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  • richardmitnick 12:14 pm on August 25, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Basic science research seeks to improve our understanding of the world around us, , , Center for Frontiers of Nuclear Science, , , Nucleons, , Stoney Brook U   

    From BNL: “Research Center Established to Explore the Least Understood and Strongest Force Behind Visible Matter” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    August 22, 2017
    Peter Genzer
    (631) 344-3174

    In an Electron-Ion Collider, a beam of electrons (e-) would scatter off a beam of protons or atomic nuclei, generating virtual photons (λ)—particles of light that penetrate the proton or nucleus to tease out the structure of the quarks and gluons within.

    Science can explain only a small portion of the matter that makes up the universe, from the earth we walk on to the stars we see at night. Stony Brook University and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have established the Center for Frontiers of Nuclear Science to help scientists better understand the building blocks of visible matter. The new Center will push the frontiers of knowledge about quarks, gluons and their interactions that form protons, neutrons, and ultimately 99.9 percent of the mass of atoms – the bulk of the visible universe.

    “The Center for Frontiers in Nuclear Science will bring us closer to understanding our universe in ways in which it has never before been possible,” said Samuel L. Stanley Jr., MD, President of Stony Brook University. “Thanks to the vision of the Simons Foundation, scientists from Stony Brook, Brookhaven Laboratory and many other institutions are now empowered to pursue the big ideas that will lead to new knowledge about the structure of the building blocks of everything in the universe today.”

    Bolstered by a new $5 million grant from the Simons Foundation and augmented by $3 million in research grants received by Stony Brook University, the Center will be a research and education hub to ultimately help scientists unravel more secrets of the universe’s strongest and least-understood force to advance both fundamental science and applications that transform our lives.

    Jim Simons, PhD, Chairman of the Simons Foundation said, “Nuclear physics is a deep and important discipline, casting light on many poorly understood facets of matter in our universe. It is a pleasure to support research in this area conducted by members of the outstanding team to be assembled by Brookhaven Lab and Stony Brook University. We much look forward to the results of this effort.”

    “Basic science research seeks to improve our understanding of the world around us, and it can take human understanding to wonderful and unexpected places,” said Marilyn Simons, President of the Simons Foundation. “Exploring the qualities and behaviors of fundamental particles seems likely to do just that.”

    The Center brings together current Stony Brook faculty and BNL staff, and scientists around the world with students and new scientific talent to investigate the structure of nucleons and nuclei at a fundamental level. Despite the importance of nucleons in all visible matter, scientists know less about their internal structure and dynamics than about any other component of visible matter. Over the next several decades, the Center is slated to become a leading international intellectual hub for quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a branch of physics that describes the properties of nucleons, starting from the interactions of the quarks and gluons inside them.

    An Electron-Ion Collider would probe the inner microcosm of protons to help scientists understand how interactions among quarks (colored spheres) and glue-like gluons (yellow) generate the proton’s essential properties and the large-scale structure of the visible matter in the universe today.

    As part of the Center’s mission as a destination of research, collaboration and education for international scientists and students, workshops and seminars are planned for scientists to discuss and investigate theoretical concepts and promote experimental measurements to advance QCD-based nuclear science. The Center will support graduate education in nuclear science and conduct visitor programs to support and promote the Center’s role as an international research hub for physics related to a proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC).

    One of the central aspects of the Center’s focus during its first few years will be activities on the science of a proposed EIC, a powerful new particle accelerator that would create rapid-fire, high-resolution “snapshots” of quarks and gluons contained in nucleons and complex nuclei. An EIC would enable scientists to see deep inside these objects and explore the still mysterious structures and interactions of quarks and gluons, opening up a new frontier in nuclear physics.

    “The role of quarks and gluons in determining the properties of protons and neutrons remains one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in physics,” said Doon Gibbs, Ph.D., Brookhaven Lab Director. “An Electron Ion Collider would reveal the internal structure of these atomic building blocks, a key part of the quest to understand the matter we’re made of.”

    Building an EIC and its research program in the United States would strengthen and expand U.S. leadership in nuclear physics and stimulate economic benefits well into the 2040s. In 2015, the DOE and the National Science Foundation’s Nuclear Science Advisory Committee recommended an EIC as the highest priority for new facility construction. Similar to explorations of fundamental particles and forces that have driven our nation’s scientific, technological, and economic progress for the past century — from the discovery of electrons that power our sophisticated computing and communications devices to our understanding of the cosmos — groundbreaking nuclear science research at an EIC will spark new innovations and technological advances.

    Stony Brook and BNL have internationally renowned programs in nuclear physics that focus on understanding QCD. Stony Brook’s nuclear physics group has recently expanded its expertise by adding faculty in areas such as electron scattering and neutrino science. BNL operates the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a DOE Office of Science User Facility and the world’s most versatile particle collide. RHIC has pioneered the study of quark-gluon matter at high temperatures and densities—known as quark-gluon plasma— and is exploring the limits of normal nuclear matter. Together, these cover a major part of the course charted by the U.S. nuclear science community in its 2015 Long Range Plan.

    Abhay Deshpande, PhD, Professor of experimental nuclear physics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences at Stony Brook University, has been named Director of the Center. Professor Deshpande has promoted an EIC for more than two decades and helped create a ~700-member global scientific community (the EIC Users Group, EICUG) interested in pursuing the science of an EIC. In the fall of 2016, he was elected as the first Chair of its Steering Committee, effectively serving as its spokesperson, a position from which he has stepped down to direct the new Center. Concurrently with his position as Center Director, Dr. Deshpande also serves as Director of EIC Science at Brookhaven Lab.

    Scientists at the Center, working with EICUG, will have a specific focus on QCD inside the nucleon and how it shapes fundamental nucleon properties, such as spin and mass; the role of high-density many-body QCD and gluons in nuclei; the quark-gluon plasma at the high temperature frontier; and the connections of QCD to weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics. Longer term, the Center’s programmatic focus is expected to reflect the evolution of nuclear science priorities in the United States.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    BNL Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

  • richardmitnick 7:16 pm on September 11, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Stoney Brook U   

    From Stoney Brook: “Study Shows K17 Protein Promotes Cancer” 

    Stoney Brook bloc

    Stoney Brook

    Sep 11, 2015
    No Writer Credit


    Keratin 17 (K17), a protein previously believed to provide only mechanical support for cancer cells, appears to play a crucial role in degrading a key tumor suppressor protein in cancer cells named p27. This finding, published in the September 1 issue of Cancer Research , is based on the work of researchers in the Department of Pathology at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. They found that K17 has the ability to enter the nucleus of cancer cells, leading to the degradation of p27. The work illustrates for the first time that a keratin can function to promote the development of cancer. Furthermore, the paper details that tumors with high levels of K17 are biologically more aggressive and have a worse prognosis than low K17 tumors.

    The protein p27 is a master regulator of organized cell division and growth found in the nucleus of cells, and it is commonly inactivated in cancer cells. In the paper, Keratin-17 Promotes p27K1P1 Nuclear Export and Degradation and Offers Potential Prognostic Utility, lead author Luisa Escobar-Hoyos, a Molecular Pharmacology graduate student working on her PhD thesis project under the direction of Kenneth Shroyer, MD, PhD, Professor and Chair of the Department of Pathology, and colleagues, investigated if K17 interferes with p27 processes.

    Their findings validate previous observations from the Shroyer lab that reveal high K17 cervical cancers patients have a decreased chance of long-term survival when compared to patients that express little to no K17 in tumor tissue. In addition, it was discovered that K17 increases chemotherapy resistance in cancer cells.

    This research suggests that K17 testing could provide valuable information that may be used to distinguish between “clinically identical” cancer patients, identifying cases with more aggressive tumors at the time of diagnosis, and potentially guiding personalized treatment based on individual K17 status.

    “These findings explain to a certain extent why cancer patients without K17 expression have twice the chance of surviving from this disease compared to patients who express K17,” said Dr. Shroyer. “However, it is likely that K17 may also play other important roles in cancer that extend far beyond its interaction with p27.”

    He added that discovering the “tags” of K17 that mediated its entry and exit into the cell nucleus and the binding sites between K17 and p27 could provide further insight with additional research into how K17 could potentially be treated using novel pharmacologic agents for targeted cancer therapy.

    Co-authors of the paper include undergraduate (R. Shah), graduate (A. Banach) and medical (N. Najafian, E. Nielsen, R. Al-Khalil) students from Stony Brook University. In addition, researchers from the Departments of Pathology, Pharmacological Sciences and Biomedical Informatics (L. Roa, E. Vanner and D. Talmage) from Stony Brook University and a collaborator at the University of Massachusetts Memorial Cancer Center (A. Akalin).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stoney Brook campus

    Stony Brook’s reach extends from its 1,039-acre campus on Long Island’s North Shore–encompassing the main academic areas, an 8,300-seat stadium and sports complex and Stony Brook Medicine–to Stony Brook Manhattan, a Research and Development Park, four business incubators including one at Calverton, New York, and the Stony Brook Southampton campus on Long Island’s East End. Stony Brook also co-manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, joining Princeton, the University of Chicago, Stanford, and the University of California on the list of major institutions involved in a research collaboration with a national lab.

    And Stony Brook is still growing. To the students, the scholars, the health professionals, the entrepreneurs and all the valued members who make up the vibrant Stony Brook community, this is a not only a great local and national university, but one that is making an impact on a global scale.

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