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  • richardmitnick 11:34 am on September 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , At Least 9 Exoplanets Could See Earth With Present-Day Human Technology, , , , , , Queens University Belfast, Transit photometry   

    From Queens University Belfast and Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research via Motherboard: “At Least 9 Exoplanets Could See Earth With Present-Day Human Technology”… 


    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research

    QUB bloc

    Queens University Belfast (QUB)

    motherboard

    Motherboard

    …But that doesn’t mean anybody’s looking.

    Since the first exoplanet was discovered in 1995, well over 3,500 planets orbiting stars other than our own have been detected. This explosion in exoplanet discovery has largely happened in the last decade due to drastically improved methods of observation. Today, the main instrument in the exoplanet hunter’s toolbox is transit photometry, which detects exoplanets by measuring the decrease in a star’s brightness as a planet passes in front of it.

    Planet transit. NASA/Ames

    Now, a team of scientists from Queen’s University Belfast and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research want to know if the same methods could be used by aliens to observe Earth. Based on their initial research [MNRAS], it seems at least nine known exoplanets have a good view of Earth—although none of these are capable of sustaining life as we know it. Still, the researchers estimate that there are ten other planets that are ideally situated to observe Earth and habitable.

    1
    This illustration depicts how Earth causes light from the Sun to dim as it passes in front of it from the vantage point of an observer on an exoplanet. Image: Robert Wells/Queen’s University Belfast

    To understand how an alien on one of these exoplanets might see Earth, the researchers first identified the areas in the sky in which the transit zones—where a planet passes in front of the Sun—of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars could be seen. The researchers only focused on the four innermost planets of our solar system because these are the most likely to be observed by an ET using transit photometry.

    “Larger planets would naturally block out more light as they pass in front of their star,” said Robert Wells, a graduate student at Queen’s University Belfast and the paper’s lead author. “However the more important factor is actually how close the planet is to its parent star. Since the terrestrial planets are much closer to the sun than the gas giants, they’ll be more likely to be seen in transit.”

    To determine which exoplanets would have the best chance of observing our solar system, the researchers determined which parts of the sky would be able to see more than one planet’s transit in front of the Sun. As Wells and his colleagues discovered, at most three of the four terrestrial planets could be observed in transit from any point outside of our solar system.

    2
    The image depicts where in our galaxy an observer would be able to see planetary transits in our solar system (the blue line represents Earth’s transit). The points where these lines converge are our best bets for being seen. Image: Robert Wells/Queen’s University Belfast

    Statistically speaking, this means that a randomly placed alien outside the solar system has a 1 in 40 chance of observing a single terrestrial planet in our solar system. “The probability of detecting two planets would be about ten times lower, and to detect three would be a further ten times smaller than this,” said Katja Poppenhaeger, an astrophysicist at Queen’s University Belfast.

    Of the 3,500 known exoplanets, the team calculated that only 68 are situated such that they could observe at least one planet in our solar system. Of these, nine are ideally situated to observe Earth, but none of these nine planets are habitable.

    All hope is not lost for cosmic voyeurism, however. The team also estimated that based on the current distribution of exoplanets, there may be dozens of yet-to-be-discovered planets in the habitable zones of their star that can also see Earth.

    The team hopes to confirm this based on data from NASA’s K2 mission, which is hunting for exoplanet transits in certain areas of the sky.

    NASA/Kepler Telescope

    Each K2 campaign, or the time the orbital telescope spends observing a certain region of the sky, lasts for around 83 days. The researchers expect K2 to discover around a dozen exoplanets that would be able to see planetary transits in our solar system during each campaign.

    With any luck, one of those exoplanets might be gazing back at us.

    The future is wonderful, the future is terrifying. We should know, we live there. Whether on the ground or on the web, Motherboard travels the world to uncover the tech and science stories that define what’s coming next for this quickly-evolving planet of ours.

    Motherboard is a multi-platform, multimedia publication, relying on longform reporting, in-depth blogging, and video and film production to ensure every story is presented in its most gripping and relatable format. Beyond that, we are dedicated to bringing our audience honest portraits of the futures we face, so you can be better informed in your decision-making today.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

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    QUB campus

    An international institution

    Queen’s is in the top one per cent of global universities.

    With more than 23,000 students and 3,700 staff, it is a dynamic and diverse institution, a magnet for inward investment, a major employer and investor, a patron of the arts and a global player in areas ranging from cancer studies to sustainability, and from pharmaceuticals to creative writing.
    World-leading research

    Queen’s is a member of the Russell Group of 24 leading UK research-intensive universities, alongside Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College London.

    In the UK top ten for research intensity

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 results placed Queen’s joint 8th in the UK for research intensity, with over 75 per cent of Queen’s researchers undertaking world-class or internationally leading research.

    The University also has 14 subject areas ranked within the UK’s top 20 and 76 per cent of its research classified in the top two categories of world leading and internationally excellent.

    This validates Queen’s as a University with world-class researchers carrying out world-class or internationally leading research.

    Globally recognised education

    The University has won the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education on five occasions – for Northern Ireland’s Comprehensive Cancer Services programme and for world-class achievement in green chemistry, environmental research, palaeoecology and law.

    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research

    The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research has had an eventful history – with several moves, changes of name, and structural developments. The first prototype of the current institute was founded in 1934 in Mecklenburg; it moved to Katlenburg-Lindau in 1946. Not just the location of the buildings changed – the topic of research also moved, from Earth to outer space. In the first decades the focus of research was the stratosphere and ionosphere of the Earth, but since 1997 the institute exclusively researches the physics of planets and the Sun. In January 2014 the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research has relocated to it’s new home: a new building in Göttingen close to the Northern Campus of the University of Göttingen.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:55 am on November 30, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Queens University Belfast,   

    From Queens University Belfast (QUB): “Queen’s University Belfast lead research milestone in helping predict solar flares” 

    QUB bloc

    Queens University Belfast (QUB)

    1
    A solar flare erupts from the right side of the Sun in this image from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.Credit: NASA/SDO

    NASA SDO
    NASA/SDO

    An international team of researchers, led by Queen’s University, has devised a high-precision method of examining magnetic fields in the Sun’s atmosphere, representing a significant leap forward in the investigation of solar flares and potentially catastrophic space weather.

    Solar flares are massive explosions of energy in the Sun’s atmosphere. Experts have warned that even a single ‘monster’ solar flare could cause up to $2 trillion worth of damage on Earth, including the loss of satellites and electricity grids, as well the potential knock-on dangers to human life and health. A key goal of the $300 million Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), which will be the largest solar telescope in the world when construction is finished in 2019 on the Pacific island of Maui, is the measurement of magnetic fields in the outer regions of the Sun’s atmosphere.

    DKIST telescope
    DKIST

    The technique pioneered by the Queen’s-led team, published today in the journal Nature Physics, will feed into the DKIST project, as well as allowing greater advance warning of potentially devastating space storms. The new technique allows changes in the Sun’s magnetic fields, which drive the initiation of solar flares, to be monitored up to ten times faster than previous methods.

    The Queen’s-led team, which spans academics from universities in Europe, the Asia-Pacific and the USA, harnessed data from both NASA’s premier space-based telescope (the Solar Dynamics Observatory), and the ROSA multi-camera system, which was designed at Queen’s University Belfast, using detectors made by Northern Ireland company Andor Technology.

    QUB ROSA camera system
    ROSA multi-camera system

    Lead researcher Dr David Jess from Queen’s Astrophysics Research Centre said: “Continual outbursts from our Sun, in the form of solar flares and associated space weather, represent the potentially destructive nature of our nearest star. Our new techniques demonstrate a novel way of probing the Sun’s outermost magnetic fields, providing scientists worldwide with a new approach to examine, and ultimately understand, the precursors responsible for destructive space weather.

    “Queen’s is increasingly becoming a major player on the astrophysics global stage. This work highlights the strong international links we have with other leading academic institutes from around the world, and provides yet another example of how Queen’s research is at the forefront of scientific discovery.”

    The paper, entitled Solar Coronal Magnetic Fields Derived Using Seismology Techniques Applied to Omnipresent Sunspot Waves, can be read at: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphys3544

    Specific research results include:

    (1) The datasets used provided unprecedented images of all layers of the Sun’s tenuous atmosphere, allowing the team to piece the jigsaw puzzle together of how magnetic fields permeate the dynamic atmosphere. Images captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory and STEREO spacecrafts provided million-degree vantage points of how these magnetic fields stretch far out into the Sun’s corona (the region of the Sun’s atmosphere visible during total solar eclipses).

    NASA STEREO spacecraft
    NASA/STEREO

    (2) Waves propagated along magnetic fields, similar to how sound waves travel through the air on Earth. The speed at which these waves can travel is governed by the characteristics of the Sun’s atmosphere, including its temperature and the strength of its magnetic field. The waves were found to propagate with speeds approaching half a million (500,000) mph, and when coupled with temperatures of around 1,000,000 degrees in the Sun’s outer atmosphere, the researchers were able to determine the magnetic field strengths to a high degree of precision

    (3) The strength of the magnetic fields decreases by a factor of 100 as they travel from the surface of the Sun out into the tenuous, hot corona. While the magnetic fields have decreased in strength, they still possess immense energy that can twist and shear, ultimately releasing huge blasts towards Earth in the form of solar flares. The team’s methods provide a much faster way of examining magnetic field changes in the lead up to solar flares, which can ultimately be used to provide advanced warning against such violent space weather.

    2
    The Sun emitted a significant solar flare, thankfully not in Earth’s direction, on October 19, 2014. Its image was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. Credit: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    QUB campus

    An international institution

    Queen’s is in the top one per cent of global universities.

    With more than 23,000 students and 3,700 staff, it is a dynamic and diverse institution, a magnet for inward investment, a major employer and investor, a patron of the arts and a global player in areas ranging from cancer studies to sustainability, and from pharmaceuticals to creative writing.
    World-leading research

    Queen’s is a member of the Russell Group of 24 leading UK research-intensive universities, alongside Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College London.

    In the UK top ten for research intensity

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 results placed Queen’s joint 8th in the UK for research intensity, with over 75 per cent of Queen’s researchers undertaking world-class or internationally leading research.

    The University also has 14 subject areas ranked within the UK’s top 20 and 76 per cent of its research classified in the top two categories of world leading and internationally excellent.

    This validates Queen’s as a University with world-class researchers carrying out world-class or internationally leading research.

    Globally recognised education

    The University has won the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education on five occasions – for Northern Ireland’s Comprehensive Cancer Services programme and for world-class achievement in green chemistry, environmental research, palaeoecology and law.

     
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