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  • richardmitnick 11:48 pm on February 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Important Climate Change Mystery Solved by Scientists", A long-standing mystery called the “Holocene temperature conundrum”, , , Marine and Coastal Sciences, , Revised Holocene temperature record affirms role of greenhouse gases in recent millennia., Rutgers University, Scientists have resolved a key climate change mystery showing that the annual global temperature today is the warmest of the past 10000 years., Scientists used marine fossils to reconstruct the temperature histories of the two most recent warm intervals on Earth., The late Holocene warming was indeed caused by the increase in greenhouse gases.   

    From Rutgers University: “Important Climate Change Mystery Solved by Scientists” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    February 16, 2021
    Todd Bates
    todd.bates@rutgers.edu

    Revised Holocene temperature record affirms role of greenhouse gases in recent millennia.

    1
    Rutgers scientists aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution on International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 363 in 2016, including (left to right) Gregory Mountain, Tali Babila, Samantha Bova and Yair Rosenthal. Credit: IODP-Jodes Resolution Science Operator.

    Scientists have resolved a key climate change mystery, showing that the annual global temperature today is the warmest of the past 10,000 years – contrary to recent research, according to a Rutgers-led study in the journal Nature.

    The long-standing mystery is called the “Holocene temperature conundrum,” with some skeptics contending that climate model predictions of future warming must be wrong. The scientists say their findings will challenge long-held views on the temperature history in the Holocene era, which began about 12,000 years ago.

    “Our reconstruction shows that the first half of the Holocene was colder than in industrial times due to the cooling effects of remnant ice sheets from the previous glacial period – contrary to previous reconstructions of global temperatures,” said lead author Samantha Bova, a postdoctoral researcher associate in the lab of co-author Yair Rosenthal, a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick. “The late Holocene warming was indeed caused by the increase in greenhouse gases, as predicted by climate models, and that eliminates any doubts about the key role of carbon dioxide in global warming.”

    2
    This image shows the evolution of temperature during the Holocene era and some of the key mechanisms responsible for the increase in temperature over the last 12,000 years. Credit: Samantha Bova.

    Scientists used marine calcareous (calcium carbonate-containing) fossils from foraminifers – single-celled organisms that live at the ocean surface – to reconstruct the temperature histories of the two most recent warm intervals on Earth. They are the Last Interglacial period from 128,000 to 115,000 years ago and the Holocene. To get the fossils, the scientists collected a core of bottom sediments near the mouth of the Sepik River off northern Papua New Guinea during the Rutgers-led Expedition 363 of the International Ocean Discovery Program. The core features rapidly accumulating sediments that allowed the scientists to recreate the temperature history of the western Pacific warm pool, which closely tracks changes in global temperatures.

    How temperature evolved during the Last Interglacial and Holocene eras is controversial. Some data suggest that the average annual global temperature during modern times does not exceed the warmth in the Holocene’s early warm period, called the “Holocene thermal maximum,” which was followed by global cooling. Meanwhile, climate models strongly suggest that global temperatures have risen throughout the past 10,000 years.

    “The apparent discrepancy between climate models and data has cast doubts among skeptics about the role of greenhouse gases in climate change during the Holocene and possibly in the future,” Rosenthal said. “We found that post-industrial warming has indeed accelerated the long and steady trend of warming throughout the past 10,000 years. Our study also underscores the importance of seasonal changes, specifically Northern Hemisphere summers, in driving many climate systems. Our method can, for the first time, use seasonal temperatures to come up with annual averages.”

    Rutgers-affiliated co-authors include Shital P. Godad, a former Rutgers researcher now at National Taiwan University (TW). Scientists at The Ohio State University (US) and Nanjing Normal University (CN) contributed to the study.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:23 am on December 11, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Sustainable and Durable Construction Materials Under Development in Rutgers‒Camden Research Lab", , Bio- chemical and Mechanical engineering, , Computation and Economics, , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “Sustainable and Durable Construction Materials Under Development in Rutgers‒Camden Research Lab” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    12.11.20
    Jeanne Leong
    jeanne.leong@camden.rutgers.edu

    1
    David Salas-de la Cruz

    Rutgers University–Camden chemistry professor David Salas-de la Cruz is working to develop lightweight, ultra-strong, and energy-efficient eco-manufacturing materials to construct buildings as part of a multidisciplinary research team from four universities.

    Through a $4.6 million grant from the National Science Foundation, Salas-de la Cruz is joining forces with researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Rowan University to develop sustainable, adaptive building blocks using natural materials from plants and animals, along with synthetic polymers, to develop composite materials that are low-cost, high-performing structural components.

    The project connects Salas-de la Cruz’s natural material structural and morphological knowledge, which relates to the form or structure of things, into the synthesis of new materials for manufacturing. “This grant is very important because it will enable my research group to build a bridge between fundamental science and real-world applications,” says Salas-de la Cruz, an associate professor of chemistry at Rutgers University–Camden.

    The researchers aim to develop self-morphing building blocks from the nano to macro scales inspired by biological systems to devise novel manufacturing processes of highly efficient structures and components from centimeter to meter scale. The systems could replace common construction materials such as concrete, steel, aluminum, and carbon fibers in constructing bridges and buildings, which produce large amounts of construction waste and energy consumption. “Imagine setting the building foundation and suddenly seeing all of its structural components being assembled by modular on-demand printing using origami/kirigami engineering,” explains the Rutgers–Camden researcher.

    Salas-de la Cruz earned his Ph.D. in chemical and biomolecular engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, where project leader Shu Yang was one of his Ph.D. program professors. Yang asked Salas-de la Cruz to join her team on this project.

    The alliance brings together researchers in architectural and structural designs; chemistry; physics; materials science; bio- chemical and mechanical engineering; computation; and economics. It will also train future science, technology, engineering, the arts, and mathematics (STEAM) workforce and innovative K-12 curricula, science demonstrations, public exhibitions, workshops, and outreach to underrepresented groups and internship opportunities.

    Rutgers–Camden students working on this project will develop strong and competitive skills in chemistry, material science, physics, and engineering while collaborating with researchers from the partner universities. “This will be a tremendous opportunity for Rutgers students to participate in highly competitive research involving other top universities and to visit each other laboratories to learn and perform research,” Salas-de la Cruz explains.

    Salas-de la Cruz’s other community engagement work includes creating and leading the 3D printing fabrication laboratory in LEAP’s science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) building. Known as the Fab Lab, the facility allows K-12 grade students to take designs from concept to reality using 3D printers and up-to-date fabrication technologies to create solutions to community-oriented problems. If there is gear they do not have for a project, they can create it.

    Salas-de la Cruz also has provided research opportunities in his lab through other National Science Foundation grants, the American Chemistry Society SEED program, the New Jersey Space Grant Consortium and the Army Educational Outreach Program’s (AEOP) High School Apprenticeship Program offered with Jinglin Fu, a Rutgers–Camden professor of chemistry.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:24 pm on November 30, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Atmospheric Rivers Help Create Massive Holes in Antarctic Sea Ice", , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “Atmospheric Rivers Help Create Massive Holes in Antarctic Sea Ice” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    November 11, 2020
    Todd Bates
    todd.bates@rutgers.edu

    1
    A band of clouds in an atmospheric river extending from South America to the Antarctic sea ice zone on Sept. 16, 2017. Credit: NASA.

    Warm, moist rivers of air in Antarctica play a key role in creating massive holes in sea ice in the Weddell Sea and may influence ocean conditions around the vast continent as well as climate change, according to Rutgers co-authored research.

    Scientists studied the role of long, intense plumes of warm, moist air – known as atmospheric rivers – in creating enormous openings in sea ice. They focused on the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean near Antarctica, where these sea ice holes (called polynyas) infrequently develop during the winter. A large hole in this area was first observed in 1973 and a hole developed again in the late winter and early spring of 2017.

    In the first study of its kind, published in the journal Science Advances, scientists found that repeated strong atmospheric rivers during late August through mid-September 2017 played a crucial role in forming the sea ice hole. These rivers brought warm, moist air from the coast of South America to the polar environment, warming the sea ice surface and making it vulnerable to melting.

    “Polynyas strongly influence the physical and ecological dynamics of the Southern Ocean,” said co-author Kyle Mattingly, a post-doctoral researcher at the Rutgers Institute of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. “They serve as giant ‘windows’ in the sea ice that allow large amounts of heat to move from the ocean to the atmosphere, modifying regional and global ocean circulation. They also affect the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton (algae) blooms, which are the base of the marine food web. Our study will pave the way for greater understanding of climate variability and climate change in these regions.”

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric rivers influence melting of West Antarctic land ice and ice shelves, and the new study builds on those findings by showing their effects on Antarctic sea ice for the first time. The rivers are thousands of miles long and the sea ice holes cover thousands of square miles, usually at specific locations that are primed by local ocean circulation conditions.

    West Antarctica, an enormous ice sheet that sits on land, is melting and contributing to global sea-level rise, and the melting has accelerated in the 21st century. If the entire Antarctic Ice Sheet melted, the ocean level would rise by about 200 feet, according to the National Snow & Ice Data Center. Sea-level rise and flooding from coastal storms threaten coastal communities worldwide, especially in low-lying areas.

    Under projected future climate change, atmospheric rivers are predicted to become more frequent, longer, wider and more effective in moving high levels of water vapor toward the Antarctic Ocean and continent, along with increasing the intensity of precipitation. In general, where they make landfall is predicted to shift toward the poles, and the effect of climate change on sea ice holes in the Weddell Sea and elsewhere in the Southern Ocean is an important area for future research.

    Co-authors include scientists at Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Stevens Institute of Technology and the Australian Antarctic Division and Australian Antarctic Program Partnership.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:58 pm on November 17, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How Did Red Algae Survive in Extreme Environments?", , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “How Did Red Algae Survive in Extreme Environments?” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    October 29, 2020

    Todd Bates
    todd.bates@rutgers.edu

    From Rutgers University

    1
    Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park, where red algae (that appear green) line the hot, acidic creek bottom and live within nearby rocks (inset). Credit: Tim McDermott.

    Rutgers-led team will study algae from hot springs worldwide, including in Yellowstone National Park.

    Red algae have persisted in hot springs and surrounding rocks for about 1 billion years. Now, a Rutgers-led team will investigate why these single-celled extremists have thrived in harsh environments – research that could benefit environmental cleanups and the production of biofuels and other products.

    Debashish Bhattacharya, lead investigator and a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology in the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick, discussed the project and its goals.

    How would you describe the “Extreme Solutions to Extreme Problems” project?

    Our work will lead to one of the most extensive genome datasets ever generated for algae, resulting in 50 new genomes and hundreds of samples for so-called “omics” analysis. Such analysis covers gene expression (when genes create proteins), products of metabolism and epigenetics (such as gene expression changes caused by chemical modification of DNA). We will also study red algae in their natural environment at Yellowstone National Park, using environmental omics. I will lead the project, funded by Community Sequencing Program at the Joint Genome Institute, with an international group of co-principal investigators, including Rutgers Professor Jeff Boyd and Xiaoyang Su at the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. The project arose from previous research by me and my lab members, a NASA grant to graduate student Julia Van Etten to study extremophilic red algae that can live in extreme environments and data collected with colleagues in South Korea and Germany. Intriguingly, some of these algae can live for long periods in the dark because they can photosynthesize when no light is available and absorb sugars and other molecules from the environment. Normally in photosynthesis, algae use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and produce oxygen.


    Extreme Solutions to Extreme Problems

    What do we know about red algae now and what do you hope to learn?

    Harsh environments, like those on the early Earth billions of years ago, prompted organisms to develop exquisitely tailored solutions. Cyanidiophyceae, a group of aquatic and terrestrial red algae, is one of the few groups of photosynthetic organisms that can survive in hot springs and acid mining sites with variable light levels, high temperatures, low pH (a measure of acidity or alkalinity) and high levels of salt and toxic heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic. Recent work by our group has shown that Cyanidiophyceae follow the “1 percent rule.” They acquired about 1 percent of their genes, on average, from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer, meaning they stole those genes. We have also shown that most of these algae create proteins that allow them to cope with multiple extreme conditions. We postulate that stolen bacterial genes played an important role in the transition to an extreme lifestyle, and this is likely how cells in the early Earth managed to colonize harsh environments.

    What are the potential benefits of red algae?

    Cyanidiophyceae red algae are models for understanding how organisms survived in extreme environments on the early Earth and potentially on other habitable worlds. These algae also provide opportunities for using their stress-resistance genes to engineer commercially important algae and plants that are protected from environmental harm, such as from drought and heavy metal contamination. Red algae could be harnessed to produce compounds such as phycocyanin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, and glycogen, which stores glucose (a form of sugar) in the body; recover Earth elements; and detoxify heavy metals. Many red algal species could serve as bioreactors to produce fuels and other products. Our project will revolutionize our understanding of how cells evolve under stress and how their genetic toolkit may be exploited for human use.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:07 am on November 6, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ocean Algae Get “Coup de Grace” from Viruses", , , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “Ocean Algae Get “Coup de Grace” from Viruses” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    September 15, 2020 [Just now in social media.]
    Todd Bates

    Viruses don’t immediately kill algae but live in harmony with them.

    1
    This image depicts viral infection of an Emiliania huxleyi cell superimposed on a satellite image of an E. huxleyi bloom in the Barents Sea. Credits: MODIS, NASA; Steve Gschmeissner, Photo Researchers Inc.; Kay Bidle & Christien Laber, Rutgers University.

    NASA Terra MODIS schematic.

    NASA/Terra satellite.

    Scientists have long believed that ocean viruses always quickly kill algae, but Rutgers-led research shows they live in harmony with algae and viruses provide a “coup de grace” only when blooms of algae are already stressed and dying.

    The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, will likely change how scientists view viral infections of algae, also known as phytoplankton – especially the impact of viruses on ecosystem processes like algal bloom formation (and decline) and the cycling of carbon and other chemicals on Earth.

    “It’s only when the infected algal cells become stressed, such as when they run out of nutrients, that the viruses turn deadly,” said lead author Benjamin Knowles, a former post-doctoral researcher in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences in the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick who is now at UCLA. He was also a post-doctoral fellow at Rutgers’ Institute of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. “We feel that this entirely new model of infection is widespread in the oceans and stands to fundamentally alter how we view host-virus interactions and the impact of viruses on ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling since it goes against the long-accepted classic model of viruses always being lethal and killing cells.”

    Biogeochemical cycling refers to essential nutrients like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron and water circulating through organisms and the environment. The coccolithophore algae Emiliania huxleyi was the focus of the study as a model for other algae-virus systems and is a central driver of this process.

    The scientists studied virus-algae interactions in the lab and in controlled, mini-blooms in coastal waters of Norway. They focused on viral infection of a form of algae that is responsible for generating much of the oxygen and carbon cycling on Earth. A group of ocean viruses called coccolithoviruses routinely infect and kill E. huxleyi over 1,000 square miles, which is viewable from space via Earth-observing satellites.

    The viruses eventually rupture algal cells, contributing to the global food web by making energy and organic matter available to other organisms. But infected cells don’t die right away, the scientists discovered. Instead, infected cells multiply and bloom across dozens of miles of ocean waters and die in a coordinated manner. These dynamics have been routinely observed in previous studies but couldn’t be explained by the rate at which algal hosts and viruses encounter each other in nature.

    “The algae and viruses have a quasi-symbiotic type of relationship, allowing both algal cells and viruses to replicate happily for a while,” said senior author Kay D. Bidle, a professor and microbial oceanographer in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers–New Brunswick and the Institute of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. “We feel that these newly discovered dynamics also apply to other virus-algal interactions across the oceans and are fundamental to how infection works. By combining experimental, theoretical and environmental approaches, our work presents a template to diagnose this type of infection in other systems.”

    The algae-virus dynamics have important implications for the outcome of infections and the flow of carbon and may lead to scenarios where carbon dioxide is sequestered, or stored, in the deep ocean rather than retained in the upper ocean, Bidle said. Further research is needed to fully understand the extent of these dynamics and their impacts on ecosystems and the cycling of carbon in the oceans.

    Rutgers co-authors include professors Juan A. Bonachela, Heidi L. Fuchs and Kimberlee Thamatrakoln; post-doctoral researchers Karen Bondoc and Jozef Nissomov, now a professor at the University of Waterloo (CA); Nicole Cieslik, who earned a bachelor’s degree at Rutgers; doctoral students Ben Diaz, Christopher T. Johns and Cliff Watkins; researchers Liti Haramaty and Frank Natale; and Brittany Schieler, who earned a doctorate at Rutgers. Scientists at Oregon State University, National Oceanography Centre (Southampton, UK), University of California, Santa Barbara, University of California, Merced, and University of Bergen (NO) contributed to the study.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:56 am on October 5, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Oregon State University Assumes Cyberinfrastructure Responsibility for Ocean Observatories Initiative", Rutgers University,   

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: “Oregon State University Assumes Cyberinfrastructure Responsibility for Ocean Observatories Initiative” 

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    October 5, 2020

    1
    A team at Oregon State University is assuming responsibility for the cyberinfrastructure that collects and serves data from five instrumented observatories operated by the Ocean Observatories Initiative. Data are available to anyone with an Internet connection. Photo by ©Ocean Observatories Initiative, 2020.

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly announced that OSU will assume responsibilities for the systems management of the cyberinfrastructure that makes data transmission for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) possible through September of 2023. OSU was awarded this role after a systematic and thorough selection process. Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, has provided OOI’s Cyberinfrastructure systems management since 2014, and will leave the OOI Program in 2021 following a transition period with OSU.

    The OOI consists of five instrumented observatories in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans outfitted with more than 800 instruments that continually collect and deliver data to shore via a cyberinfrastructure, which makes the data available to anyone with an Internet connection. The demands on the cyberinfrastructure are great, as it stores 73 billion rows of data, and has provided 36 terabytes of data in response to 189 million user requests since 2014. With the data requests and delivery demands increasing each year, the OOI has the capability to provide data that allows inquiries into episodic ecosystem events in real-time, as well as investigations using long-term time series data. The OOI is made possible through a funded five-year cooperative agreement to WHOI from the National Science Foundation. The OSU award is for $6 million over a three-year period.

    “We are delighted that OSU has the capabilities and expertise to take on this hugely important task,” says John Trowbridge, Principal Investigator of the Program Management Office of the OOI at WHOI. “The OOI has become a dependable source of real-time ocean data, helping scientists answer pressing questions about the changing ocean. Educators use real-time ocean data to teach students about the fundamentals of oceanography, the global carbon cycle, climate variability, and other important topics. The team at OSU will help advance this work and ensure that OOI data are served reliably to an ever-growing audience.

    “We are also extremely grateful to the Rutgers team for the excellent foundation they established over the past six years that will allow a seamless transition to the OSU cyberinfrastructure team. Rutgers was an important partner that helped establish OOI as a reliable data provider,” adds Trowbridge.

    “OSU brings the perfect mix of hardware, software, and ocean data experts to ensure that we are able to store and serve up this gargantuan amount of important ocean data,” adds Anthony Koppers, Principal Investigator for the OSU Cyberinfrastructure Systems Team. “We have the key personnel and systems in place that will allow us to seamlessly take on the challenge of storing and serving OOI data, strategically planning for future data demands and implementing cybersecurity. We also will be working hand-in-hand with the OOI’s Data Management Team to ensure the data meets the highest quality standards.”

    OSU’s cyberinfrastructure will handle telemetered, recovered, and streaming data. Telemetered data are delivered to the cyberinfrastructure from moorings and gliders using remote access such as satellites. Recovered data are complete datasets that are retrieved and uploaded to the cyberinfrastructure once an ocean observing platform is recovered from the field. Streaming data are delivered in real time directly from instruments in the field.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.
    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:16 pm on September 2, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Galaxy Simulations Could Help Reveal Origins of Milky Way", , , , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “Galaxy Simulations Could Help Reveal Origins of Milky Way” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    August 27, 2020 [Just now in social media]

    Todd Bates
    848-932-0550
    todd.bates@rutgers.edu

    Rutgers-led study could aid the search for dark matter in the universe.

    1
    Computer simulation of a galaxy resembling the Milky Way (center) and its small (dwarf) galaxy neighbors. The center panel shows the amount of dark matter (brighter is denser). The small panels show what a telescope might see. Image credit: Elaad Applebaum.

    Rutgers astronomers have produced the most advanced galaxy simulations of their kind, which could help reveal the origins of the Milky Way and dozens of small neighboring dwarf galaxies.

    Their research [The Astrophysical Journal] also could aid the decades-old search for dark matter, which fills an estimated 27 percent of the universe. And the computer simulations of “ultra-faint” dwarf galaxies could help shed light on how the first stars formed in the universe.

    “Our supercomputer-generated simulations provide the highest-ever resolution of a Milky Way-type galaxy,” said co-author Alyson M. Brooks, an associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick. “The high resolution allows us to simulate smaller neighbor galaxies than ever before – the ‘ultra-faint’ dwarf galaxies. These tiny galaxies are mostly dark matter and therefore are some of the best probes we have for learning about dark matter, and this is the first time that they have ever been simulated around a Milky Way-like galaxy. The sheer variety of the simulated galaxies is unprecedented, including one that lost all of its dark matter – similar to what’s been observed in space.”


    “Mint” DC Justice League: Sandra.

    The Rutgers-led team generated two new simulations of Milky Way-type galaxies and their surroundings. They call them the “DC Justice League Simulations,” naming them after two women who have served on the U.S. Supreme Court: current Associate Justice Elena Kagan and retired Associate Justice Sandra Day O’Connor.

    These are cosmological simulations, meaning they begin soon after the Big Bang and model the evolution of galaxies over the entire age of the universe (almost 14 billion years). Bound via gravity, galaxies consist of stars, gas and dust. The Milky Way is an example a large barred spiral galaxy, according to NASA.

    Milky Way Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech /ESO R. Hurt. The bar is visible in this image.

    In recent years, scientists have discovered “ultra-faint” satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, thanks to digital sky surveys that can reach fainter depths than ever. While the Milky Way has about 100 billion stars and is thousands of light years across, ultra-faint galaxies have a million times fewer stars (under 100,000 and as low as few hundred) and are much smaller, spanning tens of light years. For the first time, the simulations allow scientists to begin modeling these ultra-faint satellite galaxies around a Milky Way-type galaxy, meaning they provide some of the first predictions for what future sky surveys will discover.


    “Mint” DC Justice League: The Formation of Sandra’s Stellar Halo.

    In one simulation, a galaxy lost all its dark matter, and while real galaxies like that have been seen before, this is the first time anyone has simulated such a galaxy. These kinds of results tell scientists what’s possible when it comes to forming galaxies, and they are learning new ways that neighbor galaxies can arise, allowing scientists to better understand what telescopes find.

    In about a year, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory will begin a survey targeting the whole sky and scientists expect to find hundreds of ultra-faint galaxies. In recent years, surveys targeting a small patch of the sky have discovered dozens of them.

    Vera C. Rubin Observatory Telescope currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes, altitude 2,715 m (8,907 ft).

    “Just counting these galaxies can tell scientists about the nature of dark matter. Studying their structure and the motions of their stars can tell us even more,” said lead author Elaad Applebaum, a Rutgers doctoral student. “These galaxies are also very old, with some of the most ancient stars, meaning they can tell us about how the first stars formed in the universe.”

    Scientists at Grinnell College, University of Oklahoma, University of Washington, University of Oslo and the Yale Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics contributed to the study. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University College, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:12 pm on July 16, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Unusual nanoparticles could benefit the quest to build a quantum computer", , , , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University via phys.org: “Unusual nanoparticles could benefit the quest to build a quantum computer” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    via


    phys.org

    1
    The arrows point to titanium dioxide nanocrystals lighting up and blinking (left) and then fading (right). Credit: Tewodros Asefa and Eliska Mikmekova

    Imagine tiny crystals that “blink” like fireflies and can convert carbon dioxide, a key cause of climate change, into fuels.

    A Rutgers-led team has created ultra-small titanium dioxide crystals that exhibit unusual “blinking” behavior and may help to produce methane and other fuels, according to a study in the journal Angewandte Chemie. The crystals, also known as nanoparticles, stay charged for a long time and could benefit efforts to develop quantum computers.

    “Our findings are quite important and intriguing in a number of ways, and more research is needed to understand how these exotic crystals work and to fulfill their potential,” said senior author Tewodros (Teddy) Asefa, a professor in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University-New Brunswick. He’s also a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering in the School of Engineering.

    More than 10 million metric tons of titanium dioxide are produced annually, making it one of the most widely used materials, the study notes. It is used in sunscreens, paints, cosmetics and varnishes, for example. It’s also used in the paper and pulp, plastic, fiber, rubber, food, glass and ceramic industries.

    The team of scientists and engineers discovered a new way to make extremely small titanium dioxide crystals. While it’s still unclear why the engineered crystals blink and research is ongoing, the “blinking” is believed to arise from single electrons trapped on titanium dioxide nanoparticles. At room temperature, electrons—surprisingly—stay trapped on nanoparticles for tens of seconds before escaping and then become trapped again and again in a continuous cycle.

    The crystals, which blink when exposed to a beam of electrons, could be useful for environmental cleanups, sensors, electronic devices and solar cells, and the research team will further explore their capabilities.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:01 am on March 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Have Discovered the Origins of the Building Blocks of Life", , , , ENIGMA project seeks to reveal the role of the simplest proteins that catalyzed the earliest stages of life., , Rutgers University   

    From Rutgers University: “Scientists Have Discovered the Origins of the Building Blocks of Life” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    March 16, 2020

    Todd Bates
    848-932-0550
    todd.bates@rutgers.edu

    Rutgers researchers retraced the evolution of enzymes over billions of years.

    1
    This image shows a fold (shape) that may have been one of the earliest proteins in the evolution of metabolism. Image: Vikas Nanda/Rutgers University

    Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets.

    Their study, which predicts what the earliest proteins looked like 3.5 billion to 2.5 billion years ago, is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The scientists retraced, like a many thousand piece puzzle, the evolution of enzymes (proteins) from the present to the deep past. The solution to the puzzle required two missing pieces, and life on Earth could not exist without them. By constructing a network connected by their roles in metabolism, this team discovered the missing pieces.

    “We know very little about how life started on our planet. This work allowed us to glimpse deep in time and propose the earliest metabolic proteins,” said co-author Vikas Nanda, a professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and a resident faculty member at the Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine. “Our predictions will be tested in the laboratory to better understand the origins of life on Earth and to inform how life may originate elsewhere. We are building models of proteins in the lab and testing whether they can trigger reactions critical for early metabolism.”

    A Rutgers-led team of scientists called ENIGMA (Evolution of Nanomachines in Geospheres and Microbial Ancestors) is conducting the research with a NASA grant and via membership in the NASA Astrobiology Program. The ENIGMA project seeks to reveal the role of the simplest proteins that catalyzed the earliest stages of life.

    “We think life was built from very small building blocks and emerged like a Lego set to make cells and more complex organisms like us,” said senior author Paul G. Falkowski, ENIGMA principal investigator and a distinguished professor at Rutgers University–New Brunswick who leads the Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory. “We think we have found the building blocks of life – the Lego set that led, ultimately, to the evolution of cells, animals and plants.”

    The Rutgers team focused on two protein “folds” that are likely the first structures in early metabolism. They are a ferredoxin fold that binds iron-sulfur compounds, and a “Rossmann” fold, which binds nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA and RNA). These are two pieces of the puzzle that must fit in the evolution of life.

    Proteins are chains of amino acids and a chain’s 3D path in space is called a fold. Ferredoxins are metals found in modern proteins and shuttle electrons around cells to promote metabolism. Electrons flow through solids, liquids and gases and power living systems, and the same electrical force must be present in any other planetary system with a chance to support life.

    There is evidence the two folds may have shared a common ancestor and, if true, the ancestor may have been the first metabolic enzyme of life.

    The lead author is Hagai Raanan, a former post-doctoral associate in the Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory. Rutgers co-authors include Saroj Poudel, a post-doctoral associate, and Douglas H. Pike, a doctoral student in the ENIGMA project.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:31 am on March 6, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Laura Haynes a paleoceanographer, , , Rutgers University, The month–long International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 378,   

    From Rutgers University: “Postdoc Laura Haynes Searching for Climate Change Clues Under the Ocean Floor” 

    Rutgers smaller
    Our Great Seal.

    From Rutgers University

    February 24, 2020 [Just now in social media.]
    Craig Winston

    1
    Laura Haynes cruises the world searching for core samples.

    It’s hard to pinpoint where you might find Laura Haynes, an EOAS post-doctoral fellow, for an interview. During a telephone chat she sounded far away. She explained why in a subsequent email.

    “I was actually in Fiji, eating breakfast before we headed out to board the ship,” she wrote. “We are now transiting nine days to our first coring site and will be drilling to about 670 meters below the sea floor in the hopes of recovering the K/Pg boundary.”

    Translation: The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary marks the mass extinction of the Earth’s dinosaurs more than 60 million years ago. It’s represented by a thin band of rock [Actually, it is marked all around the world by a layer of Iridium, found by Luis and Walter Alvarez].

    Haynes, a paleoceanographer, is sailing on the month–long International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 378 with a collective of scientists from countries including Australia, China, Japan, Korea, and Brazil. They staff a floating lab, covering it 24/7 on rotating 12-hour shifts. (The ship travels the world, drilling at five to eight locations on a cruise; this time there is only one stop for a long core drill.) The crew hopes that drilling into this new, unbroken core will enable them to reconstruct climate change in one location millions of years ago, revealing the answers to questions about the Earth’s climate history.

    2
    International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 378 South Pacific Paleogene Climate.

    “It was records from ocean drilling that first showed that the ocean floor is spreading apart and causing the movement of tectonic plates, and that rapid climate change has happened in Earth’s past,” said Haynes. “While there are records of Earth history from many crucial time periods that exist on land, they are patchy and not always continuous. By contrast, sea floor muds can build up continuously and slowly over time and give us continuous records of Earth’s climate history.”

    3
    Laura Haynes in the lab.

    Back in the lab, the scientists examine core samples from the drilling and meet twice a day to discuss their findings. Haynes’ role on the ship is as a sedimentologist; she describes the core samples that come up from the sea floor and determines their composition: fossil, clay, sand, or volcanic ash. The expedition continues long after each member returns home with samples they take back for further study. Their scientific community will stay intact as they synthesize their findings over the next few years.

    Her itinerary during the last year is an enviable one. Haynes earlier sailed on the Chilean drilling ship on a cruise to the Chile margin led by the Rutgers postdoc researcher Samantha Bova and EOAS faculty member Yair Rosenthal, both of the Department of Marine and Coast Sciences. They sought to understand how Patagonian glaciers and the South Pacific Ocean responded to climate change. “It was a huge success and a wonderful first experience on a drillship,” she said. “I am coming to understand that I was spoiled by the incredible wildlife we saw on the ship; we were encircled by albatrosses and seals for most of our expedition.”

    Her primary field of study involves using fossilized shells of plankton, “foraminifera,” to reconstruct the history of climate change. The shells are preserved in deep sea muds, and their chemical composition can indicate past climate such as ocean temperature, acidity, and circulation. “These are all things we’d like to understand so that we can better predict how modern climate change will affect the Earth system in the future.”

    Haynes was inspired to pursue a career in the sciences when she had an awakening in high school after watching “An Inconvenient Truth,” former Vice President Al Gore’s 2006 documentary intended to educate the public about global warming. After that, she intuitively understood that she wanted to dedicate her career to studying the environment.

    Haynes said: “When I got to undergrad, I was incredibly lucky in that my freshman adviser suggested I take a geology class. After going on my first few field trips, I knew that this was the field I wanted to be in, but I also knew that I wanted to apply it to understanding modern environmental change. With the study of past climate histories, I found this perfect balance.”

    Her educational background prepared her well for her research career. Haynes earned her undergraduate degree in geology from Pomona College (Claremont, Calif.), and a master’s degree and Ph.D. in Earth and Environmental Sciences from Columbia University. For her doctoral dissertation, she analyzed living foraminifera, spending two months in coastal field stations at Catalina Island, Calif., and Isla Magueyes, Puerto Rico.

    Perhaps a telltale sign of Haynes’ future came from her first job at age 14— as a counselor at a science camp for elementary students.

    “I didn’t have any idea then that I would be a scientist, but it does make a lot of sense in retrospect. “

    During her latest cruise, Haynes answered several questions about her work and life. A condensed version of her comments appears below:

    What was your best day on the job?

    In the lab, I always love a day when I get new data off the machine, knowing that I am the only person in the world that has this tiny new piece of knowledge.

    What are your career goals?

    I am incredibly excited that I will start an assistant professor position at Vassar College this fall. In my new position, I am thrilled to usher undergraduates through the research process, to conduct research on our new sediment cores, and to teach interdisciplinary classes related to oceanography, biogeochemistry, mass extinctions, and science communication.

    What’s your secret skill?

    I am very good at manipulating dust-sized microfossils with the smallest possible paintbrush. Working in paleoceanography has certainly honed my fine motor skills.
    Which professional accomplishment has given you the most pride?

    I got to mentor an undergraduate student, Ingrid Izaguirre, through a summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates project in 2018 at Columbia. She did a fantastic job and presented her findings at the American Geophysical Union conference that winter, explaining complicated ocean chemistry to interested listeners for four hours straight. I was incredibly proud of her work and presentation, and still get to see her progress as she is now a graduate student in paleoceanography.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    rutgers-campus

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

    As a ’67 graduate of University college, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

    Alpha Sigma Lamda, National Honor Society of non-tradional students.

     
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