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  • richardmitnick 11:17 am on November 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Gravitational forces deep in Earth impact landscape evolution", , , , , Research centers on integrating tectonics and climate and mammal diversity., Stoney Brook University-SUNY,   

    From The National Science Foundation And Stoney Brook University – SUNY : “Gravitational forces deep in Earth impact landscape evolution” 

    From The National Science Foundation

    And

    Stoney Brook bloc

    Stoney Brook University – SUNY

    10.31.22

    1
    Metamorphic core complex development showing crustal stresses and strains, faults, uplift of deeper rocks, and sedimentation. Credit: Alireza Bahadori and William Holt.

    Research centers on integrating tectonics, climate and mammal diversity.

    Research led by Stony Brook University scientists focuses on the interplay among the evolution of the landscape, climate and fossil record of mammal evolution, and mammal diversification in the Western U.S.

    A little explored aspect of the research is the connection between gravitational forces deep in the Earth and landscape evolution. Now, in a U.S. National Science Foundation-supported paper in Nature Communications [below], the researchers show through computer modeling that deep roots under mountain belts (analogous to the massive ice below the tips of icebergs) trigger dramatic movements along faults. These movements ultimately result in collapse of the mountain belt and exposure of rocks once some 15 miles below the surface.

    The origin of these exposures, called metamorphic core complexes, has been debated in the scientific community. The study’s findings may alter the way scientists attempt to uncover the history of Earth as an evolving planet.

    “This research explores how landscapes are shaped by a balance of forces from above and below, by climate and by processes acting miles beneath the Earth’s surface, and how changing landscapes have shaped the course of mammal evolution in western North America,” says Candace Major, a program director in NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences. “It’s an example of the complexity of Earth system science, and how seemingly isolated processes are in fact intrinsically connected.”

    Lead scientist William Holt at Stony Brook, first author Alireza Bahadori at Columbia University and their colleagues found that the core complexes are fossil signatures of past mountain belts in the Western U.S. In the distant past, they occupied regions near Phoenix and Las Vegas, and left traces in the form of gravel deposits from ancient northward and eastward flowing rivers. Today, those traces are located south and west of Flagstaff, Arizona.

    The work builds on research also published in Nature Communications [below] in August 2022. Holt and colleagues developed a first-of-its-kind model in three dimensions to illustrate the link between climate and tectonics. They simulated the landscape and erosion/deposition history of the region before, during and after the formation of metamorphic core complexes.

    Science papers:
    Nature Communications
    Nature Communications
    See the science papers for detailed material with images.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton University , The University of Chicago, Stanford University, and The University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

    The National Science Foundation is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…we are the funding source for approximately 24 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America’s colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, The National Science Foundation is the major source of federal backing.

    We fulfill our mission chiefly by issuing limited-term grants — currently about 12,000 new awards per year, with an average duration of three years — to fund specific research proposals that have been judged the most promising by a rigorous and objective merit-review system. Most of these awards go to individuals or small groups of investigators. Others provide funding for research centers, instruments and facilities that allow scientists, engineers and students to work at the outermost frontiers of knowledge.

    The National Science Foundation ‘s goals — discovery, learning, research infrastructure and stewardship — provide an integrated strategy to advance the frontiers of knowledge, cultivate a world-class, broadly inclusive science and engineering workforce and expand the scientific literacy of all citizens, build the nation’s research capability through investments in advanced instrumentation and facilities, and support excellence in science and engineering research and education through a capable and responsive organization. We like to say that The National Science Foundation is “where discoveries begin.”

    Many of the discoveries and technological advances have been truly revolutionary. In the past few decades, The National Science Foundation -funded researchers have won some 236 Nobel Prizes as well as other honors too numerous to list. These pioneers have included the scientists or teams that discovered many of the fundamental particles of matter, analyzed the cosmic microwaves left over from the earliest epoch of the universe, developed carbon-14 dating of ancient artifacts, decoded the genetics of viruses, and created an entirely new state of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    The National Science Foundation also funds equipment that is needed by scientists and engineers but is often too expensive for any one group or researcher to afford. Examples of such major research equipment include giant optical and radio telescopes, Antarctic research sites, high-end computer facilities and ultra-high-speed connections, ships for ocean research, sensitive detectors of very subtle physical phenomena and gravitational wave observatories.

    Another essential element in The National Science Foundation ‘s mission is support for science and engineering education, from pre-K through graduate school and beyond. The research we fund is thoroughly integrated with education to help ensure that there will always be plenty of skilled people available to work in new and emerging scientific, engineering and technological fields, and plenty of capable teachers to educate the next generation.

    No single factor is more important to the intellectual and economic progress of society, and to the enhanced well-being of its citizens, than the continuous acquisition of new knowledge. The National Science Foundation is proud to be a major part of that process.

    Specifically, the Foundation’s organic legislation authorizes us to engage in the following activities:

    Initiate and support, through grants and contracts, scientific and engineering research and programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential, and education programs at all levels, and appraise the impact of research upon industrial development and the general welfare.

    Award graduate fellowships in the sciences and in engineering.

    Foster the interchange of scientific information among scientists and engineers in the United States and foreign countries.

    Foster and support the development and use of computers and other scientific methods and technologies, primarily for research and education in the sciences.

    Evaluate the status and needs of the various sciences and engineering and take into consideration the results of this evaluation in correlating our research and educational programs with other federal and non-federal programs.

    Provide a central clearinghouse for the collection, interpretation and analysis of data on scientific and technical resources in the United States, and provide a source of information for policy formulation by other federal agencies.

    Determine the total amount of federal money received by universities and appropriate organizations for the conduct of scientific and engineering research, including both basic and applied, and construction of facilities where such research is conducted, but excluding development, and report annually thereon to the President and the Congress.

    Initiate and support specific scientific and engineering activities in connection with matters relating to international cooperation, national security and the effects of scientific and technological applications upon society.

    Initiate and support scientific and engineering research, including applied research, at academic and other nonprofit institutions and, at the direction of the President, support applied research at other organizations.

    Recommend and encourage the pursuit of national policies for the promotion of basic research and education in the sciences and engineering. Strengthen research and education innovation in the sciences and engineering, including independent research by individuals, throughout the United States.

    Support activities designed to increase the participation of women and minorities and others underrepresented in science and technology.

    At present, The National Science Foundation has a total workforce of about 2,100 at its Alexandria, VA, headquarters, including approximately 1,400 career employees, 200 scientists from research institutions on temporary duty, 450 contract workers and the staff of the NSB office and the Office of the Inspector General.

    The National Science Foundation is divided into the following seven directorates that support science and engineering research and education: Biological Sciences, Computer and Information Science and Engineering, Engineering, Geosciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, and Education and Human Resources. Each is headed by an assistant director and each is further subdivided into divisions like materials research, ocean sciences and behavioral and cognitive sciences.

    Within The National Science Foundation ‘s Office of the Director, the Office of Integrative Activities also supports research and researchers. Other sections of The National Science Foundation are devoted to financial management, award processing and monitoring, legal affairs, outreach and other functions. The Office of the Inspector General examines the foundation’s work and reports to the NSB and Congress.

    Each year, The National Science Foundation supports an average of about 200,000 scientists, engineers, educators and students at universities, laboratories and field sites all over the United States and throughout the world, from Alaska to Alabama to Africa to Antarctica. You could say that The National Science Foundation support goes “to the ends of the earth” to learn more about the planet and its inhabitants, and to produce fundamental discoveries that further the progress of research and lead to products and services that boost the economy and improve general health and well-being.

    As described in our strategic plan, The National Science Foundation is the only federal agency whose mission includes support for all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except for medical sciences. The National Science Foundation is tasked with keeping the United States at the leading edge of discovery in a wide range of scientific areas, from astronomy to geology to zoology. So, in addition to funding research in the traditional academic areas, the agency also supports “high risk, high pay off” ideas, novel collaborations and numerous projects that may seem like science fiction today, but which the public will take for granted tomorrow. And in every case, we ensure that research is fully integrated with education so that today’s revolutionary work will also be training tomorrow’s top scientists and engineers.

    Unlike many other federal agencies, The National Science Foundation does not hire researchers or directly operate our own laboratories or similar facilities. Instead, we support scientists, engineers and educators directly through their own home institutions (typically universities and colleges). Similarly, we fund facilities and equipment such as telescopes, through cooperative agreements with research consortia that have competed successfully for limited-term management contracts.

    The National Science Foundation ‘s job is to determine where the frontiers are, identify the leading U.S. pioneers in these fields and provide money and equipment to help them continue. The results can be transformative. For example, years before most people had heard of “nanotechnology,” The National Science Foundation was supporting scientists and engineers who were learning how to detect, record and manipulate activity at the scale of individual atoms — the nanoscale. Today, scientists are adept at moving atoms around to create devices and materials with properties that are often more useful than those found in nature.

    Dozens of companies are gearing up to produce nanoscale products. The National Science Foundation is funding the research projects, state-of-the-art facilities and educational opportunities that will teach new skills to the science and engineering students who will make up the nanotechnology workforce of tomorrow.

    At the same time, we are looking for the next frontier.

    The National Science Foundation ‘s task of identifying and funding work at the frontiers of science and engineering is not a “top-down” process. The National Science Foundation operates from the “bottom up,” keeping close track of research around the United States and the world, maintaining constant contact with the research community to identify ever-moving horizons of inquiry, monitoring which areas are most likely to result in spectacular progress and choosing the most promising people to conduct the research.

    The National Science Foundation funds research and education in most fields of science and engineering. We do this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science organizations and other research organizations throughout the U.S. The Foundation considers proposals submitted by organizations on behalf of individuals or groups for support in most fields of research. Interdisciplinary proposals also are eligible for consideration. Awardees are chosen from those who send us proposals asking for a specific amount of support for a specific project.

    Proposals may be submitted in response to the various funding opportunities that are announced on the The National Science Foundation website. These funding opportunities fall into three categories — program descriptions, program announcements and program solicitations — and are the mechanisms The National Science Foundation uses to generate funding requests. At any time, scientists and engineers are also welcome to send in unsolicited proposals for research and education projects, in any existing or emerging field. The Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) provides guidance on proposal preparation and submission and award management. At present, The National Science Foundation receives more than 42,000 proposals per year.

    To ensure that proposals are evaluated in a fair, competitive, transparent and in-depth manner, we use a rigorous system of merit review. Nearly every proposal is evaluated by a minimum of three independent reviewers consisting of scientists, engineers and educators who do not work at NSF or for the institution that employs the proposing researchers. The National Science Foundation selects the reviewers from among the national pool of experts in each field and their evaluations are confidential. On average, approximately 40,000 experts, knowledgeable about the current state of their field, give their time to serve as reviewers each year.

    The reviewer’s job is to decide which projects are of the very highest caliber. The National Science Foundation ‘s merit review process, considered by some to be the “gold standard” of scientific review, ensures that many voices are heard and that only the best projects make it to the funding stage. An enormous amount of research, deliberation, thought and discussion goes into award decisions.

    The National Science Foundation program officer reviews the proposal and analyzes the input received from the external reviewers. After scientific, technical and programmatic review and consideration of appropriate factors, the program officer makes an “award” or “decline” recommendation to the division director. Final programmatic approval for a proposal is generally completed at The National Science Foundation ‘s division level. A principal investigator (PI) whose proposal for The National Science Foundation support has been declined will receive information and an explanation of the reason(s) for declination, along with copies of the reviews considered in making the decision. If that explanation does not satisfy the PI, he/she may request additional information from the cognizant The National Science Foundation program officer or division director.

    If the program officer makes an award recommendation and the division director concurs, the recommendation is submitted to The National Science Foundation ‘s Division of Grants and Agreements (DGA) for award processing. A DGA officer reviews the recommendation from the program division/office for business, financial and policy implications, and the processing and issuance of a grant or cooperative agreement. DGA generally makes awards to academic institutions within 30 days after the program division/office makes its recommendation.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:31 pm on October 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Metamorphic core complexes", "Study Shows Gravitational Forces Deep Within the Earth Have Great Impact on Landscape Evolution", , , Collaborative national research centers on integrating tectonics climate and mammal diversity., , , , Stoney Brook University-SUNY   

    From Stoney Brook University – SUNY : “Study Shows Gravitational Forces Deep Within the Earth Have Great Impact on Landscape Evolution” 

    Stoney Brook bloc

    From Stoney Brook University – SUNY

    10.6.22

    Collaborative national research centers on integrating tectonics climate and mammal diversity.

    Stony Brook University is leading a research project that focuses on the interplay between the evolution of the landscape, climate and fossil record of mammal evolution and diversification in the Western United States. A little explored aspect of this geosciences research is the connection between gravitational forces deep in the Earth and landscape evolution. Now in a newly published paper in Nature Communications [below], the researchers show by way of computer modeling that deep roots under mountain belts (analogous to the massive ice below the tip of an iceberg) trigger dramatic movements along faults that result in collapse of the mountain belt and exposure of rocks that were once some 15 miles below the surface.

    The origin of these enigmatic exposures, called “metamorphic core complexes,” has been hotly debated within the scientific community. This study finding may alter the way scientists attempt to uncover the history of Earth as an evolving planet.

    Lead principal investigator William E. Holt, PhD, a Professor of Geophysics the Department of Geosciences in the School of Arts and Sciences at Stony Brook University, first author Alireza Bahadori, a former PhD student under Holt and now at Columbia University, and colleagues found that these core complexes are a fossil signature of past mountain belts in the Western United States that occupied regions around Phoenix and Las Vegas. These mountain areas left traces in the form of gravel deposits from ancient northward and eastward flowing rivers, found today south and west of Flagstaff, Arizona.

    1
    These visuals from the modeling illustrate metamorphic core complex development showing crustal stresses and strain rates, faults, uplift of deeper rocks, and sedimentation from surface erosion. These processes of core complex development occur after a thickened crustal root supporting topography is weakened through the introduction of heat, fluids, and partial melt. Credit: Alireza Bahadori and William E. Holt.

    The work articulated in the paper highlights the development of what the research team terms as a general model for metamorphic core complex formation and a demonstration that they result from the collapse of a mountain belt supported by a thickened crustal root.

    The authors further explain: “We show that gravitational body forces generated by topography and crustal root cause an upward flow pattern of the ductile lower-middle crust, facilitated by a detachment surface evolving into a low-angle normal fault. This detachment surface acquires large amounts of finite strain, consistent with thick mylonite zones found in metamorphic core complexes.”

    The work builds on research also published in Nature Communications [below] in 2022. Holt and colleagues published a first-of-a-kind model in three dimensions to illustrate the linkage between climate and tectonics to simulate the landscape and erosion/deposition history of the region before, during and after the formation of these metamorphic core complexes.

    This modeling was linked to a global climate model that predicted precipitation trends throughout the southwestern U.S. over time. The 3-D model accurately predicts deposition of sediments in basins that contain the mammal fossil and climate records.

    The group also published a paper in Science Advances [below] in November 2021, led by team member Katie Loughney.

    This research showed that a major peak in mammal diversification can be statistically tied to the peak in extensional collapse of the ancient mountain belts. Thus, the collaborative study is the first of its kind to quantify how deep Earth forces combine with climate to influence the landscape and impact mammal diversification and species dispersal found within the fossil record.

    The study required the vast computing resources provided by the High-Performance Computing Cluster SeaWulf at Stony Brook University. The climate modeling, produced by Ran Feng, University of Connecticut, was supported by the Cheyenne supercomputer maintained at NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center.

    Much of the research that led to these findings reported each of the papers was supported by multiple grants from the National Science Foundation, including grant number EAR-1814051 to Stony Brook University.

    In addition to Holt, the national collaborative team included several researchers from Stony Brook University: Drs. Emma Troy Rasbury, Daniel Davis, Ali Bahadori (now at Columbia University) and Tara Smiley. Other colleagues include researchers from the University of Michigan (Drs. Catherine Badgley and Katie Loughney – now University of Georgia); University of Connecticut (Dr. Ran Feng); Purdue University (Dr. Lucy Flesch), as well a researcher from a consulting business, e4Sciences (Dr. Bruce Ward).

    Science papers:
    Nature Communications
    Nature Communications
    Science Advances 2021
    See the science papers for instructive material.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton, the University of Chicago, Stanford, and the University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:10 am on September 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum Chemistry Finds a New Path on Quantum Devices", A new quantum algorithm solves a critical problem in quantum chemistry through gradual adaptation along a specially chosen geometric path., , , , Stoney Brook University-SUNY,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory And Stoney Brook University-SUNY: “Quantum Chemistry Finds a New Path on Quantum Devices” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    And

    Stoney Brook bloc

    Stoney Brook University-SUNY

    9.13.22

    Denise Yazak
    dyazak@bnl.gov

    A new quantum algorithm solves a critical problem in quantum chemistry through gradual adaptation along a specially chosen geometric path.

    1
    In calculating the potential energy surface of the chemical reaction of H2 ;+ D2 → 2HD, the new algorithm (green diamonds) outperforms the previous algorithm (orange squares) in finding the most accurate solution (blue line).

    A team of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY have devised a new quantum algorithm to compute the lowest energies of molecules at specific configurations during chemical reactions, including when their chemical bonds are broken. As described in Physics Review Research [below], compared to similar existing algorithms, including the team’s previous method, the new algorithm will significantly improve scientists’ ability to accurately and reliably calculate the potential energy surface in reacting molecules.

    For this work, Deyu Lu, a Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) [below] physicist at Brookhaven Lab, worked with Tzu-Chieh Wei, an associate professor specializing in quantum information science at the C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics at Stony Brook University-SUNY, Qin Wu, a theorist at CFN, and Hongye Yu, a Ph.D. student at Stony Brook.

    “Understanding the quantum mechanics of a molecule, how it behaves at an atomic level, can provide key insight into its chemical properties, like its stability and reactivity,” said Lu.

    One particular property that has been a challenge to determine is a molecule’s ground state: the point where the molecule’s total electronic energy (including kinetic and potential energy) is at its lowest and nothing outside of that “molecular system” is exciting or charging the molecule’s electrons. When the atomic structure of a chemical system gets more complex, as in a large molecule, many more electrons can interact. Those interactions make calculating the ground state of complex molecules extremely difficult.

    The new quantum algorithm improves on the previous algorithm to tackle this problem in a creative way. It exploits a smooth, geometric deformation made by continuously varying bond lengths or bond angles in the molecule’s structure. With this approach the scientists say they can calculate the ground state of molecules very accurately, even as chemical bonds are breaking and reforming during chemical reactions.

    Building the Groundwork

    “When solely relying on traditional computing methods, this ground state problem contains too many variables to solve—even on the most powerful supercomputers,” said Lu.

    You can think of an algorithm as a set of steps to solve a particular problem. Classical computers can run complex algorithms, but as they get larger and more involved, they can become too difficult or time-consuming for classical computers to feasibly solve. Quantum computers can speed up the process by leveraging the rules of quantum mechanics.

    In classical computing, data is stored in bits that have a value of 1 or 0. A quantum bit, known as a qubit, can have a value beyond just 0 or 1, it can even have a value of 0 and 1, in a so-called quantum superposition. In principle, these more “flexible” qubits can store a larger amount of information than classical bits. If scientists can find ways to harness the information-carrying capacity of qubits, computing power can expand exponentially with each additional qubit.

    Qubits, however, are quite fragile. They can often break down when information is being extracted. When a quantum device interacts with the surrounding environment, it can generate noise or interference that destroys the quantum state. Temperature changes, vibrations, electromagnetic interference, and even material defects can also cause qubits to lose information.

    To compensate for these pitfalls, scientists developed a hybrid solution that takes advantage of both classical computing algorithms, which are more stable and practical.

    With seed grant funding from Stony Brook University-SUNY, Lu and Wei began researching on hybrid classical and quantum computing approaches in 2019. This annual grant promotes collaboration between Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY by funding joint research initiatives that align with the missions of both institutions. With this initial work, Lu and Wei first focused on solving the ground state problem by replacing the most “expensive” classical algorithms—the ones that were much more complex and required significantly more steps (and more computing time) to complete—with quantum ones.

    Stretching bonds, creating new paths

    The researchers note that existing quantum algorithms all come with drawbacks for solving the ground state problem, including the one Wei and Yu developed in 2019. While some popular algorithms are accurate when a molecule is at its equilibrium geometry—its natural arrangement of atoms in three dimensions—those algorithms can become unreliable when the chemical bonds are broken at large atomic distances. Bond formation and dissociation play a role in many applications, such as predicting how much energy it takes to get a chemical reaction started, so scientists needed a way to tackle this problem as molecules react. They needed new quantum algorithms that can describe bond breaking.

    For this new version of the algorithm, the team worked with the Brookhaven-Lab-led Co-design Center for Quantum Advantage (C2QA), which was formed in 2020. Wei contributes to the center’s software thrust, which specializes in quantum algorithms. The team’s new algorithm uses an adiabatic approach—one that makes gradual changes—but with some adaptations that ensure it remains reliable when chemical bonds are broken.

    “An adiabatic process works by gradually adapting the conditions of a quantum mechanical system,” explained Lu. “In a way, you are reaching a solution in very small steps. You evolve the system from a simple, solvable model to the final target, typically a more difficult model. In addition to the ground state, however, a many-electronic system has many excited states at higher energies. Those excited states can pose a challenge when using this method to calculate the ground state.”

    Wei compared an adiabatic algorithm to driving along a highway, “if you are traveling from one town to the next, there are several paths to get there, but you want to find the safest and most efficient one.”

    2
    At a particular O-H distance within an H2O molecule, there are multiple energy crossing points (a). This is the reason that the initial Adiabatic Algorithm fails. In contrast, the new algorithm, where the distance starts at a closer point and gradually moves further has energy levels smoothly connected without any crossing (b).

    In the case of quantum chemistry, the key is to find a large enough “energy gap” between the ground state and excited states where no electron states exist. With a large enough gap, the vehicles in the highway metaphor won’t “cross lanes,” so their paths can be accurately traced.

    “A large gap means that you can go faster, so, in a sense, you’re trying to find a less crowed highway to drive faster without hitting anything,” said Wei.

    “With these algorithms, the entrance of the path is a well-defined, simple solution from classical computing,” Wei noted. “We also know where the exit is—the ground state of the molecule—and we were trying to find a way to connect it to the entrance in the most natural way, a straight line.

    “We did that in our first paper, but the straight line had roadblocks caused by the energy gap closing and paths crossing. Now we have a better solution.”

    When the scientists tested the algorithm, they demonstrated that even with finite bond length changes, the improved version still performed accurately for the ground state.

    “We went beyond our comfort zone, because chemistry is not our focus,” said Wei. “But it was good to find an application like this and foster this kind of collaboration with CFN. It’s important to have different perspectives in research.”

    He noted the accumulated effort of many people. “In the grand scheme, I think we’re making a small contribution, but this could be a foundation for other work in these fields,” he said. “This research is not only foundational, but a great illustration of how different institutions and facilities can come together to leverage their areas of expertise.”

    The research on the quantum algorithmic development in this work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, National Quantum Information Science Research Centers, Co-design Center for Quantum Advantage (C2QA), while quantum chemistry applications used the theory and computation resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Additional funding was provided by the National Science Foundation.

    Science paper:
    Physics Review Research

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton University, The University of Chicago, Stanford University, and The University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.
    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider (CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, it was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.


     
  • richardmitnick 11:19 am on August 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Take Another Theoretical Step to Uncovering the Mystery of Dark Matter and Black Holes", , If these ultra-light bosons exist they will affect how stars that get close to a supermassive black hole are disrupted by the black hole’s strong gravitational pull., Much of the matter in the universe remains unknown and undefined yet theoretical physicists continue to gain clues to the properties of dark matter and black holes., , Searches for stellar tidal-disruptions have the potential to uncover the existence of ultra-light bosons., Stellar tidal disruption rate measurements can be used to probe these new ultra-light bosons., Stellar tidal disruption rates may be used to constrain a variety of supermassive black hole spin distributions and determine if close-to maximal spins are preferred., Stoney Brook University-SUNY, The discovery of new ultra-light bosons in stellar tidal disruption surveys would be revolutionary for fundamental physics., These data in combination with the researchers’ work can be used to discover or rule out a variety of ultra-light boson models over wide regions of parameter space., These new ultra-light bosons could be the dark matter and thus the work could open up windows into a complex dark sector that hints toward more fundamental descriptions of nature such as String Theory, Tidal Disruption, Ultra-light bosons   

    From Stoney Brook University – SUNY : “Scientists Take Another Theoretical Step to Uncovering the Mystery of Dark Matter and Black Holes” 

    Stoney Brook bloc

    From Stoney Brook University – SUNY

    8.16.22

    1
    A star (orange) that gets close to a supermassive black hole (black) can be tidally disrupted by the black hole’s strong gravitational pull. According to a new study, If ultra-light bosons exist (purple), they can affect the spin of the black hole, which in turn affects the rate at which tidal disruption events occur. Credit: Peizhi Du.

    Much of the matter in the universe remains unknown and undefined yet theoretical physicists continue to gain clues to the properties of dark matter and black holes. A study by a team of scientists including three from Stony Brook University proposes a novel method to search for new particles not currently contained in the standard model of particle physics. Their method, published in Nature Communications [below], could shed light on the nature of dark matter.

    The three Stony Brook authors include Rouven Essig, PhD, Professor in the C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP); Rosalba Perna, PhD, Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Peizhi Du, PhD, postdoctoral researcher at the YITP.

    Stars that pass close to the supermassive black holes located in the center of galaxies can be disrupted by tidal forces, leading to flares that are observed as bright transient events in sky surveys. The rate for these events to occur depends on the black hole spins, which in turn can be affected by ultra-light bosons (hypothetical particles with minute masses) due to superradiance. The research team performed a detailed analysis of these effects, and they discovered that searches for stellar tidal-disruptions have the potential to uncover the existence of ultra-light bosons.

    According to co-author Rouven Essig, the team demonstrated that due to the dependence of the stellar disruption rates on the black hole’s spin, and given that ultra-light bosons uniquely affect such spins because of the superradiant instability, stellar tidal disruption rate measurements can be used to probe these new particles.

    Additionally, the researchers suggest that with the enormous dataset of stellar tidal disruptions that is provided by the Vera Rubin Observatory, these data in combination with the researchers’ work can be used to discover or rule out a variety of ultra-light boson models over wide regions of parameter space.

    Their analysis also indicates that measurements of stellar tidal disruption rates may be used to constrain a variety of supermassive black hole spin distributions and determine if close-to maximal spins are preferred.

    “The potential implications of our findings are profound. The discovery of new ultra-light bosons in stellar tidal disruption surveys would be revolutionary for fundamental physics,” says Essig.

    “These new particles could be the dark matter, and thus the work could open up windows into a complex dark sector that hints toward more fundamental descriptions of nature such as string theory. Our proposal may have other applications too, as measurements of supermassive black hole spins can be used to study the black hole’s formation history,” says Rosalba Perna.

    “And ultimately, if these ultra-light bosons exist they will affect how stars that get close to a supermassive black hole are disrupted by the black hole’s strong gravitational pull,” adds Peizhi.

    The Stony Brook team worked with Dr. Daniel Egana-Ugrinovic, a postdoctoral researcher at the Perimeter Institute, and Dr. Giacomo Fragione, a Research Assistant Professor at Northwestern University.

    The Stony Brook research component was supported by the Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-SC0009854), the Simons Foundation (Simons Investigator in Physics Award 623940), the National Science Foundation (Awards PHY-1915093 and AST-2006839), and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016153).

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton, the University of Chicago, Stanford, and the University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on April 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Discovery of Matter-Wave Polaritons Sheds New Light on Photonic Quantum Technologies", , Polaritons: chimera-like hybrids between light and matter, QIST: Quantum Science and Technology, , Stoney Brook University-SUNY, While photons can be ideal carriers of quantum information they do not normally interact with each other.   

    From Stoney Brook University–SUNY: “Discovery of Matter-Wave Polaritons Sheds New Light on Photonic Quantum Technologies” 

    Stoney Brook bloc

    From Stoney Brook University–SUNY

    April 6, 2022

    The development of experimental platforms that advance the field of quantum science and technology (QIST) comes with a unique set of advantages and challenges common to any emergent technology. Researchers at Stony Brook University, led by Dominik Schneble, PhD, report the formation of matter-wave polaritons in an optical lattice, an experimental discovery that enables studies of a central QIST paradigm through direct quantum simulation using ultracold atoms. The researchers project that their novel quasiparticles, which mimic strongly interacting photons in materials and devices but circumvent some of the inherent challenges, will benefit the further development of QIST platforms that are poised to transform computing and communication technology.

    The findings are detailed in a paper published in Nature Physics.

    The research sheds light on fundamental polariton properties and related many-body phenomena, and it opens up novel possibilities for studies of polaritonic quantum matter.

    2
    Experimental schematic and polariton formation. Credit: Nature Physics.

    An important challenge in work with photon-based QIST platforms is that while photons can be ideal carriers of quantum information they do not normally interact with each other. The absence of such interactions also inhibits the controlled exchange of quantum information between them. Scientists have found a way around this by coupling the photons to heavier excitatons in materials, thus forming polaritons, chimera-like hybrids between light and matter. Collisions between these heavier quasiparticles then make it possible for the photons to effectively interact. This can enable the implementation of photon-based quantum gate operations and eventually of an entire QIST infrastructure.

    However, a major challenge is the limited lifetime of these photon-based polaritons due to their radiative coupling to the environment, which leads to uncontrolled spontaneous decay and decoherence.

    1
    An artistic rendering of the research findings in the polariton study shows the atoms in an optical lattice forming an insulating phase (left); atoms turning into matter-wave polaritons via vacuum coupling mediated by microwave radiation represented by the green color (center); polaritons becoming mobile and forming a superfluid phase for strong vacuum coupling (right). Photo by Alfonso Lanuza/Schneble Lab/Stony Brook University.

    According to Schneble and colleagues, their published polariton research circumvents such limitations caused by spontaneous decay completely. The photon aspects of their polaritons are entirely carried by atomic matter waves, for which such unwanted decay processes do not exist. This feature opens access to parameter regimes that are not, or not yet, accessible in photon-based polaritonic systems.

    “The development of quantum mechanics has dominated the last century, and a ‘second quantum revolution’ toward the development of QIST and its applications is now well underway around the globe, including at corporations such as IBM, Google and Amazon,” says Schneble, a Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences. “Our work highlights some fundamental quantum mechanical effects that are of interest for emergent photonic quantum systems in QIST ranging from semiconductor nanophotonics to circuit quantum electrodynamics.”

    The Stony Brook researchers conducted their experiments with a platform featuring ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, an egg-crate-like potential landscape formed by standing waves of light. Using a dedicated vacuum apparatus featuring various lasers and control fields and operating at nanokelvin temperature, they implemented a scenario in which the atoms trapped in the lattice “dress’’ themselves with clouds of vacuum excitations made of fragile, evanescent matter waves.

    The team found that, as a result, the polaritonic particles become much more mobile. The researchers were able to directly probe their inner structure by gently shaking the lattice, thus accessing the contributions of the matter waves and the atomic lattice excitation. When left alone, the matter-wave polaritons hop through the lattice, interact with each other, and form stable phases of quasiparticle matter.

    “With our experiment we performed a quantum simulation of an exciton-polariton system in a novel regime,” explains Schneble. “The quest to perform such `analogue’ simulations, which in addition are `analog` in the sense that the relevant parameters can be freely dialed in, by itself constitutes an important direction within QIST.”

    The Stony Brook research included graduate students Joonhyuk Kwon (currently a postdoc at Sandia National Laboratory), Youngshin Kim, and Alfonso Lanuza.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton University, The University of Chicago, Stanford University, and The University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:40 am on February 25, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stoney Brook University and Harvard University Lead Research Team That Solves Longstanding Problem in Catalysis Science", , , Stoney Brook University-SUNY,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) and Stoney Brook University – SUNY: “Stoney Brook University and Harvard University Lead Research Team That Solves Longstanding Problem in Catalysis Science” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

    and

    Stoney Brook bloc

    Stoney Brook University – SUNY

    February 22, 2022

    1
    Professor Anatoly Frenkel.

    Research done by a team led by Stony Brook University Professor Anatoly Frenkel of the Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences is featured in a new article in Nature Communications that reports a solution of a longstanding problem in catalysis science: solving the active site structure in bimetallic catalysts at the atomic level.

    The article showcases the work done by a collaborative team from the Center for Integrated Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy. The team investigated a catalyst containing a low concentration (four and eight atomic percents) of Palladium atoms mixed with the majority of Gold atoms in nanoparticles approximately five nanometers in diameter. This class of catalyst is potentially very promising because it utilizes a minimal amount of precious metal and is highly active for many chemical reactions.

    The team, led by Frenkel and Harvard University Professor Boris Kozinsky, developed a new approach for solving the structure of active sites containing just a few (from one to three) Pd atoms. The objective was to perform x-ray experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II [below] (QAS beamline) and measure catalytic activity of the Pd-Au catalyst in the same conditions, so that the differences in the x-ray spectra and the differences in the activity could be related to each other.

    Because the details of Pd atom arrangement were “hidden” in the x-ray spectra, a different tool was needed to “decode” the spectra and obtain the structure of Pd atomic ensembles. The researchers developed a novel, machine learning assisted approach at Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory, where Frenkel holds a joint appointment.

    “Three-dimensional structure and composition of the active species containing from one to three atoms cannot be determined directly by imaging because the experimental tools available to us do not provide sufficient resolution,” said Frenkel. “Instead, we trained an artificial neural network to find the attributes of such a structure (the number of bonds and their types) from the x-ray spectrum that is sensitive to them.”

    “It’s easy for a large collaboration to work independently on a problem from many different angles and then struggle to unify the pieces. Our research team worked first to find a property that linked our respective techniques. In this case, it was atomic structure. We found a way to co-refine a structure model with input from experimental characterization and theoretical reaction modeling, where both riff off each other in a feedback loop,” said Nicholas Marcella, a recent PhD from Stony Brook’s Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE), a postdoc at University of Illinois, stationed in Frenkel’s group at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the first author of the article.

    The Stony Brook team included Marcella and Anna Plonka, a research scientist in MSCE, who share the first authorship, and Frenkel, the article’s lead author. Other authors included faculty and students from Harvard, The University of Pennsylvania,Columbia University, UCLA and Florida.

    Said Plonka: “We wanted to use experimental activation energy measurements as an anchor between various theoretical methods which allowed us to tie together all the results from our respective techniques.”

    Rational catalyst design is a long-standing goal toward achieving more energy-efficient and sustainable catalytic processes that range from manufacturing of materials to environmental protection to the pharmaceutical industry. This goal remains elusive because atomic-level knowledge of the active sites is required to understand the very mechanism of catalysis.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook University-SUNY’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton, the University of Chicago, Stanford, and the University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE(US) Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University(US the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle(US), a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University(US) and Battelle Memorial Institute(US). From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) (US), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) to have a facility near Boston, Massachusettes(US). Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University(US), Cornell University(US), Harvard University(US), Johns Hopkins University(US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Pennsylvania(US), University of Rochester(US), and Yale University(US).

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (US) operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II (US). [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (US).

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) (US) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US), Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY (US).

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US), Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US) Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US).

    BNL NSLS II (US).

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider (US) Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on July 25, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The Qubit Connection", A configuration covering a total of approximately 140 km (roughly 87 miles) using commercially available telecommunications fiber connecting the SBU and Brookhaven Lab campuses., A three-node quantum network prototype extending the reach and potential of future quantum communication systems., , Brookhaven Lab–Stony Brook University partnership extends the potential of quantum communications., Stoney Brook University-SUNY, The longest successful quantum communication link experiment in the United States., The true security and capability of a quantum Internet will only be realized with working quantum repeaters., This experiment clearly demonstrates the cutting-edge quantum Internet technology research happening at Stony Brook and BNL and the significance of our findings.   

    From Brookhaven National Lab and Stoney Brook University: “The Qubit Connection” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    and


    Stoney Brook University-SUNY

    July 23, 2020

    Contact: Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Written by Charity Plata

    Brookhaven Lab–Stony Brook University partnership extends the potential of quantum communications.

    1
    The burgeoning Brookhaven-SBU quantum communications infrastructure started with an experiment in 2019 that used existing fiber on the Brookhaven Lab campus to perform transmission of entanglement over approximately 18 km (11 miles). Now, the Brookhaven-SBU team has logged its latest success: a single-photon-level qubit communication in a twin-field configuration covering 140 km, representing the longest quantum communication link experiment in the United States. Image courtesy of Stony Brook University.

    As part of a federally funded quantum network development program, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University (SBU) have demonstrated a three-node quantum network prototype, extending the reach and potential of future quantum communication systems. For the first time, they achieved transmission of single-photon level polarization quantum bits (“qubits”) in a configuration covering a total of approximately 140 km (roughly 87 miles), using commercially available telecommunications fiber connecting the SBU and Brookhaven Lab campuses.

    Currently, this marks the longest successful quantum communication link experiment in the United States and represents another noteworthy advancement by the Brookhaven Lab–SBU team. In only two years, the team’s efforts to develop a working long-distance quantum network—the foundation for the nation’s future quantum Internet infrastructure—have led to important “firsts” in U.S.-based quantum research. With this recent success covering 140 km, the team has substantially closed the gap between operational quantum communications infrastructure in the United States versus international work, especially that done in China, which has a strong research focus in this area.

    “The Department of Energy is proud to host the longest form of quantum communication at Brookhaven National Lab and Stony Brook University,” said DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “We must continue to build upon this advanced technology to further our nation’s efforts towards achieving a long-distance quantum network.”

    3
    The “Charlie” photon detector setup at Brookhaven Lab.

    “This experiment clearly demonstrates the cutting-edge quantum Internet technology research happening at Stony Brook and BNL and the significance of our findings,” said Maurie McInnis, President of Stony Brook University. “The long and deep history of collaborations between our two institutions continues to yield some of modern society’s most exciting scientific discoveries, propelling us all forward.”

    Brookhaven National Laboratory Director Doon Gibbs added: “This is a tremendous forward stride that demonstrates our commitment to supporting the nation’s efforts in quantum research, especially toward facilitating a nationwide quantum Internet. We are proud of the innovative work that this team, with talented scientists and engineers from both Stony Brook and Brookhaven, continues to deliver.”

    An Ideal Infrastructure

    4
    The “Alice” qubit generator setup at SBU. Photo courtesy of Stony Brook University.

    The latest experiment expands earlier work that established local entanglement-sharing quantum networks on the Brookhaven and SBU campuses. These two local networks were joined using two fiber quantum channels that connect “sister” quantum laboratories on both campuses. In two locations at SBU (dubbed “Alice” and “Bob”), the team is able to generate telecom-tuned single-photon-level polarization qubits. The two qubits streams then are transported in independent fibers (from Crown Castle Fiber, a provider of shared communications infrastructure) to a third station (“Charlie”) at Brookhaven, where they are detected using telecom nanowire single-photon counters. This infrastructure, called a twin-field quantum network, offers a promising approach toward achieving secure quantum communications over long distances.

    According to Eden Figueroa, a joint appointee with Brookhaven’s Instrumentation Division and Computational Science Initiative and Quantum Information Technology group lead at SBU who oversees the quantum networking testbed project, an important aspect of the experiment is that the qubits are fully quantum memory compatible, produced at frequencies tuned to rubidium resonances in the telecom spectrum. This will allow for the deployment of quantum memory buffers, atom-filled glass cells that store quantum information and are manipulated using lasers to control their atomic states, in either side of the network to achieve secure quantum communication over long distances. These exchanges are already possible because the team has designed the infrastructure to be quantum repeater friendly from the beginning and at every aspect.

    “We have already built several portable room-temperature quantum memory buffers,” Figueroa said. “Now, we have taken the next beautiful step: creating the long-distance quantum communication infrastructure to connect them.”

    Ready to Test Quantum Memory-based Repeaters

    Presently, a viable quantum repeater is the single most valuable component missing from the mix of innovations needed to realize a working quantum Internet. A quantum repeater would function much like a “signal booster” does for a cellular network by amplifying digital transmissions over long distances. However, in an ideal quantum realm, the repeater would not lead to decoherence, or disruption of the qubits’ quantum entanglement state. This would assure the integrity of the information, affording an unprecedented level of communications security.

    “The true security and capability of a quantum Internet will only be realized with working quantum repeaters,” Figueroa explained. “Our results have set the stage for an infrastructure to build a viable quantum repeater. We have all the right properties in the photons. Our nodes, fibers, and lasers have been tested and are compatible with quantum memories. Then, the quantum memories themselves are deployable. We now have all the compatible infrastructure. I am very excited about what’s coming next.”

    More than a Quantum Connection

    The Crown Castle telecom fiber that connects the Brookhaven and SBU labs provided the foundation for the recent 140 km (~87 miles) long-distance quantum communication over classical fiber systems, which has long posed a major challenge to the worldwide quantum networking community. Notably, Figueroa said the actual experimental setup with all its necessary equipment and infrastructure had only been complete and in place for roughly 10 days before the team took the initial leap to transmit the qubits from SBU to a superconducting single-photon detector at Brookhaven Lab.

    5
    The measured histograms show the reconstructed (in quasi-real time) Gaussian temporal-wave function of the qubits generated at SBU and measured at Brookhaven Lab. They illustrate the successful single-photon-level qubit communication in a twin-field configuration.

    “To our knowledge, this is the longest quantum communication link experiment in the United States, and it really shows the effectiveness of our collaborative research approach that has kept the notion of being repeater-compatible since the beginning,” he added.

    Most importantly to Figueroa, the team’s work shows the value in creating connections between academia and national laboratories. In this case, it represents something quite literal: SBU and Brookhaven are physically connected, yet they share even more by way of the multiple staff who are contributing their expertise along the way.

    “We’re working together. The synergistic collaboration between academia and the national labs is already there, and only together can we perform such challenging experiments,” he added.

    This collaborative research has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s QIS initiative in the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)’s recently launched quantum optical networks program.

    See the full article here .


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    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
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