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  • richardmitnick 10:02 am on June 2, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Understanding the Tantalizing Benefits of Tantalum for Improved Quantum Processors", , , , Coherence time is a measure of how long a qubit retains quantum information., , In addition tantalum is a superconductor which means it has no electrical resistance when cooled to sufficiently low temperatures and consequently can carry current without any energy loss., , , , Quantum Computing, Researchers working to improve the performance of superconducting qubits have been experimenting using different base materials in an effort to increase the coherent lifetimes of qubits., Scientists decode the chemical profile of tantalum surface oxides to understand loss and improve qubit performance., Scientists discovered that using tantalum in superconducting qubits makes them perform better but no one has been able to determine why—until now., Tantalum also has a high melting point and is resistant to corrosion making it useful in many commercial applications., Tantalum is a unique and versatile metal. It is dense and hard and easy with which to work., Tantalum-based superconducting qubits have demonstrated record-long lifetimes of more than five times longer than the lifetimes of qubits made with niobium and aluminum.,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Understanding the Tantalizing Benefits of Tantalum for Improved Quantum Processors” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    5.31.23
    Written by Denise Yazak

    Contact:
    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Scientists decode the chemical profile of tantalum surface oxides to understand loss and improve qubit performance.

    1
    Tantalum oxide (TaOx) being characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. BNL.

    Whether it’s baking a cake, building a house, or developing a quantum device, the quality of the end product significantly depends on its ingredients or base materials. Researchers working to improve the performance of superconducting qubits, the foundation of quantum computers, have been experimenting using different base materials in an effort to increase the coherent lifetimes of qubits. The coherence time is a measure of how long a qubit retains quantum information, and thus a primary measure of performance. Recently, scientists discovered that using tantalum in superconducting qubits makes them perform better, but no one has been able to determine why—until now.

    Scientists from the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) [below], the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) [below], the Co-design Center for Quantum Advantage (C2QA), and Princeton University investigated the fundamental reasons that these qubits perform better by decoding the chemical profile of tantalum. The results of this work, which were recently published in the journal Advanced Science [below], will provide key knowledge for designing even better qubits in the future. CFN and NSLS-II are U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facilities at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. C2QA is a Brookhaven-led national quantum information science research center, of which Princeton University is a key partner.

    Finding the right ingredient

    Tantalum is a unique and versatile metal. It is dense, hard, and easy to work with. Tantalum also has a high melting point and is resistant to corrosion, making it useful in many commercial applications. In addition, tantalum is a superconductor, which means it has no electrical resistance when cooled to sufficiently low temperatures, and consequently can carry current without any energy loss.

    Tantalum-based superconducting qubits have demonstrated record-long lifetimes of more than half a millisecond. That is five times longer than the lifetimes of qubits made with niobium and aluminum, which are currently deployed in large-scale quantum processors.

    These properties make tantalum an excellent candidate material for building better qubits. Still, the goal of improving superconducting quantum computers has been hindered by a lack of understanding as to what is limiting qubit lifetimes, a process known as decoherence. Noise and microscopic sources of dielectric loss are generally thought to contribute; however, scientists are unsure exactly why and how.

    “The work in this paper is one of two parallel studies aiming to address a grand challenge in qubit fabrication,” explained Nathalie de Leon, an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at Princeton University and the materials thrust leader for C2QA. “Nobody has proposed a microscopic, atomistic model for loss that explains all the observed behavior and then was able to show that their model limits a particular device. This requires measurement techniques that are precise and quantitative, as well as sophisticated data analysis.”

    Surprising results

    To get a better picture of the source of qubit decoherence, scientists at Princeton and CFN grew and chemically processed tantalum films on sapphire substrates. They then took these samples to the Spectroscopy Soft and Tender Beamlines (SST-1 and SST-2) at NSLS-II to study the tantalum oxide that formed on the surface using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS uses x-rays to kick electrons out of the sample and provides clues about the chemical properties and electronic state of atoms near the sample surface. The scientists hypothesized that the thickness and chemical nature of this tantalum oxide layer played a role in determining the qubit coherence, as tantalum has a thinner oxide layer compared to the niobium more typically used in qubits.

    “We measured these materials at the beamlines in order to better understand what was happening,” explained Andrew Walter, a lead beamline scientist in NSLS-II’s soft x-ray scattering & spectroscopy program. “There was an assumption that the tantalum oxide layer was fairly uniform, but our measurements showed that it’s not uniform at all. It’s always more interesting when you uncover an answer you don’t expect, because that’s when you learn something.”

    The team found several different kinds of tantalum oxides at the surface of the tantalum, which has prompted a new set of questions on the path to creating better superconducting qubits. Can these interfaces be modified to improve overall device performance, and which modifications would provide the most benefit? What kinds of surface treatments can be used to minimize loss?

    Embodying the spirit of codesign

    “It was inspiring to see experts of very different backgrounds coming together to solve a common problem,” said Mingzhao Liu, a materials scientist at CFN and the materials subthrust leader in C2QA. “This was a highly collaborative effort, pooling together the facilities, resources, and expertise shared between all of our facilities. From a materials science standpoint, it was exciting to create these samples and be an integral part of this research.”

    Walter said, “Work like this speaks to the way C2QA was built. The electrical engineers from Princeton University contributed a lot to device management, design, data analysis, and testing. The materials group at CFN grew and processed samples and materials. My group at NSLS-II characterized these materials and their electronic properties.”

    Having these specialized groups come together not only made the study move smoothly and more efficiently, but it gave the scientists an understanding of their work in a larger context. Students and postdocs were able to get invaluable experience in several different areas and contribute to this research in meaningful ways.

    “Sometimes, when materials scientists work with physicists, they’ll hand off their materials and wait to hear back regarding results,” said de Leon, “but our team was working hand-in-hand, developing new methods along the way that could be broadly used at the beamline going forward.”

    Advanced Science

    Figure 1.a) High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope image of the cross-section of a tantalum film on sapphire. The tantalum film has a BCC crystal structure and was grown in the (111) orientation on a c-plane sapphire substrate. An amorphous oxide layer can be seen on top of the tantalum at the tantalum air interface. b) Experimental results of the tantalum binding energy spectrum obtained from X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) performed using 760 eV incident photon energy. Each oxidation state of tantalum contributes a pair of peaks to the spectrum due tospin-orbit splitting. At the highest binding energy (26–30 eV), there is a pair of peaks corresponding to the Ta5+state. At the lowest binding energy, we see a pair of sharp asymmetric peaks corresponding to metallic tantalum (21–25 eV). c) Schematic explaining the physics behind variable energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VEXPS). The red and blue dots correspond to photoelectrons excited from a surface oxidation state and bulk oxidation state of the tantalum films respectively. When low energy X-rays are incident on the film surface, photoelectrons are excited with low kinetic energy (depictedby a small tail on the dots). These low energy photoelectrons have a shorter mean free path so that only those emitted from the surface species (colored red) will exit the material and impinge on the detector. When high energy X-rays are incident on the film surface, photoelectrons with high kinetic energy are excited (depicted by a longer tail on the dots). These higher energy photoelectrons have comparatively longer mean free paths so that electrons from the bulk of the film will exit the material alongside electrons from the surface. In our experiment, the angle between the surface and the incident X-rays varies between 6°and 10°; the X-rays in this image are shown at a steeper angle for legibility.
    2

    Figure 2.Shirley background corrected XPS spectra of Ta4f binding energy obtained at three different incident photon energies. Left panel: with 760 eVX-ray photons, the Ta5+ peaks dominate over the Ta0 peaks. Middle panel: at 2200 eV photon energy, there is almost equal contribution of photoelectrons at Ta0and Ta5+. Right panel: At 5000 eV photon energy, the dominant photoelectron contribution is coming from Ta0. In all three plots there is non-zerointensity between the Ta5+ and metallic tantalum peaks, indicating minority tantalum oxidation states. The complete set of data and fits corresponding to all 17 incident X-ray energies is shown in Section S3.3 (Supporting Information). The data are fit with Gaussian profiles for the Ta5+, Ta3+, and Ta1+ species, and skewed Voigt profiles for the Ta0 and Ta0int. Included in the fit is also a Gaussian profile corresponding to the O2s peak; the amplitude ofthis peak is fixed to 5% of the measured O1s peak intensity.
    3

    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider (CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, it was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC). Credit: CERN.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map. Credit: CERN.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .

     
  • richardmitnick 7:21 am on June 1, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum computers braided ‘anyons’ - long-sought quasiparticles with memory", All fundamental subatomic particles fall into two classes: "fermions" [electrons and other particles that make up matter]; or "bosons" which include particles of light known as photons., , Quantum Computing, , Scientists have created strange new particle-like objects called "non-abelian anyons"., These long-sought "non-abelian anyon" "quasiparticles" can be “braided”.   

    From “Science News” : “Quantum computers braided ‘anyons’ – long-sought quasiparticles with memory” 

    From “Science News”

    5.30.23
    Emily Conover

    1
    In one quantum computer, scientists braided quantum objects called “non-abelian anyons” within an array of quantum bits (depicted as a grid). In this illustration, which depicts snapshots in time from left to right, the anyons keep a record of being moved around one another (red and green trails). Credit: Google Quantum AI.

    Scientists have created strange new particle-like objects called “non-abelian anyons”. These long-sought “quasiparticles” can be “braided,” meaning that they can be moved around one another and retain a memory of that swapping, similar to how a braided ponytail keeps a record of the order in which strands cross over each other.

    Two independent teams — one led by researchers at Google, the other by researchers at the quantum computing company Quantinuum — have reported creating and braiding versions of these anyons using quantum computers. The Google and Quantinuum results, respectively reported May 11 in Nature [below] and a May 9 paper, could help scientists construct quantum computers that are resistant to the errors that currently bedevil the machines.

    Non-abelian anyons defy common intuition about what happens to objects that swap locations. Picture the street game with cups and balls, where a performer swaps identical cups back and forth. If you weren’t watching closely, you’d never know if two cups had been moved around one another and back to their original positions. In the quantum world, that’s not always the case.

    “It’s predicted that there is this crazy particle where, if you swap them around each other while you have your eyes closed, you can actually tell after the fact,” says physicist Trond Andersen of Google Quantum AI in Santa Barbara, Calif. “This goes against our common sense, and it seems crazy.”

    Particles in our regular 3-D world can’t do this magic trick. But when particles are confined to just two dimensions, the rules change. While scientists don’t have a 2-D universe in which to explore particles, they can manipulate materials or quantum computers to exhibit behavior like that of particles that live in two dimensions, creating objects known as quasiparticles.

    All fundamental subatomic particles fall into two classes, based on how identical particles of each type behave when swapped. They are either “fermions”, a class that includes electrons and other particles that make up matter, or “bosons”, which include particles of light known as photons.

    But in two dimensions, there’s another option: anyons. For bosons or fermions, swapping identical particles back and forth or moving them around one another can’t have a directly measurable effect. For anyons, it can.

    In the 1990s, scientists realized that a specific version of an anyon, called a “non-abelian anyon”, could be used to build quantum computers that might safeguard fragile quantum information, which is easily knocked out of whack by minute disturbances.

    “For fundamental reasons these anyons have been very exciting, and for practical reasons people hope they might be useful,” says theoretical physicist Maissam Barkeshli of the University of Maryland in College Park, who was not involved with either study.

    Google’s team created the anyons using a superconducting quantum computer, where the quantum bits, or qubits, are made of material that conducts electricity without resistance. Quantinuum’s study, which has yet to be peer-reviewed, is based on a quantum computer whose qubits are composed of trapped, electrically charged atoms of ytterbium and barium. In both cases, scientists manipulated the qubits to create the anyons and move them around, demonstrating a measurable change after the anyons were braided.

    Scientists have previously created and braided a less exotic type of anyon, called an abelian anyon, within a 2-D layer of a solid material (SN: 7/9/20). And many physicists are similarly questing after a solid material that might host the non-abelian type.

    But the new studies create non-abelian states within qubits inside a quantum computer, which is fundamentally different, Barkeshli says. “You’re kind of synthetically creating the state for a fleeting moment.” That means it doesn’t have all the properties that anyons within a solid material would have, he says.

    In both cases, much more work must be done before the anyons could create powerful, error-resistant quantum computers. Google’s study, in particular, produces an anyon that’s akin to a fish out of water. It’s a non-abelian within a more commonplace abelian framework. That means those anyons may not be as powerful for quantum computing, Barkeshli says.

    It’s not all about practical usefulness. Demonstrating that non-abelian anyons really exist is fundamentally important, says Quantinuum’s Henrik Dreyer, a physicist in Munich. It “confirms that the rules of quantum mechanics apply in the way that we thought they would apply.”

    Nature

    Fig. 1: Deformations of the surface code.
    1
    a) Stabilizer codes are conveniently described in a graph framework. Through deformations of the surface code graph, a square grid of qubits (crosses) can be used to realize more generalized graphs. Plaquette violations (red) correspond to stabilizers with sp = −1 and are created by local Pauli operations. In the absence of deformations, plaquette violations are constrained to move on one of the two sublattices of the dual graph in the surface code, hence the two shades of blue. b) A pair of D3Vs (yellow triangles) appears by removing an edge between two neighbouring stabilizers, S^1 and S^2, and introducing the new stabilizer, S^=S^1S^2. A D3V is moved by applying a two-qubit entangling gate, exp(π8[S^′,S^]). In the presence of bulk D3Vs, there is no consistent way of chequerboard colouring, hence the (arbitrarily chosen) grey regions. The top right shows that in a general stabilizer graph, S^p can be found from a constraint at each vertex, where {τ1, τ2} = 0.

    Fig. 2: Demonstration of the fundamental fusion rules of D3Vs.
    2
    a) The braiding worldlines used to fuse ε and σ. b) Expectation values of stabilizers at each step of the unitary operation after readout correction (see Extended Data Fig. 3 for details and individual stabilizer values). We first prepare the ground state of the surface code (step (i); average stabilizer value of 0.94 ± 0.04, where the uncertainty is one standard deviation). A D3V (σ) pair is then created (ii) and separated (iii)–(iv), before creating a fermion, ε (v). One of the plaquette violations is brought around the right σ (vi)–(viii), allowing it to annihilate with the other plaquette violation (viii). The fermion has seemingly disappeared, but re-emerges when the σ are annihilated ((xi); stabilizer values −0.86 and −0.87). The path (v) → (viii) demonstrates the fusion rule, σ × ε = σ. The different fermion parities at the end of the paths (viii) → (xi) and (iv) → (i) show the other fusion rule, σ×σ=𝟙+ε. Yellow triangles represent the positions of the σ. The brown and red lines denote the paths of the σ and the plaquette violation, respectively. Red squares (diamonds) represent X (Z) gates. Upper left shows a table of two-qubit unitaries used in the protocol. Each stabilizer was measured n = 10,000 times in each step. c) A non-local technique for hidden fermion detection: the presence of a fermion in a σ-pair can be deduced by measuring the sign of the Pauli string P^ corresponding to bringing a plaquette violation around the σ-pair (grey path). P^ is equivalent to the shorter string P′^ (black path). Measurements of P′^ in steps (viii) (top) and (iv) (bottom) give values of −0.85 ± 0.01 and +0.84 ± 0.01, respectively. This indicates that there is a hidden fermion pair in the former case, but not in the latter, despite the stabilizers being the same.
    See this science paper for further instructive material with images.

    May 9 paper

    FIG. 1. Creating and controlling non-Abelian wave-
    functions. (a) We entangle 27 ions to create the ground and
    excited states of a Hamiltonian with D4 topological order on
    a kagome lattice with periodic boundary conditions. (b) Its
    excitations go beyond Abelian anyons, whose spacetime braid-
    ing depends only on pairwise linking, as exemplified by the
    e- and m-anyons of the toric code. (c) We create and control
    non-Abelian anyons mR,G,B which can detect Borromean ring
    braiding via anyon interferometry; see Fig. 5b of this work.
    4

    FIG. 2. The non-Abelian D4 model and its logical string operators. We consider the model (1) on qubits that live on the vertices of a kagome lattice with periodic boundary conditions. Each kagome star is associated with three local operators: a 12-body star operator As = ∏6 i=1 CZi,i+1X⊗6 and two 3-body triangle operators Bt = Z⊗3. It is convenient to choose a vertex coloring and assign a corresponding color to each of the qubits. For each of the three colors and direction along the torus, there are two logical string operators. The logical Z-operators are products of local Pauli-Z acting on all qubits of the respective colour in the chosen direction (ZGH and ZBV highlighted). For the logical X -operator (XBV shown) a product of X is applied connecting stars of the the other two colors and decorated with a linear-depth circuit of CZ. More precisely, after choosing a starting point for the vertical string (here, bottom of figure) and direction (here, blue→red→green), we act with CZ gates connecting every green vertex with preceding red vertices on the path. In the experiment, we implement the system in the black dashed lines containing 3 × 3 stars (27 qubits) and periodic boundary conditions.
    5

    See this science paper for further instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 9:28 am on May 25, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Western Pa. is set to 'level up' its quantum capabilities with an $11.6 million investment from The University of Pittsburgh", , Quantum Computing, ,   

    From The University of Pittsburgh : “Western Pa. is set to ‘level up’ its quantum capabilities with an $11.6 million investment from The University of Pittsburgh” 

    U Pitt bloc

    From The University of Pittsburgh

    5.25.23
    Brandie Jefferson
    Photography by Aimee Obidzinski

    1

    Quantum physics can sometimes seem almost metaphysical, but even the field that introduced spooky action at a distance is grounded in the tangible world of computers, networks and sensors.

    To usher in the next era of quantum technology, researchers need specialized, made-to-spec equipment that can crunch data faster and bring the field farther.

    In a show of Pitt’s dedication to lead the way, the University’s Strategic Advancement Fund has approved its first loan, $11.6 million, to support the establishment of the Western Pennsylvania Quantum Information Core (WPQIC). This cross-disciplinary, multi-institution effort will position the University and its partners at the forefront of the field.

    More than 10 years ago, Pitt established the Pittsburgh Quantum Institute, a collaboration among faculty from Pitt, Carnegie Mellon University and Duquesne University. Last year the institute established its first agreements with industry partners in service of commercialization.

    “The core will allow the entire region to ‘level up’ to a more comprehensive and integrated platform for quantum experimentation across a range of fundamental physics and emerging applications,” said Rob A. Rutenbar, Pitt’s senior vice chancellor for research.

    Pitt is at the leading edge of quantum education, offering one of the first undergraduate degrees in the field. Now it will be a hub where students, researchers and industry partners come together to forge the underpinnings of a stronger quantum information science and engineering (QUISE) discipline.

    “The core is a natural progression for Pitt, which has been dedicated to cutting-edge quantum information science and engineering research,” said Rob Cunningham, vice chancellor for research infrastructure. “This is the natural next step.”

    To continue to lead, however, researchers need specialized equipment: correlated photon counters, machines that allow for work to be done in a vacuum and refrigerators that can keep temperatures just a touch above absolute zero.

    There are many ways to build quantum this hardware.

    “What unites all these disparate techniques is that they are hard,” said Michael Hatridge, a physics professor in the Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, a quantum-computer builder and the inaugural director of the WPQIC.

    “The core’s job is to make them merely ‘super tough.’ By bringing together these amazing, modern instruments, we should be able to make big strides in quantum research,” Hatridge said.

    The WPQIC will support faculty by providing this state-of-the-art instrumentation and adding staff. These expanded capabilities will allow Pitt to continue to grow its program offerings in many areas of QUISE, providing a unique opportunity for all students, researchers and faculty to use tools most researchers can’t regularly access.

    Quantum science is not solely an endeavor for the physicist, and so investments will be made in existing facilities in the departments of chemistry and physics in the Dietrich School, the Swanson School of Engineering and the School of Computing and Information. A new, central facility will enable even more collaborative research.

    The WPQIC embodies the core of the University’s purpose as outlined in its strategic initiative, the Plan for Pitt, by helping provide the best opportunities for students and staff while bringing to the region an industry that will only continue to grow. This vision — one of new industry ecosystems and the opportunities they bring — is shared by Mayor Ed Gainey.

    “Pittsburgh has been able to thrive in large part because of its ability to embrace cutting-edge technology,” said Gainey. “That’s why I support the Western Pennsylvania Quantum Information Core at the University of Pittsburgh. It will help develop a quantum-ready workforce primed to make novel discoveries and develop new industries that will benefit everyone in the region.”

    As more projects are supported, the University and the region will continue to see growth.

    “As the first initiative to receive [this strategic funding], the Western Pennsylvania Quantum Information Core reflects the University’s commitment to Pitt’s leadership in quantum information science,” said Senior Vice Chancellor and Chief Financial Officer Hari Sastry. “It is an excellent example of how the University can internally loan funds to invest in strategic initiatives that will enhance Pitt’s strong research reputation.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Pitt campus

    The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university, founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787. Pitt is a member of The Association of American Universities, which comprises 62 preeminent doctorate-granting research institutions in North America.

    From research achievements to the quality of its academic programs, the University of Pittsburgh ranks among the best in higher education.

    Faculty members have expanded knowledge in the humanities and sciences, earning such prestigious honors as the National Medal of Science, the MacArthur Foundation’s “genius” grant, the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and election to The National Academy of Sciences and The Institute of Medicine.
    Pitt students have earned Rhodes, Goldwater, Marshall, and Truman Scholarships, among other highly competitive national and international scholarship

    Alumni have pioneered MRI and TV, won Nobels and Pulitzers, led corporations and universities, served in government and the military, conquered Hollywood and The New York Times bestsellers list, and won Super Bowls and NBA championships.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:30 am on May 23, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "From inventor to entrepreneur", , , , , , , , Creating a startup to commercialize technology developed during research is a risky road for physicists and engineers but the help of experts can improve their chances., , , , Quantum Computing, ,   

    From “Symmetry”: “From inventor to entrepreneur” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From “Symmetry”

    5.23.23
    Chris Patrick

    Creating a startup to commercialize technology developed during research is a risky road for physicists and engineers but the help of experts can improve their chances.

    Many researchers in high-energy physics [HEP] are inventors by default.

    In their efforts to study phenomena on the smallest and largest scales, physicists and engineers wind up developing new technologies that have applications outside of the lab.

    [E.g., the internet invented at CERN]

    For example, some of the superconducting magnets and particle detectors originally created for high-energy physics research are now instrumental in the field of medical imaging.

    Herein lies an alternative career path for scientists outside of academia: entrepreneurship.

    1
    Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Corinne Mucha.

    The process of taking a new product to market, however, is risky. Commercialization requires an extensive amount of time, money and luck. But through legislation and training programs, scientists have found new support on their paths to becoming entrepreneurs.

    Oil and water

    In 2010, Arden Warner was watching coverage of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on TV.

    “They were trying different things to stop the leak,” says Warner, an accelerator scientist at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. “I started to get concerned.”

    Not only was Warner worried about the environment, but there was talk of the oil riding the Gulf Stream to Barbados, where he was born. When the Secretary of Energy called on the national laboratories to propose solutions, Arden stepped up.

    As someone who works with magnets while developing particle accelerators at Fermilab, Warner naturally turned to them for a solution. In a Dixie cup of oil and water, he figured out how to get magnetic particles to bond preferentially with the oil and used a magnetic field to remove it.

    “That’s when I knew I had to talk to Fermilab’s technology transfer office,” he says.

    At U.S. universities and the DOE national laboratories and others [e.g. SwRI], scientists and engineers are required to disclose inventions developed with federal funding to a technology transfer office. A tech transfer specialist certifies the origin of the invention and then decides whether to move forward with the patent process.

    It used to be that in the United States, inventions like this belonged to the government. But the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 changed that: Now the invention belongs to the individual institution. All US national labs and universities have technology transfer offices, which can aid an inventor in patenting and commercializing their invention.

    “The government is trying to make it easier for companies to commercialize and researchers to be able to transfer out technologies and expertise,” says Aaron Sauers, a senior patent and licensing executive in Fermilab’s tech transfer office.

    A tech transfer specialist’s first step is to determine if the invention is novel and useful enough to be patented as intellectual property.

    Sauers says scientists sometimes fail to disclose an invention because it doesn’t seem significant enough, or because they’re skeptical of a patent’s worth.

    “At a bare minimum, you can put [a patent] on your resume because it’s another kind of publication,” he says. “You could attract collaborators who see that you’ve patented in a particular area. And you could potentially license it.”

    Sauers says sometimes scientists write about inventions in scientific publications instead [e.g. PRL], assuming they will be able to file a patent later. But the order of operations matters. “If you publish first, that can hurt your ability to patent,” he says. “But if you put it in a patent application, then you can publish without worry.”

    If a new technology is deemed worthy of patenting, the tech transfer office helps a researcher with the paperwork and handles the $15,000 to $20,000 of filing fees and legal expenses. The costly process is also time-intensive. With the help of the tech transfer office, it took Warner four years to patent his technology, which is not unusual.

    Once a patent is filed, the lab or university makes a call for proposals from companies that would like to use the invention to try to make a profit. They can license the invention to a single company, or they can license the invention for different uses or for use in different regions to multiple companies.

    Warner applied to take out a license on his invention to start his own business. For exclusive use of the patent, Warner’s company will give Fermilab a small percentage of his sales after he reaches a certain level of profit. The company will also reimburse Fermilab for patent costs over time.

    In 2016, Warner launched his company, Natural Science, LLC. Once established, they were able to attract partners and funding to build a full-scale prototype, which Warner finally tested in 2019.

    He says seeing his idea in action was the most memorable part of the process so far. “I still get chills from that part.”

    Despite being nine years old, Natural Science, LLC is still considered a startup. “I learned along the way that any idea, no matter how good, takes about 10 years to develop into a business,” Warner says. “Overnight success takes years.”

    Learning the science of business

    To help researchers reach this success, the Department of Energy’s Office of Technology Transitions offers Energy I-Corps, a training program that teaches scientist-inventors how to bring their technology to market.

    When Sean Sullivan was a postdoc at Argonne National Laboratory, he and his collaborator at the University of Chicago, Manish Kumar Singh, patented results from their research through U Chicago’s tech transfer office. They were working on integrating quantum bits—qubits—for applications in quantum memory and communication.

    “With some of the fundamental physics of quantum memory demonstrated, we wanted to take that a step further and tackle the engineering challenge to develop a usable device,” Sullivan says.

    The two signed up for Energy I-Corps. During the two-month training program, participants pair up with industry mentors and conduct interviews with around 100 potential users. They do this to identify possible market applications of their technology and to establish a model for their business.

    This program allowed Sullivan and Singh to zero in on their most likely customers, such as those who want to use quantum computing to solve difficult computations or to create secure communication links.

    As the Chief Commercialization Officer and Director of DOE’s Office of Technology Transitions, Vanessa Chan helps researchers navigate the commercialization process, from research to development, to demonstration, to deployment.

    “There’s a new skill set not taught in graduate school that you need to develop if you’re really passionate about commercialization, and that’s what Energy I-Corps is doing,” she says. “To get your stuff out there, you need to go talk to people outside the lab to figure out how your technology is going to solve their problems.”

    Seeing a path forward, Sullivan and Singh negotiated a licensing agreement for their patent. They started full-time operations at their business, memQ Inc., in December 2022. Since then, they have raised $2.5 million in venture funding, a significant milestone as they work toward their goal of becoming a self-sustaining business.

    Some researchers may not be able to take the time to participate in an intensive program like Energy I-Corps.

    “I think Energy I-Corps is a great immersive program, but we’re also looking to see if we can develop some asynchronous materials, because it’s very difficult for some researchers to take that much time off,” Chan says.

    Other non-asynchronous options for researchers include incubators and accelerators. “My advice is if you at all think you’re interested in commercializing, start exploring programs that your university [or other institution] offers,” Sullivan says. “I wish we would have started even sooner.”

    Like Energy I-Corps, incubators and accelerators are training programs that beef up early-stage companies through education, networking and access to resources.

    “A program like an accelerator or an incubator gives a founder the space to learn how to run a business, which is hard to do if you just have your head down in a lab,” says Dan Sachs, the executive director of Polsky Deep Tech Ventures, an organization that runs several domain-specific deep tech accelerators through the University of Chicago’s Polsky Center. Sullivan and Singh’s memQ is currently participating in Duality, Polsky Deep Tech Ventures’ accelerator focused on quantum startups.

    Most researchers have no idea how to run a business, Sachs says. Mentors and coaches at incubators and accelerators help fill in these gaps.

    Risky business

    Sullivan says one of the biggest things he’s learned through participating in training programs is how to be more comfortable with risk.

    “In science, you always want to take things gradually and methodically, so I think being comfortable with the level of risk involved in being an entrepreneur is hard for a lot of scientists,” Sullivan says. “Talking to people helped me understand that the risk is baked in.”

    Physicists interested in improving the chances for scientists-turned-entrepreneurs held discussions over the last few years as a part of the 2021 Snowmass Process, a particle physics community planning exercise.

    Their main takeaway: “I think funding is key—and funding beyond just training programs,” says Farah Fahim, head of the microelectronics division in the emerging technologies directorate at Fermilab, who co-led the topical discussions related to tech transfer during Snowmass.

    For example, she says, researchers could use funding specifically for prototype development. This part of the process is expensive, especially for deep technology: the cutting-edge innovations that typically come out of high-energy physics. But many venture capital firms won’t invest in an invention before seeing a prototype.

    “It’s kind of like a Catch-22,” Fahim says.

    She has experienced this Catch-22 herself. Fahim designs detectors capable of ultrafast X-ray imaging. Through Fermilab’s tech transfer office, she patented camera systems that could be used in medical imaging or in the semiconductor industry for quality assurance during product fabrication.

    After patenting her technology, she attended some entrepreneurial trainings. She even presented her ideas to venture capital firms, but without a prototype, they were unwilling to take the risk on her product.

    Fahim believes funding, programs and other resources should be developed to take this huge financial risk off researchers’ startups and ensure they land on their feet. This would allow inventors from more socio-economic backgrounds to make the leap into entrepreneurship, she says.

    “The whole thing is based mostly on luck. If you ask me, we only have four or five entrepreneurs in the entire life of Fermilab, but we have loads of inventors,” she says. “We need to democratize this process by creating programs and processes which allow a smooth transition.”

    Many researchers in high-energy physics are inventors by default. But their ideas, career paths and personal lives—not to mention funding opportunities and the demands of the market—must all align for them to become successful entrepreneurs.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:02 am on May 22, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "University of Chicago joins global partnerships to advance quantum computing", $100 million from IBM to help develop quantum-centric supercomputer; $50 million from Google to support quantum research and workforce development., , Quantum Computing, ,   

    From The Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering At The University of Chicago: “University of Chicago joins global partnerships to advance quantum computing” 

    From The Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering

    At

    The University of Chicago

    5.21.23
    Colleen Mastony
    Senior Director of Media Relations, Office of Communications
    cmastony@uchicago.edu
    (773) 702-4254

    1
    Building a quantum-centric supercomputer, or hybrid quantum computer powered by 100,000 qubits is a massive challenge—and one that’s never been attempted. But building such a powerful system could bring tangible benefits to society—from identifying molecules for new medicines to designing more efficient sustainable solutions for energy. Photo by Nancy Wong.

    $100 million from IBM to help develop quantum-centric supercomputer; $50 million from Google to support quantum research and workforce development.

    For decades, scientists have dreamed about the incredible potential of a supercomputer powered by quantum technology. New partnerships involving the University of Chicago will bring together global leaders in education and technology to enable the next generation of high-performance quantum computing, fueling an industry with the potential to transform computing, information networks and more.

    On May 21, alongside world leaders at the G7 Summit in Japan, the University of Chicago formalized groundbreaking agreements with industry and university partners to transform the future of quantum technology. The first is a 10-year, $100 million plan with IBM, the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo to develop the blueprints for building a quantum-centric supercomputer powered by 100,000 qubits. The second is a strategic partnership between the University of Chicago, the University of Tokyo and Google, with Google investing up to $50 million over 10 years, to accelerate the development of a fault-tolerant quantum computer and to help train the quantum workforce of the future.

    “Quantum-centric supercomputing taps modular architectures and quantum communication, and is how IBM plans to scale quantum computing,” said Jay Gambetta, IBM fellow and vice president of IBM Quantum. “Through our landmark partnerships with the University of Chicago and University of Tokyo, we will advance all aspects of quantum architecture and the integration of quantum and classical workflows. This includes hybrid cloud middleware for quantum, as well as error-resilience approaches such as quantum error mitigation and error correction. Ultimately this will enable us to tackle some of the most challenging problems we face as a global society.”

    “Building a quantum computer is an ambitious undertaking that requires partnership,” said Hartmut Neven, vice president of Google Quantum AI. “We look forward to working with the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo to advance the field.”

    Quantum-centric supercomputing is an entirely new and promising area of high-performance computing. IBM’s partnership with the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo will work toward the delivery of a 100,000-qubit system by 2033, which could serve as a foundation to address some of the world’s most complex problems. For example, such a powerful quantum system could unlock the potential to bring tangible benefits to the lives of many—from identifying molecules for new medicines to designing more efficient sustainable solutions for energy.

    In partnership with UChicago, the University of Tokyo and its broader global ecosystem, IBM will work over the next decade to advance the underlying technologies of such a system, as well as to design and build the necessary system components at scale.

    In tandem, the collaboration between UChicago and the University of Tokyo with Google will help to ensure that quantum computing is developed safely and responsibly, and that the benefits of this technology are shared by everyone.

    “Achieving breakthroughs at scale in quantum technology requires deeply rooted and productive collaboration around the world and across a broad range of industry, academic and government partners,” said Paul Alivisatos, president of the University of Chicago. “Quantum information science and technology is at a crossroad, where foundational discovery and technical innovation will combine to create real breakthroughs. The University of Chicago is thrilled to partner in this endeavor.”

    “Building a massive quantum-centric supercomputer on the time scale envisaged by our partnerships represents an extraordinary grand challenge—not only for our institutions and our nations, but also for humanity,” said Juan de Pablo, UChicago’s executive vice president for science, innovation, national laboratories and global initiatives. “The necessary blueprints and the underlying technologies don’t yet exist but, in collaboration with our regional and global partners, the University of Chicago is uniquely positioned to help such a machine become a reality.”

    The University of Chicago and IBM hope to expand the partnership to include the DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory and The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory—both of which are members of the Chicago Quantum Exchange and home to two Department of Energy (DOE) quantum hubs. The two laboratories offer unique capabilities and expertise that will be needed to deliver the technologies envisioned in the quest to build a quantum-centric supercomputer.

    3
    The University of Chicago leads efforts at the intersection of computer science, materials science and physics that have important implications for physics-informed software design. Photo by Jean Lachat.

    Collaborations to enable science at scale

    The new partnerships will build upon the Chicago area’s strengths in quantum science and engineering. The University of Chicago transformed the region’s quantum ecosystem more than a decade ago with the decision to make quantum technology a focus of the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. PME continues to attract new faculty talent to UChicago in quantum science and technology, and Chicago has since become a leading global hub for research in quantum technology and home to one of the largest quantum networks in the country.

    “Through these partnerships, we will develop the research and engineering environment necessary to advance quantum science discoveries and build the workforce of the future,” said David Awschalom, the Liew Family Professor in Molecular Engineering and Physics at UChicago and founding director of the Chicago Quantum Exchange. “It is only with international and industrial collaborations like these that we’ll accelerate the pace of quantum technologies and their translation to society.”

    Qubits are the basic units of information in quantum computing, similar to the role of bits in classical computing. The distinctive properties of computing via quantum mechanics, alongside both classical and AI computing resources, might allow a 100,000-qubit quantum computer to tackle many complex problems extremely quickly.

    IBM will work with its university partners and worldwide quantum ecosystem over the next decade to design a blueprint that will evolve how IBM’s increasingly powerful quantum processors can be connected with both quantum and classical resources. That work will enable system components to be reliable, flexible and affordable, which will ultimately allow scaling to 100,000 qubits.

    The University of Chicago leads efforts at the intersection of computer science, materials science and physics that have important implications for physics-informed software design. As quantum computers are scaled and interconnected with classical computing systems, the design of efficient software has the potential to significantly accelerate the performance and reliability of the new machines, shaving years off development time.

    “We welcome the opportunity to work with our global partners to realize the vision of developing a quantum-centric supercomputer,” said Fred Chong, the Seymour Goodman Professor in the Department of Computer Science at UChicago. “With researchers who are defining new quantum disciplines and working across fields, the University of Chicago brings a unique research capability to bear on advancing this technology.”

    Advancing quantum research and training

    The University of Chicago is the headquarters of the Chicago Quantum Exchange, and it is home to the world-renowned Polsky Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Duality, the first startup accelerator program in the U.S. exclusively focused on supporting early-stage quantum companies, was launched by the Polsky Center and the CQE in 2021. Since its inception, it has steered a wide range of companies, many of which have chosen Chicago as their home.

    The CQE convenes university, government and industry partners to advance the science and engineering of quantum information, train the next generation of quantum scientists and engineers, and build the quantum economy. Scientists from the CQE, which includes Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory, four universities, and more than 40 industry partners, as well as researchers at other world-class academic institutions in the region, will continue to expand the understanding and utilization of quantum technology.

    Through its partnership with the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo, Google will invest in critical research topics to accelerate the development of a fault-tolerant quantum computer, support the development and exchange of researchers and ideas, promote quantum computing entrepreneurship and business, and develop the workforce needed for the next generation.

    Google will make its world-class advanced quantum processors—with up to 72-superconducting qubits and error rates of 0.0001 and 0.003 for 1-qubit and 2-qubit gates respectively—available to researchers from the University of Chicago and University of Tokyo. It also will expand access to classical computing for researchers, helping university students and faculty to learn how to program and develop algorithms for quantum computers.

    To promote research breakthroughs, Google will invest in faculty grants to focus on research areas, and it will also fund graduate and undergraduate research at universities across the world to encourage these future leaders’ promising projects. This new partnership will provide opportunities for startups from the greater Chicago and Tokyo areas and help train hundreds of students and build a pipeline of talent in electronics, chip fabrication, software engineering and more.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering is the first school of engineering at the University of Chicago. It was founded as the Institute for Molecular Engineering in 2011 by the university in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory. When the program was raised to the status of a school in 2019, it became the first school dedicated to molecular engineering in the United States. It is named for a major benefactor, the Pritzker Foundation.

    The scientists, engineers, and students at PME use scientific research to pursue engineering solutions. The school does not have departments. Instead, it organizes its research around interdisciplinary “themes”: immuno-engineering, quantum engineering, autonomous materials, and water and energy. PME works toward technological advancements in areas of global importance, including sustainable energy and natural resources, immunotherapy-based approaches to cancer, “unhackable” communications networks, and a clean global water supply. The school plans to expand its research areas to address more issues of global importance.

    IME was established in 2011, after three years of discussion and review. It was the largest academic program founded by the University of Chicago since 1988, when the Harris School of Public Policy Studies was established.

    Matthew Tirrell was appointed founding Pritzker Director of IME in July 2011. The Pritzker Directorship honors the Pritzker Foundation, which donated a large gift in support of the institute. Tirrell is a researcher in biomolecular engineering and nanotechnology. His honors include election to The National Academy of Engineering, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and The National Academy of Sciences. He became dean of PME in 2019.

    The William Eckhardt Research Center (WERC), which houses the school and part of the Physical Sciences Division, was constructed between 2011 and 2015. The WERC was named for alumnus William Eckhardt, in recognition of his donation to support scientific research at the university.

    In 2019, the school received more than $23.1 million in research funding. From 2011 to 2019, faculty at the school have filed 69 invention disclosures and have created six companies.

    On May 28, 2019, the University of Chicago announced a $100 million commitment from the Pritzker Foundation to support the institute’s transition to a school—the first school of molecular engineering in the U.S. The Pritzker Foundation helped establish the school with a new donation of $75 million, adding to an earlier $25 million donation that supported the institute and the construction of the Pritzker Nanofabrication Facility. In 2019, PME became the university’s first new school in three decades.

    PME offers a graduate program in molecular engineering for both Master and Ph.D. students, as well as an undergraduate major and minor in molecular engineering offered with the College of the University of Chicago.

    The institute began accepting applications to its doctoral program in fall 2013. The first class of graduate students was matriculated the following fall. In 2019, the school had 28 faculty members, 91 undergraduate students, 134 graduate students, and 75 postdoctoral fellows.

    The graduate program curriculum includes various science and engineering disciplines, product design, entrepreneurship, and communication. The program is interdisciplinary, featuring a connected art program called STAGE Lab. STAGE Lab creates plays and films in the context of scientific research at PME.

    The undergraduate major was added in spring 2015. It was the first engineering major offered at the University of Chicago. In 2018, the first undergraduate class received degrees in molecular engineering. When the school was established in 2019, it announced plans to expand its undergraduate offerings.

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation, University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of The Association of American Universities and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    ___________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    ___________________________________________________________________
    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratoryin Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center is located on Chicago’s campus.

    ++

     
  • richardmitnick 8:32 pm on May 18, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum information theory" - the complex algorithms used to process information within a device., "Quantum systems on chip", "Qubit control - Cornell engineers push to make quantum practical", "Superposition" – a phenomenon where electrons exist in multiple states at once., , , Controlling qubits is complicated., , Cornell’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Getting rid of "noise" is a critical part of building a useful quantum computer., If there’s any “noise” present “superposition” will collapse before any useful data is realized., , , Quantum Computing, Quantum devices rely on subatomic particles as a means to route and process information making them faster and more powerful than any other electronic hardware., Quantum Mechanics: where waves of energy and particles are the same and strange phenomena like "teleportation" are the norm., , Trapping ions   

    From The College of Engineering At Cornell University Via “The Chronicle”: “Qubit control – Cornell engineers push to make quantum practical” 

    2

    From The College of Engineering

    At

    Cornell University

    Via

    “The Chronicle”

    May 15, 2023
    David Levin | Cornell Engineering

    Reality, at least as we know it, only goes so deep. Look closely enough at any object, down to the level of molecules and atoms, and the world starts to play by its own rules. This is the realm of quantum physics: where waves of energy and particles are the same, and strange phenomena like “teleportation” are the norm.

    These enigmatic traits could be the key to revolutionary new computers and electronic components. Instead of using silicon transistors, like a traditional computer or integrated circuit, quantum devices rely on subatomic particles as a means to route and process information, making them faster and more powerful than any other electronic hardware we can currently imagine.

    1
    From left: Assistant professor Mohamed Ibrahim, assistant professor Karan Mehta and associate professor Mark Wilde – all of the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering – are working to make quantum devices both practical and scalable.
    Eric Laine/Provided.

    Three new faculty from Cornell’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering are working to make quantum devices both practical and scalable. Assistant professor Karan Mehta, together with assistant professor Mohamed Ibrahim and associate professor Mark Wilde, are each going far beyond applied physics in their work, incorporating elements of circuit design, photonics, systems architecture, information theory and other fields to make quantum computers a reality.

    Trapping ions

    Mehta, for instance, studies a basic building block of quantum computers – a specialized component called a “trapped ion qubit.” It’s essentially a single atom suspended in a vacuum by electric fields and controlled with lasers. By using those lasers to manipulate the atoms’ spin and charge, it’s possible to “program” them to run simple algorithms.

    As with any electronic component, however, these qubits have pros and cons, Mehta notes. One advantage is that each ion is suspended in space and isolated from other atoms, meaning it’s exposed to very little interference or “noise”. But controlling these qubits is complicated, and as systems get larger and larger, other sources of noise can creep into the system, preventing it from working smoothly. Getting rid of that noise is a critical part of building a useful quantum computer, which would require thousands or even millions of qubits.

    “When you have large numbers of ion qubits in a system, controlling them with millions of laser beams moving around in free space becomes very hard,” Mehta says. “Whenever you add more qubits into the system, the complexity of the control apparatus will introduce more potential errors and noise.”

    In quantum computing, that noise can scramble the output of a machine. When minute vibrations, heat or anything else that randomly perturbs a trapped ion appears, the qubits lose a critical trait called “superposition” – a phenomenon where electrons exist in multiple states at once, letting programmers run different iterations of a problem at the same time. If there’s any noise present, however, that superposition will collapse before any useful data is realized.

    Mehta is trying to get around this limitation by using solid-state devices to manipulate and sense the state of each qubit. He thinks using pulses of light delivered to qubits and collected into chip-based control devices based on fiber optics may be the key to clean, low-noise quantum systems. Such systems could allow large scale systems, and also significantly reduce excess noise, making qubits more stable.

    “From an engineering perspective, that can address the elephant in the room, which is the challenge of controlling these otherwise pristine quantum systems,” he says. “The idea is to leverage the fundamental advantages of extremely clean, low noise quantum systems, together with scalable hardware.”

    “Quantum systems on chip”

    Ibrahim is on board with that assessment. He’s working on scalable chip-scale quantum systems in his lab utilizing today’s advanced and miniscule integrated circuits (ICs).

    Ibrahim is developing integrated quantum sensors using a specialized form of diamond crystals. Instead of pure carbon, these diamonds are seeded with atoms of nitrogen. When paired with a vacant site, each nitrogen atom introduces a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center with unique new properties.

    By exposing these crystals to a rising sweep of microwave energy and green light pulses, he says, they begin to glow fluorescent red with intensity depending on the spin states of the NV centers’ electrons – and by recording the exact frequencies at which a dip in the fluorescence intensity occurs, Ibrahim can track the temperature and measure the intensity of magnetic and electric fields that are surrounding the sensor.

    Although this is a well-known property, Ibrahim is working to combine all the elements involved into a single chip-scale miniaturized device, including on-chip microwave radio source and red-light detection circuits. These are co-packaged with a diamond crystal lattice and a green laser emitter.

    Integrated circuits like these, he says, could have all sorts of different applications, from global navigation to sensing bioelectric signals in the heart and brain – but Ibrahim says he’s also interested in building integrated controllers for quantum computers, where they might help to solve an age-old problem.

    “Qubits need to be kept in a cryogenic fridge. In order to send signals between those ultra-cold environments and the classical computers that control the qubits, we currently use cables, which limit the scalability to thousands of qubits,” he says. By using cryogenic ICs as an intermediary, operating at few Kelvins, it may be possible to build multi-qubit controllers that can scale to a larger number of qubits much more efficiently.

    “However, we still need to communicate with intermediate cold temperature, which is currently done using conductive coaxial cables. Since these cables are also thermally conductive, we can actually lose energy along them on the order of a few milliwatts,” he says.

    Ibrahim is working on efficient transceivers that can solve this problem using either wireless communication or cables with very low heat conductivity, such as optical fibers. The utilization of ICs to develop new architectures to interface or directly control qubits would make it possible to increase their number, enabling the era of large-scale quantum computers.

    Programming qubits

    No matter how robust or efficient we can make a quantum computer, however, we won’t get very far unless we figure out the most effective ways to use it – an area Wilde is actively studying. While his colleagues in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering are developing new hardware and software to make these devices a reality, Wilde is turning his attention to “quantum information theory” – the complex algorithms used to process information within a device.

    Not surprisingly, he says, quantum computers are far less straightforward than classical silicon devices. A classical computer with two bits, each taking values zero and one, can generate four different combinations of those numbers (00, 01, 10 and 11), but can only calculate one at a time. A quantum computer, on the other hand, can explore all four possible answers at once – and as a result, requires entirely new methods of programming.

    “The cleverness involved in devising a quantum algorithm is to make the bad possibilities for an answer go away; to eliminate them from the computation like pruning a tree, and then amplify the paths that will lead to a correct solution when you ultimately measure it,” Wilde says.

    Since noise in the quantum system will introduce errors during that pruning process, Wilde is working on ways to correct for those instances and ensure that noisy glitches don’t skew the computer’s output. One technique, he notes, is to make quantum algorithms as efficient as possible, reducing the amount of time they take to run and limiting the qubits’ chances of being corrupted by noise as the computation occurs.

    Although he’s working on new ways of constructing robust quantum algorithms, Wilde’s work isn’t entirely focused on practical solutions. He’s also trying to answer puzzles with a more philosophical bent.

    “I want to understand the ultimate limits of communication,” he says. “In every communication task, you’re going to need to do some kind of computation on either end, and in every computation task, you’re going to have to communicate between qubits inside the computer – so computation and communication are inevitably intertwined, and you can never separate them.” With that in mind, he asks, what are the physical limits of those processes? And how far can we push them?

    These questions aren’t just abstract thought experiments; they’re the bread and butter of the work that Wilde and his colleagues are currently doing. In time, the interdisciplinary research coming out of their labs may revolutionize computing and electrical engineering as a whole, opening an endless array of new possibilities based on quantum physics.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Cornell University College of Engineering is a division of Cornell University that was founded in 1870 as the Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts. It is one of four private undergraduate colleges at Cornell that are not statutory colleges.

    It currently grants bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in a variety of engineering and applied science fields, and is the third largest undergraduate college at Cornell by student enrollment. The college offers over 450 engineering courses, and has an annual research budget exceeding US$112 million.

    The College of Engineering was founded in 1870 as the Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts. The program was housed in Sibley Hall on what has since become the Arts Quad, both of which are named for Hiram Sibley, the original benefactor whose contributions were used to establish the program. The college took its current name in 1919 when the Sibley College merged with the College of Civil Engineering. It was housed in Sibley, Lincoln, Franklin, Rand, and Morse Halls. In the 1950s the college moved to the southern end of Cornell’s campus.

    The college is known for a number of firsts. In 1889, the college took over electrical engineering from the Department of Physics, establishing the first department in the United States in this field. The college awarded the nation’s first doctorates in both electrical engineering and industrial engineering. The Department of Computer Science, established in 1965 jointly under the College of Engineering and the College of Arts and Sciences, is also one of the oldest in the country.

    For many years, the college offered a five-year undergraduate degree program. However, in the 1960s, the course was shortened to four years for a B.S. degree with an optional fifth year leading to a masters of engineering degree. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Cornell offered a Master of Nuclear Engineering program, with graduates gaining employment in the nuclear industry. However, after the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, employment opportunities in that field dimmed and the program was dropped. Cornell continued to operate its on-campus nuclear reactor as a research facility following the close of the program. For most of Cornell’s history, Geology was taught in the College of Arts and Sciences. However, in the 1970s, the department was shifted to the engineering college and Snee Hall was built to house the program. After World War II, the Graduate School of Aerospace Engineering was founded as a separate academic unit, but later merged into the engineering college.

    Cornell Engineering is home to many teams that compete in student design competitions and other engineering competitions. Presently, there are teams that compete in the Baja SAE, Automotive X-Prize (see Cornell 100+ MPG Team), UNP Satellite Program, DARPA Grand Challenge, AUVSI Unmanned Aerial Systems and Underwater Vehicle Competition, Formula SAE, RoboCup, Solar Decathlon, Genetically Engineered Machines, and others.

    Cornell’s College of Engineering is currently ranked 12th nationally by U.S. News and World Report, making it ranked 1st among engineering schools/programs in the Ivy League. The engineering physics program at Cornell was ranked as being No. 1 by U.S. News and World Report in 2008. Cornell’s operations research and industrial engineering program ranked fourth in nation, along with the master’s program in financial engineering. Cornell’s computer science program ranks among the top five in the world, and it ranks fourth in the quality of graduate education.

    The college is a leader in nanotechnology. In a survey done by a nanotechnology magazine Cornell University was ranked as being the best at nanotechnology commercialization, 2nd best in terms of nanotechnology facilities, the 4th best at nanotechnology research and the 10th best at nanotechnology industrial outreach.

    Departments and schools

    With about 3,000 undergraduates and 1,300 graduate students, the college is the third-largest undergraduate college at Cornell by student enrollment. It is divided into twelve departments and schools:

    School of Applied and Engineering Physics
    Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering
    Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering
    Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
    School of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    Department of Computer Science
    Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering
    Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
    School of Operations Research and Information Engineering
    Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
    Department of Systems Engineering

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institutein New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land-grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the SUNY – The State University of New York system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.

    History

    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.

    Research

    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States.
    Cornell is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation, accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s JPL-Caltech and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building.

    Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico].

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As an National Science Foundation center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer.

    In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Engineering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation.

    During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States.

    Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider(JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider(JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:35 am on May 18, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Uncovering universal physics in the dynamics of a quantum system", , New experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases shed light on how all interacting quantum systems evolve after a sudden energy influx., , , Quantum Computing, , ,   

    From The Eberly College of Science At The Pennsylvania State University: “Uncovering universal physics in the dynamics of a quantum system” 

    From The Eberly College of Science

    At

    Penn State Bloc

    Pennsylvania State University

    5.17.23
    Sam Sholtis
    sjs144@psu.edu
    814-865-1390

    New experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases shed light on how all interacting quantum systems evolve after a sudden energy influx.

    1
    New experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases uncover universal physics in the dynamics of quantum systems. Penn State graduate student Yuan Le, the first author of the paper describing the experiments, stands near the apparatus she used to create and study one-dimensional gases near absolute zero. Credit: David Weiss / Penn State. Creative Commons.

    New experiments using one-dimensional gases of ultra-cold atoms reveal a universality in how quantum systems composed of many particles change over time following a large influx of energy that throws the system out of equilibrium. A team of physicists at Penn State showed that these gases immediately respond, “evolving” with features that are common to all “many-body” quantum systems thrown out of equilibrium in this way. A paper describing the experiments appears May 17 in the journal Nature [below].

    “Many major advances in physics over the last century have concerned the behavior of quantum systems with many particles,” said David Weiss, distinguished professor of physics at Penn State and one of the leaders of the research team. “Despite the staggering array of diverse ‘many-body’ phenomena, like superconductivity, superfluidity and magnetism, it was found that their behavior near equilibrium is often similar enough that they can be sorted into a small set of universal classes. In contrast, the behavior of systems that are far from equilibrium has yielded to few such unifying descriptions.”

    These quantum many-body systems are ensembles of particles, like atoms, that are free to move around relative to each other, Weiss explained. When they are some combination of dense and cold enough, which can vary depending on the context, quantum mechanics — the fundamental theory that describes the properties of nature at the atomic or subatomic scale — is required to describe their dynamics.

    Dramatically out-of-equilibrium systems are routinely created in particle accelerators when pairs of heavy ions are collided at speeds near the speed-of-light.




    The collisions produce a plasma — composed of the subatomic particles “quarks” and “gluons” — that emerges very early in the collision and can be described by a hydrodynamic theory — similar to the classical theory used to describe air flow or other moving fluids — well before the plasma reaches local thermal equilibrium. But what happens in the astonishingly short time before hydrodynamic theory can be used?

    “The physical process that occurs before hydrodynamics can be used has been called ‘hydrodynamization,’” said Marcos Rigol, professor of physics at Penn State and another leader of the research team. “Many theories have been developed to try to understand hydrodynamization in these collisions, but the situation is quite complicated and it is not possible to actually observe it as it happens in the particle accelerator experiments. Using cold atoms, we can observe what is happening during hydrodynamization.”

    The Penn State researchers took advantage of two special features of one-dimensional gases, which are trapped and cooled to near absolute zero by lasers, in order to understand the evolution of the system after it is thrown of out of equilibrium, but before hydrodynamics can be applied. The first feature is experimental. Interactions in the experiment can be suddenly turned off at any point following the influx of energy, so the evolution of the system can be directly observed and measured. Specifically, they observed the time-evolution of one-dimensional momentum distributions after the sudden quench in energy.

    “Ultra-cold atoms in traps made from lasers allow for such exquisite control and measurement that they can really shed light on many-body physics,” said Weiss. “It is amazing that the same basic physics that characterize relativistic heavy ion collisions, some of the most energetic collisions ever made in a lab, also show up in the much less energetic collisions we make in our lab.”

    The second feature is theoretical. A collection of particles that interact with each other in a complicated way can be described as a collection of “quasiparticles” whose mutual interactions are much simpler. Unlike in most systems, the quasiparticle description of one-dimensional gases is mathematically exact. It allows for a very clear description of why energy is rapidly redistributed across the system after it is thrown out of equilibrium.

    “Known laws of physics, including conservation laws, in these one-dimensional gases imply that a hydrodynamic description will be accurate once this initial evolution plays out,” said Rigol. “The experiment shows that this occurs before local equilibrium is reached. The experiment and theory together therefore provide a model example of hydrodynamization. Since hydrodynamization happens so fast, the underlying understanding in terms of quasi-particles can be applied to any many-body quantum system to which a very large amount of energy is added.”

    In addition to Weiss and Rigol, the research team at Penn State includes Yuan Le, Yicheng Zhang, and Sarang Gopalakrishnan. The research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. Computations were carried out at the Penn State Institute for Computational and Data Sciences.

    Nature

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Eberly College of Science is the science college of Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1859 by Jacob S. Whitman, professor of natural science. The College offers baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral degree programs in the basic sciences. It was named after Robert E. Eberly.

    Academics Eberly College of Science offers sixteen majors in four disciplines: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies.
    • The Life Sciences: Biology, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Microbiology
    • The Physical Sciences: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Chemistry, Physics, Planetary Science and Astronomy
    • The Mathematical Sciences: Mathematics, Statistics, Data Sciences
    • Interdisciplinary Programs: General Science, Forensic Science, Premedicine, Integrated Premedical-Medical, Science BS/MBA

    Penn State Campus

    The Pennsylvania State University is a public state-related land-grant research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, Penn State became the state’s only land-grant university in 1863. Today, Penn State is a major research university which conducts teaching, research, and public service. Its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate, professional and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. In addition to its land-grant designation, it also participates in the sea-grant, space-grant, and sun-grant research consortia; it is one of only four such universities (along with Cornell University, Oregon State University, and University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa). Its University Park campus, which is the largest and serves as the administrative hub, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township. It has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school’s University Park campus, and Dickinson Law, in Carlisle. The College of Medicine is in Hershey. Penn State is one university that is geographically distributed throughout Pennsylvania. There are 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. The University Park campus has been labeled one of the “Public Ivies,” a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
    The Pennsylvania State University is a member of The Association of American Universities an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education.
    Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world’s largest dues-paying alumni association. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses.

    Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon (THON), which is the world’s largest student-run philanthropy. This event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. The university’s athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, competing in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. Penn State students, alumni, faculty and coaches have received a total of 54 Olympic medals.

    Early years

    The school was sponsored by the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society and founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania’s state legislature as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania. The use of “college” or “university” was avoided because of local prejudice against such institutions as being impractical in their courses of study. Centre County, Pennsylvania, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, donated 200 acres (0.8 km2) of land – the first of 10,101 acres (41 km^2) the school would eventually acquire. In 1862, the school’s name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, and with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state’s sole land-grant college. The school’s name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874; enrollment fell to 64 undergraduates the following year as the school tried to balance purely agricultural studies with a more classic education.

    George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, and broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton also expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton’s honor. Additionally, Penn State’s Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton. His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue.

    Early 20th century

    In the years that followed, Penn State grew significantly, becoming the state’s largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college.

    In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, sought and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker (1956–1970), the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, and enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company.

    Modern era

    In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution. As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State’s alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women’s Year; the revised lyrics were taken from the posthumously-published autobiography of the writer of the original lyrics, Fred Lewis Pattee, and Professor Patricia Farrell acted as a spokesperson for those who wanted the change.

    In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, and in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law. The university is now the largest in Pennsylvania. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy.

    Research

    Penn State is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. Over 10,000 students are enrolled in the university’s graduate school (including the law and medical schools), and over 70,000 degrees have been awarded since the school was founded in 1922.

    Penn State’s research and development expenditure has been on the rise in recent years. For fiscal year 2013, according to institutional rankings of total research expenditures for science and engineering released by the National Science Foundation , Penn State stood second in the nation, behind only Johns Hopkins University and tied with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , in the number of fields in which it is ranked in the top ten. Overall, Penn State ranked 17th nationally in total research expenditures across the board. In 12 individual fields, however, the university achieved rankings in the top ten nationally. The fields and sub-fields in which Penn State ranked in the top ten are materials (1st), psychology (2nd), mechanical engineering (3rd), sociology (3rd), electrical engineering (4th), total engineering (5th), aerospace engineering (8th), computer science (8th), agricultural sciences (8th), civil engineering (9th), atmospheric sciences (9th), and earth sciences (9th). Moreover, in eleven of these fields, the university has repeated top-ten status every year since at least 2008. For fiscal year 2011, the National Science Foundation reported that Penn State had spent $794.846 million on R&D and ranked 15th among U.S. universities and colleges in R&D spending.

    For the 2008–2009 fiscal year, Penn State was ranked ninth among U.S. universities by the National Science Foundation , with $753 million in research and development spending for science and engineering. During the 2015–2016 fiscal year, Penn State received $836 million in research expenditures.

    The Applied Research Lab (ARL), located near the University Park campus, has been a research partner with the Department of Defense since 1945 and conducts research primarily in support of the United States Navy. It is the largest component of Penn State’s research efforts statewide, with over 1,000 researchers and other staff members.

    The Materials Research Institute was created to coordinate the highly diverse and growing materials activities across Penn State’s University Park campus. With more than 200 faculty in 15 departments, 4 colleges, and 2 Department of Defense research laboratories, MRI was designed to break down the academic walls that traditionally divide disciplines and enable faculty to collaborate across departmental and even college boundaries. MRI has become a model for this interdisciplinary approach to research, both within and outside the university. Dr. Richard E. Tressler was an international leader in the development of high-temperature materials. He pioneered high-temperature fiber testing and use, advanced instrumentation and test methodologies for thermostructural materials, and design and performance verification of ceramics and composites in high-temperature aerospace, industrial, and energy applications. He was founding director of the Center for Advanced Materials (CAM), which supported many faculty and students from the College of Earth and Mineral Science, the Eberly College of Science, the College of Engineering, the Materials Research Laboratory and the Applied Research Laboratories at Penn State on high-temperature materials. His vision for Interdisciplinary research played a key role in creating the Materials Research Institute, and the establishment of Penn State as an acknowledged leader among major universities in materials education and research.

    The university was one of the founding members of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), a partnership that includes 17 research-led universities in the United States, Asia, and Europe. The network provides funding, facilitates collaboration between universities, and coordinates exchanges of faculty members and graduate students among institutions. Former Penn State president Graham Spanier is a former vice-chair of the WUN.

    The Pennsylvania State University Libraries were ranked 14th among research libraries in North America in the 2003–2004 survey released by The Chronicle of Higher Education. The university’s library system began with a 1,500-book library in Old Main. In 2009, its holdings had grown to 5.2 million volumes, in addition to 500,000 maps, five million microforms, and 180,000 films and videos.

    The university’s College of Information Sciences and Technology is the home of CiteSeerX, an open-access repository and search engine for scholarly publications. The university is also the host to the Radiation Science & Engineering Center, which houses the oldest operating university research reactor. Additionally, University Park houses the Graduate Program in Acoustics, the only freestanding acoustics program in the United States. The university also houses the Center for Medieval Studies, a program that was founded to research and study the European Middle Ages, and the Center for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE), one of the first centers established to research postsecondary education.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:11 pm on May 15, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Physicists Create Elusive Particles That Remember Their Pasts", , , In 1982 Frank Wilczek helped open physicists’ minds to the menagerie of particles that could exist in two dimensions., Last fall researchers with Google celebrated the first clear intertwining of non-abelian objects., , , Quantum Computing, , Quantum processors are changing the hunt for anyons., , Researchers have spent millions of dollars over the past three decades or so trying to capture and tame the particle-like objects which go by the cryptic moniker of "non-abelian anyons"., The next milestone will be real error correction which neither Google nor Quantinuum attempted., The shared memory of non-abelian anyons could serve as an ideal qubit.,   

    From “Quanta Magazine” : “Physicists Create Elusive Particles That Remember Their Pasts” 

    From “Quanta Magazine”

    5.9.23
    Charlie Wood

    1
    By “braiding” particles around each other, quantum computers could store and manipulate information in a way that protects against errors.
    Merrill Sherman/Quanta Magazine.

    Forty years ago, Frank Wilczek was mulling over a bizarre type of particle that could live only in a flat universe. Had he put pen to paper and done the calculations, Wilczek would have found that these then-theoretical particles held an otherworldly memory of their past, one woven too thoroughly into the fabric of reality for any one disturbance to erase it.

    However, seeing no reason that nature should allow such strange beasts to exist, the future Nobel prize-winning physicist chose not to follow his thought experiments to their most outlandish conclusions — despite the objections of his collaborator Anthony Zee, a renowned theoretical physicist at the University of California-Santa Barbara.

    “I said, ‘Come on, Tony, people are going to make fun of us,’” said Wilczek, now a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Others weren’t so reluctant. Researchers have spent millions of dollars over the past three decades or so trying to capture and tame the particlelike objects, which go by the cryptic moniker of “non-abelian anyons”.

    Now two landmark experiments have finally succeeded, and no one is laughing. “This has been a target, and now it’s hit,” Wilczek said.

    Physicists working with the company Quantinuum announced today that they had used the company’s newly unveiled, next-generation H2 processor to synthesize and manipulate non-abelian anyons in a novel phase of quantum matter.

    2
    Researchers used Quantinuum’s new H2 processor to simulate a novel state of matter in which non-abelian anyons can be created and manipulated.
    Credit: Quantinuum.

    Their work follows a paper posted last fall in which researchers with Google celebrated the first clear intertwining of non-abelian objects, a proof of concept that information can be stored and manipulated in their shared memory. Together, the experiments flex the growing muscle of quantum devices while offering a potential glimpse into the future of computing: By maintaining nearly indestructible records of their journeys through space and time, non-abelian anyons could offer the most promising platform for building error-tolerant quantum computers.

    “As pure science, it’s just, wow,” said Ady Stern, a condensed matter theorist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel who has spent his career studying the objects. “This brings you closer [to topological quantum computing]. But if there’s one thing the last few decades have shown us, it’s a long and winding road.”

    Flatland Computing

    In 1982, Wilczek helped open physicists’ minds to the menagerie of particles that could exist in two dimensions. He worked out the consequences of confining quantum laws to a hypothetical, entirely flat universe, and found that it would contain strange particles with fractional spins and charges. Moreover, swapping otherwise indistinguishable particles could change them in ways that were impossible for their three-dimensional counterparts. Wilczek cheekily named these two-dimensional particles anyons, since they seemed to be capable of nearly anything.

    Wilczek focused on the simplest “abelian” anyons, particles that, when swapped, change in subtle ways that are not directly detectable.

    He stopped short of exploring the wilder option — non-abelian anyons, particles that share a memory. Swapping the positions of two non-abelian anyons produces a directly observable effect. It switches the state of their shared wave function, a quantity that describes a system’s quantum nature. If you stumble upon two identical non-abelian anyons, by measuring which state they are in, you can tell whether they have always been in those positions or whether they’ve crossed paths — a power no other particle can claim.

    To Wilczek, that notion seemed too fantastical to develop into a formal theory. “What kinds of states of matter support those?” he recalled thinking.

    But in 1991, two physicists identified those states [Nuclear Physics B (below)]. They predicted that, when subjected to strong enough magnetic fields and cold enough temperatures, electrons stuck to a surface would swirl together in just the right way to form non-abelian anyons. The anyons would not be fundamental particles — our 3D world forbids that — but “quasiparticles.” These are collections of particles, but they are best thought of as individual units. Quasiparticles have precise locations and behaviors, just as collections of water molecules produce waves and whirlpools.

    In 1997, Alexei Kitaev, a theorist at the California Institute of Technology, pointed out that such quasiparticles could lay the perfect foundation for quantum computers. Physicists have long salivated at the possibility of harnessing the quantum world to perform calculations beyond the reach of typical computers and their binary bits. But qubits, the atom-like building blocks of quantum computers, are fragile. Their wave functions collapse at the lightest touch, erasing their memories and their ability to perform quantum calculations. This flimsiness has complicated ambitions to control qubits long enough for them to finish lengthy calculations.

    Kitaev realized that the shared memory of non-abelian anyons could serve as an ideal qubit. For starters, it was malleable. You could change the state of the qubit — flipping a zero to a one — by exchanging the positions of the anyons in a manner known as “braiding.”

    You could also read out the state of the qubit. When the simplest non-abelian anyons are brought together and “fused,” for instance, they will emit another quasiparticle only if they have been braided. This quasiparticle serves as a physical record of their crisscrossed journey through space and time.

    And crucially, the memory is also nigh incorruptible. As long as the anyons are kept far apart, poking at any individual particle won’t change the state the pair is in — whether zero or one. In this way, their collective memory is effectively cut off from the cacophony of the universe.

    “This would be the perfect place to hide information,” said Maissam Barkeshli, a condensed matter theorist at the University of Maryland.

    Unruly Electrons

    Kitaev’s proposal came to be known as “topological” quantum computing because it relied on the topology of the braids. The term refers to broad features of the braid — for example, the number of turns — that aren’t affected by any specific deformation of their path. Most researchers now believe that braids are the future of quantum computing, in one form or another. Microsoft, for instance, has researchers trying to persuade electrons to form non-abelian anyons directly. Already, the company has invested millions of dollars into building tiny wires that — at sufficiently frigid temperatures — should host the simplest species of braidable quasiparticles at their tips. The expectation is that at these low temperatures, electrons will naturally gather to form anyons, which in turn can be braided into reliable qubits.

    After a decade of effort, though, those researchers are still struggling to prove that their approach will work. A splashy 2018 claim that they had finally detected the simplest type of non-abelian quasiparticle, known as “Majorana zero modes,” was followed by a similarly high-profile retraction in 2021. The company reported new progress in a 2022 paper, but few independent researchers expect to see successful braiding soon.

    Similar efforts to turn electrons into non-abelian anyons have also stalled. Bob Willett of Nokia Bell Labs has probably come the closest [Physical Review X] in his attempts to corral electrons in gallium arsenide, where promising but subtle signs of braiding exist. The data is messy, however, and the ultracold temperature, ultrapure materials, and ultrastrong magnetic fields make the experiment tough to reproduce.

    “There has been a long history of not observing anything,” said Eun-Ah Kim of Cornell University.

    Wrangling electrons, however, is not the only way to make non-abelian quasiparticles.

    “I had given up on all of this,” said Kim, who spent years coming up with ways to detect anyons as a graduate student and now collaborates with Google. “Then came the quantum simulators.”

    Compliant Qubits

    Quantum processors are changing the hunt for anyons. Instead of trying to coax hordes of electrons to fall into line, in recent years researchers have begun using the devices to bend individual qubits to their will. Some physicists consider these efforts simulations, because the qubits inside the processor are abstractions of particles (while their physical nature varies from lab to lab, you can visualize them as particles spinning around an axis). But the quantum nature of the qubits is real, so — simulations or not — the processors have become playgrounds for topological experiments.

    “It breathes new life” into the field, said Fiona Burnell, a condensed matter theorist at the University of Minnesota, “because it’s been so hard to make solid-state systems.”

    Synthesizing anyons on quantum processors is an alternate way to leverage the power of Kitaev’s braids: Accept that your qubits are mediocre, and correct their errors. Today’s shoddy qubits don’t work for very long, so anyons built from them would also have short lifetimes. The dream is to quickly and repeatedly measure groups of qubits and correct errors as they crop up, thereby extending the life span of the anyons. Measurement erases an individual qubit’s quantum information by collapsing its wave function and turning it into a classical bit. That would happen here too, but the important information would remain untouchable — hidden in the collective state of many anyons. In this way, Google and other companies hope to shore up qubits with fast measurements and swift corrections (as opposed to low temperatures).

    “Ever since Kitaev,” said Mike Zaletel, a condensed matter physicist at the University of California-Berkeley, “this has been the way people think quantum error correction will likely work.”

    Google took a major step toward quantum error correction in the spring of 2021, when researchers assembled about two dozen qubits into the simplest grid capable of quantum error correction, a phase of matter known as the toric code.

    Creating the toric code on Google’s processor amounts to forcing each qubit to strictly cooperate with its neighbors by gently nudging them with microwave pulses. Left unmeasured, a qubit points in a superposition of many possible directions. Google’s processor effectively cut down on those options by making each qubit coordinate its spin axis with its four neighbors in specific ways. While the toric code has topological properties that can be used for quantum error correction, it doesn’t natively host non-abelian quasiparticles. For that, Google had to turn to a strange trick long known [Physical Review Letters(below)] to theorists: certain imperfections in the grid of qubits, dubbed “twist defects,” can acquire non-abelian magic.

    Last fall, Kim and Yuri Lensky, a theorist at Cornell, along with Google researchers, posted a recipe for easily making and braiding pairs of defects in the toric code. In a preprint posted shortly after, experimentalists at Google reported implementing that idea, which involved severing connections between neighboring qubits. The resulting flaws in the qubit grid acted just like the simplest species of non-abelian quasiparticle, Microsoft’s Majorana zero modes.

    “My initial reaction was ‘Wow, Google just simulated what Microsoft is trying to build. It was a real flexing moment,” said Tyler Ellison, a physicist at Yale University.

    4
    Merrill Sherman/Quanta Magazine.

    By tweaking which connections they cut, the researchers could move the deformations. They made two pairs of non-abelian defects, and by sliding them around a five-by-five-qubit chessboard, they just barely eked out a braid. The researchers declined to comment on their experiment, which is being prepared for publication, but other experts praised the achievement.

    “In a lot of my work, I’ve been doodling similar-looking pictures,” Ellison said. “It’s amazing to see that they actually demonstrated this.”

    Paint by Measurement

    All the while, a group of theorists headed up by Ashvin Vishwanath at Harvard University was quietly pursuing what many consider an even loftier goal: creating a more complicated phase of quantum matter where true non-abelian anyons — as opposed to defects — arise natively in a pristine phase of matter. “[Google’s] defect is kind of a baby non-abelian thing,” said Burnell, who was not involved in either effort.

    Anyons of both types live in phases of matter with a topological nature defined by intricate tapestries of gossamer threads, quantum connections known as entanglement. Entangled particles behave in a coordinated way, and when trillions of particles become entangled, they can ripple in complicated phases sometimes likened to dances. In phases with topological order, entanglement organizes particles into loops of aligned spins. When a loop is cut, each end is an anyon.

    Topological order comes in two flavors. Simple phases such as the toric code have “abelian order.” There, loose ends are abelian anyons. But researchers seeking true non-abelian anyons have their sights set on a completely different and much more complicated tapestry with non-abelian order.

    Vishwanath’s group helped cook up a phase with abelian order in 2021. They dreamt of going further, but stitching qubits into non-abelian entanglement patterns proved too intricate for today’s unstable processors. So the crew scoured the literature for fresh ideas.

    They found a clue in a pair of papers [ https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0108118.pdf and https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0407255.pdf ] decades before. Most quantum devices compute by massaging their qubits much as one might fluff a pillow, in a gentle way where no stuffing flies out through the seams. Carefully knitting entanglement through these “unitary” operations takes time. But in the early 2000s Robert Raussendorf, a physicist now at the University of British Columbia, hit on a shortcut. The secret was to hack away chunks of the wave function using measurement — the process that normally kills quantum states.from decades before. Most quantum devices compute by massaging their qubits much as one might fluff a pillow, in a gentle way where no stuffing flies out through the seams. Carefully knitting entanglement through these “unitary” operations takes time. But in the early 2000s Robert Raussendorf, a physicist now at the University of British Columbia, hit on a shortcut. The secret was to hack away chunks of the wave function using measurement — the process that normally kills quantum states.

    “It’s a really violent operation,” said Ruben Verresen, one of Vishwanath’s collaborators at Harvard.

    Raussendorf and his collaborators detailed how selective measurements on certain qubits could take an unentangled state and intentionally put it into an entangled state, a process Verresen likens to cutting away marble to sculpt a statue.

    The technique had a dark side that initially doomed researchers’ attempts to make non-abelian phases: Measurement produces random outcomes. When the theorists targeted a particular phase, measurements left non-abelian anyons speckled randomly about, as if the researchers were trying to paint the Mona Lisa by splattering paint onto a canvas. “It seemed like a complete headache,” Verresen said.

    Toward the end of 2021, Vishwanath’s group hit on a solution: sculpting the wave function of a qubit grid with multiple rounds of measurement. With the first round, they turned a boring phase of matter into a simple abelian phase. Then they fed that phase forward into a second round of measurements, further chiseling it into a more complicated phase. By playing this game of topological cat’s cradle, they realized they could address randomness while moving step by step, climbing a ladder of increasingly complicated phases to reach a phase with non-abelian order.

    “Instead of randomly trying measurements and seeing what you get, you want to hop across the landscape of phases of matter,” Verresen said. It’s a topological landscape that theorists have only recently begun to understand.

    Last summer, the group put their theory to the test on Quantinuum’s H1 trapped-ion processor, one of the only quantum devices that can perform measurements on the fly. Replicating parts of Google’s experiment, they made the abelian toric code and created a stationary non-abelian defect in it. They tried for a non-abelian phase but couldn’t get there with only 20 qubits.

    But then a researcher at Quantinuum, Henrik Dreyer, took Verresen aside. After swearing him to secrecy with a nondisclosure agreement, he told Verresen that the company had a second-generation device. Crucially, the H2 had a whopping 32 qubits. It took substantial finagling, but the team managed to set up the simplest non-abelian phase on 27 of those qubits. “If we had one or two fewer qubits, I don’t think we could have done it,” Vishwanath said.

    Their experiments marked the first unassailable detection of a non-abelian phase of matter. “To realize a non-abelian topological order is something people have wanted to do for a long time,” Burnell said. “That’s definitely an important landmark.”

    Their work culminated in the braiding of three pairs of non-abelian anyons such that their trajectories through space and time formed a pattern known as Borromean rings, the first braiding of non-abelian anyons. Three Borromean rings are inseparable when together, but if you cut one the other two will fall apart.

    “There’s a kind of gee-whiz factor,” Wilczek said. “It takes enormous control of the quantum world to produce these quantum objects.”

    The Big Chill

    As other physicists celebrate these milestones, they also emphasize that Google and Quantinuum are running a different race than the likes of Microsoft and Willett. Creating topological phases on a quantum processor is like making the world’s tiniest ice cube by stacking a few dozen water molecules — impressive, they say, but not nearly as satisfying as watching a slab of ice form naturally.

    “The underlying math is extremely beautiful, and being able to validate that is definitely worthwhile,” said Chetan Nayak, a researcher at Microsoft who has done pioneering work on non-abelian systems. But for his part, he said, he’s still hoping to see a system settle into a state with this sort of intricate entanglement pattern on its own when cooled.

    “If this was unambiguously seen in [Willett’s experiments], our minds would be blown,” Barkeshli said. Seeing it in a quantum processor “is cool, but no one’s getting blown away.”

    The most exciting aspect of these experiments, according to Barkeshli, is their significance for quantum computation: Researchers have finally shown that they can make the necessary ingredients, 26 years after Kitaev’s initial proposal. Now they just need to figure out how to really put them to work.

    One snag is that like Pokémon, anyons come in a tremendous number of different species, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Some, for example, have richer memories of their pasts, making their braids more computationally powerful. But coaxing them into existence is harder. Any specific scheme will have to weigh such trade-offs, many of which aren’t yet understood.

    “Now that we have the ability to make different kinds of topological order, these things become real, and you can talk about these trade-offs in more concrete terms,” Vishwanath said.

    The next milestone will be real error correction, which neither Google nor Quantinuum attempted. Their braided qubits were hidden but not protected, which would have required measuring the crummy underlying qubits and quickly fixing their errors in real time. That demonstration would be a watershed moment in quantum computation, but it’s years away — if it’s even possible.

    Until then, optimists hope these recent experiments will launch a cycle where more advanced quantum computers lead to a better command over non-abelian quasiparticles, and that control in turn helps physicists develop more capable quantum devices.

    “Just bringing out the power of measurement,” Wilczek said, “that’s something that might be a game-changer.”

    Nuclear Physics B 1991
    Physical Review X
    Physical Review Letters 2010

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Formerly known as Simons Science News, Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent online publication launched by the Simons Foundation to enhance public understanding of science. Why Quanta? Albert Einstein called photons “quanta of light.” Our goal is to “illuminate science.” At Quanta Magazine, scientific accuracy is every bit as important as telling a good story. All of our articles are meticulously researched, reported, edited, copy-edited and fact-checked.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:31 am on May 15, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Jellybeans – a sweet solution for overcrowded circuitry in quantum computer chips", , Engineers show that a jellybean-shaped quantum dot creates more breathing space in a microchip packed with qubits., It's not one continuous jellybean quantum dot. It's a smaller one here and a bigger one in the middle and a smaller one there., It’s only when you go to larger numbers of electrons-say 15 or 20 electrons-that the jellybean becomes more continuous and homogeneous., Quantum Computing, Quantum dots need to be placed very closely-just a few 10s of nanometres apart-so their spins can interact with one another., Silicon is arguably one of the most important materials in quantum computing., The engineers found a way to create a chain of electrons by trapping more electrons in between the qubits., The next step is to insert working qubits at each end of the jellybean quantum dot and make them talk to another., The silicon microchips of future quantum computers will be packed with millions if not billions of qubits., , To implement a quantum algorithm we need two-qubit gates where the control of one qubit is conditional on the state of the other.   

    From The University of New South Wales (AU) : “Jellybeans – a sweet solution for overcrowded circuitry in quantum computer chips” 

    UNSW bloc

    From The University of New South Wales (AU)

    5.11.23
    Lachlan Gilbert

    Engineers show that a jellybean-shaped quantum dot creates more breathing space in a microchip packed with qubits.

    1
    An artist’s impression of how qubits can be physically spread apart without breaking communication channels between them that is essential for quantum processing. Image: Tony Melov/UNSW.

    The silicon microchips of future quantum computers will be packed with millions, if not billions of qubits – the basic units of quantum information – to solve the greatest problems facing humanity. And with millions of qubits needing millions of wires in the microchip circuitry, it was always going to get cramped in there.

    But now engineers at UNSW Sydney have made an important step towards solving a long-standing problem about giving their qubits more breathing space — and it all revolves around jellybeans.

    Not the kind we rely on for a sugar hit to get us past the 3pm slump. But jellybean quantum dots –elongated areas between qubit pairs that create more space for wiring without interrupting the way the paired qubits interact with each other.


    How jellybeans solve the problem of space in quantum computing: A/Prof. Arne Laucht explains.

    As lead author Associate Professor Arne Laucht explains, the jellybean quantum dot is not a new concept in quantum computing, and has been discussed as a solution to some of the many pathways towards building the world’s first working quantum computer.

    “It has been shown in different material systems such as gallium arsenide. But it has not been shown in silicon before,” he says.

    Silicon is arguably one of the most important materials in quantum computing, A/Prof. Laucht says, as the infrastructure to produce future quantum computing chips is already available, given we use silicon chips in classical computers. Another benefit is that you can fit so many qubits (in the form of electrons) on the one chip.

    “But because the qubits need to be so close together to share information with one another, placing wires between each pair was always going to be a challenge.”

    In a study published today in Advanced Materials [below], the UNSW team of engineers describe how they showed in the lab that jellybean quantum dots were possible in silicon. This now opens the way for qubits to be spaced apart to ensure that the wires necessary to connect and control the qubits can be fit in between.

    How it works

    In a normal quantum dot using spin qubits, single electrons are pulled from a pool of electrons in silicon to sit under a ‘quantum gate’ – where the spin of each electron represents the computational state. For example, spin up may represent a 0 and spin down could represent a 1. Each qubit can then be controlled by an oscillating magnetic field of microwave frequency.

    But to implement a quantum algorithm, we also need two-qubit gates, where the control of one qubit is conditional on the state of the other. For this to work, both quantum dots need to be placed very closely, just a few 10s of nanometres apart so their spins can interact with one another. (To put this in perspective, a single human hair is about 100,000 nanometres thick.)

    But moving them further apart to create more real estate for wiring has always been the challenge facing scientists and engineers. The problem was as the paired qubits move apart, they would then stop interacting.

    The jellybean solution represents a way of having both: nicely spaced qubits that continue to influence one another. To make the jellybean, the engineers found a way to create a chain of electrons by trapping more electrons in between the qubits. This acts as the quantum version of a string phone so that the two paired qubit electrons at each end of the jellybean can continue to talk to another. Only the electrons at each end are involved in any computations, while the electrons in the jellybean dot are there to keep them interacting while spread apart.

    The lead author of the paper, former PhD student Zeheng Wang says the number of extra electrons pulled into the jellybean quantum dot is key to how they arrange themselves.

    “We showed in the paper that if you only load a few electrons in that puddle of electrons that you have underneath, they break into smaller puddles. So it’s not one continuous jellybean quantum dot, it’s a smaller one here, and a bigger one in the middle and a smaller one there. We’re talking of a total of three to maybe ten electrons.

    “It’s only when you go to larger numbers of electrons, say 15 or 20 electrons, that the jellybean becomes more continuous and homogeneous. And that’s where you have your well-defined spin and quantum states that you can use to couple qubits to another.”

    Post-jellybean quantum world

    A/Prof. Laucht stresses that there is still much work to be done. The team’s efforts for this paper focused on proving the jellybean quantum dot is possible. The next step is to insert working qubits at each end of the jellybean quantum dot and make them talk to another.

    “It is great to see this work realized. It boosts our confidence that jellybean couplers can be utilized in silicon quantum computers, and we are excited to try implementing them with qubits next.”

    Advanced Materials

    Figure 1.
    3
    Device architecture and jellybean transport measurement. a) False-colored scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a nominally identical device with gate labels. The location of the jellybean dot is indicated by the dotted ellipse. b) Schematic cross-section of the device along the dot channel, and dot filling in transport mode. c) Coulomb diamond measurement of P2 dot, where two types of the dots with different capacitive coupling to P2 are outlined.

    Figure 2.
    4
    Charge occupation measurements using SET charge sensing. a,b) Charge transitions controlled by P2 together with a) the J gate and b) the RESB gate. c) Zoomed-in structure of the transitions in (b). d) Charging voltage of each of the dots with respect to each of the gates. e) Schematic sketch of the capacitive couplings and their strengths of the dots under P2.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    U NSW Campus

    The University of New South Wales is an Australian public university with its largest campus in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.

    Established in 1949, UNSW is a research university, ranked 44th in the world in the 2021 QS World University Rankings and 67th in the world in the 2021 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. UNSW is one of the founding members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, and of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities. It has international exchange and research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.

    According to the 2021 QS World University Rankings by Subject, UNSW is ranked top 20 in the world for Law, Accounting and Finance, and 1st in Australia for Mathematics, Engineering and Technology. UNSW also leads Australia in Medicine, where the median ATAR (Australian university entrance examination results) of its Medical School students is higher than any other Australian medical school. UNSW enrolls the highest number of Australia’s top 500 high school students academically, and produces more millionaire graduates than any other Australian university.

    The university comprises seven faculties, through which it offers bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. The main campus is in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the Sydney CBD. The creative arts faculty, UNSW Art & Design, is located in Paddington, and subcampuses are located in the Sydney CBD as well as several other suburbs, including Randwick and Coogee. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales.

    The university’s second largest campus, known as UNSW Canberra at ADFA (formerly known as UNSW at ADFA), is situated in Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). ADFA is the military academy of the Australian Defense Force, and UNSW Canberra is the only national academic institution with a defense focus.

    Research centres

    The university has a number of purpose-built research facilities, including:

    UNSW Lowy Cancer Research Centre is Australia’s first facility bringing together researchers in childhood and adult cancers, as well as one of the country’s largest cancer-research facilities, housing up to 400 researchers.
    The Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre is a centre for the faculties of science, medicine, and engineering. It is used to study the structure and composition of biological, chemical, and physical materials.
    UNSW Canberra Cyber is a cyber-security research and teaching centre.
    The Sino-Australian Research Centre for Coastal Management (SARCCM) has a multidisciplinary focus, and works collaboratively with the Ocean University of China [中國海洋大學](CN) in coastal management research.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:41 am on May 15, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Cornell and Google first to detect key to quantum computing future", , , , “Braid”, , , Error correction systems based on qubits will be necessary for quantum computing as the field develops., Google Quantum AI experimentalists created and moved non-Abelian anyons physically on a 2D grid of qubits resembling a checkerboard., Quantum Computing, , , Scientists demonstrated how braiding non-Abelian anyons might be used in quantum computations creating a well-known quantum entangled state by braiding several non-Abelian anyons together., The "Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)" state created by braiding several non-Abelian anyons together., , The particles remember the history.   

    From The College of Arts and Sciences At Cornell University Via “The Chronicle”: “Cornell and Google first to detect key to quantum computing future” 

    From The College of Arts and Sciences

    At

    Cornell University

    Via

    “The Chronicle”

    5.12.23
    Kate Blackwood | College of Arts and Sciences

    Eun-Ah Kim, professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences, and Google researchers report the first demonstration of two-dimensional particles, called “non-Abelian anyons”, that are the key ingredient for realizing topological quantum computing, a promising method of introducing fault resistance to quantum computing.

    The scientists published May 11 in Nature [below]. The experiment with Google Quantum AI published [Annals of Physics (below)] in March by Kim and co-author Yuri Lensky, a former postdoctoral researcher in the Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics.

    Theorized about for 40 years but not realized in theory or experiment until 2022 by Kim and collaborators, non-Abelian anyons can, in certain 2D systems, produce a measurable record of their movement when two of them exchange positions. They retain a sort of memory, making it possible to tell when two of them have been exchanged, despite being completely identical.

    The resulting trail through space-time – known as a “braid” – could protect bits of quantum information by storing them nonlocally and could be used in a platform for protected quantum bits (qubits), Kim said.

    Google experimentalists used one of their superconducting quantum processors to observe the peculiar behavior of non-Abelian anyons for the first time and demonstrated how this phenomenon could be used to perform quantum computations. Error correction systems based on qubits will be necessary for quantum computing as the field develops.

    Following the protocol laid out in Kim and Lensky’s theoretical work, Google Quantum AI experimentalists created and moved non-Abelian anyons physically on a 2D grid of qubits resembling a checkerboard. To realize non-Abelian anyons, they stretched and squashed the quantum state of qubits laid out on the grid, letting the qubits form more general graphs.

    Although backed by robust mathematics, Kim said, a simple geometric and creative insight is at the heart of both theory and experiment realizing non-Abelian anyons in the physical world.

    “We needed to introduce a new theoretical framework relying on the mathematics of gauge theories,” Kim said, “to implement the edge-swinging moves on the device and predict quantum measurement outcomes.

    “It looks simple, but the particles remember the history,” Kim said. “If you want this to be the technology of the future, you want it to be simple and straightforward.”

    In a series of experiments, the Google researchers observed the behavior of these non-Abelian anyons and how they interacted with the more mundane particles in the setup. Weaving the two types of particles around each other led to bizarre phenomena; particles disappeared, reappeared and shapeshifted from one type to another, Google researchers said.

    Most importantly, the researchers observed the hallmark behavior of non-Abelian anyons researchers have been seeking for years: Swapping two of them caused a measurable change in the quantum state of their system. Finally, they demonstrated how braiding non-Abelian anyons might be used in quantum computations, creating a well-known quantum entangled state called the “Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)” state by braiding several non-Abelian anyons together.

    Kim, co-chair of Cornell’s Quantum Science and Technology Radical Collaboration initiative, called this work a major advance in both condensed matter physics and quantum information science.

    “Our observations represent an important milestone in the study of topological systems, and present a new platform for exploring the rich physics of non-Abelian anyons,” Kim said. “Moreover, through the future inclusion of error correction, it opens a new path towards fault-tolerant quantum computing.”

    Nature

    Fig. 1: Deformations of the surface code.
    1
    a, Stabilizer codes are conveniently described in a graph framework. Through deformations of the surface code graph, a square grid of qubits (crosses) can be used to realize more generalized graphs. Plaquette violations (red) correspond to stabilizers with sp = −1 and are created by local Pauli operations. In the absence of deformations, plaquette violations are constrained to move on one of the two sublattices of the dual graph in the surface code, hence the two shades of blue. b, A pair of D3Vs (yellow triangles) appears by removing an edge between two neighbouring stabilizers, S^1 and S^2, and introducing the new stabilizer, S^=S^1S^2. A D3V is moved by applying a two-qubit entangling gate, exp(π8[S^′,S^]). In the presence of bulk D3Vs, there is no consistent way of chequerboard colouring, hence the (arbitrarily chosen) grey regions. The top right shows that in a general stabilizer graph, S^p can be found from a constraint at each vertex, where {τ1, τ2} = 0.

    Annals of Physics

    See the full article here .

    See also a previous blog post on this topic from Cornell here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The College of Arts and Sciences is a division of Cornell University. It has been part of the university since its founding, although its name has changed over time. It grants bachelor’s degrees, and masters and doctorates through affiliation with the Cornell University Graduate School. Its major academic buildings are located on the Arts Quad and include some of the university’s oldest buildings. The college offers courses in many fields of study and is the largest college at Cornell by undergraduate enrollment.

    Originally, the university’s faculty was undifferentiated, but with the founding of the Cornell Law School in 1886 and the concomitant self-segregation of the school’s lawyers, different departments and colleges formed.

    Initially, the division that would become the College of Arts and Sciences was known as the Academic Department, but it was formally renamed in 1903. The College endowed the first professorships in American history, musicology, and American literature. Currently, the college teaches 4,100 undergraduates, with 600 full-time faculty members (and an unspecified number of lecturers) teaching 2,200 courses.

    The Arts Quad is the site of Cornell’s original academic buildings and is home to many of the college’s programs. On the western side of the quad, at the top of Libe Slope, are Morrill Hall (completed in 1866), McGraw Hall (1872) and White Hall (1868). These simple but elegant buildings, built with native Cayuga bluestone, reflect Ezra Cornell’s utilitarianism and are known as Stone Row. The statue of Ezra Cornell, dating back to 1919, stands between Morrill and McGraw Halls. Across from this statue, in front of Goldwin Smith Hall, sits the statue of Andrew Dickson White, Cornell’s other co-founder and its first president.

    Lincoln Hall (1888) also stands on the eastern face of the quad next to Goldwin Smith Hall. On the northern face are the domed Sibley Hall and Tjaden Hall (1883). Just off of the quad on the Slope, next to Tjaden, stands the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, designed by I. M. Pei. Stimson Hall (1902), Olin Library (1959) and Uris Library (1892), with Cornell’s landmark clocktower, McGraw Tower, stand on the southern end of the quad.

    Olin Library replaced Boardman Hall (1892), the original location of the Cornell Law School. In 1992, an underground addition was made to the quad with Kroch Library, an extension of Olin Library that houses several special collections of the Cornell University Library, including the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections.

    Klarman Hall, the first new humanities building at Cornell in over 100 years, opened in 2016. Klarman houses the offices of Comparative Literature and Romance Studies. The building is connected to, and surrounded on three sides by, Goldwin Smith Hall and fronts East Avenue.

    Legends and lore about the Arts Quad and its statues can be found at Cornelliana.

    The College of Arts and Sciences offers both undergraduate and graduate (through the Graduate School) degrees. The only undergraduate degree is the Bachelor of Arts. However, students may enroll in the dual-degree program, which allows them to pursue programs of study in two colleges and receive two different degrees. The faculties within the college are:

    Africana Studies and Research Center*
    American Studies
    Anthropology
    Archaeology
    Asian-American Studies
    Asian Studies
    Astronomy/Astrophysics
    Biology (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences)
    Biology & Society Major (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Human Ecology)
    Chemistry and Chemical Biology
    China and Asia-pacific Studies
    Classics
    Cognitive Studies
    College Scholar Program (frees up to 40 selected students in each class from all degree requirements and allows them to fashion a plan of study conducive to achieving their ultimate intellectual goals; a senior thesis is required)
    Comparative Literature
    Computer Science (with the College of Engineering)
    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (with the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Engineering)
    Economics
    English
    Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
    German Studies
    Government
    History
    History of Art
    Human Biology
    Independent Major
    Information Science (with the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and College of Engineering)
    Jewish Studies
    John S. Knight Institute for Writing in the Disciplines
    Latin American Studies
    Latino Studies
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies
    Linguistics
    Mathematics
    Medieval Studies
    Modern European Studies Concentration
    Music
    Near Eastern Studies
    Philosophy
    Physics
    Psychology
    Religious Studies
    Romance Studies
    Russian
    Science and Technology Studies
    Society for the Humanities
    Sociology
    Theatre, Film, and Dance
    Visual Studies Undergraduate Concentration

    *Africana Studies was an independent center reporting directly to the Provost until July 1, 2011.

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and The Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land-grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through The State University of New York (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.

    History

    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.

    Research

    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States.

    Cornell is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are The Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation, accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration ’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at The California Institute of Technology and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building.

    Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico].

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As a National Science Foundation center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer.

    In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Engineering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation.

    During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States.

    Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider(JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider(JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.
    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
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