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  • richardmitnick 6:28 pm on January 8, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Flash Center moves to Rochester and advances cutting-edge physics research", , , , , , , , , , Supercomputing,   

    From The University of Rochester: “Flash Center moves to Rochester and advances cutting-edge physics research” 

    From The University of Rochester

    1.6.23

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    Petros Tzeferacos (right), associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Rochester, senior scientist at the University’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), and director of the Flash Center for Computational Science, uses the University’s VISTA Collaboratory visualization facility to explain FLASH simulations of a laser-driven experiment to (from left) LLE deputy director Chris Deeney, Flash center graduate research assistant and Horton Fellow Abigail Armstrong, and Flash center research scientist Adam Reyes. The center is devoted to computer simulations used to advance an understanding of astrophysics, plasma science, high-energy-density physics, and fusion energy. (Photo: J. Adam Fenster/The University of Rochester.)

    The Flash Center for Computational Science offers researchers worldwide access to a computer code that simulates phenomena in astrophysics, high-energy-density science, and fusion research.

    UPDATE: New FLASH code expands possibilities for physics experiments (January 6, 2023)

    The University of Rochester is the new home of a research center devoted to computer simulations used to advance the understanding of astrophysics, plasma science, high-energy-density physics, and fusion energy.

    The Flash Center for Computational Science recently moved from the University of Chicago to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Rochester. Located in the Bausch and Lomb building on the River Campus, the center encompasses numerous cross-disciplinary, computational physics research projects conducted using the FLASH code. The FLASH code is a publicly available multi-physics code that allows researchers to accurately simulate and model many scientific phenomena—including plasma physics, computational fluid dynamics, high-energy-density physics (HEDP), and fusion energy research—and inform the design and execution of experiments.

    “We are thrilled to have the Flash Center and the FLASH code join the University of Rochester research enterprise and family, and we want to thank the University of Chicago for working hand-in-hand with us to facilitate this transfer,” says Stephen Dewhurst. Dewhurst, the vice dean for research at the School of Medicine and Dentistry and associate vice president for health sciences research for the University, is currently serving a one-year appointment as interim vice president for research.

    The ‘premiere’ code used at the world’s top laser facilities

    Development of the FLASH code began in 1997 when the Flash Center was founded at the University of Chicago. The code, which is continuously updated, is currently used by more than 3,500 scientists across the globe to simulate various physics processes.

    The Flash Center fosters joint research projects between national laboratories, industry partners, and academic groups around the world. It also supports training in numerical modeling and code development for graduate students, undergraduate students, and postdoctoral research associates, while continuing to develop and steward the FLASH code itself.

    “In the last five years FLASH has become the premiere academic code for designing and interpreting experiments at the world’s largest laser facilities, such the National Ignition Facility at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Omega Laser Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), here at the University of Rochester,” says Michael Campbell, the director of the LLE. “Having the Flash Center and the FLASH code at Rochester significantly strengthens LLE’s position as a unique national resource for research and education in science and technology.”

    Petros Tzeferacos, an associate professor of Physics and Astronomy and a senior scientist at the LLE, serves as the center’s director. Tzeferacos’s research combines theory, numerical modeling with the FLASH code, and laboratory experiments to study fundamental processes in Plasma Physics and Astrophysics, high-energy-density laboratory Astrophysics, and Fusion Energy. Tzeferacos became director of the Flash Center in 2018 after serving for five years as associate director and code group leader, when the center was still housed at the University of Chicago.

    “The University of Rochester is a unique place where Plasma Physics, Plasma Astrophysics, and high-energy-density science are core research efforts,” Tzeferacos says. “We have in-house computational resources and leverage the high-power computing resources at LLE, the Center for Integrated Research Computing (CIRC), and national supercomputing facilities to perform our numerical studies. We also train the next generation of Computational Physics and Astrophysics scientists in the use and development of simulation codes.”

    Research at the Flash Center is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration, the DOE Office of Science Fusion Energy Sciences, the US DOE Advanced Research Projects Agency, The National Science Foundation, The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory, The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the LLE.

    “FLASH is a critically important simulation tool for academic groups engaging with NNSA’s academic programs and performing HEDP research on NNSA facilities,” says Ann J. Satsangi, federal program manager at the NNSA Office of Experimental Sciences. “The Flash Center joining forces with the LLE is a very positive development that promises to significantly contribute to advancing high-energy-density science and the NNSA mission.”

    UPDATE: New FLASH code expands possibilities for physics experiments
    The Flash Center for Computational Science at the University of Rochester recently announced an exciting milestone: researchers have developed a new version of the FLASH code, the first official update of the code since the FLASH center moved to Rochester from the University of Chicago.

    The new version of the code, FLASH v4.7, increases the accuracy of simulations of magnetized plasmas and drastically expands the range of laboratory experiments the code can model.

    “This expansion fuels discovery science for thousands of researchers around the world, across application domains, while concurrently enabling the Flash Center to pursue a rich portfolio of research topics at the frontiers of plasma astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fusion,” says Petros Tzeferacos, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at Rochester and a senior scientist at the LLE, who serves as the center’s director.

    FLASH v4.7 is the culmination of nearly two and a half years of code development, spearheaded by Adam Reyes, the Flash Center code group leader in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and other Flash Center personnel.

    According to Tzeferacos, the development of the FLASH code also draws heavily from the Flash Center’s robust education program that engages Rochester graduate and undergraduate students.

    “A key aspect of what we do at the Flash Center is to train the next generation of computational physicists and astrophysicists to develop multi-physics codes like FLASH and perform validated simulations,” Tzeferacos says. “Several of the items in the new FLASH release were developed and verified by our graduate students, who may ultimately use the new capabilities in their graduate research.”

    Read more about the new FLASH code release here.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    University of Rochester campus

    The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation , The University of Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world.

    The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab-based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy supported national laboratory.

    University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history The University of Rochester alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University and The University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University.

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for The University of Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that The University of Rochester have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 The University of Rochester was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.”

    For the next 10 years The University of Rochester expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of The University of Rochester upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternity houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at The University of Rochester as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in The University of Rochester register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to The University of Rochester during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The University of Rochester award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II The University of Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, The University of Rochester was invited to join the Association of American Universities as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to The University of Rochester after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such The University of Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 The University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s endowment and the University of Texas System’s Permanent University Fund . Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity The University of Rochester’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response The University of Rochester commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “The University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan
    In 1995 The University of Rochester president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in Chemical Engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and Mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and Mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, The University of Rochester announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 The University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of The University of Rochester and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    The University of Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    The University of Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018.

    In 2008 The University of Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018.

    Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at The University of Rochester Medical Center.

    Recently The University of Rochester has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in Biomedical Engineering and Optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus.

    Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. The University of Rochester also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by The University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. The University of Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:26 am on January 8, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Erica Prates - Bridging science across scales with computational biology", , , , Linking the function of the smallest molecules to their effects on large-scale processes., One of Prates’ main efforts is building a computational structural systems biology workflow that lets scientists identify protein targets that can be engineered to achieve biological traits., Prates advises young people interested in a career in science to “be fearless., Prates integrates structural information on molecules into complex systems biology models., Prates is also learning the secrets of how microbes such as fungi use molecular signaling to talk to plants to support a healthy ecosystem for both., Prates is using her interdisciplinary approach to develop hardier plants that can be grown on inhospitable lands., Prates works to understand the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules with a particular interest in proteins and interacting metabolites., Supercomputing,   

    From The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory: “Erica Prates – Bridging science across scales with computational biology” 

    From The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1.6.23

    1
    Erica Prates has found a way to help speed the pursuit of healthier ecosystems by linking the function of the smallest molecules to their effects on large-scale processes, leveraging a combination of science, math and computing. Credit: ORNL.

    Prates is a computational systems biologist in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Biosciences Division. She’s using her interdisciplinary approach to develop hardier plants that can be grown on inhospitable lands to make clean jet fuels, to create healthier plants and improve carbon storage by exploring plant-microbe interactions, and to figure out how viruses affect human health.

    “I integrate structural information on molecules into complex systems biology models,” Prates said. “And I am fortunate to get to do so on the world’s fastest supercomputers here at ORNL.”

    She works to understand the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules, with a particular interest in proteins and interacting metabolites.. “I help predict their structure and interactions using high-throughput methods that run on supercomputers. A molecule’s structure is tightly related to its function and how it creates physical traits in an organism. Those traits then influence ecosystems on a large scale,” Prates said.

    If scientists can describe how information passes from genes to a cascade of molecular events that produce a given biological phenomenon, they can predict how genetic variation changes biological behavior, she added.

    Versatile science

    Prates studies a wide variety of subjects, including plants, microbes, viruses and species interactions. One of her main efforts is building a computational structural systems biology workflow that lets scientists identify protein targets that can be engineered to achieve biological traits of interest.

    An example is her work identifying genes encoding proteins that can trigger desirable characteristics in plants for the Center for Bioenergy Innovation, or CBI, at ORNL. A key mission of CBI is developing improved nonfood crops like poplar and switchgrass that have greater biomass yield and resistance to pathogens and pests.

    She is also learning the secrets of how microbes such as fungi use molecular signaling to talk to plants to support a healthy ecosystem for both. Those signals, known as lipo-chitooligosaccharides, or LCOs, are believed to govern the beneficial colonization of plant roots by fungus and may be involved in other important biological processes.

    Prates played a role in ORNL’s pioneering efforts to characterize all the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus for insights into its evolution and the body’s response to COVID-19. Prates and colleagues recently followed up their research with lab experiments supporting their theories about the virus’s pathogenesis. The team described how the virus inactivates an important protein in the body’s immune system.

    “This was very exciting work,” Prates said. “Early in the pandemic there was this idea that the major target of the virus was lung cells. But then it became clearer that COVID-19 was a systemic disease, affecting the whole body.” The team demonstrated at a molecular detail how the virus can dismantle NEMO, a protein in the host cell that is key for an effective immune response.

    “One of the things I really enjoy about my work is the ability to migrate between very different systems.” Prates said. “I was working with a lot of plants and microbes, and then at the onset of the pandemic suddenly started working with viruses. Proteins are proteins no matter whether the organism they influence is a virus, a human or a microbe. So it’s easy and useful to migrate to these different subjects using the same tools. That’s one thing I love about this job.”

    Encouraging words

    Prates cites her mother’s influence for her successful entry into a science career.

    “You have to be confident when you practice science,” Prates said. “It was my mother who boosted my confidence every day growing up with messages that ran counter to an often sexist culture.” She also cites the influence of a physician in the family who discussed science and medicine with her routinely from a young age. When her parents built her a doll house, Prates turned it into a play laboratory.

    Prates earned her bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees in chemistry from the University of Campinas, or UNICAMP, in Brazil. She first came to the United States with an internship at the University of Washington, and then spent a year at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as a Sao Paulo Research Foundation Fellow researching biofuels.

    In Brazil, Prates was no stranger to bioenergy. The nation is the world’s second largest producer of ethanol. Renewables make up almost half of Brazil’s energy mix, and about 70% of that supply is from plant biomass, according to the International Energy Agency.

    It was at NREL, a key partner in CBI, that she became acquainted with ORNL and eventually joined as a postdoctoral researcher in 2018, hiring on as staff three years later.

    “I’ve been very lucky in my career to have worked with very generous scientists who opened doors for me and made me feel empowered and capable,” she said. She cited key mentors like Professor Munir Skaf, her doctoral advisor at UNICAMP, Gregg Beckham at NREL and Dan Jacobson at ORNL.

    At Oak Ridge, Prates said she feels “lucky to be around very smart co-workers. The team that I work with directly supports my work in systems biology where you need to understand the connections between molecules, and often that requires people with very different expertise working together. It makes you talk a lot, this interdependence of a team where everyone might have a different approach.” By having the same goal, the environment is more cooperative than competitive, she said.

    She also enjoys the immense capabilities of working in a national lab environment, including the supercomputers at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. “Just working here with Summit [below] and Frontier [below] is a big achievement already,” she said.

    Fearless and flexible

    Prates advises young people interested in a career in science to “be fearless. It’s important to be confident and creative. Don’t give up, even on the ideas that at first may feel wrong. Be flexible and resilient. Just like Darwin’s theories in nature, adaptability is key to success.” She also stressed the benefit of learning how to write. “You will write more than you expect to, and it’s critical to be able to effectively communicate your ideas to others.”

    Prates’s enthusiasm extends to her personal life as her family grows. “I’m very excited by the most important project of my life: the baby girl that I’m expecting,” she said. “I plan to be very supportive of her in whatever she wants to do. I want to show her how the universe is complex and beautiful, as my inspirations did for me.”

    In her research as well as in parenting, she hopes to continue bridging the gap between the tiniest elements and the largest impact. “When you make this connection between the molecular world and the big picture, then you’re learning which of the tiny gears can influence the entire system.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    Established in 1942, The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system (by size) and third largest by annual budget. It is located in the Roane County section of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, energy, high-performance computing, systems biology and national security, sometimes in partnership with the state of Tennessee, universities and other industries.

    ORNL has several of the world’s top supercomputers, including Summit, ranked by the TOP500 as Earth’s second-most powerful.

    ORNL OLCF IBM Q AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, No. 5 on the TOP500. .

    The lab is a leading neutron and nuclear power research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor.

    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    It hosts the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the BioEnergy Science Center, and the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Nuclear Reactors.

    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

    Areas of research

    ORNL conducts research and development activities that span a wide range of scientific disciplines. Many research areas have a significant overlap with each other; researchers often work in two or more of the fields listed here. The laboratory’s major research areas are described briefly below.

    Chemical sciences – ORNL conducts both fundamental and applied research in a number of areas, including catalysis, surface science and interfacial chemistry; molecular transformations and fuel chemistry; heavy element chemistry and radioactive materials characterization; aqueous solution chemistry and geochemistry; mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy; separations chemistry; materials chemistry including synthesis and characterization of polymers and other soft materials; chemical biosciences; and neutron science.
    Electron microscopy – ORNL’s electron microscopy program investigates key issues in condensed matter, materials, chemical and nanosciences.
    Nuclear medicine – The laboratory’s nuclear medicine research is focused on the development of improved reactor production and processing methods to provide medical radioisotopes, the development of new radionuclide generator systems, the design and evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals for applications in nuclear medicine and oncology.
    Physics – Physics research at ORNL is focused primarily on studies of the fundamental properties of matter at the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear levels and the development of experimental devices in support of these studies.
    Population – ORNL provides federal, state and international organizations with a gridded population database, called Landscan, for estimating ambient population. LandScan is a raster image, or grid, of population counts, which provides human population estimates every 30 x 30 arc seconds, which translates roughly to population estimates for 1 kilometer square windows or grid cells at the equator, with cell width decreasing at higher latitudes. Though many population datasets exist, LandScan is the best spatial population dataset, which also covers the globe. Updated annually (although data releases are generally one year behind the current year) offers continuous, updated values of population, based on the most recent information. Landscan data are accessible through GIS applications and a USAID public domain application called Population Explorer.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:06 am on December 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "EQSIM Shakes up Earthquake Research at the Exascale Level", , , , , , , ECP has gone from simulating the model at 2–2.5 Hz at the start of this project to simulating more than 300 billion grid points at 10 Hz which is a huge computational lift., , , , Researchers have been applying high-performance computing to model site specific motions and better understand what forces a structure is subjected to during a seismic event., Scientists want to reduce the uncertainty in earthquake ground motions and how a structure is going to respond to earthquakes., , Supercomputing, The challenge is that tremendous computer horsepower is required to model seismicity. Fortunately the emergence of exascale computing has changed the equation., , , The earth is very heterogeneous and the geology is very complicated., The excitement of ECP is that we now have new exascale computers that can do a billion billion calculations per second with a tremendous volume of memory., The prediction of future earthquakes at a specific site is a challenging problem because the processes associated with earthquakes and the response of structures is very complicated., The whole goal with EQSIM was to advance the state of modeling all the way from the fault rupture to the waves propagating through the earth to the waves interacting with the structure., When the earthquake fault ruptures it releases energy in a very complex way and that energy manifests and propagates as seismic waves through the earth.   

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Via The DOE’s Exascale Computing Project: “EQSIM Shakes up Earthquake Research at the Exascale Level” 

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Via

    The DOE’s Exascale Computing Project

    12.7.22
    Kathy Kincade | The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Since 2017, EQSIM—one of several projects supported by the DOE’s Exascale Computing Project (ECP)—has been breaking new ground in efforts to understand how seismic activity affects the structural integrity of buildings and infrastructure. While small-scale models and historical observations are helpful, they only scratch the surface of quantifying a geological event as powerful and far-reaching as a major earthquake.

    EQSIM bridges this gap by using physics-based supercomputer simulations to predict the ramifications of an earthquake on buildings and infrastructure and create synthetic earthquake records that can provide much larger analytical datasets than historical, single-event records.

    To accomplish this, however, has presented a number of challenges, noted EQSIM principal investigator David McCallen, a senior scientist in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Earth and Environmental Sciences Area and director of the Center for Civil Engineering Earthquake Research at the University of Nevada Reno.

    1
    David McCallen is a senior scientist in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, director of the Center for Civil Engineering Earthquake Research at the University of Nevada Reno, and principal investigator of ECP’s EQSIM project.

    “The prediction of future earthquake motions that will occur at a specific site is a challenging problem because the processes associated with earthquakes and the response of structures is very complicated,” he said. “When the earthquake fault ruptures, it releases energy in a very complex way, and that energy manifests and propagates as seismic waves through the earth. In addition, the earth is very heterogeneous and the geology is very complicated. So when those waves arrive at the site or piece of infrastructure you are concerned with, they interact with that infrastructure in a very complicated way.”

    Over the last decade-plus, researchers have been applying high-performance computing to model these processes to more accurately predict site-specific motions and better understand what forces a structure is subjected to during a seismic event.

    “The challenge is that tremendous computer horsepower is required to do this,” McCallen said. “It‘s hard to simulate ground motions at a frequency content that is relevant to engineered structures. It takes super-big models that run very efficiently. So, it’s been very challenging computationally, and for some time we didn’t have the computational horsepower to do that and extrapolate to that.”

    Fortunately, the emergence of exascale computing has changed the equation.

    “The excitement of ECP is that we now have these new computers that can do a billion billion calculations per second with a tremendous volume of memory, and for the first time we are on the threshold of being able to solve, with physics-based models, this very complex problem,” McCallen said. “So our whole goal with EQSIM was to advance the state of computational capabilities so we could model all the way from the fault rupture to the waves propagating through the earth to the waves interacting with the structure—with the idea that ultimately we want to reduce the uncertainty in earthquake ground motions and how a structure is going to respond to earthquakes.”

    A Team Effort

    Over the last 5 years, using both the Cori [below] and Perlmutter [below] supercomputers at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Summit system at The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the EQSIM team has focused primarily on modeling earthquake scenarios in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    These supercomputing resources helped them create a detailed, regional-scale model that includes all of the necessary geophysics modeling features, such as 3D geology, earth surface topography, material attenuation, nonreflecting boundaries, and fault rupture.

    “We’ve gone from simulating this model at 2–2.5 Hz at the start of this project to simulating more than 300 billion grid points at 10 Hz, which is a huge computational lift,” McCallen said.

    Other notable achievements of this ECP project include:

    Making important advances to the SW4 geophysics code, including how it is coupled to local engineering models of the soil and structure system.
    Developing a schema for handling the huge datasets used in these models. “For a single earthquake we are running 272 TB of data, so you have to have a strategy for storing, visualizing, and exploiting that data,” McCallen said.
    Developing a visualization tool that allows very efficient browsing of this data.

    “The development of the computational workflow and how everything fits together is one of our biggest achievements, starting with the initiation of the earthquake fault structure all the way through to the response of the engineered system,” McCallen said. “We are solving one high-level problem but also a whole suite of lower-level challenges to make this work. The ability to envision, implement, and optimize that workflow has been absolutely essential.”

    None of this could have happened without the contributions of multiple partners across a spectrum of science, engineering, and mathematics, he emphasized. Earth engineers, seismologists, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians from Berkeley Lab and The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory formed the multidisciplinary, closely integrated team necessary to address the computational challenges.

    “This is an inherently multidisciplinary problem,” McCallen said. “You are starting with the way a fault ruptures and the way waves propagate through the earth, and that is the domain of a seismologist. Then those waves are arriving at a site where you have a structure that has found a non-soft soil, so it transforms into a geotechnical engineering and structural engineering problem.”

    It doesn’t stop there, he added. “You absolutely need this melding of people who have the scientific and engineering domain knowledge, but they are enabled by the applied mathematicians who can develop really fast and efficient algorithms and the computer scientists who know how to program and optimally parallelize and handle all the I/O on these really big problems.”

    Looking ahead, the EQSIM team is already involved in another DOE project with an office that deals with energy systems. Their goal is to transition and leverage everything they’ve done through the ECP program to look at earthquake effects on distributed energy systems.

    This new project involves applying these same capabilities to programs within the DOE Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response, which is concerned with the integrity of energy systems in the United States. The team is also working to make its large earthquake datasets available as open-access to both the research community and practicing engineers.

    “That is common practice for historical measured earthquake records, and we want to do that with synthetic earthquake records that give you a lot more data because you have motions everywhere, not just locations where you had an instrument measuring an earthquake,” McCallen said.

    Being involved with ECP has been a key boost to this work, he added, enabling EQSIM to push the envelope of computing performance.

    “We have extended the ability of doing these direct, high-frequency simulations a tremendous amount,” he said. “We have a plot that shows the increase in performance and capability, and it has gone up orders of magnitude, which is really important because we need to run really big problems really, really fast. So that, coupled with the exascale hardware, has really made a difference. We’re doing things now that we only thought about doing a decade ago, like resolving high-frequency ground motions. It is really an exciting time for those of us who are working on simulating earthquakes.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    About The DOE’s Exascale Computing Project
    The ECP is a collaborative effort of two DOE organizations – the DOE’s Office of Science and the DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration. As part of the National Strategic Computing initiative, ECP was established to accelerate delivery of a capable exascale ecosystem, encompassing applications, system software, hardware technologies and architectures, and workforce development to meet the scientific and national security mission needs of DOE in the early-2020s time frame.

    About The Office of Science

    The DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://science.energy.gov/.

    About The NNSA

    Established by Congress in 2000, NNSA is a semi-autonomous agency within the DOE responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear explosive testing; works to reduce the global danger from weapons of mass destruction; provides the U.S. Navy with safe and effective nuclear propulsion; and responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad. https://nnsa.energy.gov

    The Goal of ECP’s Application Development focus area is to deliver a broad array of comprehensive science-based computational applications that effectively utilize exascale HPC technology to provide breakthrough simulation and data analytic solutions for scientific discovery, energy assurance, economic competitiveness, health enhancement, and national security.

    Awareness of ECP and its mission is growing and resonating—and for good reason. ECP is an incredible effort focused on advancing areas of key importance to our country: economic competiveness, breakthrough science and technology, and national security. And, fortunately, ECP has a foundation that bodes extremely well for the prospects of its success, with the demonstrably strong commitment of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the talent of some of America’s best and brightest researchers.

    ECP is composed of about 100 small teams of domain, computer, and computational scientists, and mathematicians from DOE labs, universities, and industry. We are tasked with building applications that will execute well on exascale systems, enabled by a robust exascale software stack, and supporting necessary vendor R&D to ensure the compute nodes and hardware infrastructure are adept and able to do the science that needs to be done with the first exascale platforms.the science that needs to be done with the first exascale platforms.

    LBNL campus

    Bringing Science Solutions to the World

    In the world of science, The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the The National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the The National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into The Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

    Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by The DOE through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 202-acre site in the hills above The University of California-Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 3,232 scientists, engineers and support staff. The Lab’s total costs for FY 2014 were $785 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

    Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a University of California-Berkeley physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

    History

    1931–1941

    The laboratory was founded on August 26, 1931, by Ernest Lawrence, as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California-Berkeley, associated with the Physics Department. It centered physics research around his new instrument, the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    Throughout the 1930s, Lawrence pushed to create larger and larger machines for physics research, courting private philanthropists for funding. He was the first to develop a large team to build big projects to make discoveries in basic research. Eventually these machines grew too large to be held on the university grounds, and in 1940 the lab moved to its current site atop the hill above campus. Part of the team put together during this period includes two other young scientists who went on to establish large laboratories; J. Robert Oppenheimer founded The DOE’s Los Alamos Laboratory, and Robert Wilson founded The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    1942–1950

    Leslie Groves visited Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory in late 1942 as he was organizing the Manhattan Project, meeting J. Robert Oppenheimer for the first time. Oppenheimer was tasked with organizing the nuclear bomb development effort and founded today’s Los Alamos National Laboratory to help keep the work secret. At the RadLab, Lawrence and his colleagues developed the technique of electromagnetic enrichment of uranium using their experience with cyclotrons. The “calutrons” (named after the University) became the basic unit of the massive Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Lawrence’s lab helped contribute to what have been judged to be the three most valuable technology developments of the war (the atomic bomb, proximity fuse, and radar). The cyclotron, whose construction was stalled during the war, was finished in November 1946. The Manhattan Project shut down two months later.

    1951–2018

    After the war, the Radiation Laboratory became one of the first laboratories to be incorporated into the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (now The Department of Energy . The most highly classified work remained at Los Alamos, but the RadLab remained involved. Edward Teller suggested setting up a second lab similar to Los Alamos to compete with their designs. This led to the creation of an offshoot of the RadLab (now The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) in 1952. Some of the RadLab’s work was transferred to the new lab, but some classified research continued at Berkeley Lab until the 1970s, when it became a laboratory dedicated only to unclassified scientific research.

    Shortly after the death of Lawrence in August 1958, the UC Radiation Laboratory (both branches) was renamed the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The Berkeley location became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1971, although many continued to call it the RadLab. Gradually, another shortened form came into common usage, LBNL. Its formal name was amended to Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1995, when “National” was added to the names of all DOE labs. “Ernest Orlando” was later dropped to shorten the name. Today, the lab is commonly referred to as “Berkeley Lab”.

    The Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, engineers, computer programmers, and technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988. Over 1700 memos are available on-line, hosted by the Laboratory.

    The lab remains owned by the Department of Energy , with management from the University of California. Companies such as Intel were funding the lab’s research into computing chips.

    Science mission

    From the 1950s through the present, Berkeley Lab has maintained its status as a major international center for physics research, and has also diversified its research program into almost every realm of scientific investigation. Its mission is to solve the most pressing and profound scientific problems facing humanity, conduct basic research for a secure energy future, understand living systems to improve the environment, health, and energy supply, understand matter and energy in the universe, build and safely operate leading scientific facilities for the nation, and train the next generation of scientists and engineers.

    The Laboratory’s 20 scientific divisions are organized within six areas of research: Computing Sciences; Physical Sciences; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Biosciences; Energy Sciences; and Energy Technologies. Berkeley Lab has six main science thrusts: advancing integrated fundamental energy science; integrative biological and environmental system science; advanced computing for science impact; discovering the fundamental properties of matter and energy; accelerators for the future; and developing energy technology innovations for a sustainable future. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab tradition that continues today.

    Berkeley Lab operates five major National User Facilities for the DOE Office of Science:

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron light source with 41 beam lines providing ultraviolet, soft x-ray, and hard x-ray light to scientific experiments.

    The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source.
    The ALS is one of the world’s brightest sources of soft x-rays, which are used to characterize the electronic structure of matter and to reveal microscopic structures with elemental and chemical specificity. About 2,500 scientist-users carry out research at ALS every year. Berkeley Lab is proposing an upgrade of ALS which would increase the coherent flux of soft x-rays by two-three orders of magnitude.

    Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center

    The DOE Joint Genome Institute supports genomic research in support of the DOE missions in alternative energy, global carbon cycling, and environmental management. The JGI’s partner laboratories are Berkeley Lab, DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology . The JGI’s central role is the development of a diversity of large-scale experimental and computational capabilities to link sequence to biological insights relevant to energy and environmental research. Approximately 1,200 scientist-users take advantage of JGI’s capabilities for their research every year.

    LBNL Molecular Foundry

    The LBNL Molecular Foundry is a multidisciplinary nanoscience research facility. Its seven research facilities focus on Imaging and Manipulation of Nanostructures; Nanofabrication; Theory of Nanostructured Materials; Inorganic Nanostructures; Biological Nanostructures; Organic and Macromolecular Synthesis; and Electron Microscopy. Approximately 700 scientist-users make use of these facilities in their research every year.

    The DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is the scientific computing facility that provides large-scale computing for the DOE’s unclassified research programs. Its current systems provide over 3 billion computational hours annually. NERSC supports 6,000 scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry.

    DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    Cray Cori II supercomputer at National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science.

    NERSC Hopper Cray XE6 supercomputer.

    NERSC Cray XC30 Edison supercomputer.

    NERSC GPFS for Life Sciences.

    The Genepool system is a cluster dedicated to the DOE Joint Genome Institute’s computing needs. Denovo is a smaller test system for Genepool that is primarily used by NERSC staff to test new system configurations and software.

    NERSC PDSF computer cluster in 2003.

    PDSF is a networked distributed computing cluster designed primarily to meet the detector simulation and data analysis requirements of physics, astrophysics and nuclear science collaborations.

    Cray Shasta Perlmutter SC18 AMD Epyc Nvidia pre-exascale supercomputer.

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    The DOE’s Energy Science Network is a high-speed network infrastructure optimized for very large scientific data flows. ESNet provides connectivity for all major DOE sites and facilities, and the network transports roughly 35 petabytes of traffic each month.

    Berkeley Lab is the lead partner in the DOE’s Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), located in Emeryville, California. Other partners are the DOE’s Sandia National Laboratory, the University of California (UC) campuses of Berkeley and Davis, the Carnegie Institution for Science , and DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). JBEI’s primary scientific mission is to advance the development of the next generation of biofuels – liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. JBEI is one of three new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs).

    Berkeley Lab has a major role in two DOE Energy Innovation Hubs. The mission of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The lead institution for JCAP is the California Institute of Technology and Berkeley Lab is the second institutional center. The mission of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is to create next-generation battery technologies that will transform transportation and the electricity grid. DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory leads JCESR and Berkeley Lab is a major partner.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:19 pm on December 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Unraveling the mystery of the Milky Way’s satellite galaxies", , , , , Space based astrometric astronomy, Supercomputing, The University of Durham (UK)   

    From The University of Durham (UK): “Unraveling the mystery of the Milky Way’s satellite galaxies” 

    Durham U bloc

    From The University of Durham (UK)

    12.19.22

    1
    Credit: Till Sawala / Sibelius collaboration (CC-BY).  

    Our astronomers have solved an outstanding problem that challenged our understanding of how the Universe evolved.

    Our Milky way is orbited by a number of satellite galaxies that exhibit a bizarre alignment – they seem to lie on an enormous thin rotating plane – called the “plane of satellites”  

    Standard cosmological model 

    This seemingly unlikely arrangement had puzzled astronomers for over 50 years, leading many to question the standard cosmological model. 

    This model seeks to explain the formation of the Universe and how the galaxies we see now formed gradually within clumps of cold dark matter – a mysterious substance that makes up about 27 per cent of the Universe.  

    As there is no known physical mechanism that would make long-lived satellite planes, astronomers thought the cold dark matter theory of galaxy formation might be wrong. 

    Cosmological quirk 

    Our new research, carried out along with an international team of scientists, has now found that the plane of satellites in the Milky Way is a cosmological quirk. 

    Using data from the European Space Agency’s GAIA space observatory the researchers used supercomputer technology to project the orbits of the satellite galaxies into the past and future. 

    They saw the plane of galaxies form and dissolve in a few hundred million years – a mere blink of an eye in cosmic time. 

    Virtual satellite systems 

    They also realized that previous studies based on computer simulations had failed to consider the distances of satellites from the centre of the Milky Way, which made the virtual satellite systems appear much rounder than the real one.   

    Taking this into account, they found several virtual Milky Ways which boast a plane of satellite galaxies very similar to the one seen through telescopes.  

    They say this removes one of the main objections to the standard model of cosmology and means that the concept of cold dark matter remains the cornerstone of our understanding of the Universe.   

    Science paper:
    Nature Astronomy
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Durham U campus

    The University of Durham is a collegiate public research university in Durham, England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by royal charter in 1837. It was the first recognized university to open in England for more than 600 years, after The University of Oxford (UK) and The University of Cambridge (UK), and is thus one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England. As a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 17 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare.

    The university is a member of The Russell Group of British Research Universities (UK) after previously being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is also affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and The Coimbra Group Universities (EU). The university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel. The university also owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university’s ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, and the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin’s Library. It was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, and the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015 and 2023, and was awarded a Queen’s Anniversary Prize in 2018. The University of Durham Student Volunteering and Outreach was awarded the Queen’s Award for Voluntary Service in 2020.

    Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society (UK), 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of The Academy of Social Sciences (UK), 5 Fellows of The Royal Society of Edinburgh (SCT), 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK). Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis (of, belonging to, or from Durham).

    Among British universities, it had the ninth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2019 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent (fifth lowest compared to its benchmark).

    In 2001, two new colleges, John Snow and George Stephenson (after the physician and the engineer) were established at Stockton, replacing UCS, and the new medical school (operating in association with The University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK)) accepted its first students. In 2002, her golden jubilee year, the Queen granted the title “Queen’s Campus” to the Stockton site. By 2005, Queen’s Campus, Stockton, accounted for around 18 per cent of the total university student population.

    In 2005, the university unveiled a re-branded logotype and introduced the trading name of Durham University, although the legal name of the institution remained The University of Durham and the official coat of arms was unchanged. The same year, St Mary’s College had its first mixed undergraduate intake. In October 2006, Josephine Butler College opened its doors to students as Durham’s newest college – the only purpose-built self-catering college for students within Durham. This was the first new college to open in Durham itself since the creation of Collingwood in the 1970s.

    In May 2010, Durham joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Queen’s University (CA), The University of Otago (NZ), The Eberhard Karl University of Tübingen [Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen](DE) , The University of Western Australia (AU) and Uppsala University [Uppsala Universitet](SE). In 2012, Durham along with The University of York (UK), The University of Exeter (UK) and Queen Mary University of London (UK) joined the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities.

    Between 2010 and 2012 the university was criticized for accepting funds from controversial sources, including the government of Iran, the US State Department, the prime minister of Kuwait, and British American Tobacco.

    The university is part of the Russell Group, The Virgo Consortium, and the N8 Group of Universities. According to the latest CWTS Leiden Ranking 2018 that measures the scientific performance of 500 major universities worldwide, Durham is ranked 89th in the world in terms of the proportion of its academic papers in the top 10 per cent for impact (the “PP(top 10%)” measure).

    Research institutes at the university include the Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World, the Durham Energy Institute, the Institute for Hazard and Risk Research, the Institute of Advanced Study, the International Boundaries Research Unit and the Institute for Computational Cosmology.

    In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, Durham was assessed to have a research profile of 33 per cent world class (4*), 50 per cent internationally important (3*), 15 per cent internationally recognized (2*), and 1 per cent nationally recognized (1*), which was an improvement on the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise. However, this was in the context of a rise in the average profile from 2008 to 2015. In The Times Higher Education ranking by grade point average (GPA; measuring average quality), Durham fell from joint 14th in 2008 to 20th in 2014 despite a rise in GPA from 2.72 to 3.14. Similarly, Durham fell from 19th to 20th in The Times Higher Education ranking by total research power. However, in Research Fortnight’s ranking by total research power (which uses a weighting closer to that used by The Higher Education Funding Council (UK) in making funding allocations, with 2* and 1* research zero-weighted) Durham rose from 19th in 2008 to 18th in 2014.

    Durham University’s Strategic Plan 2017–2027 defines targets of being in the top 5 nationally on the Times/Sunday Times league table, of having 50 per cent of eligible subjects in the top 50 globally on the QS World Rankings, and of being in the top three UK institutions by citations per academic staff member.

    The earlier 2010–2020 strategic plan called for it “to be in the top 5 universities in major UK league tables” (defined as the Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide and the Complete University Guide) and “to be in the top 50 universities in The Times Higher Education World Rankings by 2020″. The first objective was met in 2012 and 2015, the second remains as yet unmet, with Durham ranking 70th in the world in 2015. The previous 2005–2010 strategic plan called for Durham “to be ranked among the top 30 universities in Europe and the top 100 in the world in The Times Higher Education Supplement international league tables”. Durham ranked 85th in the world (19th in Europe) in 2010 and has since maintained its position in the top 100.

    National

    Durham consistently places in the top ten in rankings of universities in the United Kingdom. The 2018 Complete University Guide ranks Durham 6th overall. The Guardian University Guide 2018 ranks Durham 4th overall and the 2018 The Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide ranks Durham 5th overall.

    Subject

    In the 2020 Complete University Guide Subject Rankings, Durham is top in the UK for English and Music. The university ranks second for French, Geography & Environmental Science, Iberian Languages, Middle Eastern & African Studies, and Theology & Religious Studies. Third for Archaeology, Chemistry, Classics & Ancient History, German, History, Italian, and Russian & East European Languages. With 30/33 subjects ranked in the top 10, Durham is one of only four universities (along with Oxford, Cambridge, and Imperial College London) to have over 90 per cent of their subjects in the top 10 in this ranking.

    In The Guardian 2018 subject rankings Durham ranks first in Archaeology, second in Education, and third in Chemistry, Earth Sciences, English, Geography & Environmental Studies, and Religious Studies & Theology.

    In the 2018 Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide subject rankings, Durham is top in music and joint top in English. It also ranks second in archaeology and forensic science, East and South Asian studies, geography and environmental science, history, Iberian languages, Italian, and theology and religious studies; joint second in Russian and East European languages: and third in chemistry and education.

    International

    Durham has been placed in the top 100 universities in the world in both the Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) rankings since 2010.

    The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2017 place Durham 96th in the world (12th in the UK) in 2016, down from 70th in 2015. In the individual subject area rankings for 2016–7, Durham is placed 60th (2015-6: 83rd) in the world (8th in the UK) for physical sciences, 60th (2015-6: 36th) in the world (9th in the UK) for social sciences, and 29th (2015-6: 28th)in the world (6th in the UK) for arts and humanities. Durham is not ranked on the other top-100 subject tables (business and economics; computer science; engineering and technology; life sciences; clinical, pre-clinical and health). Durham re-entered The Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings in the 91–100 band in 2017, having not been ranked in the top 100 in 2016.

    The QS World University Rankings 2018 places Durham 78th in the world (12th in the UK), down from 74th in 2016/2017 and 61st in 2015 – the fall experienced by many UK universities in the rankings has been attributed to uncertainty over Brexit. In the “faculty” subject areas for 2017, Durham ranks 45th in the world (9th in the UK) for arts and humanities, 242nd in the world (26th in the UK) for engineering and technology, 368th in the world (31st in the UK) for life sciences and medicine, 72nd in the world (8th in the UK) for natural sciences, and 98th in the world (13th in the UK) for social sciences and management. In the subject rankings for 2017, Durham was ranked 3rd in the world for theology, divinity and religious studies, 4th for archaeology and 7th for geography. Earth and marine sciences (24th), anthropology (35th), English language and literature (35th), history (37th) and law and legal studies (40th) also featured in the top 50 in the world, while Durham also ranked in the top 100 for chemistry, modern languages, physics and astronomy, politics, psychology, and sociology. One of Durham’s 2017–2027 strategic goals is to have half of its subjects in the top 50 globally on the QS ranking; in 2017 it had 8 in the top 50 out of 27 subjects ranked (30 per cent). Another 2017–2027 strategic goal is for Durham to be in the top three universities in the UK for research citations per faculty; the QS ranking 2018 placed Durham fourth in the UK (82nd globally) for this measure, behind the London Business School (UK), Cambridge and Oxford, slipping from second in the UK (43rd globally) in 2017.

    The Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities placed Durham in the 201–300 bracket. In individual subject areas, Durham is placed in the 51–75 bracket for science and the 101–150 bracket for social science. It is not ranked in engineering, life sciences or medical sciences. In individual subjects, The Shanghai Ranking’s Academic Ranking of World Universities places Durham 27th in the world (5th in the UK) for physics, and gives no rank for chemistry, mathematics, computer science, or economics/business.

    The CWTS Leiden Ranking, based on bibliometric indicators of research, placed Durham 89th in the world (16th in the UK) in 2018. In scientific subject areas, Durham ranked 251st in the world (35th in the UK) for biomedical and health science, 104th in the world (26th in the UK) for life and earth sciences, 389th in the world (36th in the UK) for mathematics and computer science, 76th in the world (10th in the UK) for physical sciences and engineering, and 69th in the world (11th in the UK) in social sciences and humanities.

    The Round University Ranking placed Durham 94th in the world (12th in the UK) in 2016. In certain subject areas, Durham ranked 30th in the world (8th in the UK) for the humanities, 44th in the world (12th in the UK) for social sciences, 153rd in the world (27th in the UK) for technical sciences, 191st in the world (21st in the UK) for natural sciences, 269th in the world (33rd in the UK) for life sciences and 418th in the world (61st in the UK) for medical sciences.

    Employment

    In 2017, Durham had the highest graduate employment rate of any UK university, with 97.9 per cent of its graduates in work or further study three and a half years after graduation. In 2015, Durham was placed 47th in the world (8th in the UK) in QS’s pilot global employability ranking, and 8th in the UK for graduate prospects by The Times and Sunday Times 2016. It did not, however, feature in the Times Higher Education Top 150 Global Employability rankings, but was placed joint 16th in the UK for the employability of its graduates according to recruiters of the UK’s major companies. The High Fliers Research UK graduate market report for 2016 placed Durham 8th in its table of universities targeted by the largest number of top employees.

    Other indications

    In 2013, Durham was judged to have the best quality of student life in the country in the inaugural Lloyds Bank Rankings and has never (in 2015) been out of the top three, coming in third in 2014 and second in 2015. The Complete University Guide ranked Durham as the 29th safest university in England and Wales for crime in 2016, although with large differences between the two campuses: Durham City had 24.4 incidents per 1000 residents while the Queen’s Campus in Stockton had 56.0 incidents per 1000 residents.

    Durham is listed as part of the Sutton Trust 30 “most highly selective” British universities, and is one of the few universities to have won The University Challenge more than once (1977 and 2000).

     
  • richardmitnick 2:34 pm on December 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Nuclear fusion simulation to pioneer transition to exascale supercomputers", , , , National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at The DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, , Plasma physics has been one of the most important drivers for the further development of supercomputers since the 1960s., Supercomputing,   

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE): “Nuclear fusion simulation to pioneer transition to exascale supercomputers” 

    MPIPP bloc

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE)

    12.19.22
    Frank Fleschner
    Press officer
    +49 89 3299-1317
    press@ipp.mpg.de

    The EU Commission is providing 2.14 million euros in funding to take the GENE simulation code developed at the MPG Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) to a new level. By using exascale supercomputers, it enables digital twins of nuclear fusion experiments such as ITER in future.

    IPP, the Max Planck Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) and the Technical University of Munich will work together on the project.

    Plasma physics has been one of the most important drivers for the further development of supercomputers since the 1960s. This is because plasmas are highly complex entities that cannot be detected with simple physical models. Almost the entire universe consists of such plasmas, which are extremely dynamic mixtures of predominantly charged particles (ions and electrons). Our sun and all other stars generate energy from this through nuclear fusion. Researchers need supercomputers to make this process usable on earth and to better understand the processes in the universe.

    1
    GENE computer simulation of plasma turbulence in the Garching tokamak experiment ASDEX Upgrade.

    With regard to future fusion power plants, corresponding losses of plasma particles and energy must be minimized.

    The MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) in Garching was launched in 1960 and the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) in the USA in 1974 as tools for plasma research.

    ___________________________________________________________
    MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) at Garching (DE)


    ___________________________________________________________

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    When the US supercomputer Roadrunner at The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory was the first to break the petascale barrier in 2009 (i.e. it was able to perform more than 10^15 = one quadrillion computing operations per second), a plasma simulation code called VPIC played an important role.

    1
    Supercomputer Roadrunner at The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    On the way to exascale supercomputers

    In the forthcoming leap in high-performance computing, plasma modelling will again be among the pioneering applications: It is about the launch of the first exascale computers in Europe. By definition, these can perform at least one trillion computing operations per second (1 quintillion = 10^18, written out as 1 with 18 zeros). From 2024 onwards, there will be supercomputers in Europe that exceed this threshold. The European Commission is providing a total of more than seven million euros to prepare four simulation codes for plasmas for the exascale era.

    A total of 2.14 million euros of the funding sum will go to the Garching site near Munich (the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is providing half of the funding amount): The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP), the MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) and the Technical University of Munich (Department of Computer Science) will use it to jointly raise the GENE code to a new level from January 2023. GENE (Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment) is an open-source code that is used worldwide, especially for research into nuclear fusion plasmas. It is therefore used wherever researchers are working on generating energy on earth, following the example of the sun.

    4
    Comparison of the sizes of ASDEX Upgrade (Garching, Germany; pictured front left), JET (Culham, UK; front right) and ITER (Cadarache, France, back). The computational effort increases about 10-fold from one experiment to the next.

    Predicting fusion experiments for the first time

    “With today’s capabilities, GENE can already explain the physical causes of experimental results that we achieve, for example, with our fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade at IPP,” Prof. Frank Jenko explained, Head of Tokamak Theory at IPP in Garching. He wrote the first version of GENE in 1999 and has been steadily developing the code with international teams ever since. “With an exascale version of GENE, we are now taking the step from interpretation to prediction of experiments. We want to create a virtual fusion plasma, the digital twin of a real plant, so to speak,” Jenko explained the goal.

    He and his cooperation partners are also involved with ITER [above], the largest fusion experiment in the world, which is currently being built in Cadarache in southern France. ITER is supposed to generate ten times more fusion power than the amount of heating power that needs to be put into it. The facility is designed as a preliminary stage of a future fusion power plant that will then actually supply electricity. To achieve this goal, scientists will have to adjust a variety of experimental parameters at ITER to find the most favorable combination, which would probably take many years through trial and error alone. An optimized GENE code should significantly speed up fusion research. With it, scientists will be able to calculate configurations in advance and rule out many others in advance.

    Why is the switch to exascale computers so complex?

    “Unfortunately, it is not enough to simply transfer the previous programmes to the new computers,” Prof. Jenko said. “Performance leaps in new supercomputers are largely made possible by new hardware architectures today. Only if we adapt our codes to this can we really calculate faster.”

    Prof. Jenko illustrates the task with the processing of files in the analogue world. “If the task is to evaluate ten thematically closed file folders, ten people can probably do it ten times faster than one. But if suddenly 10,000 people are available for the ten folders, that only brings something if I completely reorganize and divide the work,” Prof. Jenko explained. It becomes even more complicated when the 10,000 people have different skills that need to be used optimally. This is also the case if the evaluation of some folders depends on the results obtained from other folders.

    The researchers face comparable tasks in the transition to exascale computers: “Today’s supercomputers achieve their performance increase by handling more and more computing tasks in parallel and by increasingly using graphics processors in addition to classical processors, both of which, however, have different strengths,” says Jenko. To prepare the GENE code for future computer generations, his team therefore includes experts who are involved in the design of future hardware generations. Co-design is the name given to this collaboration in the industry.

    In the end, not only fusion research will benefit from the project: “With the GENE code, we are pioneers in the transition to exascale computers,” Prof. Jenko stated. “What we learn in the process will also help developers of other programmes.”

    About the European Commission’s funding programme

    In early 2022, the European Commission published a call for tenders on “Centres of Excellence Preparing Applications in the Exascale Era“. The aim is to prepare applications that are at the forefront of technological development and have a broad user base for use on future European exascale supercomputers. The aim is also to promote a giant leap in answering key scientific questions in this way. The projects are funded half by the EU Commission and half by the nations whose institutions participate.

    In response to this call for proposals, an interdisciplinary team was formed under the leadership of KTH Stockholm around the topic of plasma physics, involving not only the IPP but also the MPCDF, the Technical University of Munich and eight other partners from Europe. The corresponding proposal “Pushing Flagship Plasma Simulation Codes to Tackle Exascale-Enabled Grand Challenges via Performance Optimization and Codesign (Plasma-PEPSC)” has now been selected by the European Commission for a four-year funding period (from 1 January 2023) after a detailed review and has been awarded funding of more than seven million euros. Of this, 2.14 million euros will be allocated to the further development of the GENE code. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is providing 50 per cent of the funding.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE) is a physics institute for the investigation of plasma physics, with the aim of working towards fusion power. The institute also works on surface physics, also with focus on problems of fusion power.

    The IPP is an institute of the Max Planck Society, part of the European Atomic Energy Community, and an associated member of the Helmholtz Association.

    The IPP has two sites: Garching near Munich (founded 1960) and Greifswald (founded 1994), both in Germany.

    It owns several large devices, namely

    the experimental tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (in operation since 1991)

    ASDEX tokamak at MPG Institute for Plasma Physics.

    It also cooperates with the ITER and JET projects.


    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

     
  • richardmitnick 10:13 am on December 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Supercomputing, , , , , , , , "Chaos Gives the Quantum World a Temperature", The whole world as a single quantum state   

    From The Vienna University of Technology [Technische Universität Wien](AT) : “Chaos Gives the Quantum World a Temperature” 

    From The Vienna University of Technology [Technische Universität Wien](AT)

    12.12.22
    Prof. Joachim Burgdörfer
    Institute for Theoretical Physics
    TU Wien
    Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna
    +43 1 5880113610
    joachim.burgdoerfer@tuwien.ac.at

    Two seemingly different areas of physics are related in subtle ways: Quantum theory and thermodynamics. How chaos theory mediates between them has now been studied at TU Wien.

    1
    One of the particles acts as a “thermometer”, the whole system is simulated on the computer. Credit: TU Wien.

    A single particle has no temperature. It has a certain energy or a certain speed – but it is not possible to translate that into a temperature. Only when dealing with random velocity distributions of many particles, a well-defined temperature emerges.

    How can the laws of thermodynamics arise from the laws of quantum physics? This is a topic that has attracted growing attention in recent years. At TU Wien (Vienna), this question has now been pursued with computer simulations, which showed that chaos plays a crucial role: Only where chaos prevails do the well-known rules of thermodynamics follow from quantum physics.

    Boltzmann: Everything is possible, but it may be improbable

    The air molecules randomly flying around in a room can assume an unimaginable number of different states: Different locations and different speeds are allowed for each individual particle. But not all of these states are equally likely. “Physically, it would be possible for all the energy in this space to be transferred to one single particle, which would then move at extremely high speeds while all the other particles stand still,” says Prof. Iva Brezinova from the Institute of Theoretical Physics at TU Wien. “But this is so unlikely that it will practically never be observed.”

    The probabilities of different allowed states can be calculated – according to a formula that the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann set up according to the rules of classical physics. And from this probability distribution, the temperature can then also be read off: it is only determined for a large number of particles.

    The whole world as a single quantum state

    However, this causes problems when dealing with quantum physics. When a large number of quantum particles are in play at the same time, the equations of quantum theory become so complicated that even the best supercomputers in the world have no chance of solving them.

    In quantum physics, the individual particles cannot be considered independently of each other, as is the case with classical billiard balls. Every billiard ball has its own individual trajectory and its own individual location at every point in time. Quantum particles, on the other hand, have no individuality – they can only be described together, in a single large quantum wave function.

    “In quantum physics, the entire system is described by a single large many-particle quantum state,” says Prof. Joachim Burgdörfer (TU Wien). “How a random distribution and thus a temperature should arise from this remained a puzzle for a long time.”

    Chaos theory as a mediator

    A team at TU Wien has now been able to show that chaos plays a key role. To do this, the team performed a computer simulation of a quantum system that consists of a large number of particles – many indistinguishable particles (the “heat bath”) and one of a different kind of particle, the “sample particle” that acts as a thermometer. Each individual quantum wave function of the large system has a specific energy, but no well-defined temperature – just like a single classical particle. But if you now pick out the sample particle from the single quantum state and measure its velocity, you can surprisingly find a velocity distribution that corresponds to a temperature that fits the well-established laws of thermodynamics.

    “Whether or not it fits depends on chaos – that is what our calculations clearly showed,” says Iva Brezinova. “We can specifically change the interactions between the particles on the computer and thus create either a completely chaotic system, or one that shows no chaos at all – or anything in between.” And in doing so, one finds that the presence of chaos determines whether a quantum state of the sample particle displays a Boltzmann temperature distribution or not.

    “Without making any assumptions about random distributions or thermodynamic rules, thermodynamic behavior arises from quantum theory all by itself – if the combined system of sample particle and heat bath behaves quantum chaotically. And how well this behavior fits the well-known Boltzmann formulae is determined by the strength of the chaos”, explains Joachim Burgdörfer.

    This is one of the first cases in which the interplay between three important theories has been rigorously demonstrated by many-particle computer simulations: quantum theory, thermodynamics and chaos theory.

    Science paper:
    Entropy
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Vienna University of Technology [Technische Universität Wien](AT) is one of the major universities in Vienna, Austria. The university finds high international and domestic recognition in teaching as well as in research, and it is a highly esteemed partner of innovation-oriented enterprises. It currently has about 28,100 students (29% women), eight faculties and about 5,000 staff members (3,800 academics).

    The university’s teaching and research is focused on engineering, computer science, and natural sciences.

    The Vienna University of Technology [Technische Universität Wien](AT), has been conducting research, teaching and learning under the motto “Technology for people” for over 200 years. “TU Wien” has evolved into an open academic institution where discussions can happen, opinions can be voiced and arguments will be heard. Although everyone may have different individual philosophies and approaches to life, the staff, management personnel and students at TU Wien all promote open-mindedness and tolerance.

    The institution was founded in 1815 by Emperor Francis I of Austria as the k.k. Polytechnische Institut (Imperial-Royal Polytechnic Institute). The first rector was Johann Joseph von Prechtl. It was renamed the Technische Hochschule (College of Technology) in 1872. When it began granting doctoral and higher degrees in 1975, it was renamed the Technische Universität Wien (Vienna University of Technology).

    As a university of technology, TU Wien covers a wide spectrum of scientific concepts from abstract pure research and the fundamental principles of science to applied technological research and partnership with industry.

    TU Wien is ranked #192 by the QS World University Ranking, #406 by the Center of World University Rankings, and it is positioned among the best 401-500 higher education institutions globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The computer science department has been consistently ranked among the top 100 in the world by the QS World University Ranking and The Times Higher Education World University Rankings respectively.

    TU Wien has eight faculties led by deans: Architecture and Planning, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Mathematics and Geoinformation, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and Physics.

    The University is led by the Rector and four Vice Rectors (responsible for Research, Academic Affairs, Finance as well as Human Resources and Gender). The Senate has 26 members. The University Council, consisting of seven members, acts as a supervisory board.

    Development work in almost all areas of technology is encouraged by the interaction between basic research and the different fields of engineering sciences at TU Wien. Also, the framework of cooperative projects with other universities, research institutes and business sector partners is established by the research section of TU Wien. TU Wien has sharpened its research profile by defining competence fields and setting up interdisciplinary collaboration centres, and clearer outlines will be developed.

    Research focus points of TU Wien are introduced as computational science and engineering, quantum physics and quantum technologies, materials and matter, information and communication technology and energy and environment.

    The EU Research Support (EURS) provides services at TU Wien and informs both researchers and administrative staff in preparing and carrying out EU research projects.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:39 pm on December 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Nuclear Physics Gets a Boost for High-Performance Computing", , , , , Jefferson Lab’s Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics., , Supercomputing,   

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility : “Nuclear Physics Gets a Boost for High-Performance Computing” 

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    12.6.22
    Kandice Carter
    Jefferson Lab Communications Office
    kcarter@jlab.org

    1
    Jefferson Lab’s Data Center, JLab photo: Aileen Devlin

    2
    The Frontier Supercomputer, OLCF at The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Lab photo.

    Efforts to harness the power of supercomputers to better understand the hidden worlds inside the nucleus of the atom recently received a big boost. A project led by the DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is one of three to split $35 million in grants from the DOE via a partnership program of DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC).

    Each of the projects receiving the grants are joint projects between DOE’s Nuclear Physics (NP) and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) programs via a partnership program of SciDAC.

    Making the Most of Advanced Computational Resources

    As supercomputers become ever-more powerful, scientists need advanced tools to take full advantage of their capabilities. For example, the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Lab now hosts the world’s first public exascale supercomputer. Its Frontier supercomputer has achieved 1 exaFLOPS in capability by demonstrating it can perform one billion-billion calculations per second.

    “Nuclear physics is a rich, diverse and exciting area of research explaining the origins of visible matter. And in nuclear physics, high-performance computing is a critically important tool in our efforts to unravel the origins of nuclear matter in our universe,” said Robert Edwards, a senior staff scientist and deputy group leader of Jefferson Lab’s Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics.

    Edwards is the principal investigator for one of the three projects. His project, “Fundamental nuclear physics at the exascale and beyond,” will build a solid foundation of software resources for nuclear physicists to address key questions regarding the building blocks of the visible universe. The project seeks to help nuclear physicists tease out questions about the basic properties of particles, such as the ubiquitous proton.

    “One of the key research questions that we hope to one day answer is what is the origin of a particle’s mass, what is the origin of its spin, and what are the emerging properties of a dense system of particles?” explained Edwards.

    The $13 million project includes key scientists based at six DOE national labs and two universities, including Jefferson Lab, The DOE’s Argonne National Lab, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab, The DOE’sLawrence Berkeley National Lab, The DOE’s Los Alamos National Lab, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The College of William & Mary.

    It aims to optimize the software tools needed for calculations of quantum chromodynamics (“QCD”). QCD is the theory that describes the structure of protons and neutrons – the particles that make up atomic nuclei – as well as provide insight to other particles that help build our universe. Protons are built of smaller particles called quarks held together by a force-fed glue manifesting as gluon particles. What’s not clear is how the proton’s properties arise from quarks and gluons.

    “The evidence points to the mass of quarks as extremely tiny, only 1%. The rest is from the glue. So, what part does glue play in that internal structure?” he said.

    Modeling the Subatomic Universe

    The goal of the supercomputer calculations is to mimic how quarks and gluons experience the real world at their own teensy scale in a way that can be calculated by computers. To do that, the nuclear physicists use supercomputers to first generate a snapshot of the environment inside a proton where these particles live for the calculations. Then, they mathematically drop in some quarks and glue and use supercomputers to predict how they interact. Averaging over thousands of these snapshots gives physicists a way to emulate the particles’ lives in the real world.

    Solutions from these calculations will provide input for experiments taking place today at Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)[below] and Brookhaven Lab’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

    CEBAF and RHIC are both DOE Office of Science user facilities.

    “While we did not base this proposal on the requirements of the future Electron-Ion Collider, many of the problems that we are trying to address now, such as code infrastructures and methodology, will impact the EIC,” Edwards added.

    The project will use a four-pronged approach to help streamline these calculations for better use on supercomputers, while also preparing for ever-more-powerful machines to come online.

    The first two approaches relate to generation of the quarks’ and gluons’ little slice of the universe. The researchers aim to make this task easier for computers by streamlining the process with upgraded software and by using software to break down this process into smaller chunks of calculations that will be easier for a computer to calculate. The second part of this project will then bring in machine learning to see if the existing algorithms can be improved by additional computer modelling.

    The third approach involves exploring and testing out new techniques for the portion of the calculations that model how quarks and gluons interact in their computer-generated universe.

    The fourth and last approach will collect all of the information from the first three prongs and begin to scale them for use on next-generation supercomputers.

    All three SciDAC projects awarded grants by DOE span efforts in nuclear physics research. Together, the projects address fundamental questions about the nature of nuclear matter, including the properties of nuclei, nuclear structure, nucleon imaging, and discovering exotic states of quarks and gluons.

    “The SciDAC partnership projects deploy high-performance computing and enable world-leading science discoveries in our nuclear physics facilities,” said Timothy Hallman, DOE’s associate director of science for NP.

    The total funding announced by DOE includes $35 million lasting five years, with $7.2 million in Fiscal Year 2022 and outyear funding contingent on congressional appropriations.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    JLab campus
    The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is supported by The Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit science.energy.gov.

    Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE Applied Technologies, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    History

    The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was established in 1984 (first initial funding by the Department of Energy) as the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); the name was changed to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in 1996. The full funding for construction was appropriated by US Congress in 1986 and on February 13, 1987, the construction of the main component, the CEBAF accelerator begun. First beam was delivered to experimental area on 1 July 1994. The design energy of 4 GeV for the beam was achieved during the year 1995. The laboratory dedication took place 24 May 1996 (at this event the name was also changed). Full initial operations with all three initial experiment areas online at the design energy was achieved on June 19, 1998. On August 6, 2000 the CEBAF reached “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV. In 2001, plans for an energy upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam and plans to construct a fourth experimental hall area started. The plans progressed through various DOE Critical Decision-stages in the 2000s decade, with the final DOE acceptance in 2008 and the construction on the 12 GeV upgrade beginning in 2009. May 18, 2012 the original 6 GeV CEBAF accelerator shut down for the replacement of the accelerator components for the 12 GeV upgrade. 178 experiments were completed with the original CEBAF.

    In addition to the accelerator, the laboratory has housed and continues to house a free electron laser (FEL) instrument. The construction of the FEL started 11 June 1996. It achieved first light on June 17, 1998. Since then, the FEL has been upgraded numerous times, increasing its power and capabilities substantially.

    Jefferson Lab was also involved in the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Jefferson built the SNS superconducting accelerator and helium refrigeration system. The accelerator components were designed and produced 2000–2005.

    Accelerator

    The laboratory’s main research facility is the CEBAF accelerator, which consists of a polarized electron source and injector and a pair of superconducting RF linear accelerators that are 7/8-mile (1400 m) in length and connected to each other by two arc sections that contain steering magnets.

    As the electron beam makes up to five successive orbits, its energy is increased up to a maximum of 6 GeV (the original CEBAF machine worked first in 1995 at the design energy of 4 GeV before reaching “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV in 2000; since then, the facility has been upgraded into 12 GeV energy). This leads to a design that appears similar to a racetrack when compared to the classical ring-shaped accelerators found at sites such as The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] or DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively, CEBAF is a linear accelerator, similar to The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University, that has been folded up to a tenth of its normal length.

    The design of CEBAF allows the electron beam to be continuous rather than the pulsed beam typical of ring-shaped accelerators. (There is some beam structure, but the pulses are very much shorter and closer together.) The electron beam is directed onto three potential targets (see below). One of the distinguishing features of Jefferson Lab is the continuous nature of the electron beam, with a bunch length of less than 1 picosecond. Another is Jefferson Lab’s use of superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology, which uses liquid helium to cool niobium to approximately 4 K (−452.5 °F), removing electrical resistance and allowing the most efficient transfer of energy to an electron. To achieve this, Jefferson Lab houses the world’s largest liquid helium refrigerator, and it was one of the first large-scale implementations of SRF technology. The accelerator is built 8 meters below the Earth’s surface, or approximately 25 feet, and the walls of the accelerator tunnels are 2 feet thick.

    The beam ends in four experimental halls, labelled Hall A, Hall B, Hall C, and Hall D. Each hall contains specialized spectrometers to record the products of collisions between the electron beam or with real photons and a stationary target. This allows physicists to study the structure of the atomic nucleus, specifically the interaction of the quarks that make up protons and neutrons of the nucleus.

    With each revolution around the accelerator, the beam passes through each of the two LINAC accelerators, but through a different set of bending magnets in semi-circular arcs at the ends of the linacs. The electrons make up to five passes through the linear accelerators.

    When a nucleus in the target is hit by an electron from the beam, an “interaction”, or “event”, occurs, scattering particles into the hall. Each hall contains an array of particle detectors that track the physical properties of the particles produced by the event. The detectors generate electrical pulses that are converted into digital values by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), time to digital converters (TDCs) and pulse counters (scalers).

    This digital data is gathered and stored so that the physicist can later analyze the data and reconstruct the physics that occurred. The system of electronics and computers that perform this task is called a data acquisition system.

    12 GeV upgrade

    As of June 2010, construction began on a $338 million upgrade to add an end station, Hall D, on the opposite end of the accelerator from the other three halls, as well as to double beam energy to 12 GeV. Concurrently, an addition to the Test Lab, (where the SRF cavities used in CEBAF and other accelerators used worldwide are manufactured) was constructed.

    As of May 2014, the upgrade achieved a new record for beam energy, at 10.5 GeV, delivering beam to Hall D.

    As of December 2016, the CEBAF accelerator delivered full-energy electrons as part of commissioning activities for the ongoing 12 GeV Upgrade project. Operators of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility delivered the first batch of 12 GeV electrons (12.065 Giga electron Volts) to its newest experimental hall complex, Hall D.

    In September 2017, the official notification from the DOE of the formal approval of the 12 GeV upgrade project completion and start of operations was issued. By spring 2018, all fours research areas were successfully receiving beam and performing experiments. On 2 May 2018 the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Dedication Ceremony took place.

    As of December 2018, the CEBAF accelerator delivered electron beams to all four experimental halls simultaneously for physics-quality production running.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:01 pm on December 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What Lies Beneath Yellowstone’s Volcano? Twice As Much Magma As Thought", , , Computational seismology, , , , , Late Michigan State University researcher Min Chen, , , Supercomputing, , ,   

    From The College of Natural Sciences At The Michigan State University Via “SciTechDaily” : “What Lies Beneath Yellowstone’s Volcano? Twice As Much Magma As Thought” Min Chen 

    From The College of Natural Sciences

    At

    Michigan State Bloc

    The Michigan State University

    Via

    “SciTechDaily”

    12.3.22

    1
    The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano, is a volcanic caldera and supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park in the Western United States. The caldera measures 43 by 28 miles (70 by 45 kilometers).

    Researcher’s expertise, energy, and empathy leave a legacy.

    Late Michigan State University researcher Min Chen contributed to new seismic tomography of the magma deposits underneath Yellowstone volcano.

    When Ross Maguire was a postdoctoral researcher at Michigan State University, he wanted to study the volume and distribution of molten magma underneath the Yellowstone volcano. Maguire used a technique called seismic tomography, which uses ground vibrations known as seismic waves to create a 3D image of what is happening below Earth’s surface. Using this method, Maguire was able to create an image of the magma chamber framework showing where the magma was located. But these are not crystal-clear images.

    “I was looking for people who are experts in a particular type of computational-based seismic tomography called waveform tomography,” said Maguire, now an assistant professor at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). “Min Chen was really a world expert on this.”

    2
    Min Chen. Credit: Michigan State University.

    Min Chen was an assistant professor at Michigan State University in the Department of Computational Mathematics, Science and Engineering and the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences in the College of Natural Science. Using the power of supercomputing, Chen developed the method applied to Maguire’s images to model more accurately how seismic waves propagate through the Earth. Chen’s creativity and skill brought those images into sharper focus, revealing more information about the amount of molten magma under Yellowstone’s volcano.

    “We didn’t see an increase in the amount of magma,” Maguire said. “We just saw a clearer picture of what was already there.”

    Previous images showed that Yellowstone’s volcano had a low concentration of magma — only 10% — surrounded by a solid crystalline framework. As a result of these new images, with key contributions from Chen, Maguire and his team were able to see that, in fact, twice that amount of magma exists within Yellowstone’s magmatic system.

    “To be clear, the new discovery does not indicate a future eruption is likely to occur,” Maguire said. “Any signs of changes to the system would be captured by the network of geophysical instruments that continually monitors Yellowstone.”

    Unfortunately, Chen never got to see the final results. Her unexpected death in 2021 continues to send shockwaves throughout the earth science community, which mourns the loss of her passion and expertise.

    “Computational seismology is still relatively new at Michigan State University,” said Songqiao “Shawn” Wei, an Endowed Assistant Professor of Geological Sciences in Michigan State University’s Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, who was a colleague of Chen’s. “Once the pandemic hit, Chen made her lectures and research discussions available on Zoom where researchers and students from all over the world could participate. That’s how a lot of seismologists worldwide got to know Michigan State University.”

    Her meetings were a place where gifted undergraduate students, postdoctoral candidates, or simply anyone who was interested were welcome to attend. Chen had prospective graduate students as well as seasoned seismologists from around the world join her virtual calls.

    Chen cared deeply about her students’ well-being and careers. She fostered an inclusive and multidisciplinary environment in which she encouraged her students and postdoctoral candidates to become well-rounded scientists and to build long-term collaborations. She even held virtual seminars about life outside of academia to help students nurture their careers and hobbies. Chen led by example: She was an avid soccer player and knew how to dance the tango.

    Diversity in science was another area about which Chen felt strongly. She advocated and championed research opportunities for women and underrepresented groups. To honor Chen, her colleagues created a memorial fellowship in her name to provide graduate student support for increasing diversity in computational and earth sciences. In another tribute to her life and love of gardening, Chen’s colleagues also planted a memorial tree in the square of the Engineering Building on Michigan State University’s campus.

    Chen was truly a leader in her field and was honored as a National Science Foundation Early CAREER Faculty Award recipient in 2020 to conduct detailed seismic imaging of North America to study Earth’s solid outer shell.

    “She had so much energy,” Maguire said. “She focused on ensuring that people could be successful while she was incredibly successful.”

    Maguire’s research, which showcases a portion of Chen’s legacy, is published in the journal Science.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About The College of Natural Sciences

    The College of Natural Sciences at The Michigan State University is home to 27 departments and programs in the biological, physical and mathematical sciences.

    The college averages $57M in research expenditures annually while providing world-class educational opportunities to more than 5,500 undergraduate majors and 1,200 graduate and postdoc students. There are 800+ faculty and academic staff associated with NatSci and more than 63,000 living alumni worldwide.

    College of Natural Science Vision, Mission, Values

    The Michigan State University College of Natural Sciences is committed to creating a safe, collaborative and supportive environment in which differences are valued and all members of the NatSci community are empowered to grow and succeed.

    The following is the college’s vision, mission and values, as co-created and affirmed by the College of Natural Sciences community:

    Vision:

    A thriving planet and healthy communities through scientific discovery.

    Mission:

    To use discovery, innovation and our collective ingenuity to advance knowledge across the natural sciences. Through equitable, inclusive practices in research, education and service, we empower our students, staff and faculty to solve challenges in a complex and rapidly changing world.

    Core Values:

    Inclusiveness-

    Foster a safe, supportive, welcoming community that values diversity, respects difference and promotes belonging. We commit to providing equitable opportunity for all.

    Innovation-

    Cultivate creativity and imagination in the quest for new knowledge and insights. Through individual and collaborative endeavors, we seek novel solutions to current and emergent challenges in the natural sciences.

    Openness-

    Commit to honesty and transparency. By listening and being open to other perspectives, we create an environment of trust where ideas are freely shared and discussed.

    Professionalism-

    Strive for excellence, integrity and high ethical standards. We hold ourselves and each other accountable to these expectations in a respectful and constructive manner.

    Michigan State Campus

    The Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as The Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    The Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, The Michigan State University, in consortium with the The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
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