Tagged: The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE) Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 11:02 am on November 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "En­MAP – Ready for sci­ence", , , Insights into the geology of the world's largest erosion crater, Monitoring water quality in Lake Constance from space, The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), Towards more sustainable agriculture, Tracking down 'tell-tale' methane plumes with EnMAP   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “En­MAP – Ready for sci­ence” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    11.2.22
    On 2 November 2022, the German environmental mission EnMAP completed its test phase and entered routine operations. The mission is managed by the German Space Agency at DLR in Bonn on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action.

    Users can now access the constantly growing EnMAP data archive and submit observation requests. The EnMAP mission data are free of charge.

    The hyperspectral data offer new insights into a wide variety of application areas.

    Focus: Space, Earth observation, climate change, environmental protection and nature conservation.
    ____________________________________________________________________
    1
    Towards more sustainable agriculture

    2
    Tracking down “tell-tale methane plumes” with EnMAP

    3
    Insights into the world’s largest erosion crater

    4
    Monitoring water quality in Lake Constance from space
    ____________________________________________________________________

    Towards more sustainable agriculture

    Agriculture plays an important role in our society for food provision, as well as for the supply of building materials and energy. EnMAP is opening up new possibilities for precision agriculture and agricultural monitoring. The data it gathers are of high spectral resolution and contain important information about the condition and health of crops. On 28 July 2022, during its commissioning phase, EnMAP acquired an image of the northern area of Munich. Using efficient algorithms and modern machine-learning techniques, researchers from the Department of Geography at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) were able to quantify and map biophysical and biochemical plant properties over large areas for the first time. The growing world population and the simultaneous impact of agriculture on the environment, for example concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, are driving the demand for agricultural production. Against this backdrop, these new data could be used in agricultural management systems to improve resource efficiency and support the sustainability of the required yield optimization.

    Tracking down ‘tell-tale’ methane plumes with EnMAP

    Fossil fuel production – primarily oil and gas extraction and coal mining – is responsible for a large share of anthropogenic methane emissions. They often appear as ‘methane plumes’ emitted by point sources. These relatively small surface elements release relatively large amounts of gas, leaving a tell-tale trail in the atmosphere. If this trace is detected quickly, the cause can be removed quickly, thereby significantly reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Spaceborne imaging spectrometers such as EnMAP provide the best means of monitoring these methane emissions on a global scale and over a wide area. The potential of the German environmental mission to map these methane plumes has already been confirmed by initial measurements made during the commissioning phase. On 6 October 2022, oil and gas production basins in the south of Turkmenistan were surveyed by EnMAP. Scientists from the Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA) of the Universitat Politècnica de València have discovered several active methane point sources in this region using derived EnMAP maps showing the increase in methane concentrations.

    Insights into the geology of the world’s largest erosion crater

    Israel’s Negev desert is home to the world’s largest crater formed by natural erosion – Makhtesh Ramon. Over the last 220 million years, softer rocks such as sandstone have eroded away from areas of harder types such as limestone and dolomite, washing them away and creating a unique crater. This national park, which is one of the driest areas on our planet, is a reservoir for fossils, primeval volcanic cones, magma fissures and chambers and fossilized coral reefs, but above all a tremendous variety of minerals, which are deposited there in the rock. Researchers are particularly interested in the geological units including sandstone, iron-oxide-rich rocks, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, clay minerals such as the phyllosilicate kaolinite, and plutonic crystalline rock units. The sandstone and the plutonic crystalline rock units that have ‘migrated’ to the surface are visible to the naked eye. But what is hidden underneath? How much rock and minerals are stored in the rock? And how are these units distributed? EnMAP helped researchers from the Remote Sensing Laboratory at Tel-Aviv University get to the bottom of these questions.

    The data from the satellite’s commissioning phase, which was processed and provided by the DLR ground segment and processed together with the GFZ, gives a good foretaste of the high quality of the data we can expect during the operational phase. The researchers were able to distinguish very precisely between different rock types, such as dolomite and limestone, and minerals, such as clays and sulphates, as well as variations within mineral types within a strip of 40 by 7 kilometres. This offered a better picture of the quantity and distribution of mapped units compared to data acquired from the air and the ground. This knowledge would not have been possible without hyperspectral EnMAP images from space.

    Monitoring water quality in Lake Constance from space

    Lake Constance is the largest drinking water reservoir in Europe and provides water for millions of people. But in July and August 2022, the lake reached a low point due to a long drought characteristic of the modern age of climate change. On 9 August 2022, a very low water level of only 3.05 metres was registered in Constance – only four centimetres above the seasonal record. The consequence is that shallower the water, the faster it warms up. As a result, sediments were washed up to the water surface in some places and green algae carpets formed on a vast scale.

    These carpets grow particularly quickly where there are many nutrients, and the water warms up a lot. To get an overview of the excessive algae growth, EnMAP took a close look at Lake Constance and its chlorophyll-a concentration from space on 1 August 2022, during its commissioning phase. The data on this important plant pigment, evaluated by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), provide information on photosynthesis and thus on algae growth. The data sets on the distribution and productivity of various phytoplankton groups acquired using the satellite are extremely valuable for monitoring the quality of inland waters and their use as a source of water and food, as well as a recreational area.

    EnMAP – the German environmental mission and its partners

    The EnMAP mission is being managed by the German Space Agency at the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) in Bonn on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz; BMWK). OHB System AG was contracted to develop and build the satellite and the hyperspectral instruments. The GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GeoForschungsZentrum; GFZ) in Potsdam is the science Principal Investigator for the mission.

    Three DLR institutes and facilities have been commissioned for the construction and operation of the ground segment. The German Space Operations Center in Oberpfaffenhofen will conduct and monitor satellite operations, while the German Remote Sensing Data Center and the DLR Remote Sensing Technology Institute will archive, process and validate the received satellite data and make them available to the scientific community. Companies and public authorities will also test the data and use them to prepare future services. The use of EnMAP hyperspectral data by universities and scientific institutions and the development of special applications will be supported by BMWK funding programmes.

    More information at http://www.dlr.de/enmap_en and http://www.enmap.org

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:49 am on October 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New op­ti­cal ground sta­tion in­au­gu­rat­ed at DLR's site in Oberp­faf­fen­hofen", In the future it will become increasingly important to efficiently network satellites with each other and to exchange data securely and efficiently with the ground., Satellite-based quantum communication solutions will be particularly important for users that need to exchange sensitive data securely., Terrestrial nodes are integrated via fibre optic networks and satellites can only keep up with current developments on the ground if they are also optically networked., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “New op­ti­cal ground sta­tion in­au­gu­rat­ed at DLR’s site in Oberp­faf­fen­hofen” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    1
    Optical ground station

    2
    New telescope

    In future, laser communication will be an indispensable tool for fast and secure data links via satellite.
    The diverse possibilities of optical free-space communication can now be tested and further developed with a newly expanded ground station at the DLR site in Oberpfaffenhofen.
    The technology enables data rates in the terabit range, the use of quantum communication technologies and high-precision satellite navigation systems.
    Focus: Space, communications, navigation, Earth observation
    ___________________________________________________________________________________
    Satellites are increasingly becoming network nodes of the internet. Terrestrial nodes are integrated via fibre optic networks, and satellites can only keep up with current developments on the ground if they are also optically networked. European Commission programmes such as the ‘Secure Connectivity Initiative’ depend on this technology, as do many commercial networks such as Starlink or Oneweb, which aim to deploy similar developments on their next generation of satellites. At the core of this technology are optical satellite links, which have been designed, developed and tested at the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) for more than 20 years. In addition to communications networks, optical links are also being considered for the deployment of quantum secure communications. This would improve the security of the internet and of next generation of satellite navigation systems in the future. DLR has operated experimental ground stations to advance these technologies for many years. On 12 October 2022, a new, more powerful ground station was inaugurated at DLR’s Oberpfaffenhofen site.

    “In the future, it will become increasingly important to efficiently network satellites with each other and to exchange data securely and efficiently with the ground,” says Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. “This is driven by the ever-increasing data volumes involved in communications, navigation and Earth observation activities, as well as by the increasingly scarcity of radiocommunications licences. Free-space optical communication offers a promising alternative here. The newly expanded ground station in Oberpfaffenhofen will make it possible to test and further develop its numerous applications. Satellite-based quantum communication solutions will be particularly important for users that need to exchange sensitive data securely, such as those involved in critical space-based and Earth-bound infrastructure.” The centrepiece of the new optical ground station is a new telescope with a diameter of 80 centimetres. The telescope is a Coudé focus telescope, in which the light collected by the telescope is guided via mirrors directly into a laboratory below. This makes it possible to conduct new experiments that could not be carried out before.


    Optical Ground Station Oberpfaffenhofen OGSOP. Credit: DLR

    Data transmission at terabit speed

    The atmosphere represents a special challenge for optical connections between satellites and receiving stations on the ground, such as those used to connect communication satellites to the internet or to transmit data from Earth observation satellites to their data processing centres. Temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere lead to distortion of the optical satellite signals, which can cause transmission errors.

    The new ground station makes it possible to investigate these phenomena more precisely than before in order to develop methods for error-free transmission even under difficult conditions. With this in mind, the work at the DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation aims to both improve signal reception on the ground and to ‘pre-distort’ the ground station’s transmission signals in such a way that they reach the satellite as undisturbed as possible. In ground-based tests, the Institute was able to achieve a transmission rate of 1.72 terabits per second in 2016 and a transmission rate of 13.2 terabits per second in 2017. This data rate would be sufficient to supply the entirety of Western Europe with a fast internet connection. With the new ground station, such tests will now also be carried out with satellites.

    Quantum keys from space

    The ability to precisely correct satellite signals is also a fundamental prerequisite for efficiently distributing quantum keys from space. The DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation has carried out successful preliminary work here, and, together with the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), conducted successful transmission tests from an aircraft to the ground in 2013. Quantum keys will be used in the future to secure encrypted terrestrial transmission in such a way that they can withstand attacks by quantum computers. “Such proven communication security is essential, especially for users such as government agencies and authorities, banks, and insurance and industrial companies,” says Susann Groß, Head of DLR’s Programme Space R&D.

    More precise navigation with optical satellite links

    Satellite navigation systems such as the European Galileo and the American GPS are already indispensable infrastructures in everyday life and for our economies. The satellites in these constellations transmit precise time signals. If the receiver receives this information from at least four satellites and the satellites’ orbits are precisely known, the clocks can be correctly synchronised, and the receiver can use it to determine their exact position. Today, synchronizing the time signals from the satellites and determining the satellites’ orbits require a complex process based on measurements from a large number of sensor stations on the ground. At DLR, a new approach known as ‘Kepler’ has been developed, which uses optical links between navigation satellites. These optical links are used to directly synchronize the satellites and to precisely determine their orbits using only two ground stations. This not only leads to a significant simplification of the system, but also to a greatly improved accuracy.

    “The highly precise location data provided by the Kepler approach has significant potential for use in the automation of traffic on the ground,” says Anke Pagels-Kerp, DLR Divisional Board Member for Space. The system would also be resilient to disturbances that are deliberately brought about today in regions of war and crisis, for example. In this context, the new ground station will provide valuable contributions to the validation of DLR concepts.

    Technology transfer

    The DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation is one of the world’s leading research facilities for the development of free-space optical communication links. Companies located close to the Institute, such as TESAT Spacecom in Backnang and the spin-off Mynaric, have become important firms in the sector. The new ground station will help to maintain and further develop the strong position of German industry.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:53 am on September 27, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Two par­ti­cles? Three par­ti­cles!", , High-temperature superconductor, International team finds magnetic three-particle state in high-temperature superconductor., Researchers have discovered a three-particle state – or more precisely they have predicted its existence in a special material., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE),   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Two par­ti­cles? Three par­ti­cles!” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    9.27.22

    1
    Three-par­ti­cle state and X-rays. Credit: ©TU Dortmund

    Fig. 1: Multi-triplon states in spin ladders.
    2
    a The spins S = 1/2 at each vertex of the ladder are coupled by leg (Jleg), and rung (Jrung), couplings. The black arrows indicate spin-up and the red arrows indicate spin-down. b For Jleg = 0, the spins on each rung form singlets (blue ellipses) in the ground state and local S = 1 triplet excitations (orange ellipsis). c Non-local triplons (wide orange ellipse) are the elementary excitations in spin ladders. They exist in the ΔS = 1 sector and can be detected via inelastic neutron scattering. d Two-triplon interactions lead to the formation of two-triplon bound states (red double ellipse) in the ΔS = 0, 1 sectors. e Three-triplon interactions are strong enough to form three-triplon bound states in the ΔS = 0 sector. f n-strings of triplons can emerge; they are predicted in strongly frustrated spin ladders with additional diagonal couplings (not shown) in each plaquette.

    Fig. 2: Origin of three-triplon interactions.
    3
    The term is depicted in real space at dimer r and interdimer distances δ,δ′,δ′′; note that this term arises in any dimension and for any lattice model with finite dimensional local degrees of freedom. Finite x implies hopping, pair creation and annihilation processes during the renormalization by CUT. The blue arrows indicate the incoming triplons, red the scattered triplons and the black arrows internal triplon propagation. For normal bosons (a), the combined process is single-particle irreducible and corresponds to an effective hopping. For triplons (b), the hard-core constraint (black circles) induces three-triplon interactions in leading order x^3.

    More instructive images are available in the science paper.
    __________________________________________________________________

    International team finds magnetic three-particle state in high-temperature superconductor.
    Binding force of particles differs from previously known mechanisms.
    X-rays should provide experimental proof.
    Discovery could be a basis for topological quantum computers considered resistant to decoherence.
    Focus: Digitalization, quantum mechanics, quantum computing, technology, fundamental research.
    __________________________________________________________________
    In its simplest form, two charged particles that either repel or attract one another are enough to explain the world. Molecules and large solids, for example, are based on this physical interaction between an ion and an electron. Now, researchers have discovered a three-particle state – or more precisely they have predicted its existence in a special material. The researchers from the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR), TU Dortmund University and the DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory have also shown that X-rays could be used to detect this three-particle state in an experiment. In the future, their magnetic three-particle state could even evolve into a technology for use in quantum computers.

    “The prediction of these three-particle states is crucial because their binding power differs fundamentally from the previously known mechanisms,” says Benedikt Fauseweh, Group Leader at the DLR Institute for Software Technology in Cologne. “The discovery increases the probability that we will find even more exotic states, such as entire strings of magnetic excitations.” The strings could later be ‘linked’ to qubits – the computational building blocks of quantum computers. The information would be stored in the individual strings and the computing operations would then be carried out by braiding the strings. These braids are exceptionally stable in the quantum world. That is why topological quantum computers based on this fundamental idea are considered resistant to external perturbation, and this presents an advantage over other quantum computing technologies.

    New insights into quantum materials and superconductivity possible

    The researchers spent two years calculating the three-particle states in high-temperature superconductors. This class of materials, based on copper oxides, has only been known since the 1980s and has properties that are still not entirely understood (see info box below). The current research results were published in the scientific journal Communications Physics [below] and included instructions on practically demonstrating the states using X-ray experiments that should make the three bound particles visible. “The X-rays are absorbed by the material and transfer energy to the atoms. If a three-particle state is generated in the process, it is possible to measure a particularly strong scattering of the radiation,” says Benedikt Fauseweh.

    The three-particle states are also highly interesting for fundamental research. The successful detection of these structures using X-rays would present a promising experimental opportunity to learn more about quantum materials. It would also make it possible to observe the possible effects of this strong bonding on high-temperature superconductors. “It would be exciting, for example, to learn that the three-particle states have a significant influence on superconductivity and its transition temperature,” explains Fauseweh.
    __________________________________________________________________

    High-temperature superconductor

    Superconductors are materials that conduct electricity without any resistance. To do this, they must be cooled below their very low ‘transition temperature’. Below this temperature, a system is dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Materials such as liquid helium at minus 269 degrees Celsius are used for this cooling. High-temperature superconductors were first discovered in 1986 by Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller. In 1987, the two physicists were awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery. A much higher typical transition temperature characterises these high-temperature superconductors. They have unusual quantum properties that distinguish them from conventional superconductors. High-temperature superconductors belong to the class of quantum materials and are at the heart of modern solid-state research. The mechanism that leads to superconductivity in these materials is still not fully understood. However, it is known that magnetic excitations play an important role.

    Science paper:
    Communications Physics

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:08 am on September 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DLR air­craft records methane lev­els off the coast of Cen­tral Africa", Methane is responsible for a quarter to a third of human-induced global warming since pre-industrial times., Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide., Rapid measures to reduce methane concentration promise short-term success against global warming., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The exact source strengths of methane-especially in the oil and gas industry-often remain unknown., The global community needs worldwide initiatives such as the Global Methane Pledge in order to counteract climate change in a targeted and internationally coordinated way.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “DLR air­craft records methane lev­els off the coast of Cen­tral Africa” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    9.26.22

    1
    The DLR research aircraft Falcon
    _____________________________________________________________

    Rapid measures to reduce methane concentration promise short-term success against global warming.
    The exact source strengths of methane-especially in the oil and gas industry-often remain unknown.
    Methane sources are now being recorded in detail as part of the International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO) on behalf of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP).
    Detailed data relating to methane sources serve as a basis for appropriate countermeasures and monitoring.
    Focus: Earth observation, climate change
    _____________________________________________________________

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Due to its high climate impact, it is responsible for a quarter to a third of human-induced global warming since pre-industrial times depending on the climate model used. Worryingly, atmospheric methane concentrations have been rising at an accelerating pace in recent years, although the causes of this are not yet fully understood. Methane, however, breaks down much faster in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. This offers the opportunity to rapidly lower the atmospheric methane concentration if decisive action is taken to significantly reduce human methane emissions in the next few years. At the COP 26 international climate conference in November 2021, over 100 countries signed up to the Global Methane Pledge initiated by the USA and the EU – a commitment to reduce global methane emissions by at least 30 percent by 2030 compared to 2020 levels by deploying voluntary measures. An important part of the pledge was that participating nations agree for their emissions to be recorded in detail according to the standards of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The German Aerospace Center (Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) is involved in the METHANE-To-Go mission, which is funded by the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP). In September 2022, the DLR Falcon 20E research aircraft measured methane emissions from the oil and gas industry off the west coast of Central Africa from its base in Gabon.

    “The global community needs worldwide initiatives such as the Global Methane Pledge in order to counteract climate change in a targeted and internationally coordinated way,” says Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board. “Earth observation and the analysis of the data it gathers are vital for the development, monitoring and consistency of targeted measures. DLR uses innovative methods and instruments to provide the details and depth of data that are fundamental for successful climate protection measures. With the METHANE-To-Go mission, we are making an important contribution towards detecting leaks at oil and gas production sites, pipelines and LNG terminals.”

    In September 2022, DLR’s Falcon research aircraft made flights from its base in Gabon to measure methane emissions from the oil and gas industry off the coast of Gabon and Angola. Aircraft measurements are essential to obtain a more detailed insight into methane emissions from individual oil and gas fields, as modern satellites can only provide general, inadequate data over the ocean and during periods of thick cloud cover at tropical latitudes. More detailed measurements of often unknown or underestimated methane emissions from the production and transport of oil and gas are the key to driving more efficient measures to reduce methane emissions together with the oil and gas industry.

    “Overall, we are hoping to gain a better understanding of why the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has increased so much over the past decade, although it had stagnated for several years prior to that,” says mission leader Anke Roiger of the DLR Institute of Atmospheric Physics. “In addition to natural sources of methane, we are particularly interested in anthropogenic sources from the energy, agriculture and waste sectors. We have to record these much more accurately in order to better understand how humans are contributing to the sharp increase in methane concentrations and to be able to advise the respective industries.”

    Low-altitude measurements over the ocean

    Like many international DLR research flight campaigns, the METHANE-To-Go mission required detailed preparation and experienced research pilots. “For the flights in Central Africa, organising a suitable base at an airport with sufficient working facilities is just as much a challenge as obtaining the required permits for the numerous low-altitude flights across various national airspaces and, for this mission specifically, for the low-altitude flights in the vicinity of offshore installations,” says lead pilot Michael Grossrubatscher from DLR’s Flight Experiments facility. “Here, our many years of experience, especially with previous flights in Gabon, and the tight cooperation with the local oil and gas authorities in advance of the mission, helped us a lot.” Between 30 and 500 metres above the ocean, the DLR Falcon takes measurements on the windward and leeward sides of the installations. This makes it possible to quantify the emissions of the plants under examination in detail. In addition to methane, the Falcon also records numerous other trace substances. This allows the research team to subsequently assign the observed methane emissions to different processes.

    Oil and gas production off the west coast of Central Africa

    On the west coast of Central Africa, oil and gas production is spread over more than 800 kilometres across a wide variety of offshore installations. Different extraction techniques are used for offshore production in shallow water and for production in the deep sea, some of which is up to 150 kilometres from land. During the two weeks on site, the mission team succeeded in collecting emission data from all relevant regions. The installations and associated emissions can differ greatly, particularly due to the different ages and state of the existing installations.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:29 pm on July 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Analyzing the con­trails of the fu­ture", Conventional aircraft engines emit soot particles. These act as condensation nuclei for small supercooled water droplets which immediately freeze into ice crystals and become visible as contrails., DLR – research for climate-neutral aviation, Hydrogen combustion could revolutionize aviation of the future., Hydrogen combustion offers significant reduction potential because it does not lead to carbon dioxide emissions., One third of the climate impact of aviation is due to carbon dioxide emissions and two thirds to other effects., The consequences of climate change demand action for climate-neutral aviation., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The European "Green Deal", The test flights will be carried out in immediate succession under the same meteorological conditions., There is a considerable need for research and development on the path to climate-compatible aviation which requires continuous funding and support., Using a conventional kerosene-powered combustion engine, Using a hydrogen jet engine   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Analyzing the con­trails of the fu­ture” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    7.20.22

    Contacts:
    Bernadette Jung
    Com­mu­ni­ca­tions Ober­paf­fen­hofen, Weil­heim, Augs­burg
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and Me­dia Re­la­tions
    Telephone: +49 8153 28-2251
    Fax: +49 8153 28-1243
    Münchener Straße 20
    82234 Weßling

    Tina Jurkat-Witschas
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of At­mo­spher­ic Physics
    Münchener Straße 20
    82234 Oberpfaffenhofen

    1
    Approaching the exhaust jet

    2
    Measurement above the clouds

    3
    Preparing for the “Blue Condor” measurement flights

    _____________________________________________________________

    -DLR supports new test flight programme by Airbus and its subsidiary Airbus UpNext for CO2-emission-free flight.
    -The “Blue Condor” project investigates the effects of contrails from hydrogen engines.
    -Contrails contribute to the climate impact of air transport. In the form of long-lasting ice clouds, they could amplify the greenhouse effect.
    -Focus: Aviation, climate change
    _____________________________________________________________
    Contrails are generated as a result of aircraft emissions. They could amplify the greenhouse effect in the form of long-lasting ice clouds. The soot particles from jet fuel combustion act as particularly strong condensation nuclei for cloud formation in the part of the atmosphere where cold air is present. New engine technologies and the use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) offer promising approaches to significantly reduce the climate impact of contrails. To this end, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) is supporting an Airbus test flight programme, operated by its subsidiary Airbus UpNext, which is investigating for the first time contrails produced by a carbon dioxide emission-free aircraft that is powered by hydrogen. As part of the Blue Condor project, test flights are planned for the end of 2022 and in 2023 in North Dakota.

    Engine comparison

    Two Arcus gliders operated by the Perlan project will be deployed for the test flights, one equipped with a hydrogen jet engine and the other with a conventional kerosene-powered combustion engine. To ensure comparability of the data, the test flights will be carried out in immediate succession under the same meteorological conditions.

    The respective glider will be towed by an EGRETT, a high-altitude research aircraft, to an altitude of more than nine kilometres. There, the glider will ignite the engine with which it is equipped. The EGRETT, outfitted with measurement instruments, then takes on the role of chaser and flies through the contrail in close formation, which also allows for the emissions from the exhaust plume to be measured.

    The aim is to measure the microphysical properties of ‘hydrogen contrails’ in the atmosphere for the first time. The data will contribute to a better understanding of the formation of contrails resulting from hydrogen propulsion. In this way, technologies can be developed to modify the properties of the clouds impacting the climate and further mitigate their effect. Airbus is providing the hydrogen system and equipment, including the combustion engine, and is planning the flights of the test mission together with DLR. The DLR Institute of Atmospheric Physics is responsible for the measurements and data analysis.

    Revolutionizing future aviation

    “DLR is a world leader when it comes to researching aircraft emissions. In order to achieve climate-neutral aviation, research results must be incorporated directly into the development of new products. We are pleased to be able to support Airbus and its subsidiary with this technology transfer,” says Markus Fischer, DLR Divisional Board Member for Aeronautics. Sandra Bour Schaeffer, CEO of Airbus UpNext adds: “The aviation industry is already working hard to reduce all aviation emissions by 2050, and we are proud to have international experts at our side for this next important step.”

    Hydrogen engines predominantly emit water vapor and nitrogen oxides. Models show that the resulting contrails could have a much smaller effect on the climate. Direct hydrogen combustion does not produce particulate matter. Experts therefore suspect that the ice particles formed tend to be larger and occur in smaller numbers than with soot emissions. As a result, their rainout occurs faster, which means that the contrails are short-lived and contribute only marginally to global warming. However, science has lacked concrete measurement data on these complex atmospheric processes so far.

    If the assumptions based on models can thus be confirmed, hydrogen combustion could revolutionize aviation of the future. This is precisely why measurements at cruising altitudes are necessary because it is not clear whether the models cover all relevant processes. Hydrogen combustion also offers significant reduction potential because it does not lead to carbon dioxide emissions. Only the increased emission of water vapor into the stratosphere could counteract the mitigating climate effect of these contrails and must be taken into account in the analyses. The “Blue Condor” measurement flights will provide fundamental data that will allow reliable statements on contrails to be issued for the first time.

    The atmospheric researchers at Oberpfaffenhofen are using tried and tested instruments as well as instruments that were developed specifically for the mission. In particular, water vapor and ice particles as well as nitrogen oxides and aerosols are to be measured during the flight. The DLR project group H2CONTRAIL is leading from the DLR side and supplementing the measurements with targeted simulations to investigate the climate impact of contrails from hydrogen-fueled engines.

    Research and industry united

    The cooperation between research and industry goes far beyond the “Blue Condor” project. Airbus, DLR and the other stakeholders are active in several demonstration programmes, including ECLIF2, ECLIF3 (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) and VOLCAN (VOL avec Carburants Alternatifs Nouveaux). The common goal is to gain more precise insights into the climate benefits of contrails resulting from sustainable fuels and modern engine technologies. The Blue Condor project serves to complement these programmes. DLR is thus also supporting Airbus’ efforts to develop an emission-free aircraft by 2035. This is in line with the aviation strategy set out by DLR in December 2021 for the European Green Deal: ‘Towards zero-emission aviation’.

    DLR – research for climate-neutral aviation

    The consequences of climate change demand action for climate-neutral aviation. This involves new technologies that will also ensure global mobility in the future. With its 25 institutes and facilities in the field of aeronautics research, DLR is driving this change forward with technologies for sustainable, environmentally compatible flight. Expertise from DLR’s research programmes in space, energy and transport will also play an important role in this.

    DLR has systems expertise in aeronautics research and sees itself in the role of an architect. DLR’s goal is ’emission-free aviation’, in order to achieve the climate targets that have been set. For this to work, the research results must feed directly into the development of new products.

    There is a considerable need for research and development on the path to climate-compatible aviation which requires continuous funding and support. Much of this R&D needs investigations at a fundamental level, testing in practice and approval. DLR is able to do all this with its large-scale facilities such as research aircraft, propulsion demonstrators and large-scale computers. Through DLR’s new aviation strategy, we are now pursuing its vision of zero-emission aviation in line with The European “Green Deal”. To this end, we are conducting research and development work across the entire spectrum, in conjunction with our industry partners and other research institutions in Germany and abroad. This ranges from aircraft concepts and components as well as alternative propulsion solutions using new energy carriers to devising climate-optimised flight routes. This is DLR’s contribution to addressing the challenges presented by the Green Deal.

    Climate impact of contrails

    One third of the climate impact of aviation is due to carbon dioxide emissions and two thirds to other effects. Contrails and the resulting contrail cirrus clouds are the most significant factor. Conventional aircraft engines emit soot particles. These act as condensation nuclei for small supercooled water droplets, which immediately freeze into ice crystals and become visible as contrails in the sky. The ice crystals of the contrails can persist for several hours in cold and humid conditions at altitudes of about eight to twelve kilometres and form high clouds, known as contrail cirrus clouds. Depending on the position of the Sun and the ground below, these clouds can have a warming or cooling effect on a local scale. Numerous research studies show that globally the warming effect predominates. The occurrence of these clouds is extremely variable in time and space, so that a relatively small number of contrails is responsible for a large part of the warming effect. For many years, DLR and its partners have been systematically investigating ways to reduce soot emissions and the climate impact of the resulting contrail formation.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:55 am on July 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DLR in­au­gu­rates the Jo­hannes Ke­pler Ob­ser­va­to­ry", , Focus: Spaceflight; security; laser technology; space debris, , Protecting active satellites from collisions with space debris by enabling evasive maneuvers to be planned more efficiently., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The DLR researchers want to locate previously unknown objects in Earth orbit., The Johannes Kepler Observatory is a unique DLR research and development station to determine the trajectory and composition of space debris in the future., The telescope at the Johannes Kepler Observatory is the largest of its kind in Europe for observing and characterizing objects in Earth orbit.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “DLR in­au­gu­rates the Jo­hannes Ke­pler Ob­ser­va­to­ry” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    7.20.22

    Denise Nüssle
    Ed­i­tor
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Telephone: +49 711 6862-8086
    Fax: +49 711 6862-636

    Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and Me­dia Re­la­tions
    Thomas Dekorsy
    Head of the In­sti­tute
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of Tech­ni­cal Physics

    1
    DLR’s Johannes Kepler Observatory

    2
    The telescope in the night sky above Empfingen.

    3
    Focus on space debris

    The Johannes Kepler Observatory is a unique DLR research and development station to determine the trajectory and composition of space debris in the future.
    -This information is crucial to prevent active satellites and space missions from collisions with space debris.
    -The telescope at the observatory is the largest of its kind in Europe for observing and evaluating objects in Earth orbit.
    -The official inauguration of the observatory took place on 20 June 2022.
    -Focus: Spaceflight, security, laser technology, space debris

    ____________________________________________________________
    With the Johannes Kepler Observatory, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) has a unique research and development station. The observatory will use state-of-the-art laser technology to determine the trajectory and composition of space debris in near-Earth orbit as quickly, precisely and reliably as possible. This information helps, for example, to protect active satellites from collisions with space debris by enabling evasive maneuvers to be planned more efficiently. After roughly two years of construction and commissioning, DLR officially inaugurated the observatory on 20 July 2022 together with guests from politics, administration, industry and science. The observatory is located on the Empfingen innovation campus, approximately 60 kilometres southwest of Stuttgart. The DLR Institute of Technical Physics, whose central research facilities include the observatory, is also located there.

    Enabling satellite and space missions in the future – despite space debris

    “Whether for information, communications or navigation, satellite technologies have become an indispensable part of modern business, science and society. But the space above Earth is becoming more and more crowded and space debris is an increasing problem. As such, DLR is already working on technological solutions for greater safety in space. DLR’s Johannes Kepler Observatory will play a central role in this,” explains Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla, Chair of the DLR Executive Board.

    “Spaceflight is fascination. It is the urge to discover and the origin of knowledge, innovation and new technology that improves life on Earth. Preserving the possibilities of spaceflight for future generations is a mission that Germany is embarking on with partners in Europe and around the world. DLR’s Johannes Kepler Observatory is an important part of this. As a unique research platform for observing and evaluating objects in Earth orbit, it will allow us to continue the safe operation of satellites in the future and the successful deployment of robotic and astronautical missions,” says Anna Christmann, Federal Government Coordinator for German Aerospace Policy.

    DLR research telescope is the largest of its kind in Europe

    The telescope at the Johannes Kepler Observatory is the largest of its kind in Europe for observing and characterizing objects in Earth orbit. The primary mirror has a diameter of 1.75 metres. The telescope is housed in an almost 15-metre-tall round tower with a rotating slotted dome. It rotates synchronously with the telescope and opens only for about two metres in the respective viewing direction. The dome is mounted on rollers and driven by a motor. The telescope can be rotated at up to six degrees per second. This high ‘tracking speed’ in combination with the large primary mirror is a technological challenge. However, both are necessary to view the largest possible area of the sky and to be able to simultaneously detect, locate and characterize objects up to 10 centimetres across and moving at 28,000 kilometres per hour.

    The focus of the research and development work of the team from the DLR Institute of Technical Physics is on high-precision distance measurement using special lasers. In addition, the DLR researchers want to locate previously unknown objects in Earth orbit. To do this, they carry out spectral analyses – they examine the color composition of the sunlight scattered by the observed objects. In this way, they can draw conclusions, for example, about what kind of object it is, what material it is made of, how big it is, how it rotates and its orbit.

    Co-founder of modern astronomy as eponym

    Johannes Kepler is regarded as the co-founder of modern astronomy and modern natural sciences. He formulated the laws to describe how the planets orbit the Sun: in an elliptical orbit with the Sun at a focal point of the planet’s orbit. Johannes Kepler spent his childhood and youth in the southwest of Germany.

    The investment of around 2.5 million euros comes from funds provided by DLR and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK). The research work contributes to the safe use of space. It is supported by the Security Programme Coordination organization at DLR with funds from the Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:58 am on July 1, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "LIBS" was developed by the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems., "LIBS": Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, "Robotics team practices lu­nar ex­plo­ration on Mount Et­na", , LRU 2 robot, LRU1 robot and Rodin Lander, Robots can enter areas that are dangerous for or inaccessible to humans. They can even explore other planets., Scout rover, Teams of mobile robots have an important role to play in future space missions., The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Robotics team practices lu­nar ex­plo­ration on Mount Et­na” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    7.1.22

    1
    LRU1 robot and Rodin Lander.

    2
    LRU 2 robot.

    3
    LRU2 robot taking a rock sample.

    4
    Scout rover in the lava landscape on Mt. Etna.

    5
    Base camp on Mt. Etna volcano.

    6
    LRU1 robot.
    ______________________________________________________________
    Mount Etna, an active volcano on Sicily, has some geographical similarities with the Moon, not least its lava landscapes and granular surface.
    Various robotic systems worked together in inhospitable areas, where they acted as an extension of human arms and eyes.
    Focus: Space, robotics, planetary research, technology
    ______________________________________________________________
    Robots can enter areas that are dangerous for or inaccessible to humans. They can even explore other planets – or the Moon. This has now been demonstrated on Mount Etna, a volcano in Italy. Various robots completed their tasks independently – they took rock samples, analysed them and forwarded the results to their control centre. Two other scenarios were demonstrated in addition to this mission, which was named ‘Geological Mission I’. These complete the Helmholtz Future Project Autonomous Robotic Networks to Help Modern Societies (ARCHES). The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) led the project. The lava landscape on the Sicilian volcano Mount Etna resembles the surface of the Moon, so it is well suited to serve as a test environment. In addition to the loose, coarse-grained surface composition, the solidified lava layers also present realistic challenges for exploration missions.

    “Teams of mobile robots have an important role to play in future space missions. Operating in heterogeneous teams, the robots complement and support each other with their different capabilities. They serve as an extension of human arms and eyes,” explains Armin Wedler, Project Manager at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics. In ‘Geological Mission I’, two robots moved around together autonomously. They were joined by a drone. The Lightweight Rover Unit 1 (LRU1) robot evaluated soil samples using its cameras and is considered the ‘scientist’ of the team. LRU2 took on the role of ‘assistant’, collecting surface samples and analysing them using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). This technique directs a powerful, pulsed laser beam onto the sample. The material partially vaporises, allowing LIBS to detect different elements in the resulting plasma. LIBS was developed by the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems. LRU2 also transports storage containers, has space for tools and ensures that LRU1 always has WiFi. The ARDEA drone is considered the ‘scout’ for the team and mapped the area. Due to the strong winds that were present on Etna at times, the capabilities of ARDEA and LIBS could not be used on all experiment iterations.

    The three scenarios are based on different overall conditions

    ‘Geological Mission I’ was based on a concept in which scientists monitor the tasks of the robots from Earth. ‘Geological Mission II’, which also took place on Mount Etna, is different, as in this case the robots would be controlled from a station in orbit. In addition to LRU1 and LRU2, the Interact rover collected rock samples and brought them to a lander. The Interact Rover has a camera arm and a gripper arm that also provide haptic feedback. This means that the remote scientists can obtain a tactile ‘feel’ for the rock samples. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has developed a robotic arm with a hand as a haptic human-machine interface. The fourth robot – the Scout rover – is equipped with a WiFi repeater and positions itself so that Interact has a continuous connection to the control room. In ‘Geological Mission II’ the robots do not work autonomously but are guided by an astronaut.

    During the demonstration mission, German astronaut Thomas Reiter carried out this task from a special control room in Catania, about 23 kilometres away. ‘Geological Mission II’ also marks the conclusion of the The European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) ‘Analog-1’ campaign. In 2019, ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano controlled the Interact rover from the International Space Station (ISS) in a simulated lunar environment in the Netherlands as part of the ‘Analog-1’ campaign. “We have gained a lot of experience that will help us in the development of future missions. In addition to ongoing projects, we are very much looking forward to further collaboration in robotics, which will build on the findings from ARCHES,” says Thomas Krüger from ESA’s Human Robot Interaction Lab.

    Antenna for the far side of the Moon

    The third scenario, the ‘LOFAR Experiment’, involved simulating the installation and maintenance of a low-frequency radio antenna array. The LRU rover and the ARDEA drone demonstrated the installation of an antenna system on the far side of the Moon. A similar antenna could be directed from the lunar surface into deep space.

    Helmholtz Future Project ARCHES

    Heterogeneous, autonomous, networked robotic systems have been in development since 2018 as part of the Helmholtz Future Project Autonomous Robotic Networks to Help Modern Societies (ARCHES). This involves a number of different robots and fields of application. In addition to exploring the Solar System, it also opens the way for environmental monitoring of the oceans and the provision of assistance during crises on Earth.

    The ‘Space’ demonstration mission, which eventually took place on Mount Etna, had to be postponed several times due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The ‘Deep Sea’ demonstration mission, also part of ARCHES, was conducted at the end of 2020.

    The ‘Space’ demonstration mission was carried out by DLR in Catania together with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The other ARCHES project partners are the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research) and GEOMAR (Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel). The demonstration mission Robotic Exploration Under Extreme Conditions (ROBEX) took place on Mount Etna five years ago. ARCHES has built upon the experience gained through ROBEX.

    In addition to the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, the DLR institutes of System Dynamics and Control, Communications and Navigation and Optical Sensor Systems, and the Space Operations and Astronaut Training Facility were all involved in ARCHES.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on June 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Suc­cess­ful high-speed flight ex­per­i­ments with new sound­ing rock­et con­fig­u­ra­tion", , Materials that can adequately withstand and dissipate high thermal loads are crucial for dealing with the thermo-mechanical loads that occurs during the re-entry phase., Reusable launch systems, STORT research project, The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Suc­cess­ful high-speed flight ex­per­i­ments with new sound­ing rock­et con­fig­u­ra­tion” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    6.28.22

    1
    Before the launch

    DLR has flown a three-stage sounding rocket for the first time.
    High-temperature structures, measurement techniques and evaluation algorithms for the re-entry phase of reusable launchers were tested.
    A modular and distributed data acquisition system enabled efficient collection of data from the various experiments.
    Focus: Spaceflight, aerothermodynamics, sounding rockets

    ____________________________________________________________________
    Reusable launch systems are exposed to high dynamic and thermo-mechanical loads during their return to Earth. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) has now successfully tested high temperature structures, advanced measurement techniques and design tools for the re-entry phase with the STORT (Schlüsseltechnologien für hochenergetische Rückkehrflüge von Trägerstufen – key technologies for high-energy return flights of launch stages) flight experiment. In the early morning of 26 June 2022, the three-stage rocket lifted off from the Andøya Space launch site in northern Norway. The upper stage reached a flight speed of approximately 9000 kilometres per hour at the apogee of its trajectory – at an altitude of 38 kilometres. This corresponds to a Mach number in excess of eight. It then descended into the Atlantic Ocean, more than 350 kilometres away from the launch site. Extensive measurement data were transmitted to the ground station during the flight.

    “To achieve higher flight speeds, we used a DLR sounding rocket with three stages instead of two for the first time,” explains Dorian Hargarten from the DLR Space Operations and Astronaut Training facility. “In addition, the third stage carrying various scientific payloads followed a particularly shallow trajectory at an altitude of 38 kilometres, travelling at up to eight times the speed of sound. Here, various high-temperature experiments were carried out – in circumstances similar to the heat build-up that occurs during re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere – at the high thermal loads to be investigated,” Hargarten continues.

    2
    Preparation of the flight experiment. Instrumented payloads consisting of the ceramic forebody, canard module, active cooling equipment segment, data acquisition unit and CFRP module ahead of the service module. Credit: © DLR. All rights reserved.

    Instrumented high temperature payloads under test

    Materials that can adequately withstand and dissipate high thermal loads are crucial for dealing with the thermo-mechanical loads that occurs during the re-entry phase. Robust combined aerothermal sensors for health monitoring are also essential. “In STORT, the forebody of the third stage consists of five ceramic segments,” explains the Principal Investigator for the STORT project, Ali Gülhan from the DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology. “We equipped this with numerous heat flux sensors, thermocouples and pressure sensors every 90 degrees along four longitudinal lines and are now very excited about the data evaluation.”

    To carry out the thermal management experiments, the researchers used three fixed canards with ceramic outer shells. These were developed by the DLR Institute of Structures and Design. While one canard was actively cooled, the second canard was passively cooled. The third reference canard (without cooling) was also used to investigate the shock wave boundary layer interaction. The three canards showed different structural responses in flight under the same thermal load.

    A modular and distributed data acquisition system enabled the efficient collection of data from the various experiments. In the predecessor project, ATEK, a standard module made of aluminium alloys was replaced by a hybrid module consisting of a CFRP structure with metal flanges to reduce the weight of the cylindrical payload segments. In the STORT project, the researchers tested an even lighter module made entirely of CFRP.

    In addition to DLR, the Technical University of Munich participated in the STORT flight experiment; their contribution involved manufacturing the CFRP module. Another international partner was the University of Arizona, which carried out simulations for the ‘shock wave boundary layer interaction’ experiment on one of the canards. The Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) department of the DLR Space Operations and Astronaut Training facility was responsible for planning and executing the mission. The forebody and canards were designed and manufactured by the DLR Institute of Structures and Design. The project is led by the DLR Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, which was also responsible for the aerothermal design, the active cooling experiment, instrumentation of the payloads and the modular data acquisition system.

    About the STORT project

    The flight experiment that has now been successfully carried out is one element of the STORT research project. This project is part of the DLR ‘Reusable Space Transport Systems’ programme. Its goal is to develop selected technologies and methods related to the thermomechanical analysis and evaluation of launch systems. For this purpose, high-temperature structures, measurement methods and evaluation algorithms developed during fundamental research were adapted for the flight experiments and qualified during the flight. As a complement to ground-based experiments, the flight data provide validation inputs for physical modelling, numerical simulations and system analysis and thus enable the reliable design and evaluation of future launcher systems. The other institutions involved in the project are the DLR Institute of Space Systems, the DLR Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems and the DLR Institute for Software Technology.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:19 am on June 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DPAC": Data Processing and Analysis Consortium, "One step clos­er to un­der­stand­ing the Milky Way", , , , , Largest census of binary stars to date, , The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The full third data release (DR3) on 13 June 2022   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “One step clos­er to un­der­stand­ing the Milky Way” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    6.13.22

    Gaia satellite mission completes third star catalogue.

    1
    Asteroid locations 6.13.22. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC.

    2
    Chemical composition of stars. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC.

    3
    Gaia measures the movement of the stars. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC.

    4
    Star spectra in color. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC.
    ___________________________________________________________
    Unraveling the mysteries of the Milky Way and mapping it in the process is one of the main goals of the Gaia mission. On 13 June 2022, the mission came a step closer to achieving this with the publication of the complete third star catalogue. Gaia observed and measured approximately 1.8 billion celestial objects for this purpose. By the expected end of the mission in 2025, the largest and most accurate star catalogue to date, comprising around two billion celestial bodies, will have been created.

    Largest census of binary stars to date

    “In the last 34 months, Gaia has gained many new insights and significantly expanded the previous catalogue,” explains Alessandra Roy, Gaia Project Manager at the German Space Agency at DLR. “For example, the data contains the positions of around 156,000 small bodies, such as asteroids, in the Solar System. Another highlight is the largest census of binary stars in the Milky Way to date, which is crucial to understanding the formation of stars.” In addition, Gaia observed and documented numerous exoplanet transits.

    To achieve its scientific goals, Gaia has to record hundreds of celestial objects per second almost continuously. To do this, the spacecraft maps the objects in the Milky Way in three dimensions by measuring their positions, their distances from and their velocities with respect to Earth. The scientific instruments on board measure the apparent displacement of the stars in the sky resulting from Earth’s orbit around the Sun (stellar parallax) and distinguish it from their real movement through the galaxy.

    Even for the nearest stars, the apparent motion is tiny – it is less than one arcsecond. Gaia measures the position of stars to an accuracy of about one 20-millionth of an arcsecond, “This is equivalent to measuring the diameter of a human hair by an observer positioned 1000 kilometres away,” Roy clarifies. “But the spacecraft can do more than that; it also determines the brightness, temperature and chemical composition as well as the age of the nearly two billion objects observed.” All these parameters are important for understanding the lifecycle and origin of the observed stars.

    Big Data in space

    This enormous amount of information is analyzed by the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). DPAC is a collaboration of around 400 researchers and software engineers working in six different computer centres across Europe. The processed data are already being used successfully by researchers worldwide; since the beginning of the mission, the information from Gaia has been the basis for around 8000 scientific publications.

    Celestial objects have been documented since antiquity; the first star catalogue was compiled in the second century BC by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea. Since then, the records have become increasingly precise. But the measurement of star positions from the ground is limited by the turbulence of Earth’s atmosphere. ESA’s Hipparcos mission (1989-1993) was the first astrometry space mission and mapped about 120,000 stars.

    The complete Gaia catalogue will be 10,000 to 20,000 times larger than that of Hipparcos, as it will contain measurements of the physical parameters and 3D positions of about one percent of the hundred billion stars in our galaxy. The accuracy of the Gaia information also exceeds that of the previous data by a factor of 20 to 50.

    The Gaia mission was launched in 2013 and has been collecting scientific data ever since. The publication of this information is divided into individual catalogues due to the enormous amount of data. The first release, which took place in September 2014, already included the parallaxes and proper motions of around two million stars. The second Gaia release in April 2018 already contained 1.3 billion measurements and was even more accurate than the first. The third catalogue was split into two instalments – the early data release (eDR3), published in December 2020, and the full third data release (DR3) on 13 June 2022.

    Two more releases are currently planned. The fourth Gaia catalogue will be based on data from the first five years since Gaia’s launch and is scheduled to be published by the end of 2025. It will contain complete astrometric and photometric data for nearly two billion stars, as well as a list of variable stars, multiple star systems and exoplanets. Due to a possible mission extension to 2025, a fifth catalogue is planned, which is expected to be published in 2030.

    The new Gaia data is available in the Gaia archive as of 12:00 CEST on 13 June 2022.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:52 am on June 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Smart­phone tech­nol­o­gy pro­vides satel­lites with in­creased com­put­ing pow­er", A general challenge for computer systems in satellites is that cosmic radiation can interfere with their operation., A larger ScOSA system consisting of radiation-hardened and commercially available processors will soon be tested on a dedicated DLR CubeSat., DLR is developing distributed and heterogeneous on-board computers for future space missions., , Reliable and powerful computers play a central role in spaceflight., Testing on the OPS-SAT satellite in low-Earth orbit, The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE), The DLR researchers installed and successfully tested the ScOSA software on OPS-SAT together with ESA.   

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE): “Smart­phone tech­nol­o­gy pro­vides satel­lites with in­creased com­put­ing pow­er” 

    DLR Bloc

    From The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.](DE)

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    6.13.22

    1
    OPS-SAT re­search plat­form. Credit: ESA.

    2
    ScOSA computer. Credit: DLR (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

    -DLR is developing distributed and heterogeneous on-board computers for future space missions.
    -These combine radiation-hardened and commercially available processors that monitor one another and redistribute tasks in the event of an error.
    -A successful experiment has been conducted on board an ESA research satellite, processing Earth observation data.
    -Focus: Space, Earth observation, technology
    _________________________________________________________
    Reliable and powerful computers play a central role in spaceflight – for example, computer systems in satellites enable sophisticated Earth observation missions. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) is developing a new computer architecture that will provide On-Board Computers (OBCs) with more power as well as enabling them to repair themselves. Distributed heterogeneous OBCs are being created in the Scalable On-Board Computing for Space Avionics (ScOSA) flight experiment project. They feature different computing nodes that are connected to form a network.

    A general challenge for computer systems in satellites is that cosmic radiation can interfere with their operation. “If a radiation particle impacts a digital memory element, it might turn a zero into a one,” explains Project Manager Daniel Lüdtke from the DLR Institute for Software Technology in Braunschweig. Ultimately, the system can even fail or deliver incorrect results. For this reason, radiation-hardened processors are available for use in space. However, these are very expensive and have only limited computing power. On the other hand, processors such as those used for smartphones are very powerful and also much cheaper. They are, however, much more vulnerable to space radiation. ScOSA integrates both types of processors in one system.

    Testing on the OPS-SAT satellite in low-Earth orbit

    Special software detects errors and failures, and manages the computers. “In this process, programs running on a faulty processor are automatically transferred to other processors via the network,” explains Lüdtke. Meanwhile, the satellite continues to function normally. The software then restarts the processor and re-integrates it into the system.

    An experiment on the European Space Agency (ESA) OPS-SAT satellite has now shown that this works. “The satellite, which is 30 by 10 by 10 centimetres in size and contains an experimental computer, has been in low-Earth orbit since the end of 2019. OPS-SAT is available to researchers as a fully equipped and open platform,” explains David Evans, ESA Project Lead for the mission.

    The DLR researchers installed and successfully tested the ScOSA software on OPS-SAT together with ESA. To do this, the satellite acquired Earth observation images, then processed and evaluated them using artificial intelligence. The satellite then only transmitted the viable images to a ground station. “Sensors with increasingly high resolutions and complex algorithms require more and more computing power,” says Daniel Lüdtke, summarising the requirements for software and hardware. A larger ScOSA system consisting of radiation-hardened and commercially available processors will soon be tested on a dedicated DLR CubeSat. This small satellite is expected to be launched at the end of 2023.

    Development of software for space missions

    The Onboard Software Systems Group of the DLR Institute for Software Technology is involved in several national and international space missions. A central research topic in this context is the development of fault-tolerant and resilient software that can react to errors and failures. In addition to the Institute for Software Technology, the DLR institutes of Space Systems and Optical Sensor Systems, and DLR Space Operations and Astronaut Training are also involved in the ScOSA flight experiment project.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DLR Center
    The DLR German Aerospace Center [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.] (DE) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for the nation’s largest project management agency.

    DLR has approximately 8000 employees at 16 locations in Germany: Cologne (headquarters), Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Goettingen, Hamburg, Juelich, Lampoldshausen, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stade, Stuttgart, Trauen, and Weilheim. DLR also has offices in Brussels, Paris, Tokyo and Washington D.C.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: