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  • richardmitnick 8:01 am on May 10, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Q&A: SLAC/Stanford researchers prepare for a new quantum revolution", , , , , , , , , Quantum Physics, Quantum squeezing, , The most exciting opportunities in quantum control make use of a phenomenon known as entanglement   

    From SLAC National Accelerator Lab- “Q&A: SLAC/Stanford researchers prepare for a new quantum revolution” 

    From SLAC National Accelerator Lab

    May 9, 2019
    Manuel Gnida

    Monika Schleier-Smith and Kent Irwin explain how their projects in quantum information science could help us better understand black holes and dark matter.

    The tech world is abuzz about quantum information science (QIS). This emerging technology explores bizarre quantum effects that occur on the smallest scales of matter and could potentially revolutionize the way we live.

    Quantum computers would outperform today’s most powerful supercomputers; data transfer technology based on quantum encryption would be more secure; exquisitely sensitive detectors could pick up fainter-than-ever signals from all corners of the universe; and new quantum materials could enable superconductors that transport electricity without loss.

    In December 2018, President Trump signed the National Quantum Initiative Act into law, which will mobilize $1.2 billion over the next five years to accelerate the development of quantum technology and its applications. Three months earlier, the Department of Energy had already announced $218 million in funding for 85 QIS research awards.

    The Fundamental Physics and Technology Innovation directorates of DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently joined forces with Stanford University on a new initiative called Q-FARM to make progress in the field. In this Q&A, two Q-FARM scientists explain how they will explore the quantum world through projects funded by DOE QIS awards in high-energy physics.

    Monika Schleier-Smith, assistant professor of physics at Stanford, wants to build a quantum simulator made of atoms to test how quantum information spreads. The research, she said, could even lead to a better understanding of black holes.

    Kent Irwin, professor of physics at Stanford and professor of photon science and of particle physics and astrophysics at SLAC, works on quantum sensors that would open new avenues to search for the identity of the mysterious dark matter that makes up most of the universe.

    Monika Schleier-Smith and Kent Irwin are the principal investigators of three quantum information science projects in high-energy physics at SLAC. (Farrin Abbott/Dawn Harmer/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    What exactly is quantum information science?

    Irwin: If we look at the world on the smallest scales, everything we know is already “quantum.” On this scale, the properties of atoms, molecules and materials follow the rules of quantum mechanics. QIS strives to make significant advances in controlling those quantum effects that don’t exist on larger scales.

    Schleier-Smith: We’re truly witnessing a revolution in the field in the sense that we’re getting better and better at engineering systems with carefully designed quantum properties, which could pave the way for a broad range of future applications.

    What does quantum control mean in practice?

    Schleier-Smith: The most exciting opportunities in quantum control make use of a phenomenon known as entanglement – a type of correlation that doesn’t exist in the “classical,” non-quantum world. Let me give you a simple analogy: Imagine that we flip two coins. Classically, whether one coin shows heads or tails is independent of what the other coin shows. But if the two coins are instead in an entangled quantum state, looking at the result for one “coin” automatically determines the result for the other one, even though the coin toss still looks random for either coin in isolation.

    Entanglement thus provides a fundamentally new way of encoding information – not in the states of individual “coins” or bits but in correlations between the states of different qubits. This capability could potentially enable transformative new ways of computing, where problems that are intrinsically difficult to solve on classical computers might be more efficiently solved on quantum ones. A challenge, however, is that entangled states are exceedingly fragile: any measurement of the system – even unintentional – necessarily changes the quantum state. So a major area of quantum control is to understand how to generate and preserve this fragile resource.

    At the same time, certain quantum technologies can also take advantage of the extreme sensitivity of quantum states to perturbations. One application is in secure telecommunications: If a sender and receiver share information in the form of quantum bits, an eavesdropper cannot go undetected, because her measurement necessarily changes the quantum state.

    Another very promising application is quantum sensing, where the idea is to reduce noise and enhance sensitivity by controlling quantum correlations, for instance, through quantum squeezing.

    What is quantum squeezing?

    Irwin: Quantum mechanics sets limits on how we can measure certain things in nature. For instance, we can’t perfectly measure both the position and momentum of a particle. The very act of measuring one changes the other. This is called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. When we search for dark matter, we need to measure an electromagnetic signal extremely well, but Heisenberg tells us that we can’t measure the strength and timing of this signal without introducing uncertainty.

    Quantum squeezing allows us to evade limits on measurement set by Heisenberg by putting all the uncertainty into one thing (which we don’t care about), and then measuring the other with much greater precision. So, for instance, if we squeeze all of the quantum uncertainty in an electromagnetic signal into its timing, we can measure its strength much better than quantum mechanics would ordinarily allow. This lets us search for an electromagnetic signal from dark matter much more quickly and sensitively than is otherwise possible.

    Kent Irwin (at left with Dale Li) leads efforts at SLAC and Stanford to build quantum sensors for exquisitely sensitive detectors. (Andy Freeberg/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    What types of sensors are you working on?

    Irwin: My team is exploring quantum techniques to develop sensors that could break new ground in the search for dark matter.

    We’ve known since the 1930s that the universe contains much more matter than the ordinary type that we can see with our eyes and telescopes – the matter made up of atoms. Whatever dark matter is, it’s a new type of particle that we don’t understand yet. Most of today’s dark matter detectors search for relatively heavy particles, called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs.

    PandaX II Dark Matter experiment at Jin-ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in Sichuan, China

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine

    LBNL LZ project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA

    But what if dark matter particles were so light that they wouldn’t leave a trace in those detectors? We want to develop sensors that would be able to “see” much lighter dark matter particles.

    There would be so many of these very light dark matter particles that they would behave much more like waves than individual particles. So instead of looking for collisions of individual dark matter particles within a detector, which is how WIMP detectors work, we want to look for dark matter waves, which would be detected like a very weak AM radio signal.

    In fact, we even call one of our projects “Dark Matter Radio.” It works like the world’s most sensitive AM radio. But it’s also placed in the world’s most perfect radio shield, made up of a material called a superconductor, which keeps all normal radio waves out. However, unlike real AM radio signals, dark matter waves would be able to go right through the shield and produce a signal. So we are looking for a very weak AM radio station made by dark matter at an unknown frequency.

    Quantum sensors can make this radio much more sensitive, for instance by using quantum tricks such as squeezing and entanglement. So the Dark Matter Radio will not only be the world’s most sensitive AM radio; it will also be better than the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would normally allow.

    What are the challenges of QIS?

    Schleier-Smith: There is a lot we need to learn about controlling quantum correlations before we can make broad use of them in future applications. For example, the sensitivity of entangled quantum states to perturbations is great for sensor applications. However, for quantum computing it’s a major challenge because perturbations of information encoded in qubits will introduce errors, and nobody knows for sure how to correct for them.

    To make progress in that area, my team is studying a question that is very fundamental to our ability to control quantum correlations: How does information actually spread in quantum systems?

    The model system we’re using for these studies consists of atoms that are laser-cooled and optically trapped. We use light to controllably turn on interactions between the atoms, as a means of generating entanglement. By measuring the speed with which quantum information can spread in the system, we hope to understand how to design the structure of the interactions to generate entanglement most efficiently. We view the system of cold atoms as a quantum simulator that allows us to study principles that are also applicable to other physical systems.

    In this area of quantum simulation, one major thrust has been to advance understanding of solid-state systems, by trapping atoms in arrays that mimic the structure of a crystalline material. In my lab, we are additionally working to extend the ideas and tools of quantum simulation in new directions. One prospect that I am particularly excited about is to use cold atoms to simulate what happens to quantum information in black holes.

    Monika Schleier-Smith (at center with graduate students Emily Davis and Eric Cooper) uses laser-cooled atoms in her lab at Stanford to study the transfer of quantum information. (Dawn Harmer/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    What do cold atoms have to do with black holes?

    Schleier-Smith: The idea that there might be any connection between quantum systems we can build in the lab and black holes has its origins in a long-standing theoretical problem: When particles fall into a black hole, what happens to the information they contained? There were compelling arguments that the information should be lost, but that would contradict the laws of quantum mechanics.

    More recently, theoretical physicists – notably my Stanford colleague Patrick Hayden – found a resolution to this problem: We should think of the black hole as a highly chaotic system that “scrambles” the information as fast as physically possible. It’s almost like shredding documents, but quantum information scrambling is much richer in that the result is a highly entangled quantum state.

    Although precisely recreating such a process in the lab will be very challenging, we hope to look at one of its key features already in the near term. In order for information scrambling to happen, information needs to be transferred through space exponentially fast. This, in turn, requires quantum interactions to occur over long distances, which is quite counterintuitive because interactions in nature typically become weaker with distance. With our quantum simulator, we are able to study interactions between distant atoms by sending information back and forth with photons, particles of light.

    What do you hope will happen in QIS over the next few years?

    Irwin: We need to prove that, in real applications, quantum technology is superior to the technology that we already have. We are in the early stages of this new quantum revolution, but this is already starting to happen. The things we’re learning now will help us make a leap in developing future technology, such as universal quantum computers and next-generation sensors. The work we do on quantum sensors will enable new science, not only in dark matter research. At SLAC, I also see potential for quantum-enhanced sensors in X-ray applications, which could provide us with new tools to study advanced materials and understand how biomolecules work.

    Schleier-Smith: QIS offers plenty of room for breakthroughs. There are many open questions we still need to answer about how to engineer the properties of quantum systems in order to harness them for technology, so it’s imperative that we continue to broadly advance our understanding of complex quantum systems. Personally, I hope that we’ll be able to better connect experimental observations with the latest theoretical advances. Bringing all this knowledge together will help us build the technologies of the future.

    See the full article here .

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    SLAC/LCLS II projected view

    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.

  • richardmitnick 5:44 pm on April 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum, , , Quantum Physics,   

    From Scientific American: “Cosmologist Lee Smolin says that at certain key points, the scientific worldview is based on fallacious reasoning” 

    Scientific American

    From Scientific American

    April 17, 2019
    Jim Daley

    Lee Smolin, author of six books about the philosophical issues raised by contemporary physics, says every time he writes a new one, the experience completely changes the direction his own research is taking. In his latest book, Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum, Smolin, a cosmologist and quantum theorist at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, tackles what he sees as the limitations in quantum theory.

    Credit: Perimeter Institute

    “I want to say the scientific worldview is based on fallacious reasoning at certain key points,” Smolin says. In Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution, he argues one of those key points was the assumption that quantum physics is a complete theory. This incompleteness, Smolin argues, is the reason quantum physics has not been able to solve certain questions about the universe.

    “Most of what we do [in science] is take the laws that have been discovered by experiments to apply to parts of the universe, and just assume that they can be scaled up to apply to the whole universe,” Smolin says. “I’m going to be suggesting that’s wrong.”

    Join Smolin at the Perimeter Institute as he discusses his book and takes the audience on a journey through the basics of quantum physics and the experiments and scientists who have changed our understanding of the universe. The discussion, “Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution,” is part of Perimeter’s public lecture series and will take place on Wednesday, April 17, at 7 P.M. Eastern time. Online viewers can participate in the discussion by tweeting to @Perimeter using the #piLIVE hashtag.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 1:12 pm on April 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "In quantum breakthrough scientists demonstrate ‘one-way street’ for energy flow", , , , , Quantum Physics,   

    From University of Chicago: “In quantum breakthrough, scientists demonstrate ‘one-way street’ for energy flow” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Apr 4, 2019
    A. A. Clerk

    Copyright shutterstock.com

    In a new study, scientists found a method to create a controllable one-way channel for the flow of vibrational energy and heat.

    A basic rule in our lives is that if energy can flow in one direction, then it can also flow in the reverse direction. For example, if you open a window and yell at someone outside, you also can hear if they yell back. But what if there was a way to create a “one-way street” for mechanical energy that only allows heat and sound to flow in one direction?

    Finding new ways to break this basic symmetry has sparked the interest of scientists and engineers in recent years; such one-way streets could be extremely useful in applications ranging from quantum computing to cooling in electronics and devices.

    A breakthrough experiment involving researchers with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago and Yale University demonstrated that by using light to mediate the interaction between mechanical systems, they can create a controllable, one-way channel for the flow of vibrational energy and heat.

    The study, published April 3 in Nature, was based on an idea developed earlier by the University of Chicago team [Physical Review X] and proves that the basic theory works. It also shows that the ideas can be implemented in a simple, compact system that could be incorporated in new devices.

    Schematic image of the experimental device. Credit: Jack Sankey

    “This is a really exciting resource that can be used in both classical and quantum contexts,” said study co-author Aashish Clerk, a professor in molecular engineering at the University of Chicago who developed the theory. “This research could open the door for many new studies.”

    Breaking symmetry by using light

    The principle that says energy and information exchange between two systems via a two-way street is known as “reciprocity,” and it is a fundamental rule in most physical systems. Breaking this symmetry is crucial in a number of different applications. For example, by preventing a backward flow of energy, one could protect a delicate signal source from corruption, or cool a system by preventing unwanted heating.

    It’s especially important in quantum computation, in which scientists harness quantum phenomena to enable powerful new kinds of information processing. Breaking this symmetry ensures delicate quantum processors are not destroyed during the readout process.

    In their experiment, researchers used a tiny vibrating membrane as the mechanical system. Much like a drumhead, this membrane could vibrate in several distinct ways, each with a distinct resonant frequency.

    The researchers’ goal was to engineer a one-way flow of energy between two of these vibrational modes. To do this, the membrane was placed in a structure called an optical cavity, with two parallel mirrors designed to trap light. By shining light on the cavity using lasers, the researchers were able to use light as a medium for transferring mechanical energy between two vibrational modes. When the lasers were tuned carefully (in a way predicted by Clerk’s theory), this transfer mechanism was completely directional.

    From theory to lab to the quantum level

    The experiment was based on basic theoretical concepts developed by Clerk and his former postdoc Anja Metelmann (now at the Freie University in Berlin).

    “You can come up with a lot of ideas that are exciting in terms of the basic theory and concepts, but often there is a gap between these abstract ideas and what you can actually build and realize in the lab,” Clerk said. “To me, it is exciting that our proposal was realized, and that the experimentalists had enough control over their system to make it work.”

    The approach used in the experiment to achieve a one-way interaction—mechanical vibrations interacting with light—could pave the way for designing new devices targeting a variety of applications, ranging from mitigating heat flow to new kinds of communication systems. These unusual one-way interactions also have interesting fundamental implications.

    As a theoretical physicist who focuses on quantum systems, Clerk is particularly interested in studying arrays where many quantum systems interact with one another in a unidirectional manner. This could be a powerful way to generate the unusual kinds of quantum states that are needed for quantum communication and quantum computation.

    Other authors on the paper include Jack Harris, Haitan Xu and Luyao Jiang of Yale University.

    Clerk is working with the Polsky Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Chicago to advance his discoveries.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 9:48 am on March 30, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Cubits, , , , Quantum Physics   

    From Pennsylvania State University: “Extremely accurate measurements of atom states for quantum computing” 

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    From Pennsylvania State University

    25 March 2019

    David Weiss
    (814) 863-3076

    Sam Sholtis

    New method allows extremely accurate measurement of the quantum state of atomic qubits—the basic unit of information in quantum computers. Atoms are initially sorted to fill two 5×5 planes (dashed yellow grid marks their initial locations). After the first images are taken, microwaves are used to put the atoms into equal superpositions of two spin states. A shift to the left or right in the final images corresponds to detection in one spin state or the other. Associated square patterns denote atom locations (cyan: initial position, orange and blue: shifted positions). Credit: Weiss Laboratory, Penn State

    A new method allows the quantum state of atomic “qubits”—the basic unit of information in quantum computers—to be measured with twenty times less error than was previously possible, without losing any atoms. Accurately measuring qubit states, which are analogous to the one or zero states of bits in traditional computing, is a vital step in the development of quantum computers. A paper describing the method by researchers at Penn State appears March 25, 2019 in the journal Nature Physics.

    “We are working to develop a quantum computer that uses a three-dimensional array of laser-cooled and trapped cesium atoms as qubits,” said David Weiss, professor of physics at Penn State and the leader of the research team. “Because of how quantum mechanics works, the atomic qubits can exist in a ‘superposition’ of two states, which means they can be, in a sense, in both states simultaneously. To read out the result of a quantum computation, it is necessary to perform a measurement on each atom. Each measurement finds each atom in only one of its two possible states. The relative probability of the two results depends on the superposition state before the measurement.”

    To measure qubit states, the team first uses lasers to cool and trap about 160 atoms in a three-dimensional lattice with X, Y, and Z axes. Initially, the lasers trap all of the atoms identically, regardless of their quantum state. The researchers then rotate the polarization of one of the laser beams that creates the X lattice, which spatially shifts atoms in one qubit state to the left and atoms in the other qubit state to the right. If an atom starts in a superposition of the two qubit states, it ends up in a superposition of having moved to the left and having moved to the right. They then switch to an X lattice with a smaller lattice spacing, which tightly traps the atoms in their new superposition of shifted positions. When light is then scattered from each atom to observe where it is, each atom is either found shifted left or shifted right, with a probability that depends on its initial state. The measurement of each atom’s position is equivalent to a measurement of each atom’s initial qubit state.

    “Mapping internal states onto spatial locations goes a long way towards making this an ideal measurement,” said Weiss. “Another advantage of our approach is that the measurements do not cause the loss of any of the atoms we are measuring, which is a limiting factor in many previous methods.”

    The team determined the accuracy of their new method by loading their lattices with atoms in either one or the other qubit states and performing the measurement. They were able to accurately measure atom states with a fidelity of 0.9994, meaning that there were only six errors in 10,000 measurements, a twenty-fold improvement on previous methods. Additionally, the error rate was not impacted by the number of qubits that the team measured in each experiment and because there was no loss of atoms, the atoms could be reused in a quantum computer to perform the next calculation.

    “Our method is similar to the Stern-Gerlach experiment from 1922—an experiment that is integral to the history of quantum physics,” said Weiss. “In the experiment, a beam of silver atoms was passed through a magnetic field gradient with their north poles aligned perpendicular to the gradient. When Stern and Gerlach saw half the atoms deflect up and half down, it confirmed the idea of quantum superposition, one of the defining aspects of quantum mechanics. In our experiment, we also map the internal quantum states of atoms onto positions, but we can do it on an atom by atom basis. Of course, we do not need to test this aspect of quantum mechanics, we can just use it.”

    In addition to Weiss, the research team at Penn State includes Tsung-Yao Wu, Aishwarya Kumar, and Felipe Giraldo. The research was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on March 25, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "In a new quantum simulator light behaves like a magnet", , , , , Quantum Physics   

    From École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne: “In a new quantum simulator, light behaves like a magnet” 

    EPFL bloc

    From École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

    Nik Papageorgiou

    Physicists at EPFL propose a new “quantum simulator”: a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. Studying it, the researchers have found that photons can behave like magnetic dipoles at temperatures close to absolute zero, following the laws of quantum mechanics. The simple simulator can be used to better understand the properties of complex materials under such extreme conditions.

    When subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, systems made of many interacting particles can display behaviour so complex that its quantitative description defies the capabilities of the most powerful computers in the world. In 1981, the visionary physicist Richard Feynman argued we can simulate such complex behavior using an artificial apparatus governed by the very same quantum laws – what has come to be known as a “quantum simulator”.

    One example of a complex quantum system is that of magnets placed at really low temperatures. Close to absolute zero (-273.15°C), magnetic materials may undergo what is known as a “quantum phase transition”. Like a conventional phase transition (e.g. ice melting into water, or water evaporating into steam), the system still switches between two states, except that close to the transition point the system manifests quantum entanglement – the most profound feature predicted by quantum mechanics. Studying this phenomenon in real materials is an astoundingly challenging task for experimental physicists.

    But physicists led by Vincenzo Savona at EPFL have now come up with a quantum simulator that promises to solve the problem. “The simulator is a simple photonic device that can easily be built and run with current experimental techniques,” says Riccardo Rota, the postdoc at Savona’s lab who led the study. “But more importantly, it can simulate the complex behavior of real, interacting magnets at very low temperatures.”

    The simulator may be built using superconducting circuits – the same technological platform used in modern quantum computers. The circuits are coupled to laser fields in such a way that it causes an effective interaction among light particles (photons). “When we studied the simulator, we found that the photons behaved in the same way as magnetic dipoles across the quantum phase transition in real materials,” says Rota. In short, we can now use photons to run a virtual experiment on quantum magnets instead of having to set up the experiment itself.

    “We are theorists,” says Savona. “We came up with the idea for this particular quantum simulator and modelled its behavior using traditional computer simulations, which can be done when the quantum simulator addresses a small enough system. Our findings prove that the quantum simulator we propose is viable, and we are now in talks with experimental groups who would like to actually build and use it.”

    Understandably, Rota is excited: “Our simulator can be applied to a broad class of quantum systems, allowing physicists to study several complex quantum phenomena. It is a truly remarkable advance in the development of quantum technologies.”

    Science paper:
    Riccardo Rota, Fabrizio Minganti, Cristiano Ciuti, Vincenzo Savona.
    “Quantum Critical Regime in a Quadratically Driven Nonlinear Photonic Lattice”
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 2:47 pm on March 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Quantum information can be stored and exchanged using electron spin states., Quantum Physics, Size matters in quantum information exchange even on the nanometer scale, The collaboration between researchers with diverse expertise was key to success., Two correlated electron pairs were coherently superposed and entangled over five quantum dots constituting a new world record within the community.   

    From Niels Bohr Institute: “Long-distance quantum information exchange – success at the nanoscale” 

    University of Copenhagen

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute

    At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. The discovery brings us a step closer to future applications of quantum information, as the tiny dots have to leave enough room on the microchip for delicate control electrodes. The distance between the dots has now become big enough for integration with traditional microelectronics and perhaps, a future quantum computer. The result is achieved via a multinational collaboration with Purdue University and the University of Sydney, Australia, now published in Nature Communications.

    Size matters in quantum information exchange even on the nanometer scale.

    Quantum information can be stored and exchanged using electron spin states. The electrons’ charge can be manipulated by gate-voltage pulses, which also controls their spin. It was believed that this method can only be practical if quantum dots touch each other; if squeezed too close together the spins will react too violently, if placed too far apart the spins will interact far too slowly. This creates a dilemma, because if a quantum computer is ever going to see the light of day, we need both, fast spin exchange and enough room around quantum dots to accommodate the pulsed gate electrodes.

    Normally, the left and right dots in the linear array of quantum dots (Illustration 1) are too far apart to exchange quantum information with each other. Frederico Martins, postdoc at UNSW, Sydney, Australia, explains: “We encode quantum information in the electrons’ spin states, which have the desirable property that they don’t interact much with the noisy environment, making them useful as robust and long-lived quantum memories. But when you want to actively process quantum information, the lack of interaction is counterproductive – because now you want the spins to interact!” What to do? You can’t have both long lived information and information exchange – or so it seems. “We discovered that by placing a large, elongated quantum dot between the left dots and right dots, it can mediate a coherent swap of spin states, within a billionth of a second, without ever moving electrons out of their dots. In other words, we now have both fast interaction and the necessary space for the pulsed gate electrodes ”, says Ferdinand Kuemmeth, associate professor at the Niels Bohr Institute.

    Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute cooled a chip containing a large array of spin qubits below -273 Celsius. To manipulate individual electrons within the quantum-dot array, they applied fast voltage pulses to metallic gate electrodes located on the surface of the gallium-arsenide crystal (see scanning electron micrograph). Because each electron also carries a quantum spin, this allows quantum information processing based on the array’s spin states (the arrows on the graphic illustration). During the mediated spin exchange, which only took a billionth of a second, two correlated electron pairs were coherently superposed and entangled over five quantum dots, constituting a new world record within the community.

    Collaborations are an absolute necessity, both internally and externally.

    The collaboration between researchers with diverse expertise was key to success. Internal collaborations constantly advance the reliability of nanofabrication processes and the sophistication of low-temperature techniques. In fact, at the Center for Quantum Devices, major contenders for the implementation of solid-state quantum computers are currently intensely studied, namely semiconducting spin qubits, superconducting gatemon qubits, and topological Majorana qubits.

    All of them are voltage-controlled qubits, allowing researchers to share tricks and solve technical challenges together. But Kuemmeth is quick to add that “all of this would be futile if we didn’t have access to extremely clean semiconducting crystals in the first place”. Michael Manfra, Professor of Materials Engineering, agrees: “Purdue has put a lot of work into understanding the mechanisms that lead to quiet and stable quantum dots. It is fantastic to see this work yield benefits for Copenhagen’s novel qubits”.

    The theoretical framework of the discovery is provided by the University of Sydney, Australia. Stephen Bartlett, a professor of quantum physics at the University of Sydney, said: “What I find exciting about this result as a theorist, is that it frees us from the constraining geometry of a qubit only relying on its nearest neighbours”. His team performed detailed calculations, providing the quantum mechanical explanation for the counterintuitive discovery.

    Overall, the demonstration of fast spin exchange constitutes not only a remarkable scientific and technical achievement, but may have profound implications for the architecture of solid-state quantum computers. The reason is the distance: “If spins between non-neighboring qubits can be controllably exchanged, this will allow the realization of networks in which the increased qubit-qubit connectivity translates into a significantly increased computational quantum volume”, predicts Kuemmeth.

    See the full article here .


    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institute (Danish: Niels Bohr Institutet) is a research institute of the University of Copenhagen. The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University of Copenhagen, by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institute.[1] Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.[2]

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institute.

    The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge, Yale University, The Australian National University, and UC Berkeley, amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient

  • richardmitnick 10:22 am on February 23, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Quantum Physics, , Semiconductor quantum dots,   

    From University of Cambridge: “Physicists get thousands of semiconductor nuclei to do ‘quantum dances’ in unison” 

    U Cambridge bloc

    From University of Cambridge

    22 Feb 2019
    Communications office

    Theoretical ESR spectrum buildup as a function of two-photon detuning δ and drive time τ, for a Rabi frequency of Ω = 3.3 MHz on the central transition. Credit: University of Cambridge.

    A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device.

    Quantum dots are crystals made up of thousands of atoms, and each of these atoms interacts magnetically with the trapped electron. If left alone to its own devices, this interaction of the electron with the nuclear spins, limits the usefulness of the electron as a quantum bit – a qubit.

    Led by Professor Mete Atatüre from Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, the researchers are exploiting the laws of quantum physics and optics to investigate computing, sensing or communication applications.

    “Quantum dots offer an ideal interface, as mediated by light, to a system where the dynamics of individual interacting spins could be controlled and exploited,” said Atatüre, who is a Fellow of St John’s College. “Because the nuclei randomly ‘steal’ information from the electron they have traditionally been an annoyance, but we have shown we can harness them as a resource.”

    The Cambridge team found a way to exploit the interaction between the electron and the thousands of nuclei using lasers to ‘cool’ the nuclei to less than 1 milliKelvin, or a thousandth of a degree above the absolute zero temperature. They then showed they can control and manipulate the thousands of nuclei as if they form a single body in unison, like a second qubit. This proves the nuclei in the quantum dot can exchange information with the electron qubit and can be used to store quantum information as a memory device. The results are reported in the journal Science.

    Quantum computing aims to harness fundamental concepts of quantum physics, such as entanglement and superposition principle, to outperform current approaches to computing and could revolutionise technology, business and research. Just like classical computers, quantum computers need a processor, memory, and a bus to transport the information backwards and forwards. The processor is a qubit which can be an electron trapped in a quantum dot, the bus is a single photon that these quantum dots generate and are ideal for exchanging information. But the missing link for quantum dots is quantum memory.

    Atatüre said: “Instead of talking to individual nuclear spins, we worked on accessing collective spin waves by lasers. This is like a stadium where you don’t need to worry about who raises their hands in the Mexican wave going round, as long as there is one collective wave because they all dance in unison.

    “We then went on to show that these spin waves have quantum coherence. This was the missing piece of the jigsaw and we now have everything needed to build a dedicated quantum memory for every qubit.”

    In quantum technologies, the photon, the qubit and the memory need to interact with each other in a controlled way. This is mostly realised by interfacing different physical systems to form a single hybrid unit which can be inefficient. The researchers have been able to show that in quantum dots, the memory element is automatically there with every single qubit.

    Dr Dorian Gangloff, one of the first authors of the paper [Science] and a Fellow at St John’s, said the discovery will renew interest in these types of semiconductor quantum dots. Dr Gangloff explained: “This is a Holy Grail breakthrough for quantum dot research – both for quantum memory and fundamental research; we now have the tools to study dynamics of complex systems in the spirit of quantum simulation.”

    The long term opportunities of this work could be seen in the field of quantum computing. Last month, IBM launched the world’s first commercial quantum computer, and the Chief Executive of Microsoft has said quantum computing has the potential to ‘radically reshape the world’.

    Gangloff said: “The impact of the qubit could be half a century away but the power of disruptive technology is that it is hard to conceive of the problems we might open up – you can try to think of it as known unknowns but at some point you get into new territory. We don’t yet know the kind of problems it will help to solve which is very exciting.”

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Cambridge Campus

    The University of Cambridge (abbreviated as Cantab in post-nominal letters) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world’s fourth-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk. The two ancient universities share many common features and are often jointly referred to as “Oxbridge”.

    Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university. In the year ended 31 July 2014, the university had a total income of £1.51 billion, of which £371 million was from research grants and contracts. The central university and colleges have a combined endowment of around £4.9 billion, the largest of any university outside the United States. Cambridge is a member of many associations and forms part of the “golden triangle” of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as “Silicon Fen”.

  • richardmitnick 1:47 pm on November 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Griffith precision measurement takes it to the limit, , Heisenberg limit, , Quantum computing algorithms, , Quantum Physics   

    From Griffith University via phys.org: “Griffith precision measurement takes it to the limit” 

    Griffith U bloc

    From Griffith University



    November 5, 2018

    Griffith University researchers have demonstrated a procedure for making precise measurements of speed, acceleration, material properties and even gravity waves possible, approaching the ultimate sensitivity allowed by laws of quantum physics. Credit: Griffith University

    Published in Nature Communications, the work saw the Griffith team, led by Professor Geoff Pryde, working with photons (single particles of light) and using them to measure the extra distance travelled by the light beam, compared to its partner reference beam, as it went through the sample being measured—a thin crystal.

    The researchers combined three techniques—entanglement (a kind of quantum connection that can exist between the photons), passing the beams back and forth along the measurement path, and a specially-designed detection technique.

    “Every time a photon passes through the sample, it makes a kind of mini-measurement. The total measurement is the combination of all of these mini-measurements,” said Griffith’s Dr. Sergei Slussarenko, who oversaw the experiment. “The more times the photons pass through, the more precise the measurement becomes.

    “Our scheme will serve as a blueprint for tools that can measure physical parameters with precision that is literally impossible to achieve with the common measurement devices.

    Lead author of the paper Dr. Shakib Daryanoosh said this method can be used to investigate and measure other quantum systems.

    “These can be very fragile, and every probe photon we send it would disturb it. In this case, using few photons but in the most efficient way possible is critical and our scheme shows how do exactly that,” he said.

    While one strategy is to just use as many photons as possible, that’s not enough to reach the ultimate performance. For that, it is necessary to also extract the maximum amount of measurement information per photon pass, and that is what the Griffith experiment has achieved, coming far closer?to the so-called Heisenberg limit of precision than any comparable experiment.

    The remaining error is due experimental imperfection, as the scheme designed by Dr. Daryanoosh and Professor Howard Wiseman, is capable of achieving the exact Heisenberg limit, in theory.

    “The really nice thing about this technique is that it works even when you don’t have a good starting guess for the measurement,” Prof. Wiseman said. “Previous work has mostly focused a lot on the case where it’s possible to make a very good starting approximation, but that’s not always possible.”

    A few extra steps are required before this proof-of-principle demonstration can be harnessed outside the lab.

    Producing entangled photons is not simple with current technology, and this means it is still much easier to use many photons inefficiently, rather than each set of entangled photons in the best way possible.

    However, according to the team, the ideas behind this approach can find immediate applications in quantum computing algorithms and research in fundamental science.

    The scheme can ultimately be extended to a larger number of entangled photons, where the difference of the Heisenberg limit over the usually achievable limit is more significant.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Griffith U Campus

    In 1971, Griffith was created to be a new kind of university—one that offered new degrees in progressive fields such as Asian studies and environmental science. At the time, these study areas were revolutionary—today, they’re more important than ever.

    Since then, we’ve grown into a comprehensive, research-intensive university, ranking in the top 5% of universities worldwide. Our teaching and research spans five campuses in South East Queensland and all disciplines, while our network of more than 120,000 graduates extends around the world.

    Griffith continues the progressive traditions of its namesake, Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, who was twice the Premier of Queensland, the first Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, and the principal author of the Australian Constitution.

  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on September 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Black body radiation, , , Planck's law of radiative heat transfer has held up well under a century of intense testing but a new analysis has found it fails on the smallest of scales, Quantum Physics, , University of Michigan, William & Mary   

    From University of Michigan and William & Mary via Science Alert: “A Fundamental Physics Law Just Failed a Test Using Nanoscale Objects” 

    U Michigan bloc

    University of Michigan


    William & Mary



    From Science Alert


    5 SEP 2018

    Planck’s law of radiative heat transfer has held up well under a century of intense testing, but a new analysis has found it fails on the smallest of scales.

    Exactly what this means isn’t all that clear yet, but where laws fail, new discoveries can follow. Such a find wouldn’t just affect physics on an atomic scale – it could impact everything from climate models to our understanding of planetary formation.

    The foundational law of quantum physics was recently put to the test by researchers from William & Mary in Virginia and the University of Michigan, who were curious about whether the age-old rule could describe the way heat radiation was emitted by nanoscale objects.

    Not only does the law fail, the experimental result is 100 times greater than the predicted figure, suggesting nanoscale objects can emit and absorb heat with far greater efficiency than current models can explain.

    “That’s the thing with physics,” says William & Mary physicist Mumtaz Qazilbash.

    “It’s important to experimentally measure something, but also important to actually understand what is going on.”

    Planck is one of the big names in physics. While it’d be misleading to attribute the birth of quantum mechanics to a single individual, his work played a key role in getting the ball rolling.

    Humans have known since ancient times that hot things glow with light. We’ve also understood for quite a while that there’s a relationship between the colour of that light and its temperature.

    To study this in detail, physicists in the 19th century would measure the colour of light inside a black, heated box, watching through a tiny hole. This ‘black body radiation’ provided a reasonably precise measure of that relationship.

    Coming up with simple formulae to describe the wavelengths of colour and their temperatures proved to be rather challenging, and so Planck came at it from a slightly different angle.

    His approach was to treat the way light was absorbed and emitted like a pendulum’s swing, with discrete quantities of energy being soaked up and spat out. Not that he really thought this was the case – it was just a convenient way to model light.

    As strange as it seemed at first, the model worked perfectly. This ‘quantity’ of energy approach generated decades of debate over the nature of reality, and has come to form the underpinnings of physics as we know it.

    Planck’s law of radiative heat transfer informs a theory describing a maximum frequency at which heat energy can be emitted from an object at a given temperature.

    This works extremely well for visible objects separated at a visible distance. But what if we push those objects together, so the space between them isn’t quite a single wavelength of the light being emitted? What happens to that ‘pendulum swing’?

    Physicists well versed in the dynamics of electromagnetism already know weird things happen here in this area, known as the ‘near field’ region.

    For one thing, the relationship between the electrical and magnetic aspects of the electromagnetic field becomes more complex.

    Just how this might affect the way heated objects interact has already been the focus of previous research, which has established some big differences in how heat moves in the near field as compared with the far field observed by Planck.

    But that’s just if the gap is confined to a distance smaller than the wavelength of emitted radiation. What about the size of the objects themselves?

    The researchers had quite a challenge ahead of them. They had to engineer objects smaller than about 10 microns in size – the approximate length of a wave of infrared light.

    They settled on two membranes of silicon nitride a mere half micron thick, separated by a distance that put them well into the far field.

    Heating one and measuring the second allowed them to test Planck’s law with a fair degree of precision.

    “Planck’s radiation law says if you apply the ideas that he formulated to two objects, then you should get a defined rate of energy transfer between the two,” says Qazilbash.

    “Well, what we have observed experimentally is that rate is actually 100 times higher than Planck’s law predicts if the objects are very, very small.”

    Qazilbash likens it to the plucking of a guitar string at different places along its length. “If you pluck it in those places, it’s going to resonate at certain wavelengths more efficiently.”

    The analogy is a useful way to visualise the phenomenon, but understanding the details of the physics behind the discovery could have some big impacts. Not just in nanotechnology, but on a far bigger scale.

    This hyper-efficient rate of energy transfer could feasibly change how we understand heat transfer in the atmosphere, or in a cooling body the size of a planet. The extent of this difference is still a mystery, but one with some potentially profound implications.

    “Wherever you have radiation playing an important role in physics and science, that’s where this discovery is important,” says Qazilbash.

    This research was published in Nature.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

  • richardmitnick 10:55 am on July 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Daniel Bowring at FNAL, , , , , Quantum Physics,   

    From Fermilab: “Daniel Bowring receives $2.5 million from DOE to search for axions with quantum sensors” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    July 19, 2018
    Jordan Rice

    Daniel Bowring examines a superconducting qubit mounted in a copper microwave cavity. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Dark matter makes up nearly 80 percent of all matter in the universe, yet its nature has eluded scientists.

    Dark matter cosmic web and the large-scale structure it forms The Millenium Simulation, V. Springel et al

    Caterpillar Project A Milky-Way-size dark-matter halo and its subhalos circled, an enormous suite of simulations . Griffen et al. 2016

    Scientists theorize that it could take the form of a subatomic particle, and one possible candidate comes in the form of a small, theoretical particle called the axion. If it exists, the axion will interact incredibly weakly with matter, so detecting one requires an incredibly sensitive detector.

    Fermilab scientist Daniel Bowring is planning to build just such an instrument. The Department of Energy has selected Bowring for a 2018 Early Career Research Award to build a detector that would ferret out the hypothesized particle. He will receive $2.5 million over five years to build and operate his experiment. The award funds equipment, engineers, technicians and a postdoctoral researcher.

    “We are very motivated to find the axion because it would solve several interesting problems for us in the particle physics community,” Bowring said.

    Not only would the axion’s discovery explain, at least in part, the nature of dark matter, it could also solve the strong CP problem, a long-standing thorn in the side of theoretical physics models.

    The strong CP problem is an inconsistency in particle physics. Particles behave differently from their mirror-reversed, antimatter counterparts — at least, they do under the influence of the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force (which governs nuclear decay).

    But under the influence of the strong force (which holds matter together), particles and their mirror-image antiparticles behave similarly. Or, in physics speak, they’re CP-symmetric under the strong force. (CP stands for charge-parity. It’s the property that’s flipped when you take a mirror image of a particle’s antimatter partner.) Why is the strong force the exception?

    One potential answer lies in the existence of the axion. In the math of strong interactions, the addition of the axion enables theoretical models to reflect the reality of strong-force CP symmetry.

    Bowring is following the axion math where it leads — to the construction of a device that can pick up the signal of the fundamental particle, whose mass is predicted to be vanishingly small, between 1 billion and 1 trillion times smaller than an electron.

    One way to look for the axion is to look for light: In the presence of a strong electromagnetic field — Bowring’s experiment will use about 14 Tesla, or roughly 10 times stronger than an MRI magnet — an axion should convert into a single particle of light, called a photon, which is more easily observed.

    “Physicists have gotten pretty good at detecting photons over the years,” Bowring said.

    When an axion enters the detector filled with the electromagnetic field, the particle will spontaneously convert into a photon with a specific frequency. The frequency corresponds to the axion’s mass, so scientists can measure the axion mass indirectly, thanks to the detection of particles of light.

    Much like someone tuning a sensitive AM radio, researchers will scan slowly through the relevant range of photon frequencies until they pick up a signal, which would point to the presence of an axion.

    It’s a subtle business, one that requires being able to detect single photons. While photon detection is an old hat for physicists, discerning a lone photon amid the experimental noise of a particle detector is a job for new technology. Bowring’s experiment will use supersensitive, superconducting quantum bits, or qubits, to pluck the solo photon signal from the noise and thus accurately count the number of detected photons.

    Bowring’s experiment will be an opportunity to bridge the gap between particle physics and the science behind quantum computing.

    Quantum computing – IBM

    “Daniel’s proposed experiment will demonstrate how qubits, the essential elements of quantum computing, can be used to detect a range of axion masses,” said Fermilab scientist Keith Gollwitzer. “Quantum computing may be the next large step in computing power and particle physics experiments.”

    In that respect, the application of technologies in their infancy to century-old problems is a reflection of the larger scientific field.

    “Fermilab’s mission is doing particle physics, and qubits are just a way for us to meet the requirements of that mission,” Bowring says. “It is a way for us to build new experiments that address the problems of particle physics at the forefront of where the field is.”

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.



    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    FNAL Don Lincoln


    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

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