German Space Agency at DLR is co-hosting the ESA Living Planet Symposium, which will take place for the first time in Germany from 23–27 May 2022. The theme of this year’s symposium is ‘Taking the pulse of our planet from space’.

    More than 4700 Earth observation experts from around the world will meet at the World Conference Center (WCCB) in Bonn.

    The event will focus on the role of satellite-based Earth observation in addressing global challenges such as climate change, a sustainable economy and food security.

    There will also be a supporting programme to engage the public and schools.

    Focus: Space, Earth observation, climate protection, sustainability

    Measuring biomass, observing the world’s oceans, improving agricultural sustainability, surveying and improving air quality, documenting ice melt at the poles and developing countermeasures, using satellites for climate and crisis management, the economic impact of Earth observation and its role as a catalyst for technological progress – these are among the long list of topics on the agenda at the Living Planet Symposium. Organised by the European Space Agency (ESA) and co-hosted by the German Space Agency at DLR, this year’s symposium will run from 23–27 May 2022 and marks the first time that the event has been held in Germany.

    Using satellites to observe Earth from space provides the essential foundation for ongoing, active environmental and climate monitoring and the measures for global and regional environmental and climate protection they enable. Over 4700 participants from 74 countries, including more than 820 students, 40 exhibitors and 240 scientific sessions, will flock to the city of Bonn to spend a week at one of the world’s largest specialist conferences on Earth observation. The German Space Agency at DLR, which coordinates Germany’s contribution to ESA on behalf of the German government, is based here, as are various UN secretariats focusing on environmental and climate issues.

    “Germany is a world leader in the development and application of Earth observation technologies,” says Walther Pelzer, Member of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) Executive Board and Head of the German Space Agency at DLR. “The symposium is an excellent opportunity for international exchange among experts on the global challenges that affect us all, such as climate protection, food security and the implementation of sustainable technologies, which we can tackle in a more focused way with the help of Earth observation. We want to seize this opportunity to locate important environmental and climate policy targets at national and international levels. It is about protecting Earth, but also about protecting space, with a particular focus on the space pollution resulting from humankind’s increasing commercial use of space.”

    “Germany is the strongest financial partner in European Earth observation, in terms of its contribution to ESA and the programmes of the European Commission, such as Copernicus. We want to continue this focus at the next ESA Council at Ministerial Level in Paris in November 2022,” says Anna Christmann, Federal Government Coordinator of German Aerospace Policy, at the opening of the Living Planet Symposium in Bonn. “Observing our planet and understanding how it is changing is more important than ever. Germany will continue to be a dependable partner in Earth observation going forward. Space agencies, industry, the science sector and institutional and commercial users can all rely on us. Against this backdrop, I would particularly recommend a visit to the ‘Space4ourPlanet’ exhibition, which shows how spaceflight and the UN’s sustainability goals go hand in hand.”

    “The Living Planet Symposium has become one of the most important conferences in the field of Earth observation,” says ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher. “Thanks to the Sentinel satellites of its Copernicus programme Europe provides the most accurate observations of our planet today.

    Earth and environmental observation are blind to borders. Together we must make every effort to better understand climate change, for the benefit of future generations within Europe and across the world. ESA’s Earth observation programme provides a globally renowned cornerstone for these endeavours.”

    Katja Dörner, Mayor of Bonn, adds: “Bonn isn’t just the city in which the United Nations have pooled their efforts towards achieving the global sustainability goals, but also a centre for Earth observation. Areas of research such as disaster forecasting, weather monitoring, agricultural sustainability, biodiversity and education for sustainable development are addressed by outstanding scientific and research organisations, public institutions and companies. The Living Planet Symposium brings everyone together and focuses on the future we want to ensure for generations to come.”

    The supporting programme running alongside the Living Planet Symposium includes the ‘Space4ourPlanet‘ travelling exhibition, sponsored by the United Nations. Interested parties can view the exhibition outside the WCCB. There is also a DLR_School_Lab with over 400 registered attendees (by appointment only), which presents remote sensing technologies and techniques in a format that is accessible to children and young people. The German Space Agency at DLR also has a stand at which you can examine climate zones with satellite images. Two exhibits from the INNOspaceEXPO will be on display, on the theme of knowledge and education. The school lab will be open to families with children aged eight and over on the mornings of 26 and 27 May.

    The Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture has worked with the German Space Agency at DLR to organise an event on ‘Earth observation and agricultural applications’, including food security, on 24 May. On 25 May 2022 – ‘Climate Day’ at the LPS – ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano will give a talk on his expedition to the Gorner glacier, once the third-largest glacier in the Alps, which has melted significantly due to climate change.

    For more information, see: Living Planet Symposium 2022.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:27 am on May 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Test­ing in­ter­ac­tions be­tween drones and tra­di­tion­al air­craft", The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), With the reopening of Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport DLR now has a real laboratory for unmanned aerial systems.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Test­ing in­ter­ac­tions be­tween drones and tra­di­tion­al air­craft” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    1
    Ceremonial opening of Magdeburg/Cochstedt Airport. © DLR.

    With the reopening of Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport, DLR now has a real laboratory for unmanned aerial systems.
    Representatives from government, science and industry were present at the opening on 6 May 2022.
    The test site will be available to start-ups through to the established aviation industry for research and testing under real conditions in a controlled environment.
    Focus: Aeronautics, aviation, uncrewed flight

    __________________________________________________________________________
    Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport has rejoined the German aviation network. The official reopening took place on 6 May 2022, attended by representatives from government, academia and industry. Take-offs and landings for aircraft up to 5.7 tonnes will once again be possible at Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport, initially in accordance with visual flight rules. Linking the airport with the National Experimental Test Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), has created a unique test infrastructure. Together, they make it possible to test the integration of uncrewed air traffic into regular, controlled flight operations in a comprehensive manner. The opening of the test centre and the associated start of tests involving uncrewed aircraft systems (UAS) took place in 2021. Customers and partners from industry, research and the authorities will now be provided with more extensive testing opportunities. The test centre is part of a Europe-wide network for UAS research.

    “The resumption of airport operations is another decisive step in the development and expansion of DLR’s Cochstedt site,” says Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. “With Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport, we are establishing a comprehensive field laboratory for our National Experimental Test Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This laboratory serves to develop and test new technology concepts that will expand Germany’s pioneering role in the field of uncrewed flight and strengthen targeted technology transfer from research to industry.”

    Minister President Dr Reiner Haseloff said: “I am pleased that we have found a solid and reliable user of the traditional Cochstedt airfield in DLR. I am convinced that this will enable the site to be used on a permanent basis. The test centre will advance the region and permanently strengthen Saxony-Anhalt as a hub of science and innovation. The work on unmanned aerial systems will lead to many more possible applications. An important contribution to this will be made from Cochstedt in the future.”

    Armin Willingmann, Minister for Science, Energy, Climate Protection and the Environment of Saxony-Anhalt emphasised: “Uncrewed flight is an important topic for the future. I am therefore very pleased that, together with DLR, we have succeeded in developing Cochstedt Airport into a test centre for uncrewed aircraft systems. In the coming years, Cochstedt can develop into a beacon of research and an attractive place for companies from the aviation and logistics sector, giving Saxony-Anhalt a further boost as a location for science and business. It is therefore important that the Ministry of Science continues to institutionally support the test centre in the coming years.”

    Lydia Hüskens, Minister for Infrastructure and Digital Affairs of Saxony-Anhalt added: “The recently reopened Magdeburg-Cochstedt commercial airport enjoys special state interest as a national test centre for unmanned aircraft systems. The DLR initiative will break new ground in crewed and uncrewed aviation through the unique interactions between flight operations and research at the Magdeburg-Cochstedt site. I would like to thank all those involved – in particular the responsible aviation authorities and the airport operator, DLR – who have worked tirelessly over the past few months to make the airport fit for future research and who will continue to support this development.”

    The state administration office in Halle initially granted permission for take-offs and landings based on DLR’s operating concept on 1 April 2022. This has now been followed by the official reopening of the airport under the International Air Transport Association (IATA) code CSO. “With the reopening of the airport in Cochstedt, DLR is making a contribution to the provision of public services in the state of Saxony-Anhalt in addition to the site’s test operations,” says Lutz Tilgner, Managing Director and shareholder of Magdeburg-Cochstedt Airport Operating Company (Flughafen Magdeburg-Cochstedt Betriebsgesellschaft mbH), a subsidiary founded by DLR and Tilgner. “Traffic is initially limited to a permitted take-off weight of 5.7 tonnes in visual flight operations until the end of 2023, with operating hours on weekdays between 10:00 and 17:00.”

    Currently, the airport operating company employs six people to handle airport operations. As part of the phased concept to expand flight operations at Cochstedt, additional airport operations jobs are expected to follow from 2024, in addition to an increase in the weight restriction to 14 tonnes and the establishment of an instrument landing system.

    A wide range of partnerships for uncrewed aviation

    The activities in Cochstedt are integrated into DLR-wide projects and cooperation with partners from research and industry in Germany, Europe and around the world. DLR already cooperates scientifically in the field of UAS research with major research institutions such as the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The test site in Saxony-Anhalt will be accessible to start-ups and established aerospace companies for research and testing and function as an incubator and enabler for start-ups and SMEs. For licensing reasons, it is necessary that new UAS are tested and qualified under realistic conditions in a controlled environment. New regulations for the operation of UAS also need to be extensively researched and developed.

    Existing buildings and facilities will be repaired and converted. The scientific infrastructure will then be developed and built up. To achieve operational status, the re-commissioning of the commercial airport took place on a smaller scale. A total of approximately 15 million euros will be invested in the development of scientific as well as operational infrastructures by the end of 2022. For the establishment of operational capability, 2.5 million euros were invested directly in the airport infrastructure. The remaining investment funds will be used primarily to build up research infrastructure as part of the establishment of the UAS test centre. New scientific and technical staff will advance the development in the coming months. The goal is to have a total of around 30 employees in research and operations at the site by the end of 2022, with up to 60 employees in the future.

    The first projects and test campaigns have already taken place in Cochstedt. For example, in 2021 there were extensive final tests of the DLR project City-ATM, in which several real drones were flown alongside approximately 100 virtual drones in a complex traffic scenario. In addition, various flight tests took place with the DLR uncrewed flight test vehicles SuperARTIS and the ALAADy Demonstrator. Additional research projects such as Drones4Good and HorizonUAM are being added. Projects with European research partners, industrial companies and NGOs, in the field of humanitarian aid, for example, are also working with the research facilities in Cochstedt. Further projects are in preparation.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:21 am on March 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "De­ter­min­ing the weight of Earth from space", The 'Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment' (GRACE) mission began on 17 March 2002 with the launch of the twin satellites 'Tom' and 'Jerry'., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “De­ter­min­ing the weight of Earth from space” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    The ‘Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment’ (GRACE) mission began on 17 March 2002 with the launch of the twin satellites ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’.
    The GRACE mission was a joint project between the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences [Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum](DE).
    Following the end of GRACE operations in 2017, the ‘GRACE Follow-On’ mission has continued to successfully monitor the major changes in the ‘Earth ecosystem’ since its launch on 22 May 2018.
    GRACE and GRACE Follow-On data now form one of the bases for the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    Focus: Space, climate change, global change

    At first glance, masses appear rigid and immobile. However, this is deceptive because they are constantly in motion. Liquid rock shifts in Earth’s interior, water is redistributed in large quantities across the oceans and on the continents, and air masses are constantly in flux. This uneven distribution means that Earth’s gravitational field is not constant across the globe. In locations with more mass, the gravitational force is slightly stronger than elsewhere.

    Since their launch, the satellites of the GRACE satellites on 17 March 2002 and those of the successor mission ‘GRACE Follow-On’ (GRACE-FO) have been recording these slow movements with great precision. “The GRACE satellites have made it possible to globally survey the mass transports in the Earth system for the first time. The GRACE and GRACE-FO missions have recorded every small change in these mass flows so precisely that researchers have been able to measure Earth’s water balance, among other things, with previously unattained accuracy and consistency. These measurements enable us to better understand the consequences of climate change, because, for example, the melting of the ice masses and the changes in the sea and groundwater levels can be determined more precisely,” explains Walther Pelzer, DLR Executive Board Member and Head of the German Space Agency at DLR.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:22 pm on March 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DLR mea­sures flow phe­nom­e­na around wind tur­bines with a swarm of drones", The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The research objective is to accurately represent the three-dimensional flows and turbulence in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “DLR mea­sures flow phe­nom­e­na around wind tur­bines with a swarm of drones” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    16 March 2022

    1
    Measurements at a wind turbine. Credit: DLR.

    2
    Drones in take-off position. Credit: DLR.

    The research objective is to accurately represent the three-dimensional flows and turbulence in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.

    Results could lead to a more efficient arrangement of wind turbines.

    Up to 100 drones ascend in formation.

    DLR increases the annual funding for wind energy research by one million euros.

    Focus: Energy, wind power, spaceflight, digitalisation, aeronautics, uncrewed flight

    DLR at a glance

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    The wind is not just ‘wind’ – but a complicated arrangement of turbulent features that are influenced by the surrounding environment. Air turbulence is created by the landscape, but also by buildings, roads and wind turbines. In the ESTABLIS-UAS project, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) is researching these flow effects. For this purpose, a swarm of drones ascends and measures these phenomena. The results can be used, for example, to improve the arrangement of turbines in a wind farm.

    “Wind turbines are among the most important technologies for sustainable energy supply, both in Germany and worldwide. The further expansion of wind energy requires a significant increase in the performance of wind turbines. For this reason, the DLR Executive Board has decided to increase the annual funding for wind energy research by one million euros with immediate effect,” explains Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. “DLR has been conducting research in this area for many years. Its activities make use of the many synergies with aerospace research. The work ranges from fundamental research to the further development of individual components in cooperation with industry.”

    “Understanding these turbulent, three-dimensional conditions plays an important role in the energy transition. This allows us to comprehend the loads to which wind turbines will be subjected during their lifecycle and to predict how much power they will feed into the energy grid,” says project leader Norman Wildmann from DLR’s Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Up to 100 drones take off from the ground in a fixed formation for the ESTABLIS-UAS (Exposing spatio-temporal Structures of Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer with In-Situ measurements by a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Systems) project. The Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) measure wind characteristics, temperature and humidity with high resolution. Tests were carried out in advance with up to 20 of these small drones. They are particularly robust so that they can maintain their position and deliver results even at higher wind speeds.

    Tests in a wind tunnel and at the Wind Energy Research Farm

    Wind turbines generate their own turbulent effects in addition to the flow phenomena that already exist. As such, one goal of wind energy research at DLR is to develop a model that clearly shows the effects on the turbines in the second or third rows of a wind farm. “There is still some need for optimisation here. The answers to questions about how the wind behaves at these points are very complex,” explains Wildmann. “And this is not only dependent on the turbine, but also on local atmospheric conditions and the properties of the surrounding terrain. It is about a combination of the two.”

    In addition to measurements on wind turbines, experiments are planned in the wind tunnel at the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg [Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg](DE), which is a partner in the Research Alliance Wind Energy (Forschungsverbund Windenergie; FVWE), and at the DLR Wind Energy Research Farm in Krummendeich. Two further measurement campaigns will take place as part of the international TEAMx initiative, which is dedicated to the study of complex flows in the boundary layer over mountainous terrain. All experiments will be supplemented by numerical simulations. Ultimately, a comprehensive model for the representation of turbulent flows will be created.

    Models of the atmospheric boundary layer complement knowledge from remote sensing

    The lowest layer of the atmosphere – the ‘Atmospheric Boundary Layer’ (ABL) – is directly influenced by Earth’s surface. Exchange and transport processes in the ABL are mainly driven by turbulence, which extends over a large range of scales; some turbulent phenomena are a few millimetres across, others are over a kilometre in size. Physical models for the ABL, which extends from the ground to an altitude of approximately 2000 metres, are not yet very accurate. Turbulence from interconnected features such as gusts, slope and valley winds, cities, wind turbines or aircraft are difficult to capture. “The ESTABLIS-UAS measurements fill an observational gap between very small, local processes near the ground and large-scale observations by remote sensing, research aircraft and satellites,” says Markus Rapp, Director of the DLR Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Oberpfaffenhofen. “Combining this with ground-based sensors and remote sensing enables completely new insights into the interaction of complex flow phenomena.” These models could then also explain how turbulent flows influence the mixing of the lower atmosphere. This is important, for example, in the dispersion of dust, pollutants and aerosols.

    The ESTABLIS-UAS project will run for five years. It is funded by the European Research Council (ERC) within the framework of an ERC Starting Grant.

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:31 am on February 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Con­trol­ling mul­ti­ple air­ports from one con­trol cen­tre", The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Con­trol­ling mul­ti­ple air­ports from one con­trol cen­tre” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    2.23.22

    1
    Remote Tower Centre. © DLR.

    DLR and Frequentis are demonstrating in trials that remote monitoring of several airports from one control centre works.
    A pool of air traffic controllers flexibly provides their services to one or more (connected) airports.
    Novel planning tool assists with allocation and balances workload.
    Focus: Air transport

    Providing air traffic services at several airports from one central location – a ‘remote tower centre’ could make this a reality. In the future, today’s airport towers could be replaced by control centres to which several airports are connected for remote control. At the end of 2021, within the context of SESAR, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) and Frequentis set up a remote tower centre prototype from which Lithuanian and Polish air traffic controllers provided aerodrome traffic services to a total of 15 simulated airports. The trial showed that the idea of large-scale remote tower centres works.

    “In the test campaign, we prototyped newly developed planning tools for these large remote tower centres,” reports Jörn Jakobi from the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance. “These planning tools will be of central importance in these new working environments to optimally organise and utilise the available resources.”

    A promising concept for small, but also for medium and large airports

    Rather than relying on a few air traffic controllers in a single tower, there is a whole pool of air traffic controllers working in a remote tower centre, which means they can be deployed more flexibly when needed. Smaller airports in particular, where demand is high on weekends and public holidays but low during the week, can be operated more efficiently this way. “If the traffic volume at several airports drops significantly, a single air traffic controller can control some of them simultaneously,” says Jakobi. Medium-sized or large airports could also benefit from remote control by a centre. If the traffic volume increases during peak hours, air traffic controllers from the pool can provide support for a short time. A continuous balanced workload could be achieved in this way.

    Planning tool manages the complexity of efficient allocation

    The challenge with a large remote tower centre is the optimal allocation of the different airports to the air traffic controllers and the available workstations. “This complex task requires automatic planning tools to support the supervisor of a centre in devising the most suitable distribution of task load,” says Jakobi.

    As part of the EU-funded SESAR research project Digital Technologies for Tower (PJ05-W2 DTT), DLR, Frequentis AG and the Lithuanian and Polish air navigation services Oro Navigacija and PANSA have developed the concept and necessary planning tools for the remote control of several airports, implemented them in prototypes and tested them. The role of the supervisor position is key. This person monitors and distributes the task load to individual controllers and ensures that they are not underloaded or overworked. The planning tool combines various data, such as the number of arriving and departing aircraft and the expected traffic mix. The supervisor views the processed data and thus has a comprehensive overview of the current and future situation. In the event of poorly balanced task loads, the tool suggests possible solutions. If, for example, a controller is predicted to face an excessive workload, the planning tool helps the supervisor find an additional spare workstation and a suitable controller from the pool to assist.

    Initial feedback from the participating controllers shows the viability of the concept. “I am convinced that such remote tower centres represent the future,” says Jakobi. “They are the natural evolution of conventional towers at airports. This validation has shown the concept’s potential.”

    The project received funding from the SESAR Joint Undertaking as part of Horizon 2020, the European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (grant number 874470).

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:57 am on January 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ac­cess to the 'Space­DataHigh­way'", ColKa was tested and is operated by the Columbus Control Centre at DLR's site in Oberpfaffenhofen., The 'Columbus Ka-Band Terminal' (ColKa) has commenced service., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE) : “Ac­cess to the ‘Space­DataHigh­way'” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    1.17.22

    4
    The Eu­ro­pean Da­ta Re­lay Sys­tem (EDRS)
    Image 4/4, Credit: ESA

    1

    2

    3
    [3] With the commissioning of the ‘Columbus Ka-band Terminal’, the International Space Station (ISS) will be connected to the ‘SpaceDataHighway’.

    The antenna was built by Airbus in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and has been supported by the German Space Agency at DLR with funding from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action.

    ColKa was tested and is operated by the Columbus Control Centre at DLR’s site in Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Focus: Spaceflight, Cosmic Kiss, satellite communications

    The ‘Columbus Ka-Band Terminal’ (ColKa) has commenced service. “The volume of scientific data generated by the experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is continuously increasing. ColKa gives the Columbus laboratory on the ISS its own direct access to the SpaceDataHighway. The high-speed satellite link will significantly accelerate ‘data traffic’ to Europe. Many scientists will benefit from this with their experiments – during Matthias Maurer’s ‘Cosmic Kiss’ mission and Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti’s mission, following immediately after,” explains Volker Schmid, ‘Cosmic Kiss’ Mission Manager for the German Space Agency at DLR. This antenna, which is about the size of a refrigerator, now makes real-time data transfer possible between the ISS and the Columbus Control Centre (Col-CC) at the DLR site in Oberpfaffenhofen, from where the ColKa terminal is operated. The antenna and the SpaceDataHighway are an Airbus project being conducted in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA).

    Tests for a flawless operation

    On 27 January 2021, NASA astronauts Mike Hopkins and Victor Glover installed the antenna on the exterior of the ISS European Columbus module during an extravehicular activity (EVA). During this activity, the two astronauts were supported from the ground by the Columbus Control Centre and ESA Danish astronaut Andreas Mogensen. “Following the successful installation, we carried out numerous tests from the Columbus Control Centre. We checked, for example, whether the antenna aligned correctly according to our commands, whether communication with the data network was working properly and whether data was being transmitted successfully,” explains Daria Margiotta, a Flight Director at the Columbus Control Centre.

    Temperature tests were also carried out. The antenna must also function under the harsh conditions of space. If the ISS is turned towards the Sun, the outer layer is exposed to temperatures of up to 121 degrees Celsius. If it moves into Earth’s shadow, the temperature suddenly drops to minus 157 degrees Celsius. To function optimally under these conditions, the antenna is automatically cooled and heated as needed. In addition, all system and software tests were carried out in Oberpfaffenhofen. After completing these tests, ColKa is now ready for continuous operation.

    A ‘highway in space’ for fast data traffic

    How does the data transfer work? At 36,000 kilometres above Earth, geostationary communications satellites always remain above a given point because they orbit at the same rotational speed as Earth. These relay satellites are in the ‘field of vision’ of other satellites flying at low altitudes, such as the fleet of Earth observation satellites operated by the European Copernicus programme, for a long time. This enables them to receive large amounts of data from the ‘low-flyers’ and transmit them to ground stations particularly quickly and, above all, without any interruption.

    “ColKa transmits its data to the EDRS-A communications satellite, which then transmits it to the ground station at Harwell in the UK. From there, the data travels via the Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS) to the Columbus Control Centre in Oberpfaffenhofen and vice versa. In this way, we achieve data transmission rates of 50 megabits per second,” explains Margiotta. For the Columbus Control Centre, this provides entirely new possibilities for experiments, as well as flight dynamics, ground software and in regard to the general operation of the Space Station.

    Scientists benefit

    Many scientists will benefit from the link to the data highway, as this will provide them with a more direct access to their experiments. “ColKa will allow us to receive data from all European racks and payloads much faster than ever before. In the Columbus Control Centre, we therefore keep a very close eye on flawless data traffic, which we coordinate with the other users in Europe. But we are also in permanent contact with NASA because, for example, the antenna cannot be operated during astronauts’ extravehicular activities,” explains Margiotta. ColKa will also be used on special occasions for space-to-ground communications. In this way, for example, audio and video conferences for public events will become possible via ESA’s ‘Astro Pi’ hardware. “ColKa expands the communications possibilities with the Space Station immensely.

    But not only that; the expertise gained during the design, construction and operation of the antenna will contribute to the development of the telecommunications and refuelling module on the European ESPRIT module of the ‘Lunar Gateway’ – the planned outpost in lunar orbit. Communications there must function over a distance 1000 times greater than to the ISS,” explains Volker Schmid.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:48 pm on December 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Dis­cussing cli­mate-neu­tral flight", , , , , Producing and collecting hydrogen, The coming age of Hydrogen, The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The German Federal Government is aiming for greenhouse gas neutrality by 2045., Up to 18 litres of very pure water are required to make one kilogram of hydrogen. So when building a hydrogen economy it has to be ensured that there is sufficient water available.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE) : “Dis­cussing cli­mate-neu­tral flight” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Jannik Häßy
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of Propul­sion Tech­nol­o­gy
    Linder Höhe
    51147 Cologne

    Contact
    Katrin Dahlmann
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of At­mo­spher­ic Physics

    Veatriki Papantoni
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of Net­worked En­er­gy Sys­tems

    1
    Vi­sion of a fu­ture hy­dro­gen econ­o­my. Credit: DLR (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)


    EXACT – Conceptual study for future climate-neutral flight.

    Discussion about climate-friendly flying from the perspective of propulsion technology, atmospheric research and energy systems.

    Focus: Aeronautics, energy, hydrogen, emission-free flying

    Discussion about climate-friendly flying from the perspective of propulsion technology, atmospheric research and energy systems.
    Focus: Aeronautics, energy, hydrogen, emission-free flying

    What would airborne mobility have to be like to radically reduce the emissions caused by air transport? The whole world is talking about hydrogen as a possible solution. However, flying with hydrogen not only requires completely new propulsion systems, but it will also have to be produced and transported to the airport. How can these changes be made while ensuring that air transport remains economically feasible? Climate researcher Katrin Dahlmann, aircraft propulsion engineer Jannik Häßy and renewable energy researcher Veatriki Papantoni gathered to discuss how low-emission air transport might be achieved.

    With the Climate Protection Act, the German Federal Government is aiming for greenhouse gas neutrality by 2045. What role will air transport play in this?

    Häßy: In 2019, before the pandemic, air traffic was responsible for approximately three percent of global carbon dioxide emissions. Business and leisure travel will likely rebound as vaccination rates increase. In addition, the global demand for air travel is expected to continue to grow in the coming decades.

    Dahlmann: Particularly in the case of air transport, other effects, in addition to carbon dioxide, also have a considerable impact on the climate. Currently, air transport contributes five percent of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. There is a pressing need for action to reduce air transport emissions and their impact on the climate.

    Do you necessarily have to travel less if you want to protect the climate?

    Häßy: In my opinion, the world is too diverse and beautiful to do without long-distance travel entirely. Intercultural exchange is important for world peace. That said, we need to ask ourselves whether every plane journey we make is necessary. Radically innovative aircraft concepts could achieve a significantly lower climate impact. The issue is that aircraft engines have long development times.

    Dahlmann: In the shorter term, changes to flight patterns and route planning could reduce the climate impact. Flying in a lower atmospheric layer could reduce the climate-warming effect by up to 42 percent. One problem with this, however, is that the aircraft use more fuel and have to fly more slowly due to higher drag. Another possibility would be to fly around areas that are particularly prone to contrail formation. Flying long-haul in formation could also reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the formation of contrails. This would require solutions in the areas of flight control and air traffic management.

    Are there any technical innovations that could help to protect the climate?

    Häßy: Today’s aircraft gas turbines can become more efficient and emit fewer greenhouse gases through larger fans, new materials such as ceramics, or more advanced cooling technologies. In addition, Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAFs), can be used. They lead to a closed carbon cycle, because when they are burned, they only release the carbon dioxide that was captured during their production. The use of hydrogen as a fuel makes an aircraft engine carbon-free. Hydrogen is either burned in an aircraft gas turbine or converted electrochemically in a fuel cell. However, this requires many innovations. One example is different tanks, because liquid hydrogen has a higher volume compared to kerosene and must be stored at extremely low temperatures.

    Dahlmann: New aircraft wing designs can also help to reduce fuel consumption. This would make flying at lower altitudes significantly more cost-effective, although it would still be somewhat more expensive. Policy changes such as emissions trading could make this easier to implement in practice and create incentives for airlines.

    Has the COVID-19 pandemic been a good time for driving innovation?

    Dahlmann: In April 2020 passenger air traffic dropped by 90 percent because of the pandemic, resulting in less carbon dioxide, ozone and contrails. This meant less impact on the climate in the short term. But we need long-term effects in order to protect the climate. I think the Fridays for Future campaign and the storms that occurred in Germany in summer 2021 have made the general public more aware of the problem. Even though the pandemic has had a severe impact on the entire aviation industry, now is an important time for change.

    Ms. Dahlmann, carbon dioxide is often cited as the culprit of climate change, but at the beginning you mentioned other factors. What effect do these have?

    Dahlmann: In addition to carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOX) are also produced during the combustion of conventional fuels. These react with oxygen and generate ozone. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects living things on Earth from excessive solar radiation. In the lower layers of the atmosphere, specifically the upper troposphere – where air transport takes place today – ozone has a global warming effect. In addition, we should not underestimate the effect of contrails. These are artificial clouds, which can retain heat within the atmosphere.

    Mr. Häßy, do you already have plans for propulsion systems that could also solve these problems?

    Häßy: A gas turbine that is powered exclusively by hydrogen does not produce any carbon dioxide, just primarily water vapour. In addition, fewer nitrogen oxides could be produced than with the combustion of conventional or synthetic fuels. Also, no soot particles are formed, resulting in reduced contrail formation. If hydrogen is converted in fuel cells, nitrogen oxide emissions can be completely eliminated.

    Is water vapour also not a powerful greenhouse gas?

    Dahlmann: Yes, that is correct. However, water vapour in the upper troposphere only remains there for a very short time. At higher altitudes water vapour has a longer lifetime and thus a greater impact on the climate. Direct hydrogen combustion produces more water vapour, but studies show that this accounts for just 10 percent of the climate impact. We are currently investigating this impact with our AirClim climate model.

    Today’s aircraft all operate in a similar way – with conventional gas turbines. How can new technologies be used while ensuring that airfares remain affordable?

    Häßy: At the moment, it is not quite clear which technology will prove itself for which application. We currently believe that fuel cells are more suitable for powering small, short-haul aircraft. For medium- to long-haul flights, the combustion of hydrogen in gas turbines could become established. The short-term alternative would be SAFs. Fuel currently accounts for approximately 20 to 30 percent of the operating costs of a commercial aircraft. SAFs will initially increase these costs. However, DLR is working on ways to reduce them again. This could be achieved, for example, through a modified fleet deployment plan. Airlines could cover shorter distances with smaller, more efficient and fully utilised aircraft. However, ticket prices will certainly increase.

    And does the carbon dioxide from the combustion of SAFs not have different effects in the atmosphere than on the ground, in the same way as ozone?

    Dahlmann: No, carbon dioxide is evenly distributed throughout the atmosphere due to its very long lifetime.

    If aircraft undergo these changes, then will the infrastructure, such as airports, also have to adapt?

    Papantoni: The more aircraft are powered by hydrogen, the greater the amount required. Lorries can carry small quantities of hydrogen to the airports. As demand increases, the expansion of a corresponding supply network becomes necessary. In regions with a high potential for renewable energies, it would be cost effective to carry out electrolysis on site.

    How much hydrogen is needed to fuel large fleets?

    Häßy: The energy content of hydrogen per kilogram of fuel is about three times that of kerosene. Approximately 10 million tonnes of kerosene are consumed in Germany every year, so it would only need a third of that when using hydrogen. But supply in Germany alone is not enough; the destination airports would also need to have a hydrogen infrastructure.

    How can sufficient hydrogen be produced sustainably and economically for global air transport?

    Papantoni: Air transport is not the only sector requiring hydrogen; industries that would be difficult to decarbonise otherwise, such as the steel and chemical industries or shipping, also require hydrogen. Production of energy from renewable sources needs to be stepped up to meet that demand. The energy system needs to become more efficient. However, regions with little wind or sunlight will depend on imports. A higher price for carbon dioxide, for example through EU emissions trading, will make hydrogen more attractive as an alternative energy carrier.

    What is the environmental impact of producing hydrogen by electrolysis? Is this not inefficient if SAFs and hydrogen have to be produced at great expense?

    Papantoni: The climate impact is only one element of the overall environmental impact. Producing hydrogen requires electricity, water and the necessary plants. Up to 18 litres of very pure water are required to make one kilogram of hydrogen. So when building a hydrogen economy it has to be ensured that there is sufficient water available. We are also investigating the environmental impact of extracting the raw materials needed to construct the plants. SAFs and hydrogen are probably less relevant for applications that are easy to electrify, such as passenger cars. For long-haul flights or maritime applications, these energy sources provide an eco-efficient alternative. There are also synergetic effects in the production of SAFs and hydrogen. Seasonally, the amount of renewable energy that can be generated will fluctuate. It is possible to store surplus electricity in hydrogen and synthetic fuels.

    As scientists, how do you manage to foresee all of this with such clarity?

    Häßy: Aircraft are very complex systems. There are many interdependencies between the individual components. At DLR, there are specialists for the respective systems and disciplines. The difficulty lies in combining all of this expertise and making it usable as a whole. In the EXACT project, we are developing software that combines the capabilities of the various DLR institutes. This enables us to evaluate a whole range of scenarios involving different propulsion concepts and aircraft types, including their climate impact. Findings from the project could help industry to decide for or against a particular technology.

    Dahlmann: Our AirClim model allows us to determine changes in global near-surface temperatures due to emissions and contrails. In combination with other DLR software tools, we are evaluating possible solutions for reducing the impact of future air transport on climate change, despite an increase in traffic.

    Papantoni: In addition to the climate impact caused by emissions, as part of the EXACT project we are examining the environmental impact of operating and producing aircraft. To do this, we are carrying out a lifecycle assessment that analyses energy and material flows over the entire life cycle. This enables us to estimate the impact on the ecosystem and human health.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on December 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Air­bus and DLR in­ten­si­fy co­op­er­a­tion", The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE) : “Air­bus and DLR in­ten­si­fy co­op­er­a­tion” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    12.8.21

    1
    Let­ter of In­tent be­tween Air­bus and DLR. Credit: © AIRBUS.

    2
    Co­op­er­a­tion dur­ing the test flight. Credit: © AIRBUS.

    -Focus on emission measurements for new types of aviation fuels.
    -Measurement flights by DLR’s Falcon 20-E research aircraft together with test test aircraft from Airbus are an important part of the cooperation.
    -The modelling of the climate impact of air traffic and the resulting design criteria for climate-optimised aircraft also play a role.
    -Focus: Aeronautics, Climate friendly flights

    Airbus and the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) are expanding their cooperation in research on climate protection in aviation. Under an agreement signed by Nicole Dreyer-Langlet, Airbus’ VP Research & Technology Representative, Germany, and Markus Fischer, DLR Divisional Board Member Aeronautics, future joint projects will focus, in particular, on emission measurements for new types of aviation fuels, including hydrogen, and on understanding the effect of emissions on the atmosphere in conjunction with the improvement of climate models.

    “We at Airbus are extremely happy to cooperate with DLR as one of the world’s leading research institutions when it comes to measuring and analysing emissions during in-flight operations,” said Nicole Dreyer-Langlet. “We are pleased to benefit from this scientific expertise when it comes to developing new concepts, as well as further optimising existing aircraft. The more precise atmospheric and climate models are, the better we can use them as a basis for developing and optimising aircraft. Climate protection in aviation is a top priority for Airbus. Partnerships with universities and research institutions such as DLR play a key role in its successful implementation.”

    DLR and Airbus are already cooperating at a number of levels. For example, the DLR research aircraft Falcon 20-E has been conducting measurement flights with Airbus test aircraft, while modelling of the climate impact from air traffic using suitable design criteria for climate-optimised aircraft designs is also underway.

    “With our research fleet and our diversified institutes, DLR has overall systems expertise in aeronautics research,” said Markus Fischer. “We are now increasingly collaborating with Airbus and are pleased to be working with one of the world’s leading aircraft manufacturers on a targeted path towards climate-neutral aviation.”

    Currently, the partners are already successfully conducting joint flight tests as part of the Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels (ECLIF3) campaign. The focus of this study is on measuring emissions when using 100 percent Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) and comparing them to conventional kerosene. Today, it is already possible to operate the Airbus fleet with 50 percent SAF but Airbus has ambitions to achieve certification for 100 percent SAF by 2030.

    _____________________________________________________

    DLR – research for climate-neutral air transport

    The consequences of climate change demand action for climate-neutral air transport. This involves new technologies that will also ensure global mobility in the future. With its 25 institutes and facilities in the field of aeronautics research, DLR is driving this change forward with technologies for sustainable, environmentally compatible flight. Expertise from DLR’s research programmes in space, energy and transport will also play an important role in this.

    DLR has systems expertise in aeronautics research and sees itself in the role of an architect. DLR’s goal is ’emission-free air transport’, in order to achieve the climate targets that have been set. In doing so, the results of research must flow directly into the development of new products.

    There is a considerable need for research and development on the path to climate-compatible air transport, which requires continuous funding and support. Much of this needs to be researched at a fundamental level, tested in practice and approved. DLR can do this with large-scale facilities such as its research aircraft, propulsion demonstrators and large-scale computers. In 2020, DLR published the white paper Zero Emission Aviation together with the German Aerospace Industries Association (Bundesverband der Deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie; BDLI). DLR is currently working on a Zero Emission strategy.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
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