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  • richardmitnick 4:08 pm on May 26, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Sanford Underground Laboratory,   

    From Symmetry: “A goldmine of scientific research” 

    Symmetry

    May 26, 2015
    Amelia Williamson Smith

    1
    Photo by Anna Davis

    The underground home of the LUX dark matter experiment has a rich scientific history.

    There’s more than gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota. For longer than five decades, the Homestake mine has hosted scientists searching for particles impossible to detect on Earth’s surface.

    It all began with the Davis Cavern.

    In the early 1960s, Ray Davis, a nuclear chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed an experiment to detect particles produced in fusion reactions in the sun. The experiment would earn him a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002.

    Davis was searching for neutrinos, fundamental particles that had been discovered only a few years before. Neutrinos are very difficult to detect; they can pass through the entire Earth without bumping into another particle. But they are constantly streaming through us. So, with a big enough detector, Davis knew he could catch at least a few.

    Davis’ experiment had to be done deep underground; without the shielding of layers of rock and earth it would be flooded by the shower of cosmic rays also constantly raining from space.

    Davis put his first small prototype detector in a limestone mine near Akron, Ohio. But it was only about half a mile underground, not deep enough.

    “The only reason for mining deep into the earth was for something valuable like gold,” says Kenneth Lande, professor of physics at the University of Pennsylvania, who worked on the experiment with Davis. “And so a gold mine became the obvious place to look.”

    But there was no precedent for hosting a particle physics experiment in such a place. “There was no case where a physics group would appear at a working mine and say, ‘Can we move in please?’”

    Davis approached the Homestake Mining Company anyway, and the company agreed to excavate a cavern for the experiment.

    BNL funded the experiment. In 1965, it was installed in a cavern 4850 feet below the surface.

    The detector consisted of a 100,000-gallon tank of chlorine atoms. Davis had predicted that as solar neutrinos passed through the tank, one would occasionally collide with a chlorine atom, changing it to an argon atom. After letting the detector run for a couple of months at a time, Davis’ team would flush out the tank and count the argon atoms to determine how many neutrino interactions had occurred.

    “The detector had approximately 1031 atoms in it. One argon atom was produced every two days,” Lande says. “To design something that could do that kind of extraction was mind-boggling.”

    2
    Ray Davis. Courtesy of: Brookhaven National Laboratory

    A different kind of laboratory

    During the early years of the Davis experiment, around 2000 miners worked at the mine, along with engineers and geologists. The small group of scientists working on the Davis experiment would travel down into the mine with them.

    To go down the shaft to the 4850-foot level, they would get into what was called the “cage,” a 4.4-foot by 12.5-foot metal conveyance that held 36 people. The ride down, lit only by the glow of a couple of headlamps, took about five minutes, says Tom Regan, former operations safety manager and now safety consultant, who worked as a student laborer in the mine during the early years of the Davis experiment.

    Once they reached the 4850-foot level, the scientists walked across a rock dump. “It was guarded so a person couldn’t fall down the hole,” Regan says. “But you had to sometimes wait for a production train of rock or even loads of supplies or men or materials.”

    The Davis Cavern was 24 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 30 feet high. A small room off to the side held the group’s control system. “We were basically out of touch with the rest of the world when we were underground,” Lande says. “There was no difference between day and night, heat and cold, and snow and sunshine.”

    The miners and locals from Lead, South Dakota—the community surrounding the mine—were welcoming of the scientists and interested in their work, Lande says. “We’d go out to dinner at the local restaurant and we’d hear this hot conversation in the next booth, and they would be discussing black holes and neutron stars. So science became the talk of the small town.”

    4
    Davis Cavern, during the solar neutrino experiment. Photo by: Anna Davis

    The solar neutrino problem

    As the experiment began taking data, Davis’ group found they were detecting only about one-third the number of neutrinos predicted—a discrepancy that became known as the “solar neutrino problem.”

    Davis described the situation in his Nobel Prize biographical sketch: “My opinion in the early years was that something was wrong with the standard solar model; many physicists thought there was something wrong with my experiment.”

    However, every test of the experiment confirmed the results, and no problems were found with the model of the sun. Davis’ group began to suspect it was instead a problem with the neutrinos.

    This suspicion was confirmed in 2001, when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment [SNO] in Canada determined that as solar neutrinos travel through space, they oscillate, or change, between three flavors—electron, muon and tau. By the time neutrinos from the sun reach the Earth, they are an equal mixture of the three types.

    Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
    SNO

    The Davis experiment was sensitive only to electron neutrinos, so it was able to detect only one-third of the neutrinos from the sun. The solar neutrino problem was solved.

    5
    Davis Cavern, during a more recent expansion. Photo by: Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    A different kind of gold

    The Davis experiment ran for almost 40 years, until the mine closed in 2003.

    But the days of science in the Davis Cavern weren’t over. In 2006, the mining company donated Homestake to the state of South Dakota. It was renamed the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    In 2009, many former Homestake miners became technicians on a $15.2 million project to renovate the experimental area. They completed the new 30,000-square-foot Davis Campus in 2012.

    Although scientists still ride in the cage to get down to the 4850-foot level of the mine, once they arrive it looks completely different.

    “It’s a very interesting contrast,” says Stanford University professor Thomas Shutt of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. “Going into the mine, it’s all mining carts, rust and rock, and then you get down to the Davis Campus, and it’s a really state-of-the-art facility.”

    The campus now contains block buildings with doors and windows. It has its own heating and air conditioning system, ventilation system, humidifiers and dust filters.

    The original Davis Cavern has been expanded and now houses the Large Underground Xenon experiment, the most sensitive detector yet searching for what many consider the most promising candidate for a type of dark matter particle.

    LUX Dark matter
    LUX

    Shielded from distracting background particles this far underground, scientists hope LUX will detect the rare interaction of dark matter particles with the nucleus of xenon atoms in the 368-kilogram tank.

    Another cavern nearby was excavated as part of the Davis Campus renovation project and now holds the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, which will soon start to examine whether neutrinos are their own antimatter partners.

    Majorano Demonstrator Experiment
    Majorano Demonstrator Experiment

    LUX began taking data in 2013. It is currently on its second run and will continue through spring 2016.

    After its current run, LUX will be replaced by the LUX-ZEPLIN, or LZ, experiment, which will be 50 times bigger in usable mass and several hundred times more sensitive than the current LUX results.

    LZ project
    LZ

    Science in the mine is still the talk of the town in Lead, says Carmen Carmona, an assistant project scientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who works on LUX. “When you go out on the streets and talk to people—especially the families of the miners from the gold mine days—they want to know how it is working underground now and how the experiment is going.”

    The spirit of cooperation between the mining community, the science community and the public community lives on, Regan says.

    “It’s been kind of a legacy to provide the beneficial space and be good neighbors and good hosts,” Regan says. “Our goal is for them to succeed, so we do everything we can to help and provide the best and safest place for them to do their good science.”

    6
    In 2010, Sanford Lab enlarged the Davis Cavern to support the Large Underground Xenon experiment. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    7
    This cavern is being outfitted for the Compact Accelerator System Performing Astrophysical Research. CASPAR will use a low-powered accelerator to study what happens when stars die. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    8
    Davis Cavern undergoes outfitting for the LUX experiment. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    9
    Each day scientists working at the the Davis Campus pass this area, known as the Big X. The entrance to the Davis Campus is to the left; Yates Shaft is to the right. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    10
    LUX researchers install the detector at the 4850 level. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    11
    The Majorana Demonstrator experiment requires a very strict level of cleanliness. Researcher work in full clean room garb and assemble their detectors inside nitrogen-filled glove boxes. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    12
    The LUX detector was built in a clean room on the surface and then brought underground. Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:59 am on May 7, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Sanford Underground Laboratory   

    From Sanford via KDLT: “Unlocking Mysteries of Dark Matter & Neutrinos in South Dakota” 

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    3
    KDLT

    May 06, 2015
    Tom Hanson, KDLT News Anchor

    The former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead closed in 2002. It is now the Sanford Underground Research Facility Funded by the state of South Dakota, the U.S. Department of Energy and a donation from T. Denny Sanford the lab is drawing some of the sharpest minds in science to South Dakota.

    The search for dark matter and the study of neutrinos are at the heart of two of the underground labs biggest projects. The equipment used in this research is so sensitive it has to be shielded from cosmic rays on the earth’s surface.

    Located almost a mile underground the LUX is a dark matter detector.

    Lux Dark Matter 2
    LUX Dark matter
    LUX

    2
    The two men behind the project Simon Fiorucci (left) and Harry Nelson are hunting something so rare, no one has ever seen it, in fact no one really knows exactly what it is.

    “We are trying to detect a new form of matter which we are absolutely sure constitutes about 85 percent of the matter in the universe,” said Nelson. “And the fabulous thing is no one knows what it is. So there are a bunch of conjectures and so the gadget behind us is dedicated to the most popular conjecture of what this dark matter of the universe is.”

    The gadget is the Large Underground Xenon Detector or LUX, a phone booth sized container holding liquid xenon, cooled to -160 degrees F and surrounded by thousands of gallons of specially treated water. And according to Sanford Underground Lab officials the LUX has the reputation as the most sensitive detector ever built. Nelson has a nack for taking a very complicated process and simplifying it.

    “Our detector occasionally should see a little touch of the dark matter and it will make the atoms in our detector recoil and emit a little bit of light and also make a little bit of electric charge, that’s what we are trying to do here,” said Nelson.

    But according to Fiorucci so far that hasn’t happened.

    “We’ve seen nothing at all, which at first glance you might think well that’s not great, actually what that means is we’ve eliminated quite a number of possibilities, said Fiorucci.

    4

    Possibilities surround the other big project currently underway at the Sanford lab. The Majorana Demonstrator is looking at neutrinos.

    Majorano Demonstrator Experiment
    Majorano

    Particles so small there are billions of them passing through your body as you read this story. Professor John Wilkerson and his team are searching for a rare form of radioactive decay.

    “If we see this rare decay it would actually tell us that neutrinos can be their own anti particle and it might explain why we exist, why there’s so much matter and why there’s not anti-matter in the universe,” said Wilkerson.

    The vast majority of the observable universe from our planet seems to be made of matter and not antimatter. Why? Is one of the most interesting questions facing scientists.

    Building on the success of the LUX and Majorana Demonstrator, the next generations of projects are coming to the underground facility.
    The LZ project will continue the search for dark matter and will be 30 times larger than the LUX.

    LZ project
    LZ Project

    However the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment or DUNE will be the biggest of all.

    FNAL DUNE
    DUNE

    The $1.5 billion project will try to find out how neutrinos change from point A to point B. It involves shooting neutrinos through the earth from Fermilab in Illinois to a huge detector at the Sanford Underground Lab.

    The man in charge of the facility, executive director Brookings native Mike Headley says they are excited to be a part of the project.

    “This will really be a big deal”, said Headley. “It’s an international collaboration that has close to 150 institutions worldwide and over 700 collaborators. The Long Base Neutrino Experiment (also called DUNE) is basically a $1.5 billion project. It is 1/3 funded international 2/3 funded in U.S. About 300 million of that $1.5 Billion will be facility construction here in South Dakota, so it’s going to be one of the biggest construction projects we’ve ever had in the state.”

    Construction on DUNE will begin next year. Scientists behind the project say neutrinos could hold clues about how the universe began and why matter greatly outnumbers antimatter, allowing us to exist.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s. In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) [being replaced by DUNE]—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE [DUNE] will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

     
  • richardmitnick 4:31 pm on August 4, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Sanford Underground Laboratory   

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility: “DOE, NSF to fund LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment at Sanford Lab” 

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility
    August 4, 2014
    Constance Walter

    LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), a second generation dark matter experiment, got a big boost when the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation selected it as one of three experiments that will be funded in the next-generation dark matter search. LZ will build on the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment, which has been operating at the 4850 Level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility since 2012, and on the ZEPLIN dark matter program in the United Kingdom, which pioneered the use of these types of detectors underground.

    “We emerged from a very intense competition,” said Daniel McKinsey, professor of physics at Yale and a spokesperson for LUX. “We have the most sensitive detector in the world, with LUX. LZ will be hundreds of times more sensitive. It’s gratifying to see that our approach is being validated.”

    Construction on the supersized detector is scheduled to begin in 2016, with a commissioning date of 2018. Plans for LZ have been in the works for several years.

    “This is great news for the future of Dark Matter exploration and the Sanford Lab,” said Mike Headley, Executive Director of the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority. “The LZ experiment will play a key role in the future of the lab and we’re pleased that the DOE selected the experiment. It certainly will extend the state’s investment in this world-class facility.”

    Rick Gaitskell, Hazard Professor of Physics at Brown, is a founding member of LZ and also co-spokesperson for the LUX experiment.

    “The go-ahead from DOE and NSF is a major event,” Gaitskell said. “The LZ experiment will continue the liquid xenon direct dark matter search program at Sanford Lab, which we started with the operation of LUX in 2013. LUX will run until 2016 when we will replace it with LZ, which can provide a further improvement in sensitivity of two orders of magnitude due to its significant increase in size.”

    Even if LUX makes a dark matter detection before LZ is up and running, LZ will still be necessary to confirm the detection and fully characterize the nature of WIMPS, Gaitskell said.

    “This green light is a clear indication of the value the agencies see, not only in all the preparatory work that has gone into LZ, but also in the existing accomplishment of LUX and Sanford Lab these past few years,” said Simon Fiorucci, a research scientist at Brown who is the science coordinator for LUX and simulations coordinator for LZ. “LZ will be timed so that it is ready to start operations when LUX delivers its final results and reaches the limits of its technology. It will be a very natural transition.”

    Harry Nelson, professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara and spokesperson for the LZ Collaboration, said, “We still have a lot of work to do. Basically, we got the green light to go the next green light, then the next green light.” Still, he continued, “Everyone is excited.”

    See the full article here.

    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s. In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

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  • richardmitnick 10:11 am on December 15, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Sanford Underground Laboratory,   

    From The Sanford Undergorund Laboratory via Symmetry/Breaking: “First physics experiments soon to move into former Homestake mine” 

    December 15, 2011
    Bill Harlan, Sanford Underground Laboratory
    Guest author

    “Construction of a 12,000-square-foot research campus a mile underground is nearing completion in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and scientists will begin to move the first physics experiments underground this spring.

    i1
    Rick Labahn, project engineer (left) and Ben Sayler, director of education and outreach at Sanford Lab, check out the almost-finished Davis Cavern, located about a mile underground in the former Homestake mine. Photo by Matt Kapust, Sanford Underground Laboratory

    ‘We’re on schedule for occupancy in March 2012, but it’s quite a little process,’ said Project Engineer Rick Labahn, understating the complexity of his job. Labahn is directing the outfitting of the Davis Campus, which comprises two large underground halls at the 4,850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in the former Homestake gold mine. Early next spring researchers will begin installing two experiments there—both of them at the leading edge of 21st-century physics. The Large Underground Xenon experiment, which already is taking test run data in a building on the surface, aims to become the world’s most sensitive detector to look for a mysterious substance called dark matter. Thought to comprise 80 percent of all the matter in the universe, dark matter remains undetected so far. The second experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator, will search for one of the rarest forms of radioactive decays—neutrinoless double-beta decay. Majorana could help determine whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can act as their own anti-particles, a discovery that could help physicists better explain how the universe evolved.”

    See the full article here.

     
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