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  • richardmitnick 1:03 pm on January 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Chinese 'artificial sun' Sets New World Record", China - Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), , The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) : “Chinese ‘artificial sun’ Sets New World Record” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    Jan 04, 2022
    Editor: CHEN Na

    The experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), or the Chinese “artificial sun,” has achieved a continuous high-temperature plasma operation for 1,056 seconds in the latest experiment on Thursday, the longest time of operation of its kind in the world.

    China – Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor

    The breakthrough was announced on Friday by Gong Xianzu, a researcher at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), who is in charge of the experiment conducted in Hefei, capital of east China’s Anhui Province.

    The ultimate goal of EAST, located at ASIPP in Hefei, is to create nuclear fusion like the Sun, using deuterium abound in the sea to provide a steady stream of clean energy.

    As opposed to fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, which are in danger of being exhausted and pose a threat to the environment, raw materials required for the “artificial sun” are almost unlimited on earth. Therefore, fusion energy is considered the ideal “ultimate energy” for the future of humanity. (Xinhua)

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:54 pm on November 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Capture Electron Transfer Image in Electrocatalysis Process", , , , ET: electron transfer, How to experimentally determine ET process occurring at nanoscale is important to understand the overall electrochemical reaction process at active sites., , , The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) : “Scientists Capture Electron Transfer Image in Electrocatalysis Process” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    Nov 23, 2021

    WANG Yongjin
    Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
    Tel: 86-411-84374221
    E-mail: wangyj@dicp.ac.cn

    1
    Electron transfer current followed the trend: corner> edge> basal plane, driven by the interfacial inner potential differences. Imaged by NIE Wei and FAN Fengtao.

    The involvement between electron transfer (ET) and catalytic reaction at electrocatalyst surface makes electrochemical process challenging to understand and control. How to experimentally determine ET process occurring at nanoscale is important to understand the overall electrochemical reaction process at active sites.

    Recently, a research group led by Prof. LI Can and Prof. FAN Fengtao from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) captured the electron transfer imaging in electrocatalysis process.

    This study was published in Nano Letters on Oct. 14, 2021.

    The researchers established an in-situ electrochemical imaging method with nanoscale spatial resolution, which combined atomic force microscopy and scanning electrochemical imaging. This method can realize the three-dimensional movement of the scanning nanoprobe to map the local distribution of the generated outer-spherical electron transfer molecules and the catalytic product molecules.

    The visual electron transfer images on metal nanoplates directly demonstrated that the electron transfer process at nanoscale presented a site-dependent heterogeneity.

    Moreover, to decouple the interference of the mass transfer effect on the electron transfer, the researchers conducted a series of elaborate experiments and complex mathematical modeling to extract the rate constant and internal potential difference. They found that the relationship between the interfacial inner potential difference and the rate constant followed a linear fashion.

    This work realizes the in-situ observation of electron transfer process and catalytic reaction in the electrochemical reaction, and provides new ideas for the development of in-situ imaging characterization method and the detection of the mechanism of the electrocatalytic reactions.

    “This is a new milestone of the scanning electrochemical probe techniques, making it possible to discover the structure-performance relation of nanocatalyst from the bottom of physical and chemical principles,” commented by one of the reviewers.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:57 pm on November 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Mapping Lithium Evolution of Giant Stars with LAMOST-Kepler Data", Asteroseismicity, , , , , , RGB: red giant branch stars, , , Stars at RGB phase showed natural depletion of lithium along with their evolution., The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) : “Mapping Lithium Evolution of Giant Stars with LAMOST-Kepler Data” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    Nov 24, 2021
    XU Ang
    National Astronomical Observatories
    annxu@nao.cas.cn

    1
    Credit: CC0 Public Domain.

    Mapping Lithium Evolution of Giant Stars with LAMOST-Kepler Data

    3

    LAMOST telescope located in Xinglong Station, Hebei Province, China, Altitude 960 m (3,150 ft).

    Based on LAMOST and Kepler data, a new study led by astronomers from The National Astronomical Observatories of China [ 国家天文台] at Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) has revealed evolutionary features of lithium for evolved stars, which updates our understanding about the theory of stellar structure and evolution.

    The results were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Surface lithium (Li) abundances display various patterns for stars of different types as well as at different evolutionary stages. The signatures of Li provide key information about internal stellar structure and evolution.

    However, due to the difficulties of classifying evolutionary stages, especially separating core helium burning (HeB) from red giant branch (RGB) bump stars by traditional approach, the evolutionary features of Li from the RGB to the HeB stage have long been in the dark.

    Thanks to the uncovered evolutionary stages and determined Li abundances based on the asteroseismic analysis and spectroscopic survey, respectively, the researchers investigated the signatures of Li for stars evolving from the RGB to the HeB phase with the 1,848 giants selected in the LAMOST-Kepler/K2 fields.

    They found that the stars at RGB phase showed natural depletion along with their evolution; particularly, there were no obvious crowd stars with anomalously high Li abundances near the bump. While during the HeB phase, there was no indication of obvious Li depletion.

    Furthermore, the Li abundances of most of the low-mass stars that just start their HeB phase (zero-age HeB, ZAHeB) showed an increase compared to the stars above the RGB bump. It suggested that the helium flash, which happened between the phases of RGB and HeB, might lead to moderate Li production.

    “A previous theoretical study has speculated that helium flash may produce Li, while this work has just confirmed their inference from observations, and also provides a constraint on the amount of Li produced during helium flash,” said Dr. ZHANG Jinghua, the first author of the study.

    However, the standard helium flash model cannot explain the high Li abundance in (super) Li-rich stars given that the Li abundances of most low-mass ZAHeB stars are still lower than the lower limit of Li-rich stars in a classic definition. For (super) Li-rich stars, some special mechanisms should be considered during helium flash. Other scenarios, such as mergers, could also be sources given that Li-rich stars can be found at any time during the steady-state phase of HeB.

    This is a timely paper on an interesting topic (Li in red giant stars) that has long been a puzzle, and is now being revitalized by the existence of new, larger, more precise, and better characterized datasets, commented by the reviewer of the paper.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:21 pm on November 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers discover enormous 'barrier' separating the center of the Milky Way from the cosmic ray sea", , , , , , The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) via Live Science (US) : “Astronomers discover enormous ‘barrier’ separating the center of the Milky Way from the cosmic ray sea” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    via

    Live Science (US)

    11.18.21
    Brandon Specktor

    Something is keeping the universe’s fastest-moving particles from entering the center of our galaxy.

    1
    An artist’s impression of the Milky Way’s center, using data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. (Image credit:
    The Goddard Space Flight Center-NASA (US))

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Fermi Large Area Telescope

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

    The center of the Milky Way may be even more bizarre than astronomers thought, according to a new study.

    For the study, a team of researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Nanjing investigated a map of radioactive gamma-rays — the highest-energy form of light in the universe, which can arise when extremely high-speed particles called cosmic rays crash into ordinary matter — blasting in and around the center of our galaxy.

    The map revealed that something near the center of the galaxy appears to be accelerating particles to mind-blowing speeds — very near the speed of light — and creating an abundance of cosmic rays and gamma-rays just outside the galactic center. However, even as the galactic center blows a constant storm of high-energy radiation into space, something near the Milky Way’s core prevents a large portion of cosmic rays from other parts of the universe from entering, the team reported Nov. 9 in the journal Nature Communications.

    The researchers described the effect as an invisible “barrier” that is wrapped around the galactic center and is keeping the density of cosmic rays there significantly lower than the baseline level seen throughout the rest of our galaxy. In other words: Cosmic rays can get out of the galactic center, but have a hard time getting in.

    How this cosmic barrier works, or why it exists, remains a mystery.

    Monster in the middle

    The center of our galaxy is located about 26,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Credit: R. Hurt/NASA JPL-Caltech(US) Milky Way The bar is visible in this image.

    It is a dense and dusty place, holding more than 1 million times as many stars per light-year as the entire solar system — all wrapped around a supermassive black hole with about 4 million times the mass of the sun.

    SGR A* Credit: Pennsylvania State University(US) and National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) Chandra X-ray Observatory (US).

    Sgr A* NASA/Chandra supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, X-ray image of the center of our galaxy, where the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* resides. Credit:D.Wang et al. X-ray: National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/UMass/, IR: NASA/Space Telescope Science Institute (US).

    Scientists have long suspected that this black hole, named Sagittarius A*, or perhaps some other object at the galactic center, is accelerating protons and electrons to near light speed, creating cosmic rays that beam throughout our galaxy and onward into intergalactic space. These rays propagate through the magnetic fields of our galaxy, creating an ocean of high-energy particles that’s roughly uniform in density throughout the entire Milky Way. This steady soup of particles is called the cosmic ray sea.

    In their new study, the researchers compared the density of cosmic rays in this sea to the density of cosmic rays within the galactic center. Cosmic rays cannot be seen directly, but scientists can find them in gamma-ray maps of space, which effectively show where cosmic rays have collided with other types of matter.

    Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, the team confirmed that something in the galactic center is indeed acting as a giant particle accelerator, shooting cosmic rays out into the galaxy. Possible culprits include Sagittarius A*, as black holes could theoretically shoot certain particles into space even as they gobble up everything else around them, Live Science previously reported; the remnants of ancient supernovas; or even strong stellar winds from the many stars crammed into the galactic center.

    But the map also revealed the mysterious “barrier,” a clear point where the density of cosmic rays drops off significantly at the edge of the galactic center. The source of this phenomenon is harder to pinpoint, the researchers said, but it may involve the jumble of magnetic fields near our galaxy’s dense core.

    For example, dense clouds of dust and gas near the galactic center could collapse onto themselves, compressing the magnetic fields there and creating a cosmic-ray-proof barrier, the team suggested in their paper. Or, perhaps stellar winds from the myriad stars at the galactic center are pushing back against the cosmic ray sea, much as the solar wind does.

    Further research is required to figure out exactly what is happening in the bizarre depths of our galaxy.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on November 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Early Evaporation Proven to Be Responsible for Earth's Lack of Volatile Elements", However today’s Earth though rich in life contains relatively little volatile matter., The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN), The University of Science and Technology of China [电子科技大学](CN), This fact offers numerous insights into the proliferation and the evolution of volatile content in terrestrial planets., Volatile elements such as carbon; hydrogen; nitrogen; and sulfur are of profound importance for the formation; the differentiation and the habitability of a planet.   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) : “Early Evaporation Proven to Be Responsible for Earth’s Lack of Volatile Elements” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    Nov 14, 2021
    Jane FAN Qiong
    The University of Science and Technology of China [电子科技大学](CN)
    englishnews@ustc.edu.cn

    Volatile elements such as carbon; hydrogen; nitrogen; and sulfur are of profound importance for the formation; the differentiation and the habitability of a planet. However today’s Earth though rich in life contains relatively little volatile matter. This fact offers numerous insights into the proliferation and the evolution of volatile content in terrestrial planets.

    In a study published in Nature Geoscience, a research group led by Prof. WU Zhongqing from University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered that under the environment of solar nebula, protoplanetary embryo’s melting and evaporation are the major causes of Earth’s lack of volatile elements.

    According to previous researches, Earth possesses a considerable absence of volatile elements, compared with the early Solar System. This phenomenon was controversial with several mechanisms postulated, such as meteorites carrying volatile matter or evaporation during Earth’s evolution. Accurate data regarding the ratio of S isotopes rose to prominence as a result. However, since large amount of S infiltrated Earth’s core during the core-mantle differentiation, its isotopes’ ratio in the entire Earth has long puzzled scientists.

    In this study, with first-principles calculations, researchers succeeded in measuring the S isotope fractionation factor between the mantle and the core. The core-mantle differentiation was in fact, found trivial for isotope fractionation.

    Employing thermodynamic calculations, researchers discovered that when the protoplanetary embryo was melting, heavy isotopes of S volatilized in the form of hydrogen sulfuric, which is in accordance with the low ratio of S isotopes on Earth. In addition, they found that large amount of S was lost during the giant impact which formed the Moon, leaving lighter S isotopes for Earth.
    The study shows that initially the Earth was abundant in volatile content, and it was the evaporation in early stages that led to Earth’s composition today. It provides new insights regarding the origin of volatile substance on terrestrial planets.

    2
    Isotope effect of sulfur caused by its volatilization during the melting early-stage protoplanetary embryo and formation of the Moon. (Image by WANG Wenzhong et al.)

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on November 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Chinese Scientists Say They’ve Discovered Cheap New Way to Do Nuclear Fusion", , The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN), The method involved weaker laser beams aimed at two tiny gold cones which emit hydrogen plasma at each other. When it happens with precisely the right parameters a fusion reaction can occur.   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) via Futurism : “Chinese Scientists Say They’ve Discovered Cheap New Way to Do Nuclear Fusion” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    via

    futurism-bloc

    Futurism

    11.12.21
    Tony Tran

    They’re using tiny cones made of gold to do it.

    1
    Image by Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    A team of scientists in China say they’ve discovered a cost-effective method of achieving nuclear fusion that could rival much more expensive counterparts.

    Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics began their experiments into fusion power at the Shenguang II laser facility last summer, according to The South China Morning Post. However, the government gave the team just $156 million over six years to conduct their experiments — a paltry sum compared to fusion reactors like the International Thermal Experimental Reactor (ITER) in France, which has an estimated budget of $45 to $65 billion.

    ITER Tokamak in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, which is in southern France.

    The researchers also wanted to improve on research conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) over the summer, which resulted in more fusion energy output than ever previously produced in a lab.

    NIF National Ignition Facility located at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.

    That experiment involved aiming 100 very powerful lasers at a single target, which eventually deformed the mirrors used to create the lasers and reduced its accuracy.

    So along with achieving fusion, the Chinese team also needed to figure out how to do it on a budget and with less powerful lasers. Eventually, they turned to a process initially developed in 1997 by Zhang Jie, a renowned Chinese physicist.

    The method involved weaker laser beams aimed at two tiny gold cones which emit hydrogen plasma at each other. When it happens with precisely the right parameters a fusion reaction can occur.

    While the gold cones vaporize after fusion, the ultimate cost will be “extremely small — if not negligible — in the future operation of a power plant,” Zhang Zhe, lead researcher of the experiment, told the SCMP. “A small grain of gold can make thousands of cones.”

    Though the team did encounter some issues in their experiments, Zhang says that they were able to make considerable progress. He hopes that the team will be able to scale their research with more sophisticated tools and facilities in the future that “will lift the game to a whole new level.”

    When that happens, the team might have a fusion reactor that will rival the capabilities of the ITER — and at a fraction of the cost.

    It’s another exciting update in the race to achieve fusion power, which could provide boundless clean energy and help provide a reliable method away from fossil fuels. However, it’s worth noting that fusion energy will likely not be unlocked by any one country — but rather a joint effort by all.

    “It is difficult to predict which approach or which country will win the race at this stage. There are too many uncertainties ahead,” an anonymous nuclear fusion scientist told the SCMP. “But in the end, different technologies, different nations may need to unite as one to bring fusion from dream to life.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:19 am on November 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "There is a Mysterious Barrier Keeping Cosmic Rays Out of The Galactic Center", Astronomers expect that the galactic center is an important source of cosmic rays., , The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN), The galactic center is a high-energy particle accelerator-or at least something in the region is., The galactic center is a zone of mystery., There are a number of objects in the galactic center that could act as cosmic ray accelerators.   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) via Science Alert (US) : “There is a Mysterious Barrier Keeping Cosmic Rays Out of The Galactic Center” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)

    via

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert (US)

    9 NOVEMBER 2021
    MICHELLE STARR

    1
    The galactic center in radio and X-rays. Credit: The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US)/The Chandra X-ray Center (US)/University of Massachusettes (US)/D. Wang et al./The National Research Foundation – SARAO(SA)/SKA MeerKAT (SA))

    The center of the Milky Way is a powerful particle accelerator, new research has revealed – but there’s also some unknown mechanism blocking cosmic rays from penetrating the vast cloud called the central molecular zone.

    This finding could help us better understand the origins of cosmic rays – particles such as protons and atomic nuclei that constantly stream through space at almost the speed of light.

    The galactic center is a zone of mystery. We have a decent idea of what’s in there, but it’s so thick with dust that we can’t study it in a range of wavelengths, from soft X-rays through to visible light. This has placed some limitations on what we can and can’t see.

    Astronomers expect that the galactic center is an important source of cosmic rays. These are protons and nuclei that have been stripped of electrons and accelerated to relativistic speeds by powerful magnetic fields. There are a number of objects in the galactic center that could act as cosmic ray accelerators: supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, and the supermassive hole at the Milky Way’s heart, Sagittarius A*.

    SGR A* Credit: Pennsylvania State University(US) and National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) Chandra X-ray Observatory (US)

    According to observation data and modeling, the cosmic ray distribution throughout the Milky Way should be smooth, and more or less steady. Cosmic rays emerge from accelerators and propagate in the galactic magnetic field, where they are likely slowed and re-accelerated to result in what astronomers call a cosmic ray sea [Physical Review D].

    In order to study how cosmic rays are accelerated and transported, a source of fresh cosmic rays is required.

    Luckily, cosmic rays are very energetic. This means we can detect them in the galactic center, because that energy range produces light in the limited wavelength range that penetrates the dust there.

    Cosmic rays can interact with the interstellar medium – gas and dust that hangs around in the space between the stars – and this interaction in turn produces high-energy gamma-ray photons, with about 10 percent of the energy of their cosmic ray parents.

    Led by astronomer Xiaoyuan Huang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a team of researchers looked at the gamma radiation in the central molecular cloud of the Milky Way using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, hoping to find these sources of fresh cosmic rays.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Fermi Large Area Telescope

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

    They found gamma rays that did suggest, as expected, that the galactic center is a high-energy particle accelerator-or at least something in the region is. But they also found something really surprising.

    According to the team’s calculations, the density of cosmic rays in the central molecular cloud is lower than the density of the cosmic ray sea. This suggests the presence of some kind of barrier that is preventing cosmic rays from penetrating the central molecular cloud.

    Exactly what this barrier consists of will need to be the subject of future research, but there are several intriguing possibilities.

    Molecular clouds are complicated places. The collapse of denser parts of the cloud can result in compression of magnetic fields; that could be a barrier. Another could be magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Here in the Solar System, cosmic rays are modulated by the solar wind [Progress of Theoretical Physics]. It’s possible that, in the galactic center, the galactic wind fulfils a similar role. The team calculated the cosmic ray density in the presence of a galactic wind, and returned a similar result to their analysis of the gamma ray data.

    Future work to explore this phenomenon in more detail may help rule out some of the mechanisms that could be causing it.

    In addition, more detailed, three-dimensional modeling of the galactic center could help shed more light on the origin and transport of cosmic rays in the Milky Way, the researchers say. There’s always more out there to be found, indeed.

    The research has been published in Nature Communications.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
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