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  • richardmitnick 2:43 pm on January 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Early Disaster Warning-Tsunamis’ Magnetic Fields Are Detectable Before Sea Level Change", , , , , SciTechDaily,   

    From The American Geophysical Union via SciTechDaily : “Early Disaster Warning-Tsunamis’ Magnetic Fields Are Detectable Before Sea Level Change” 

    AGU bloc

    From The American Geophysical Union

    via

    SciTechDaily

    January 2, 2022

    1
    Magnetic field information could provide earlier disaster warning to at-risk regions, potentially saving lives.

    A new study finds the magnetic field generated by a tsunami can be detected a few minutes earlier than changes in sea level and could improve warnings of these giant waves.

    Tsunamis generate magnetic fields as they move conductive seawater through the Earth’s magnetic field. Researchers previously predicted that the tsunami’s magnetic field would arrive before a change in sea level, but they lacked simultaneous measurements of magnetics and sea level that are necessary to demonstrate the phenomenon.

    The new study provides real-world evidence for using tsunamis’ magnetic fields to predict the height of tsunami waves using data from two real events — a 2009 tsunami in Samoa and a 2010 tsunami in Chile — that have both sets of necessary data. The new study was published in AGU’s Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, which focuses on the physics and chemistry of the solid Earth.

    The study confirms the magnetic field generated by a tsunami arrives ahead of sea-level change and that its magnitude can be used to estimate the tsunami’s wave height. How much earlier the magnetic field arrives depends on water depth, but in their results, the study authors found the early arrival time to be about one minute prior to sea level change over a 4,800-meter deep sea.

    This information could provide earlier disaster warning if incorporated into tsunami risk models, potentially saving lives.

    2
    The aftermath of a 2010 tsunami in Chile, which was analyzed in a new study in JGR Solid Earth. Earlier warnings made possible by the study of tsunami-generated magnetic fields could better prepare coastal areas for impending disasters. Credit: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

    “It is very exciting because in previous studies we didn’t have the observation [of] sea level change,” said Zhiheng Lin, senior study author and a geophysicist at Kyoto University. “We have observations [of] sea level change, and we find that the observation agrees with our magnetic data as well as theoretical simulation.”

    The research team looked at simultaneous measurements of sea level change from seafloor pressure data and magnetic fields during the two tsunamis. They found that the primary arrival of the magnetic field, similar to that of the beginning of a seismic wave, can be used for the purpose of early tsunami warning. The tsunami-generated magnetic field is so sensitive that even a wave height of a few centimeters can be detected.

    “They did something that basically needed to be done,” said Neesha Schnepf, a researcher of geomagnetics at the University of Colorado, Boulder who was not involved in the study. “We’ve needed a study that compared the magnetic field data with the sea level change from the pressure data, and I’m pretty sure they’re the first to really compare how well the sea level from magnetic field matches the sea level from pressure, so that’s definitely very useful.”

    When the researchers compared the horizontal and vertical components of the tsunami magnetic field with sea level change, they found that both components can precisely predict tsunami sea level change, if models include good estimates for ocean depth and the electrical structure below the seafloor.

    This relationship between magnetic fields and wave height can be used to improve tsunami source models, which estimate the initial sea surface topography of a tsunami and then predict water wave arrival time and wave height — important data for informing disaster readiness and response.

    The difficulty of maintaining already limited observational stations means these types of data from tsunamis are often not available. Furthermore, these findings only apply in deep-sea and not coastal environments, where deep water in the region filters out environmental noise to allow the tsunami signal to be detected.

    However, providing warning for these severe events — which have the potential to cause intense damage to large areas — makes the predictions worthwhile, said Lin.

    “I think the practical goal would be if your ability to model tsunamis is so improved, … you could come up with much better predictions of what areas might need to be warned [and] how badly it might hit certain places,” Schnepf said.

    See the full post here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The purpose of The American Geophysical Union is to promote discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity.

    To achieve this mission, AGU identified the following core values and behaviors.

    Core Principles

    As an organization, AGU holds a set of guiding core values:

    The scientific method
    The generation and dissemination of scientific knowledge
    Open exchange of ideas and information
    Diversity of backgrounds, scientific ideas and approaches
    Benefit of science for a sustainable future
    International and interdisciplinary cooperation
    Equality and inclusiveness
    An active role in educating and nurturing the next generation of scientists
    An engaged membership
    Unselfish cooperation in research
    Excellence and integrity in everything we do

    When we are at our best as an organization, we embody these values in our behavior as follows:

    We advance Earth and space science by catalyzing and supporting the efforts of individual scientists within and outside the membership.
    As a learned society, we serve the public good by fostering quality in the Earth and space science and by publishing the results of research.
    We welcome all in academic, government, industry and other venues who share our interests in understanding the Earth, planets and their space environment, or who seek to apply this knowledge to solving problems facing society.
    Our scientific mission transcends national boundaries.
    Individual scientists worldwide are equals in all AGU activities.
    Cooperative activities with partner societies of all sizes worldwide enhance the resources of all, increase the visibility of Earth and space science, and serve individual scientists, students, and the public.
    We are our members.
    Dedicated volunteers represent an essential ingredient of every program.
    AGU staff work flexibly and responsively in partnership with volunteers to achieve our goals and objectives.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on January 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Size Doesn’t Matter-How Deadly a Meteorite Impact Is Depends on Rock Composition", , Meteorites- irrespective of size-that hit rocks rich in potassium feldspar always correspond with a mass extinction episode., Potassium feldspar is non-toxic. It is a powerful ice-nucleating mineral aerosol that strongly affects cloud dynamics letting through more solar radiation warming up the planet changing the climate., SciTechDaily, The earth has been bombarded by meteorites throughout its long history., The University of Liverpool (UK)   

    From The University of Liverpool (UK) via SciTechDaily : “Size Doesn’t Matter-How Deadly a Meteorite Impact Is Depends on Rock Composition” 

    From The University of Liverpool (UK)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    January 2, 2022

    1
    A new study has found that the mineralogy of the rocks that a meteorite hits, rather than the size of the impact, determines how deadly an impact it will have.

    The earth has been bombarded by meteorites throughout its long history. Meteorite impacts generate atmospheric dust and cover the Earth’s surface with debris and have long been considered as a trigger of mass extinctions through Earth’s history.

    A multidisciplinary research team from the University of Liverpool and The Technological and Renewable Energy Institute [Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables] Tenerife (ES) with expertise in paleontology, asteroid stratigraphy, mineralogy, cloud microphysics, and climate modeling, sought to explore why some meteorites have caused mass extinctions, for example the K/Pg Chixulclub impact that killed off dinosaurs, yet many which are larger in size have not.

    They analyzed 44 impacts over the past 600 million years using a new method: assessing the mineral content of the dust ejected into the atmosphere upon impact.

    Their findings, published in the Journal of the Geological Society of London, reveal that meteorites that hit rocks rich in potassium feldspar (a common and rather benign mineral) always correspond with a mass extinction episode, irrespective of size.

    Potassium feldspar is non-toxic. However it is a powerful ice-nucleating mineral aerosol that strongly affects cloud dynamics, which makes them let through more solar radiation. This in turn warms up the planet and changes the climate. The atmosphere also becomes more sensitive to warming from greenhouse gas emissions, such as large volcanic eruptions.

    Liverpool sedimentologist, Dr. Chris Stevenson, from the University’s School of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences co-authored the study.

    He said: “For decades scientists have puzzled over why some meteorites cause mass extinctions, and others, even really big ones, don’t.

    “It’s surprising when we put together the data: life carried on as normal during the 4th largest impact with a crater diameter of ~48 km, whereas an impact half the size was associated with a mass extinction only 5 million years ago.

    “Many kill mechanisms have been proposed, such as large volcanic eruptions, but just like meteorites, these don’t always correlate with mass extinctions.

    “Using this new method for assessing the mineral content of the meteorite ejecta blankets, we show that every time a meteorite, big or small, hits rocks rich in potassium feldspar it correlates with a mass extinction event.

    This opens up a whole new avenue of research: what exactly kills off life during these episodes, and how long do the potassium feldspar effects last? Until now, only meteorites have changed the aerosol regime of the climate. However, present-day human activities represent a similar mechanism with increasing emissions of mineral aerosols into the atmosphere.”

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Liverpool (UK) is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is also known to be one of the six original ‘red brick’ civic universities. It comprises three faculties organised into 35 departments and schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited.

    Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects. Its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco, Motorola and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the world’s first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design, architecture, and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories. In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world’s first Sino-British university. For 2018-19, Liverpool had a turnover of £577.7 million, including £98.7 million from research grants and contracts. It has the sixth largest endowment of any university in England.

    Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution.

    The university previously had a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online degrees. In 2019 the University announced a new partnership with Kaplan Open Learning for delivery of their online degrees.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:00 pm on December 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "From the Moon to the Math-Latest Attempts at Breaking CKM Matrix Unitarity-And Discovering New Physics", , , , SciTechDaily, The American Physical Society   

    From The American Physical Society via SciTechDaily : “From the Moon to the Math-Latest Attempts at Breaking CKM Matrix Unitarity-And Discovering New Physics” 

    AmericanPhysicalSociety

    From The American Physical Society

    via

    SciTechDaily

    December 5, 2021

    1
    Artist’s schematic of how Lunar Prospector provided data to estimate neutron lifetime. Cosmic rays striking the moon’s surface eject neutrons that gradually fly into space. As neutrons move to higher altitudes, more time passes, and more neutrons radioactively decay. Lunar Prospector counted the number of neutrons at various altitudes, allowing scientists to compare neutron numbers across altitudes. Using models, researchers could then estimate the neutron lifetime. Credit: The Johns Hopkins University (US) Applied Physics Lab.

    A 5-Sigma Standard Model Anomaly Is Possible

    One of the best chances for proving beyond-the-standard-model physics relies on something called the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The standard model insists that the CKM matrix, which describes the mixing of quarks, should be unitary. But growing evidence suggests that during certain forms of radioactive decay, the unitarity of the CKM matrix might break.

    At the 2021 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, researchers discuss how a NASA lunar mission and major theoretical progress could help snap the standard model.

    The free neutron lifetime plays an important role in testing CKM matrix unitarity. However, two prevailing methods for measuring it conflict severely. So Jack Wilson and a team at The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and Durham University(UK) decided to think outside the box—by going to outer space.

    Piggybacking on data from NASA’s Lunar Prospector Mission, which sent a spacecraft to orbit the moon, the scientists made the second-ever free neutron lifetime measurement from space. They reduced uncertainty by an order of magnitude.

    “Our result opens up a third way of measuring the neutron lifetime. Using this technique in a dedicated mission could bring to an end a decades-long puzzle in fundamental physics,” said Wilson, who shared the results at the meeting.

    A publication was forthcoming the same day from Physical Review C.

    2
    The values of the CKM matrix elements Vud and Vus obtained from different beta decay experiments, versus the unitarity requirement from the standard model. Credit: Chien Yeah Seng.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries

    Ultimately, breaking the CKM matrix unitarity—and finding physics beyond the standard model—would demand a stronger discrepancy between theory and experiment. The most recent review of the field measured the disagreement at about three sigma.

    “The current significant level of the observed anomalies is not yet sufficient to declare a discovery. The major limiting factor is the precision level of the standard model theory inputs,” said Chien Yeah Seng, a postdoctoral researcher at The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn](DE).

    At the meeting, Seng will share the story behind the theoretical research that revealed this hint of new physics and will discuss progress in making the theory side more accurate.

    His collaborator Luchang Jin, a professor at The University of Connecticut (US) and one of the theoretical pioneers behind the recent muon g–2 calculations, presents recent research refining a key theoretical component.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    The study dramatically reduces uncertainties in the low energy constants used for theoretical calculations.

    Seng will lay out the path to finding a five-sigma discrepancy, including Jin’s work on radiative corrections, isospin-breaking corrections, and nuclear structure corrections. He predicts we could see a breakthrough even in the next few years.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The American Physical Society
    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:30 am on December 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NASA’s Laser Communication Relay Demonstration-Getting Space Data to the Ground With Lasers", , , , LCRD’s ground stations known as Optical Ground Station (OGS) -1 and -2 are located on Table Mountain California and Haleakalā Hawaii., SciTechDaily   

    From The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center via SciTechDaily : “NASA’s Laser Communication Relay Demonstration-Getting Space Data to the Ground With Lasers” 

    NASA Goddard Banner

    From The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    via

    SciTechDaily

    1
    This illustration of NASA’s Laser Communications Relay Demonstration shows how otherwise invisible infrared lasers could be used to communicate between space missions and ground stations on Earth. Credit: CNN.

    December 5, 2021

    NASA launches satellites, rovers, and orbiters to investigate humanity’s place in the Milky Way. When these missions reach their destinations, their science instruments capture images, videos, and valuable insights about the cosmos. Communications infrastructure in space and on the ground enables the data collected by these missions to reach Earth. Without ground stations to receive it, the extraordinary data captured by these missions would be stuck in space, unable to reach scientists and researchers on Earth.

    Since the dawn of space exploration, NASA missions have primarily relied on radio frequency communications for this transfer of information. But this fall, NASA’s Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will launch and showcase laser communications — a revolutionary way of communicating data from space to the ground.

    LCRD’s ground stations, known as Optical Ground Station (OGS) -1 and -2, are located on Table Mountain, California, and Haleakalā, Hawaii. These remote, high-altitude locations were chosen for their clear weather conditions. While laser communications can provide increased data transfer rates, atmospheric disturbances — such as clouds and turbulence — can disrupt laser signals as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.


    LCRD’s ground stations, Optical Ground Station -1 and -2, will enable mission success. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

    “The way the local meteorology works, there is minimal dust and less atmospheric turbulence at the top of the mountain, which is great for laser communications,” said Ron Miller from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and former development lead for OGS-2 in Hawaii. “It’s about 10,000 feet up, so you’re above a lot of the atmosphere and weather that occurs below the summit. It’s very common to have a nice sunny day at the top and be cloudy around the midpoint of the mountain.”

    NASA communications engineers selected these sites because their weather patterns typically complement each other. When OGS-1 in California is cloudy, OGS-2 in Hawaii tends to be clear – and vice versa. To monitor cloud coverage and determine which station is to be used, commercial partner Northrop Grumman provided an atmospheric monitoring station that observes weather conditions at Haleakalā. This monitoring station runs nearly autonomously, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. OGS-1 has similar weather monitoring capabilities at Table Mountain.

    Despite the usually clear weather at these locations, NASA engineers must still work to reduce the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the data received by OGS-1 and OGS-2. To do this, both stations leverage the power of adaptive optics.

    2
    NASA’s Laser Communication Relay Demonstration’s (LCRD) Optical Ground Station 2 (OGS-2) in Haleakalā, Hawaii. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

    “An adaptive optics system uses a sensor to measure the distortion to the electromagnetic signal that’s coming down from the spacecraft,” said Tom Roberts, the manager of OGS-1 development and operations at NASA-JPL/Caltech (US). “If we can measure that distortion, then we can send it through a deformable mirror that changes its shape to take out those aberrations that the atmosphere induces. That allows us to have a nice, pristine signal.”

    While OGS-2 was developed specifically for the LCRD mission, OGS-1 is based at JPL’s Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory, which prior to LCRD was used for previous laser communications demonstrations. To get OGS-1 ready for LCRD support, engineers had to upgrade the ground station, modifying the system to bring it up to a higher standard. One such upgrade involved replacing the mirrors to have better reflectivity and higher laser thresholds so that the telescope can receive and send laser signals to and from LCRD.

    Prior to mission support, LCRD will spend about two years conducting tests and experiments. During this time, OGS-1 and OGS-2 will act as simulated users, sending data from one station to LCRD then down to the next. These tests will allow the aerospace community to learn from LCRD, and further refine the technology for future implementation of laser communications systems.

    After the experimental phase, LCRD will support in-space missions. Missions, like a terminal on the International Space Station, will send data to LCRD, which will then beam it to OGS-1 or OGS-2.

    LCRD is a hosted payload on The Department of Defense’s (US) Space Test Program Satellite-6 (STPSat-6). While LCRD is a laser communications payload, the spacecraft will still have a radio frequency connection to the ground. The Payload to Ground Link Terminal (PGLT) located at the White Sands Complex near Las Cruces, New Mexico, will communicate tracking, telemetry, and command data to the spacecraft over radio waves.

    NASA manages LCRD’s ground elements – OGS-1, OGS-2, and PGLT – out of LCRD’s mission operations center at White Sands.

    “The mission operations center is the central brains of the LCRD system,” said Miriam Wennersten, LCRD’s ground segment manager of Goddard. “It coordinates the configuration of the payload and all three ground stations at the same time, scheduling the various optical services and links.”

    Without ground infrastructure, extraordinary science and exploration data would not make it to researchers on Earth. LCRD’s ground segment will be critical to the success of the mission, providing engineers with the opportunity to test and refine laser communications. In turn, LCRD will usher in a new era of laser communications, where missions will have unprecedented access to insights gleaned from satellites and probes in space.

    STPSat-6, part of the Space Test Program 3 (STP-3) mission, will launch on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 551 rocket from the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida no earlier than December 6, 2021. STP is managed by the United States Space Force’s Space Systems Command.

    LCRD is led by Goddard and in partnership with JPL and The MIT Lincoln Laboratory (US). LCRD is funded through NASA’s Technology Demonstration Missions program, part of the Space Technology Mission Directorate, and the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. Goddard manages OGS-2, while JPL manages OGS-1.

    See the full article here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition


    NASA/Goddard Campus

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (US) is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.

    GSFC also operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks (the NASA Deep Space Network(US) and the Near Earth Network); develops and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, and develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(US) .

    GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope; the Explorers Program; the Discovery Program; the Earth Observing System; INTEGRAL; MAVEN; OSIRIS-REx; the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ; the Solar Dynamics Observatory; Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ; Fermi; and Swift. Past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, and ROSAT. Typically, unmanned Earth observation missions and observatories in Earth orbit are managed by GSFC, while unmanned planetary missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California(US).

    Goddard is one of four centers built by NASA since its founding on July 29, 1958. It is NASA’s first, and oldest, space center. Its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA: technology development and fabrication; planning; scientific research; technical operations; and project management. The center is organized into several directorates, each charged with one of these key functions.

    Until May 1, 1959, NASA’s presence in Greenbelt, MD was known as the Beltsville Space Center. It was then renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), after Robert H. Goddard. Its first 157 employees transferred from the United States Navy’s Project Vanguard missile program, but continued their work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., while the center was under construction.

    Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, America’s first manned space flight program. The Center assumed a lead role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort, who were stationed at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Project Mercury’s personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961.

    The Goddard network tracked many early manned and unmanned spacecraft.

    Goddard Space Flight Center remained involved in the manned space flight program, providing computer support and radar tracking of flights through a worldwide network of ground stations called the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STDN). However, the Center focused primarily on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for scientific research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of spacecraft development, including modular spacecraft design, which reduced costs and made it possible to repair satellites in orbit. Goddard’s Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design and multiple servicing missions by the Space Shuttle.

    Today, the center remains involved in each of NASA’s key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, among them scientific instruments sent to every planet in the Solar System. The center’s contribution to the Earth Science Enterprise includes several spacecraft in the Earth Observing System fleet as well as EOSDIS, a science data collection, processing, and distribution system. For the manned space flight program, Goddard develops tools for use by astronauts during extra-vehicular activity, and operates the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a spacecraft designed to study the Moon in preparation for future manned exploration.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:24 pm on November 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Planetary Evolution-Composition of Earth-Like Exoplanet Interiors Linked to Composition of Host Stars", , , , , SciTechDaily, The American Association for the Advancement of Science(US), The internal compositions of rocky exoplanets correlate with that of their host stars according to a new study but not 1:1., The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto](PT)   

    From The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto](PT) via The American Association for the Advancement of Science(US) and SciTechDaily : “Planetary Evolution-Composition of Earth-Like Exoplanet Interiors Linked to Composition of Host Stars” 

    From The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto](PT)

    via

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science(US)

    and

    SciTechDaily

    November 20, 2021

    1
    The internal compositions of rocky exoplanets correlate with that of their host stars according to a new study but not 1:1. This suggests that planet formation processes play a role in defining the final composition of Earth-like planets. The findings provide new insights into how planetary systems evolve.

    The interior compositions of small rocky exoplanets cannot be observed directly. However, because such planets and the stars they orbit both originate from the material in a shared accretion disk, theory predicts that there should be a relationship between their respective compositions. While this assumption has been used to characterize distant planets, there has not yet been any clear or direct observational evidence supporting a compositional link between exoplanets and their host stars.

    To evaluate the nature of such a relationship, Vardan Adibekyan and colleagues analyzed a sample of 22 low-mass rocky exoplanets and estimated their iron-mass fraction by combining their masses and radii with an interior structure model. They then compared the results with the iron fractions of their host stars.

    Adibekyan et al. found that the iron fractions of both the planets and the stars they orbit correlate with each other, but not at a 1:1 basis. Rather, the authors show that the relationship has a slope greater than 4, suggesting that protoplanetary disk chemistry and planet formation play a significant role in defining a planet’s final composition.

    What’s more, Adibekyan et al. note that super-Earths and super-Mercury class exoplanets appear to be distinct populations with differing compositions, indicating differences in their formation processes.

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto] (PT) is a Portuguese public university located in Porto, and founded on 22 March 1911. It is the second largest Portuguese university by number of enrolled students, after the University of Lisbon, and has one of the most noted research outputs in Portugal.

    History

    The University of Porto was founded by decree of 22 March 1911, issued by the Provisional Government of the First Portuguese Republic. While it is possible to point the university’s predecessors as the Nautical Academy, established by King Joseph I in 1762, and the Drawing and Sketching Academy, created by Queen Mary I in 1779, the university was to be based primarily on higher education institutions created in the nineteenth century, namely the Polytechnic Academy (1836–1911) and Medical-Surgical Academy of Porto (1836–1911).

    The Polytechnic Academy’s main purpose was the teaching of science and industrial engineering of all kinds, and professional specialties such as naval officers, merchants, farmers, factory directors and artists. Heir to the Royal Navy and Commerce Academy of Porto, which was established in 1803 by Prince Regent John (future King John VI), it arose as a result of reforms implemented by Passos Manuel, Minister of the Kingdom in the Government that came out of the Revolution of September. Under this reform, the name of the Academy was changed to the Royal Polytechnic Academy in 1837. However, the Royal Economic and Literary Academy, under the supervision of the board of directors of the General Company of Agriculture in the Alto Douro vineyards, was transferred to the Council of Lenses. Despite the great financial difficulties experienced during this period, the Polytechnic Academy of Porto underwent a time of great scientific activity, with eminent scientists such as Gomes Ferreira and Teixeira da Silva.

    The inauguration of the University of Porto took place on 16 July 1911, and mathematician Gomes Teixeira was chosen as first Reitor (rector). At this time, the university became economically and scientifically independent, and teaching autonomy was officially recognized.

    Currently, there are 14 faculties and a postgraduate business school at the university.

    Research and development

    R&D activities at the University of Porto have significantly expanded over the last years, mainly as a result of academic qualification and increased funding of R&D centers and concession of research grants through competitive programs with external independent evaluation by international peer review committees.

    Although R&D centers vary noticeably in dimension, aims and structure – from small units to large centers, conducting specialized or interdisciplinary work, faculty integrated or independent – they are present in almost every field of knowledge showing a shared vision towards a modern research-oriented university. Many of these centers are interface institutions whose aim is the development of links of cooperation between the university and external entities such as enterprises or governmental organizations. Among the most recognized research centers of the university are IBMC (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology), IPATIMUP (Instituto de Patologia e Immunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto) and INESC-Porto (Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores, Research Institute of Computer Systems).

    The University of Porto collaborates with many companies though its Parque da Ciencia e Tecnologia do Porto, a business incubator and business entrepreneur centre. Some companies included on these centre are: Nonius, Fan Valley or Veniam.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:48 am on November 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stellar Contradiction- Solar Systems Like Ours May Be Quite Rare", , , , Exoplanet exploration, , SciTechDaily, Stellar astrophysics   

    From Monash University (AU) via SciTechDaily : “Stellar Contradiction- Solar Systems Like Ours May Be Quite Rare” 

    Monash Univrsity bloc

    From Monash University (AU)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    November 10, 2021

    1
    How common is our Solar System? Less common than we might think.

    A significant fraction of planetary systems around Sun-like stars have had a very dynamic past, culminating with the fall of planets into the central star.

    A new study involving Monash University astrophysicists sheds light on the scarcity of our Solar System, which has preserved its planets and kept them on nearly circular orbits, an arrangement conducive to life flourishing on Earth.

    The research, published recently in Nature Astronomy and led by Dr. Lorenzo Spina at The INAF Italian National Institute for Astrophysics [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica] (IT), broadens our knowledge on the possible evolutionary paths of planetary systems, according to study co-author Parth Sharma, an Honours student at the Monash University School of Physics and Astronomy.

    “Regardless of the technology at our disposal, with millions of nearby Sun-like stars, the search for planets similar to our Earth will always look like the proverbial ‘needle in a haystack’,” said Parth.

    “However, our results open the future possibility of using chemical abundances to better identify stars that are likely to host Solar System analogues,” he said.

    “These findings represent a significant breakthrough in stellar astrophysics and exoplanet exploration.

    “The research refines search parameters for future investigation of potential planetary engulfment events, probes the origins of chemically weird stars, and tells us much about the evolution of solar systems, and planets, like our own.”

    Stellar members of binary systems are formed from the same material, therefore they should be chemically identical. However, recent high-precision studies have unveiled chemical differences between the two members of binary pairs composed by Sun-like stars.

    The very existence of these chemically inhomogeneous binaries represents one of the most contradictory examples in stellar astrophysics and source of tension between theory and observations.

    “It was still unclear whether the abundance variations are the result of chemical inhomogeneities in the protostellar gas clouds, or if they are due to planet engulfment events occurring after the star has formed,” said Parth.

    The research team undertook a statistical study on 107 binary systems composed by Sun-like stars to provide — for the first time — unambiguous evidence in favor of the planet engulfment scenario.

    They also established that planet engulfment events occurred in stars similar to our own Sun with a probability ranging between 20% and 35%.

    “This implies that a significant fraction of planetary systems undergo very dynamical evolutionary paths that can critically and disastrously modify their architectures, unlike our Solar System which has preserved its planets on nearly circular orbits,” said Parth.

    For more on this research, see A Quarter of Stars Like Our Sun Eat Their Own Planets.

    See the full article here .

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    Monash U campus

    Monash University (AU) is an Australian public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia’s Group of Eight and the ASAIHL, and is the only Australian member of the influential M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers, Universities and National Academies. Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the The École des Mines de Paris (Mines ParisTech) ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. Monash is in the top 20% in teaching, top 10% in international outlook, top 20% in industry income and top 10% in research in the world in 2016.

    Monash enrolls approximately 47,000 undergraduate and 20,000 graduate students, It also has more applicants than any university in the state of Victoria.

    Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct (STRIP), the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2011, its total revenue was over $2.1 billion, with external research income around $282 million.

    The university has a number of centres, five of which are in Victoria (Clayton, Caulfield, Berwick, Peninsula, and Parkville), one in Malaysia. Monash also has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Jiangsu Province, China. Since December 2011, Monash has had a global alliance with the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom. Monash University courses are also delivered at other locations, including South Africa.

    The Clayton campus contains the Robert Blackwood Hall, named after the university’s founding Chancellor Sir Robert Blackwood and designed by Sir Roy Grounds.

    In 2014, the University ceded its Gippsland campus to Federation University. On 7 March 2016, Monash announced that it would be closing the Berwick campus by 2018.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:13 pm on October 4, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stellar Winds; Magnetic Activity; and Evaporating Exoplanet Atmospheres", , SciTechDaily   

    From Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) via SciTechDaily : “Stellar Winds; Magnetic Activity; and Evaporating Exoplanet Atmospheres” 

    From Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    October 4, 2021

    The TRAPPIST-1 star, an ultracool dwarf, is orbited by seven Earth-size planets (NASA).

    TRAPPIST national telescope interior at ESO La Silla (CL), 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    TRAPPIST national telescope at ESO La Silla (CL), 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    Most stars including the Sun generate magnetic activity that drives a fast-moving, ionized wind and also produces X-ray and ultraviolet emission (often referred to as XUV radiation). XUV radiation from a star can be absorbed in the upper atmosphere of an orbiting planet, where it is capable of heating the gas enough for it to escape from the planet’s atmosphere.

    M-dwarf stars, the most common type of star by far, are smaller and cooler than the Sun, and they can have very active magnetic fields. Their cool surface temperatures result in their habitable zones (HZ) being close to the star (the HZ is the range of distances within which an orbiting planet’s surface water can remain liquid).

    Any rocky exoplanets that orbit an M-dwarf in its HZ, because they are close to the star, are especially vulnerable to the effects of photoevaporation which can result in partial or even total removal of the atmosphere. Some theorists argue that planets with substantial hydrogen or helium envelopes might actually become more habitable if photoevaporation removes enough of the gas blanket.

    The effects of XUV radiation on exoplanet atmospheres have been studied for almost twenty years, but the effects of the stellar wind on exoplanet atmospheres are only poorly understood. CfA astronomers Laura Harbach, Sofia Moschou, Jeremy Drake, Julian Alvarado-Gomez, and Federico Frascetti and their colleagues have completed simulations modeling the effects of a stellar wind on an exoplanet with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere orbiting close to an M-dwarf star. As an example, they use the exoplanet configuration in TRAPPIST-1, a cool M-dwarf star with a system of seven planets, six of which are close enough to the star to be in its HZ.

    The simulations show that, depending on the details, the stellar wind can generate outflows from a planet’s atmosphere. The team finds that both the star’s and the planet’s magnetic fields play significant roles in defining many of the details of the outflow, which could be observed and studied via atomic hydrogen lines in the ultraviolet.

    The complex simulation results indicate that planets around M-dwarf host stars are likely to display a diverse range of atmospheric properties, and some of the physical conditions can vary over short timescales making observational interpretations of sequential exoplanet transits more complex. The simulation results highlight the need to use 3-D simulations that include magnetic effects in order to interpret observational results for planets around M-dwarf stars.

    Science paper:
    The Astrophysical Journal

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) combines the resources and research facilities of the Harvard College Observatory(US) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) under a single director to pursue studies of those basic physical processes that determine the nature and evolution of the universe. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution(US), founded in 1890. The Harvard College Observatory, founded in 1839, is a research institution of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University(US), and provides facilities and substantial other support for teaching activities of the Department of Astronomy.

    Founded in 1973 and headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the CfA leads a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, Earth and space sciences, as well as science education. The CfA either leads or participates in the development and operations of more than fifteen ground- and space-based astronomical research observatories across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the forthcoming Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory(US), one of NASA’s Great Observatories.

    [caption id="attachment_40112" align="alignnone" width="632"]GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NSF (US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL) some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    Hosting more than 850 scientists, engineers, and support staff, the CfA is among the largest astronomical research institutes in the world. Its projects have included Nobel Prize-winning advances in cosmology and high energy astrophysics, the discovery of many exoplanets, and the first image of a black hole. The CfA also serves a major role in the global astrophysics research community: the CfA’s Astrophysics Data System(ADS)(US), for example, has been universally adopted as the world’s online database of astronomy and physics papers. Known for most of its history as the “Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics”, the CfA rebranded in 2018 to its current name in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. The CfA’s current Director (since 2004) is Charles R. Alcock, who succeeds Irwin I. Shapiro (Director from 1982 to 2004) and George B. Field (Director from 1973 to 1982).

    The Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian is not formally an independent legal organization, but rather an institutional entity operated under a Memorandum of Understanding between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. This collaboration was formalized on July 1, 1973, with the goal of coordinating the related research activities of the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under the leadership of a single Director, and housed within the same complex of buildings on the Harvard campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CfA’s history is therefore also that of the two fully independent organizations that comprise it. With a combined lifetime of more than 300 years, HCO and SAO have been host to major milestones in astronomical history that predate the CfA’s founding.

    History of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)

    Samuel Pierpont Langley, the third Secretary of the Smithsonian, founded the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory on the south yard of the Smithsonian Castle (on the U.S. National Mall) on March 1,1890. The Astrophysical Observatory’s initial, primary purpose was to “record the amount and character of the Sun’s heat”. Charles Greeley Abbot was named SAO’s first director, and the observatory operated solar telescopes to take daily measurements of the Sun’s intensity in different regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, the observatory enabled Abbot to make critical refinements to the Solar constant, as well as to serendipitously discover Solar variability. It is likely that SAO’s early history as a solar observatory was part of the inspiration behind the Smithsonian’s “sunburst” logo, designed in 1965 by Crimilda Pontes.

    In 1955, the scientific headquarters of SAO moved from Washington, D.C. to Cambridge, Massachusetts to affiliate with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO). Fred Lawrence Whipple, then the chairman of the Harvard Astronomy Department, was named the new director of SAO. The collaborative relationship between SAO and HCO therefore predates the official creation of the CfA by 18 years. SAO’s move to Harvard’s campus also resulted in a rapid expansion of its research program. Following the launch of Sputnik (the world’s first human-made satellite) in 1957, SAO accepted a national challenge to create a worldwide satellite-tracking network, collaborating with the United States Air Force on Project Space Track.

    With the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) the following year and throughout the space race, SAO led major efforts in the development of orbiting observatories and large ground-based telescopes, laboratory and theoretical astrophysics, as well as the application of computers to astrophysical problems.

    History of Harvard College Observatory (HCO)

    Partly in response to renewed public interest in astronomy following the 1835 return of Halley’s Comet, the Harvard College Observatory was founded in 1839, when the Harvard Corporation appointed William Cranch Bond as an “Astronomical Observer to the University”. For its first four years of operation, the observatory was situated at the Dana-Palmer House (where Bond also resided) near Harvard Yard, and consisted of little more than three small telescopes and an astronomical clock. In his 1840 book recounting the history of the college, then Harvard President Josiah Quincy III noted that “…there is wanted a reflecting telescope equatorially mounted…”. This telescope, the 15-inch “Great Refractor”, opened seven years later (in 1847) at the top of Observatory Hill in Cambridge (where it still exists today, housed in the oldest of the CfA’s complex of buildings). The telescope was the largest in the United States from 1847 until 1867. William Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor to produce the first clear Daguerrotypes of the Moon (winning them an award at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London). Bond and his son, George Phillips Bond (the second Director of HCO), used it to discover Saturn’s 8th moon, Hyperion (which was also independently discovered by William Lassell).

    Under the directorship of Edward Charles Pickering from 1877 to 1919, the observatory became the world’s major producer of stellar spectra and magnitudes, established an observing station in Peru, and applied mass-production methods to the analysis of data. It was during this time that HCO became host to a series of major discoveries in astronomical history, powered by the Observatory’s so-called “Computers” (women hired by Pickering as skilled workers to process astronomical data). These “Computers” included Williamina Fleming; Annie Jump Cannon; Henrietta Swan Leavitt; Florence Cushman; and Antonia Maury, all widely recognized today as major figures in scientific history. Henrietta Swan Leavitt, for example, discovered the so-called period-luminosity relation for Classical Cepheid variable stars, establishing the first major “standard candle” with which to measure the distance to galaxies. Now called “Leavitt’s Law”, the discovery is regarded as one of the most foundational and important in the history of astronomy; astronomers like Edwin Hubble, for example, would later use Leavitt’s Law to establish that the Universe is expanding, the primary piece of evidence for the Big Bang model.

    Upon Pickering’s retirement in 1921, the Directorship of HCO fell to Harlow Shapley (a major participant in the so-called “Great Debate” of 1920). This era of the observatory was made famous by the work of Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin, who became the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy from Radcliffe College (a short walk from the Observatory). Payne-Gapochkin’s 1925 thesis proposed that stars were composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, an idea thought ridiculous at the time. Between Shapley’s tenure and the formation of the CfA, the observatory was directed by Donald H. Menzel and then Leo Goldberg, both of whom maintained widely recognized programs in solar and stellar astrophysics. Menzel played a major role in encouraging the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to move to Cambridge and collaborate more closely with HCO.

    Joint history as the Center for Astrophysics (CfA)

    The collaborative foundation for what would ultimately give rise to the Center for Astrophysics began with SAO’s move to Cambridge in 1955. Fred Whipple, who was already chair of the Harvard Astronomy Department (housed within HCO since 1931), was named SAO’s new director at the start of this new era; an early test of the model for a unified Directorship across HCO and SAO. The following 18 years would see the two independent entities merge ever closer together, operating effectively (but informally) as one large research center.

    This joint relationship was formalized as the new Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on July 1, 1973. George B. Field, then affiliated with UC Berkeley(US), was appointed as its first Director. That same year, a new astronomical journal, the CfA Preprint Series was created, and a CfA/SAO instrument flying aboard Skylab discovered coronal holes on the Sun. The founding of the CfA also coincided with the birth of X-ray astronomy as a new, major field that was largely dominated by CfA scientists in its early years. Riccardo Giacconi, regarded as the “father of X-ray astronomy”, founded the High Energy Astrophysics Division within the new CfA by moving most of his research group (then at American Sciences and Engineering) to SAO in 1973. That group would later go on to launch the Einstein Observatory (the first imaging X-ray telescope) in 1976, and ultimately lead the proposals and development of what would become the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra, the second of NASA’s Great Observatories and still the most powerful X-ray telescope in history, continues operations today as part of the CfA’s Chandra X-ray Center. Giacconi would later win the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for his foundational work in X-ray astronomy.

    Shortly after the launch of the Einstein Observatory, the CfA’s Steven Weinberg won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on electroweak unification. The following decade saw the start of the landmark CfA Redshift Survey (the first attempt to map the large scale structure of the Universe), as well as the release of the Field Report, a highly influential Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey chaired by the outgoing CfA Director George Field. He would be replaced in 1982 by Irwin Shapiro, who during his tenure as Director (1982 to 2004) oversaw the expansion of the CfA’s observing facilities around the world.

    CfA-led discoveries throughout this period include canonical work on Supernova 1987A, the “CfA2 Great Wall” (then the largest known coherent structure in the Universe), the best-yet evidence for supermassive black holes, and the first convincing evidence for an extrasolar planet.

    The 1990s also saw the CfA unwittingly play a major role in the history of computer science and the internet: in 1990, SAO developed SAOImage, one of the world’s first X11-based applications made publicly available (its successor, DS9, remains the most widely used astronomical FITS image viewer worldwide). During this time, scientists at the CfA also began work on what would become the Astrophysics Data System (ADS), one of the world’s first online databases of research papers. By 1993, the ADS was running the first routine transatlantic queries between databases, a foundational aspect of the internet today.

    The CfA Today

    Research at the CfA

    Charles Alcock, known for a number of major works related to massive compact halo objects, was named the third director of the CfA in 2004. Today Alcock overseas one of the largest and most productive astronomical institutes in the world, with more than 850 staff and an annual budget in excess of $100M. The Harvard Department of Astronomy, housed within the CfA, maintains a continual complement of approximately 60 Ph.D. students, more than 100 postdoctoral researchers, and roughly 25 undergraduate majors in astronomy and astrophysics from Harvard College. SAO, meanwhile, hosts a long-running and highly rated REU Summer Intern program as well as many visiting graduate students. The CfA estimates that roughly 10% of the professional astrophysics community in the United States spent at least a portion of their career or education there.

    The CfA is either a lead or major partner in the operations of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, the Submillimeter Array, MMT Observatory, the South Pole Telescope, VERITAS, and a number of other smaller ground-based telescopes. The CfA’s 2019-2024 Strategic Plan includes the construction of the Giant Magellan Telescope as a driving priority for the Center.

    CFA Harvard Smithsonian Submillimeter Array on MaunaKea, Hawaii, USA, Altitude 4,205 m (13,796 ft).

    South Pole Telescope SPTPOL. The SPT collaboration is made up of over a dozen (mostly North American) institutions, including The University of Chicago (US); The University of California Berkeley (US); Case Western Reserve University (US); Harvard/Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (US); The University of Colorado, Boulder; McGill(CA) University, The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign;The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. It is funded by the National Science Foundation(US).

    Along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the CfA plays a central role in a number of space-based observing facilities, including the recently launched Parker Solar Probe, Kepler Space Telescope, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and HINODE. The CfA, via the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, recently played a major role in the Lynx X-ray Observatory, a NASA-Funded Large Mission Concept Study commissioned as part of the 2020 Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics (“Astro2020”). If launched, Lynx would be the most powerful X-ray observatory constructed to date, enabling order-of-magnitude advances in capability over Chandra.

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker.

    SAO is one of the 13 stakeholder institutes for the Event Horizon Telescope Board, and the CfA hosts its Array Operations Center. In 2019, the project revealed the first direct image of a black hole.

    The result is widely regarded as a triumph not only of observational radio astronomy, but of its intersection with theoretical astrophysics. Union of the observational and theoretical subfields of astrophysics has been a major focus of the CfA since its founding.

    In 2018, the CfA rebranded, changing its official name to the “Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian” in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. Today, the CfA receives roughly 70% of its funding from NASA, 22% from Smithsonian federal funds, and 4% from the National Science Foundation. The remaining 4% comes from contributors including the United States Department of Energy, the Annenberg Foundation, as well as other gifts and endowments.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:54 am on October 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A Highly Effective Laser Network the Size of a Grain of Sand", From topological insulators to topological lasers, , , SciTechDaily, The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (DE), The long road to new topological lasers, The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology [ הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל] (IL), VCSELs: Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers   

    From The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (DE) via SciTechDaily : “A Highly Effective Laser Network the Size of a Grain of Sand” 

    From The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (DE)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    1
    Artistic rendition of a topological array of vertically emitting lasers. All 30 microlasers along a topological interface (blue) act as one, collectively emitting coherent laser light (red). Credit: Pixelwg, Christian Kroneck.

    Tiny lasers acting together as one: Topological vertical cavity laser arrays

    Israeli and German researchers have developed a way to force an array of vertical cavity lasers to act together as a single laser — a highly effective laser network the size of a grain of sand. The findings are presented in a new joint research paper published online by the prestigious journal Science on September 24, 2021.

    Cell phones, car sensors, or data transmission in fiber optic networks are all using so called Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) – semiconductor lasers that are firmly anchored in our everyday technology. Though widely used, the VCSEL device has a minuscule size of only a few microns, which sets a stringent limit on the output power it can generate.

    For years, scientists have sought to enhance the power emitted by such devices through combining many tiny VCSELs and forcing them to act as a single coherent laser, but had limited success. The current breakthrough uses a different scheme: it employs a unique geometrical arrangement of VCSELs on the chip that forces the flight to flow in a specific path – a photonic topological insulator platform.

    From topological insulators to topological lasers

    Topological insulators are revolutionary quantum materials that insulate on the inside but conduct electricity on their surface — without loss. Several years ago, The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology [ הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל] (IL) group led by Prof. Mordechai Segev has introduced these innovative ideas into photonics, and demonstrated the first Photonic Topological Insulator, where light travels around the edges of a two-dimensional array of waveguides without being affected by defects or disorder. This opened a new field, now known as “Topological Photonics,” where hundreds of groups currently have active research.

    In 2018, the same group also found a way to use the properties of photonic topological insulators to force many micro-ring lasers to lock together and act as a single laser. But that system still had a major bottleneck: the light was circulating in the photonic chip confined to the same plane used for extracting the light out. That meant that the whole system was again subject to a power limit, imposed by the device used to get the light out, similar to having a single socket for a whole power plant. The current breakthrough uses a different scheme: the lasers are forced to lock within the planar chip, but the light is now emitted through the surface of the chip from each tiny laser and can be easily collected.

    Circumstances and participants

    This German-Israeli research project originated primarily during the Corona pandemic. Without the enormous commitment of the researchers involved, this scientific milestone would not have been possible. The research was conducted by PhD student Alex Dikopoltsev from the team of Distinguished Professor Mordechai Segev, of the Physics Department and the Electrical & Computer Engineering Department at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, and PhD student Tristan H. Harder from the team of Prof. Sebastian Klembt and Prof. Sven Höfling at the Chair of Applied Physics at the University of Würzburg, and the Cluster of Excellence ct.qmat — Complexity and Topology in Quantum Matter, in collaboration with researchers from Jena and Oldenburg. The device fabrication took advantage of the excellent clean room facilities at the University of Würzburg.

    The long road to new topological lasers

    “It is fascinating to see how science evolves,” said Prof. Segev of the Technion. “We went from fundamental physics concepts to foundational changes therein, and now to real technology that is now being pursued by companies. Back in 2015, when we started to work on topological insulator lasers, nobody believed it’s possible, because the topological concepts known at that time were limited to systems that do not, in fact – cannot — have gain. But all lasers require gain. So topological insulator lasers stood against everything known at that time. We were like a bunch of lunatics searching for something that was considered impossible. And now we have made a large step towards real technology that has many applications.”

    The Israeli and German team utilized the concepts of topological photonics with VCSELs that emit the light vertically, while the topological process responsible for the mutual coherence and locking of the VCSELs occurs in the plane of the chip. The end result is a powerful but very compact and efficient laser, not limited by a number of VCSEL emitters, and undisturbed by defects or altering temperatures.

    “The topological principle of this laser can generally work for all wavelengths and thus a range of materials,” explains German project leader Prof. Sebastian Klembt of the University of Würzburg, working on light-matter interaction and topological photonics within the ct.qmat Cluster of Excellence. “Exactly how many microlasers need to be arranged and connected would always depend entirely on the application. We can expand the size of the laser network to a very large size, and in principle it will remain coherent also for large numbers. It is great to see that topology, originally a branch of mathematics, has emerged as a revolutionary new toolbox for controlling, steering and improving laser properties.”

    The groundbreaking research has demonstrated that it is in fact theoretically and experimentally possible to combine VCSELs to achieve a more robust and highly efficient laser. As such, the results of the study pave the way towards applications of numerous future technologies such as medical devices, communications, and a variety of real-world applications.

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here.

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    Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg campus

    The The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg](DE) is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The university is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402. The university initially had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn and Maximilian Joseph.

    The university is part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is also a member of the Coimbra Group.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:25 pm on September 14, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What Lies Beneath-Volcanic Secrets Revealed – “We’ve Been Misled and Geologically Deceived”, , , , SciTechDaily, ,   

    From University of Queensland (AU) via SciTechDaily : “What Lies Beneath-Volcanic Secrets Revealed – “We’ve Been Misled and Geologically Deceived” 

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    From University of Queensland (AU)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    September 14, 2021

    1
    Basaltic lava flow. Credit: The University of Queensland (AU)

    Lava samples have revealed a new truth about the geological make-up of the Earth’s crust and could have implications for volcanic eruption early warning systems, a University of Queensland-led study has found.

    UQ volcanologist Dr. Teresa Ubide said it was previously understood that cooled lava from so-called ‘hot spot’ volcanoes was ‘pristine’ magma from the melting mantle, tens of kilometers under the Earth’s surface.

    “This isn’t quite the case – we’ve been misled, geologically deceived,” Dr. Ubide said.

    “For decades, we have considered hot spot volcanoes to be messengers from the earth’s mantle, offering us a glimpse into what’s happening deep under our feet.

    “But these volcanoes are extremely complex inside and filter a very different melt to the surface than what we’ve been expecting. This is due to the volcano’s intricate plumbing system that forces many minerals in the magma to crystallize.”

    Dr. Ubide said the minerals are being recycled by the rising magma, changing their overall chemistry to ‘appear’ pristine, which is an important new piece of the jigsaw to better understand how ocean island volcanoes work.

    “We have discovered that hot spot volcanoes filter their melts to become highly eruptible at the base of the Earth’s crust, situated several kilometers below the volcano,” she said.

    “The close monitoring of volcanoes can indicate when magma reaches the base of the crust, where this filtering process reaches the ‘tipping point’ that leads to eruption.

    “Our results support the notion that detection of magma at the crust-mantle boundary could indicate an upcoming eruption.

    “This new information takes us one step closer to improving the monitoring of volcanic unrest, which aims to protect lives, infrastructure, and crops.”

    Hot spot volcanoes make up some of the world’s most beautiful landscapes, such as the Canary Islands in the Atlantic and Hawaii in the Pacific.

    The international team of researchers analyzed new rock samples from the island of El Hierro, in Spain’s Canary Islands, just south-west of Morocco. This data was combined with hundreds of published geochemical data from El Hierro, including the underwater eruption in 2011 and 2012. The team then tested the findings on data from ocean island hot spot volcanoes around the world, including Hawaii.

    Dr. Ubide said hot spot volcanoes are also found in Australia.

    “South-east Queenslanders would be very familiar with the Glass House Mountains or the large Tweed shield volcano, which includes Wollumbin (Mount Warning) in New South Wales,” she said.

    “Hot spot volcanoes can pop up ‘anywhere’, as opposed to most other volcanoes that occur due to tectonic plates crashing into each other, like the Ring of Fire volcanoes in Japan or New Zealand, or tectonic plates moving away from each other, creating for example the Atlantic Ocean.

    “South-east Queensland hot spot volcanoes were active millions of years ago. They produced enormous volumes of magma and make excellent laboratories to explore the roots of volcanism.

    “There are even dormant volcanoes in South Australia, that could erupt with little warning, that would benefit from better geological markers for early detection.”

    Science paper:
    Geology

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    u-queensland-campus

    The University of Queensland (AU) is a public research university located primarily in Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. Founded in 1909 by the Queensland parliament, UQ is one of the six sandstone universities, an informal designation of the oldest university in each state. The University of Queensland was ranked second nationally by the Australian Research Council in the latest research assessment and equal second in Australia based on the average of four major global university league tables. The University of Queensland is a founding member of edX, Australia’s leading Group of Eight and the international research-intensive Association of Pacific Rim Universities.

    The main St Lucia campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other University of Queensland campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus and the Mayne Medical School. University of Queensland’s overseas establishments include University of Queensland North America office in Washington D.C., and the University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States.

    The university offers associate, bachelor, master, doctoral, and higher doctorate degrees through a college, a graduate school, and six faculties. University of Queensland incorporates over one hundred research institutes and centres offering research programs, such as the Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre, the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and the University of Queensland Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation. Recent notable research of the university include pioneering the invention of the HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, developing a COVID-19 vaccine that was in human trials, and the development of high-performance superconducting MRI magnets for portable scanning of human limbs.

    The University of Queensland counts two Nobel laureates (Peter C. Doherty and John Harsanyi), over a hundred Olympians winning numerous gold medals, and 117 Rhodes Scholars among its alumni and former staff. University of Queensland’s alumni also include The University of California-San Francisco (US) Chancellor Sam Hawgood, the first female Governor-General of Australia Dame Quentin Bryce, former President of King’s College London (UK) Ed Byrne, member of United Kingdom’s Prime Minister Council for Science and Technology Max Lu, Oscar and Emmy awards winner Geoffrey Rush, triple Grammy Award winner Tim Munro, the former CEO and Chairman of Dow Chemical, and current Director of DowDuPont Andrew N. Liveris.

    Research

    The University of Queensland has a strong research focus in science, medicine and technology. The university’s research advancement includes pioneering the development of the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, by University of Queensland Professor Ian Frazer. In 2009, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation reported that University of Queensland had taken the lead in numerous areas of cancer research.

    In the Commonwealth Government’s Excellence in Research for Australia 2012 National Report, University of Queensland’s research is rated above world standard in more broad fields than at any other Australian university (in 22 broad fields), and more University of Queensland researchers are working in research fields that ERA has assessed as above world standard than at any other Australian university. University of Queensland research in biomedical and clinical health sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, and physical sciences was ranked above world standard (rating 5).

    In 2015, University of Queensland is ranked by Nature Index as the research institution with the highest volume of research output in both interdisciplinary journals Nature and Science within the southern hemisphere, with approximately twofold more output than the global average.

    In 2020 Clarivate named 34 UQ professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers.

    Aside from disciplinary-focused teaching and research within the academic faculties, the university maintains a number of interdisciplinary research institutes and centres at the national, state and university levels. For example, the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, the University of Queensland Seismology Station, Heron Island Research Station and the Institute of Modern Languages.

    With the support from the Queensland Government, the Australian Government and major donor The Atlantic Philanthropies, The University of Queensland dedicates basic, translational and applied research via the following research-focused institutes:

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience – within the Queensland Bioscience Precinct which houses scientists from the CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (AU) and the Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery

    Translational Research Institute, which houses The University of Queensland’s Diamantina Institute, School of Medicine and the Mater Medical Research Institute
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
    Institute for Social Science Research
    Sustainable Mineral Institute
    Global Change Institute
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Science
    Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
    Queensland Brain Institute
    Centre for Advanced Imaging
    Boeing Research and Technology Australia Centre
    UQ Dow Centre

    The University of Queensland plays a key role in Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners, Queensland’s first academic health science system. This partnership currently comprises Children’s Health Queensland, Mater Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Metro South Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, The Queensland University of Technology (AU), The University of Queensland and the Translational Research Institute.

    International partnerships

    The University of Queensland has a number of agreements in place with many of her international peers, including: Princeton University (US), The University of Pennsylvania (US), The University of California (US), Washington University in St. Louis (US), The University of Toronto (CA), McGill University (CA), The University of British Columbia (CA), Imperial College London (UK), University College London (UK), The University of Edinburgh (SCT), Balsillie School of International Affairs (CA), Sciences Po (FR), Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München](DE), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE), The University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ](CH), The University of Auckland (NZ), The National University of Singapore [universiti kebangsaan singapura] (SG), Nanyang Technological University [Universiti Teknologi Nanyang](SG),Peking University [北京大学](CN), The University of Hong Kong [香港大學] (HKU) (HK), The University of Tokyo[(東京大] (JP), The National Taiwan University [國立臺灣大學](TW), and The Seoul National University [서울대학교](KR).

     
  • richardmitnick 10:23 am on September 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Physicists’ Total Surprise-Discovery that Black Holes Exert a Pressure on Their Environment", , , , SciTechDaily, The scientisats confirmed their exciting finding that quantum gravity can lead to a pressure in black holes., The University of Sussex (UK)   

    From The University of Sussex (UK) via SciTechDaily : “Physicists’ Total Surprise-Discovery that Black Holes Exert a Pressure on Their Environment” 

    From The University of Sussex (UK)

    via

    SciTechDaily

    September 12, 2021

    1
    Physicists at the University of Sussex have discovered that black holes exert a pressure on their environment, in a scientific first.

    In 1974 Stephen Hawking made the seminal discovery that black holes emit thermal radiation. Previous to that, black holes were believed to be inert, the final stages of a dying heavy star.

    The University of Sussex scientists have shown that they are in fact even more complex thermodynamic systems, with not only a temperature but also a pressure.

    The serendipitous discovery was made by Professor Xavier Calmet and Folkert Kuipers in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Sussex, and is published on September 9, 2021, in Physical Review D.

    Calmet and Kuipers were perplexed by an extra figure that was presenting in equations that they were running on quantum gravitational corrections to the entropy of a black hole.

    During a discussion on this curious result on Christmas Day 2020, the realization that what they were seeing was behaving as a pressure dawned. Following further calculations they confirmed their exciting finding that quantum gravity can lead to a pressure in black holes.

    Xavier Calmet, Professor of Physics at the University of Sussex, said: “Our finding that Schwarzschild black holes have a pressure, as well as a temperature, is even more exciting given that it was a total surprise. I’m delighted that the research that we are undertaking at the University of Sussex into quantum gravity has furthered the scientific communities’ wider understanding of the nature of black holes.

    “Hawking’s landmark intuition that black holes are not black but have a radiation spectrum that is very similar to that of a black body makes black holes an ideal laboratory to investigate the interplay between quantum mechanics, gravity, and thermodynamics.

    “If you consider black holes within only general relativity, one can show that they have a singularity in their centers where the laws of physics as we know them must breakdown. It is hoped that when quantum field theory is incorporated into general relativity, we might be able to find a new description of black holes.

    “Our work is a step in this direction, and although the pressure exerted by the black hole that we were studying is tiny, the fact that it is present opens up multiple new possibilities, spanning the study of astrophysics, particle physics, and quantum physics.”

    Folkert Kuipers, doctoral researcher in the school of Mathematical and Physical Science at the University of Sussex, said: “It is exciting to work on a discovery that furthers our understanding of black holes – especially as a research student.

    “The pin-drop moment when we realized that the mystery result in our equations was telling us that the black hole we were studying had a pressure – after months of grappling with it – was exhilarating.

    “Our result is a consequence of the cutting-edge research that we are undertaking into quantum physics at the University of Sussex and it shines a new light on the quantum nature of black holes.’’

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Sussex (UK) is a leading research-intensive university near Brighton. We have both an international and local outlook, with staff and students from more than 100 countries and frequent engagement in community activities and services.

    The University of Sussex (UK) is a public research university located in Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, England, it is mostly within the city boundaries of Brighton and Hove but spills into the Lewes District in its eastern fringe. Its large campus site is surrounded by the South Downs National Park and is around 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) from central Brighton. The University received its Royal Charter in August 1959, the first of the plate glass university generation,[5] and was a founding member of the 1994 Group of research-intensive universities.

    More than a third of its students are enrolled in postgraduate programmes and approximately a third of staff are from outside the United Kingdom. Sussex has a diverse community of nearly 20,000 students, with around one in three being foreign students, and over 1,000 academics, representing over 140 different nationalities. The annual income of the institution for 2019–20 was £319.6 million with an expenditure of £282 million.

    Sussex counts 5 Nobel Prize winners; 15 Fellows of the Royal Society; 10 Fellows of the British Academy; 24 fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences and a winner of the Crafoord Prize among its faculty. By 2011, many of its faculty members had also received the Royal Society of Literature Prize, the Order of the British Empire and the Bancroft Prize. Alumni include heads of states, diplomats, politicians, eminent scientists and activists.

    20th century

    In an effort to establish a university to serve Sussex, a public meeting was held in December 1911 at the Royal Pavilion in Brighton to discover ways to fund the construction of a university; the project was halted by World War I, and the money raised was used instead for books for the Municipal Technical College.

    The idea was revived in the 1950s and, in June 1958, the government approved the corporation’s scheme for a university at Brighton, to be the first of a new generation of what came to be known as plate glass universities. The University was established as a company in 1959, with a Royal Charter being granted on 16 August 1961. This was the first university to be established in the UK since the Second World War, apart from Keele University (UK). The University’s organisation broke new ground in seeing the campus divided into Schools of Study, with students able to benefit from a multidisciplinary teaching environment. Sussex would emphasise cross-disciplinary activity, so that students would emerge from the University with a range of background or ‘contextual’ knowledge to complement their specialist ‘core’ skills in a particular subject area. For example, arts students spent their first year taking sciences while science students took arts.

    The University quickly grew, starting with 52 students in 1961–62 to 3,200 in 1967–68. After starting at Knoyle Hall in Brighton, the Falmer campus was gradually built with Falmer House opening in 1962. Its campus was praised as gorgeously modernist and groundbreaking, receiving numerous awards. Its Student Union was quite active, organising events and concerts. Performers like Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix and Chuck Berry repeatedly performed at the University Common Room, giving the university a reputation for Rock and Roll.

    Academically, Sussex was home to figures such as Asa Lord Briggs; Helmut Pappe; Gillian Rose; Jennifer Platt and Tom Bottomore. In its first years, the university attracted a number of renowned academics such as Sir John Cornforth; John Maynard Smith; Martin Wight; David Daiches; Roger Blin-Stoyle and Colin Eaborn. Similarly, renowned scholars like Marcus Cunliffe; Gabriel Josipovici; Quentin Bell; Dame Helen Wallace; Stuart Sutherland and Marie Jahoda also became central figures at the University and founded many of its current departments. Additionally, a number of initiatives at the University were started at this time, such as the Subaltern Studies Group.

    In the late 1960s, the United Nations asked for science policy recommendations from a team of renowned academics at Sussex. The ensuing report became known as the Sussex Manifesto.

    Sussex came to be identified with student radicalism. In 1973, a mob of students physically prevented United States government adviser Samuel P. Huntington from giving a speech on campus because of his involvement in the Vietnam War. Similarly when the spokesperson for the US embassy, Robert Beers, visited to give a talk to students entitled ‘Vietnam in depth’ three students were waiting outside Falmer House and threw a bucket of red paint over the diplomat as he was leaving.

    In both 1967 and 1969, Sussex won the television quiz University Challenge.

    In 1980, Sussex edged out the University of Oxford (UK) to become the university with the highest income from research grants and contracts.

    21st century

    In an attempt to appeal to a modern audience, the University chose in 2004 to cease using its coat of arms and to replace it with the “US” logo.

    2011 marked Sussex’s 50th anniversary and saw the production of a number of works including a book on the University’s history and an oral history and photography project. The University launched its first major fundraising campaign, Making the Future, and gathered over £51.3 million.

    The University underwent a number of changes with the Sussex Strategic Plan 2009–2015, including the introduction of new academic courses, the opening of new research centres, the renovation and refurbishment of a number of its schools and buildings as well as the ongoing expansion of its student housing facilities. The University has spent over £100 million on-campus redevelopment, which is ongoing with £500 million planned to be spent by the 2021.

    Sussex is heavily involved with the larger community across England, especially in East Sussex. There are many regular community projects, such as children’s activity camps, the Neighbourhood scheme, the community ambassador programme and Street Cleans. Local residents can receive free legal advice from Sussex’s law school and get guidance on renting through Sussex’s Rent Smart program. The University also facilitates volunteering opportunities for a number of local and international organizations. The University also offers language courses for the public through its Sussex Centre for Language Studies. The University runs the Sussex Conversations program, a media platform seeking to disseminate research to the wider community.

    In 2015–16, the University generated more than £407 million to the UK economy, with over £74.9 million in tax receipts.

    In September 2017, the University appointed Saul Becker as its first Provost and Jayne Aldridge as its first permanent Director for the Student Experience. These changes come as part of a number of structural changes the University has been introducing in the past years.

    In 2018, the University moved all of its investments out of fossil fuels (known as fossil fuel divestment) after a four-year student union run campaign.

    Research

    In 2017, Sussex’s research income was around £65 million. This primarily came from funding body grants and research grants and contracts.

    Sussex research centres include SPRU [Science Policy Research Unit], which is ranked as 3rd best Science and technology Think Tank in the World out of 8,000 think tanks ranked by the University of Pennsylvania (US) Global Go To Think Tank Index Report 2017. Other notable centres include the STEPS Centre, the Centre for American Studies and the Sussex European Institute.

    The University is one of the UK ESRC’s 21 Centres for Doctoral Training, the only institutions accredited in 2010 and capable of receiving ESRC doctoral studentships and funding. The system was updated in 2016 and Doctoral Training Partnerships were established to replace the DTC. In this respect, Sussex is now a member of the Consortium of the Humanities and the Arts-South East England (CHASE) and the South East Network for Social Sciences.

    The results of the Research Excellence Framework 2014 show that 98% of research activity at Sussex is categorised as ‘world-leading’ (28%), “internationally excellent” (48%) or “internationally recognised” (22%) in terms of originality, significance and rigour.

    Sussex has a number of research collaborations with other Higher Education institutions as well as governmental and non-governmental organisations and institutes around the world. For example, the Harvard Sussex program is a long-standing research collaboration between Sussex and Harvard University (US) focusing on public policy towards chemical and biological weapons. The CBW Conventions Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter published by the HSP. Sussex-Cornell Partnership, the Sussex-Bocconi-Renmin Intrapreneurship Hub and the Sussex-Lund Partnership in Middle Eastern and North African Studies are recent examples. Sussex also co-coordinates the Consortium for the Humanities and the Arts. Sussex is also one of the eight universities of the Tyndall Centre network.

    In Europe, Sussex is one of the collaborating institutions of the Paul Scherrer Institute (CH), the largest research institute in Switzerland, focusing on issues of technology and the natural sciences.[70] Sussex is involved with many projects with the EU and with European countries. For example, BAR research is an Anglo-French collaboration between the Sussex, the East Sussex County Council and three French universities.

    Nationally, Sussex is involved in a number of partnerships including the Nexus Network (A partnership between Sussex, University of Cambridge (UK) and University of East Anglia (UK) ) and CIED (a collaboration between Sussex, Oxford University and University of Manchester (UK)). The university is also a partner of the Metropolitan Police, with Demos (UK think tank) and Palantir Technologies.

    In recent years, the institutes for the study of consciousness science, Centre for Advanced International Theory (CAIT), the institute for the study of corruption and the Middle East studies institute were opened at the University. The University also has a Genome Damage and Stability Centre; a nuclear magnetic resonance facility; and a purpose-built apparatus in cryogenic research.

    In terms of policy, Sussex is highly involved with the UK government, the UN and governments around the world. For example, the university is a UN Habitat partner. Nationally, the UK Trade Policy Observatory was set up at the University to offer the UK government, the UK industry as well as the public advice in addressing trade issues resulting from Brexit. The university is also one of the UK government’s partner institutions on the Arctic Research Program. Similarly, SPRU and IDS are involved in policy recommendations with countries on all five continents.

    In 2016, the Transformative Innovation Policy Consortium (TIPC) was set up as a collaboration between the University and the governments of Sweden, Norway, Finland, South Africa and Colombia to research social and economic issues.

    The University is also home to a number of academic journals from the IDS Bulletin to The Journal for Ethnic and Migration studies; Journal of Experimental Psychopathology; The World Trade Review; Journal of Banking and Finance; International Journal of Innovation Management; Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies; European Journal of International Relations; and the Child and Family Social Work Journal among many others.

     
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