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  • richardmitnick 6:28 pm on January 8, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Flash Center moves to Rochester and advances cutting-edge physics research", , , , , , , , , Plasma Physics, ,   

    From The University of Rochester: “Flash Center moves to Rochester and advances cutting-edge physics research” 

    From The University of Rochester

    1.6.23

    1
    Petros Tzeferacos (right), associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Rochester, senior scientist at the University’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), and director of the Flash Center for Computational Science, uses the University’s VISTA Collaboratory visualization facility to explain FLASH simulations of a laser-driven experiment to (from left) LLE deputy director Chris Deeney, Flash center graduate research assistant and Horton Fellow Abigail Armstrong, and Flash center research scientist Adam Reyes. The center is devoted to computer simulations used to advance an understanding of astrophysics, plasma science, high-energy-density physics, and fusion energy. (Photo: J. Adam Fenster/The University of Rochester.)

    The Flash Center for Computational Science offers researchers worldwide access to a computer code that simulates phenomena in astrophysics, high-energy-density science, and fusion research.

    UPDATE: New FLASH code expands possibilities for physics experiments (January 6, 2023)

    The University of Rochester is the new home of a research center devoted to computer simulations used to advance the understanding of astrophysics, plasma science, high-energy-density physics, and fusion energy.

    The Flash Center for Computational Science recently moved from the University of Chicago to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Rochester. Located in the Bausch and Lomb building on the River Campus, the center encompasses numerous cross-disciplinary, computational physics research projects conducted using the FLASH code. The FLASH code is a publicly available multi-physics code that allows researchers to accurately simulate and model many scientific phenomena—including plasma physics, computational fluid dynamics, high-energy-density physics (HEDP), and fusion energy research—and inform the design and execution of experiments.

    “We are thrilled to have the Flash Center and the FLASH code join the University of Rochester research enterprise and family, and we want to thank the University of Chicago for working hand-in-hand with us to facilitate this transfer,” says Stephen Dewhurst. Dewhurst, the vice dean for research at the School of Medicine and Dentistry and associate vice president for health sciences research for the University, is currently serving a one-year appointment as interim vice president for research.

    The ‘premiere’ code used at the world’s top laser facilities

    Development of the FLASH code began in 1997 when the Flash Center was founded at the University of Chicago. The code, which is continuously updated, is currently used by more than 3,500 scientists across the globe to simulate various physics processes.

    The Flash Center fosters joint research projects between national laboratories, industry partners, and academic groups around the world. It also supports training in numerical modeling and code development for graduate students, undergraduate students, and postdoctoral research associates, while continuing to develop and steward the FLASH code itself.

    “In the last five years FLASH has become the premiere academic code for designing and interpreting experiments at the world’s largest laser facilities, such the National Ignition Facility at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Omega Laser Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), here at the University of Rochester,” says Michael Campbell, the director of the LLE. “Having the Flash Center and the FLASH code at Rochester significantly strengthens LLE’s position as a unique national resource for research and education in science and technology.”

    Petros Tzeferacos, an associate professor of Physics and Astronomy and a senior scientist at the LLE, serves as the center’s director. Tzeferacos’s research combines theory, numerical modeling with the FLASH code, and laboratory experiments to study fundamental processes in Plasma Physics and Astrophysics, high-energy-density laboratory Astrophysics, and Fusion Energy. Tzeferacos became director of the Flash Center in 2018 after serving for five years as associate director and code group leader, when the center was still housed at the University of Chicago.

    “The University of Rochester is a unique place where Plasma Physics, Plasma Astrophysics, and high-energy-density science are core research efforts,” Tzeferacos says. “We have in-house computational resources and leverage the high-power computing resources at LLE, the Center for Integrated Research Computing (CIRC), and national supercomputing facilities to perform our numerical studies. We also train the next generation of Computational Physics and Astrophysics scientists in the use and development of simulation codes.”

    Research at the Flash Center is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration, the DOE Office of Science Fusion Energy Sciences, the US DOE Advanced Research Projects Agency, The National Science Foundation, The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory, The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the LLE.

    “FLASH is a critically important simulation tool for academic groups engaging with NNSA’s academic programs and performing HEDP research on NNSA facilities,” says Ann J. Satsangi, federal program manager at the NNSA Office of Experimental Sciences. “The Flash Center joining forces with the LLE is a very positive development that promises to significantly contribute to advancing high-energy-density science and the NNSA mission.”

    UPDATE: New FLASH code expands possibilities for physics experiments
    The Flash Center for Computational Science at the University of Rochester recently announced an exciting milestone: researchers have developed a new version of the FLASH code, the first official update of the code since the FLASH center moved to Rochester from the University of Chicago.

    The new version of the code, FLASH v4.7, increases the accuracy of simulations of magnetized plasmas and drastically expands the range of laboratory experiments the code can model.

    “This expansion fuels discovery science for thousands of researchers around the world, across application domains, while concurrently enabling the Flash Center to pursue a rich portfolio of research topics at the frontiers of plasma astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fusion,” says Petros Tzeferacos, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at Rochester and a senior scientist at the LLE, who serves as the center’s director.

    FLASH v4.7 is the culmination of nearly two and a half years of code development, spearheaded by Adam Reyes, the Flash Center code group leader in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and other Flash Center personnel.

    According to Tzeferacos, the development of the FLASH code also draws heavily from the Flash Center’s robust education program that engages Rochester graduate and undergraduate students.

    “A key aspect of what we do at the Flash Center is to train the next generation of computational physicists and astrophysicists to develop multi-physics codes like FLASH and perform validated simulations,” Tzeferacos says. “Several of the items in the new FLASH release were developed and verified by our graduate students, who may ultimately use the new capabilities in their graduate research.”

    Read more about the new FLASH code release here.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    University of Rochester campus

    The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation , The University of Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world.

    The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab-based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy supported national laboratory.

    University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history The University of Rochester alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University and The University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University.

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for The University of Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that The University of Rochester have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 The University of Rochester was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.”

    For the next 10 years The University of Rochester expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of The University of Rochester upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternity houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at The University of Rochester as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in The University of Rochester register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to The University of Rochester during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The University of Rochester award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II The University of Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, The University of Rochester was invited to join the Association of American Universities as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to The University of Rochester after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such The University of Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 The University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s endowment and the University of Texas System’s Permanent University Fund . Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity The University of Rochester’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response The University of Rochester commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “The University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan
    In 1995 The University of Rochester president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in Chemical Engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and Mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and Mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, The University of Rochester announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 The University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of The University of Rochester and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    The University of Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    The University of Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018.

    In 2008 The University of Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018.

    Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at The University of Rochester Medical Center.

    Recently The University of Rochester has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in Biomedical Engineering and Optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus.

    Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. The University of Rochester also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by The University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. The University of Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:34 pm on December 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Nuclear fusion simulation to pioneer transition to exascale supercomputers", , , , National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at The DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Plasma Physics, Plasma physics has been one of the most important drivers for the further development of supercomputers since the 1960s., ,   

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE): “Nuclear fusion simulation to pioneer transition to exascale supercomputers” 

    MPIPP bloc

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE)

    12.19.22
    Frank Fleschner
    Press officer
    +49 89 3299-1317
    press@ipp.mpg.de

    The EU Commission is providing 2.14 million euros in funding to take the GENE simulation code developed at the MPG Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) to a new level. By using exascale supercomputers, it enables digital twins of nuclear fusion experiments such as ITER in future.

    IPP, the Max Planck Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) and the Technical University of Munich will work together on the project.

    Plasma physics has been one of the most important drivers for the further development of supercomputers since the 1960s. This is because plasmas are highly complex entities that cannot be detected with simple physical models. Almost the entire universe consists of such plasmas, which are extremely dynamic mixtures of predominantly charged particles (ions and electrons). Our sun and all other stars generate energy from this through nuclear fusion. Researchers need supercomputers to make this process usable on earth and to better understand the processes in the universe.

    1
    GENE computer simulation of plasma turbulence in the Garching tokamak experiment ASDEX Upgrade.

    With regard to future fusion power plants, corresponding losses of plasma particles and energy must be minimized.

    The MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) in Garching was launched in 1960 and the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) in the USA in 1974 as tools for plasma research.

    ___________________________________________________________
    MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) at Garching (DE)


    ___________________________________________________________

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    When the US supercomputer Roadrunner at The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory was the first to break the petascale barrier in 2009 (i.e. it was able to perform more than 10^15 = one quadrillion computing operations per second), a plasma simulation code called VPIC played an important role.

    1
    Supercomputer Roadrunner at The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    On the way to exascale supercomputers

    In the forthcoming leap in high-performance computing, plasma modelling will again be among the pioneering applications: It is about the launch of the first exascale computers in Europe. By definition, these can perform at least one trillion computing operations per second (1 quintillion = 10^18, written out as 1 with 18 zeros). From 2024 onwards, there will be supercomputers in Europe that exceed this threshold. The European Commission is providing a total of more than seven million euros to prepare four simulation codes for plasmas for the exascale era.

    A total of 2.14 million euros of the funding sum will go to the Garching site near Munich (the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is providing half of the funding amount): The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP), the MPG Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) and the Technical University of Munich (Department of Computer Science) will use it to jointly raise the GENE code to a new level from January 2023. GENE (Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment) is an open-source code that is used worldwide, especially for research into nuclear fusion plasmas. It is therefore used wherever researchers are working on generating energy on earth, following the example of the sun.

    4
    Comparison of the sizes of ASDEX Upgrade (Garching, Germany; pictured front left), JET (Culham, UK; front right) and ITER (Cadarache, France, back). The computational effort increases about 10-fold from one experiment to the next.

    Predicting fusion experiments for the first time

    “With today’s capabilities, GENE can already explain the physical causes of experimental results that we achieve, for example, with our fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade at IPP,” Prof. Frank Jenko explained, Head of Tokamak Theory at IPP in Garching. He wrote the first version of GENE in 1999 and has been steadily developing the code with international teams ever since. “With an exascale version of GENE, we are now taking the step from interpretation to prediction of experiments. We want to create a virtual fusion plasma, the digital twin of a real plant, so to speak,” Jenko explained the goal.

    He and his cooperation partners are also involved with ITER [above], the largest fusion experiment in the world, which is currently being built in Cadarache in southern France. ITER is supposed to generate ten times more fusion power than the amount of heating power that needs to be put into it. The facility is designed as a preliminary stage of a future fusion power plant that will then actually supply electricity. To achieve this goal, scientists will have to adjust a variety of experimental parameters at ITER to find the most favorable combination, which would probably take many years through trial and error alone. An optimized GENE code should significantly speed up fusion research. With it, scientists will be able to calculate configurations in advance and rule out many others in advance.

    Why is the switch to exascale computers so complex?

    “Unfortunately, it is not enough to simply transfer the previous programmes to the new computers,” Prof. Jenko said. “Performance leaps in new supercomputers are largely made possible by new hardware architectures today. Only if we adapt our codes to this can we really calculate faster.”

    Prof. Jenko illustrates the task with the processing of files in the analogue world. “If the task is to evaluate ten thematically closed file folders, ten people can probably do it ten times faster than one. But if suddenly 10,000 people are available for the ten folders, that only brings something if I completely reorganize and divide the work,” Prof. Jenko explained. It becomes even more complicated when the 10,000 people have different skills that need to be used optimally. This is also the case if the evaluation of some folders depends on the results obtained from other folders.

    The researchers face comparable tasks in the transition to exascale computers: “Today’s supercomputers achieve their performance increase by handling more and more computing tasks in parallel and by increasingly using graphics processors in addition to classical processors, both of which, however, have different strengths,” says Jenko. To prepare the GENE code for future computer generations, his team therefore includes experts who are involved in the design of future hardware generations. Co-design is the name given to this collaboration in the industry.

    In the end, not only fusion research will benefit from the project: “With the GENE code, we are pioneers in the transition to exascale computers,” Prof. Jenko stated. “What we learn in the process will also help developers of other programmes.”

    About the European Commission’s funding programme

    In early 2022, the European Commission published a call for tenders on “Centres of Excellence Preparing Applications in the Exascale Era“. The aim is to prepare applications that are at the forefront of technological development and have a broad user base for use on future European exascale supercomputers. The aim is also to promote a giant leap in answering key scientific questions in this way. The projects are funded half by the EU Commission and half by the nations whose institutions participate.

    In response to this call for proposals, an interdisciplinary team was formed under the leadership of KTH Stockholm around the topic of plasma physics, involving not only the IPP but also the MPCDF, the Technical University of Munich and eight other partners from Europe. The corresponding proposal “Pushing Flagship Plasma Simulation Codes to Tackle Exascale-Enabled Grand Challenges via Performance Optimization and Codesign (Plasma-PEPSC)” has now been selected by the European Commission for a four-year funding period (from 1 January 2023) after a detailed review and has been awarded funding of more than seven million euros. Of this, 2.14 million euros will be allocated to the further development of the GENE code. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is providing 50 per cent of the funding.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE) is a physics institute for the investigation of plasma physics, with the aim of working towards fusion power. The institute also works on surface physics, also with focus on problems of fusion power.

    The IPP is an institute of the Max Planck Society, part of the European Atomic Energy Community, and an associated member of the Helmholtz Association.

    The IPP has two sites: Garching near Munich (founded 1960) and Greifswald (founded 1994), both in Germany.

    It owns several large devices, namely

    the experimental tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (in operation since 1991)

    ASDEX tokamak at MPG Institute for Plasma Physics.

    It also cooperates with the ITER and JET projects.


    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

     
  • richardmitnick 10:08 pm on November 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How does radiation travel through dense plasma?", , , , , , , , Plasma Physics, ,   

    From The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) At The University of Rochester: “How does radiation travel through dense plasma?” 

    1

    From The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE)

    at

    The University of Rochester

    11.17.22
    Lindsey Valich
    lvalich@ur.rochester.edu

    1
    Image of plasma bursting from the sun. Plasma—a hot soup of atoms with free moving electrons and ions—is the most abundant form of matter in the universe, found throughout our solar system in the sun and other planetary bodies. A new study from University of Rochester researchers provides experimental data about how radiation travels through dense plasmas, which will help scientists to better understand planetary science and fusion energy. Credit: NASA.

    First-of-its-kind experimental evidence defies conventional theories about how plasmas emit or absorb radiation.

    Most people are familiar with solids, liquids, and gases as three states of matter. However, a fourth state of matter, called plasmas, is the most abundant form of matter in the universe, found throughout our solar system in the sun and other planetary bodies. Because dense plasma—a hot soup of atoms with free-moving electrons and ions—typically only forms under extreme pressure and temperatures, scientists are still working to comprehend the fundamentals of this state of matter. Understanding how atoms react under extreme pressure conditions—a field known as high-energy-density physics (HEDP)—gives scientists valuable insights into the fields of planetary science, astrophysics, and fusion energy.

    One important question in the field of HEDP is how plasmas emit or absorb radiation. Current models depicting radiation transport in dense plasmas are heavily based on theory rather than experimental evidence.

    In a new paper published in Nature Communications [below], researchers at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) [below] used LLE’s OMEGA laser [above] to study how radiation travels through dense plasma. The research, led by Suxing Hu, a distinguished scientist and group leader of the High-Energy-Density Physics Theory Group at the LLE and an associate professor of mechanical engineering, and Philip Nilson, a senior scientist in the LLE’s Laser-Plasma Interaction group, provides first-of-its-kind experimental data about the behavior of atoms at extreme conditions. The data will be used to improve plasma models, which allow scientists to better understand the evolution of stars and may aid in the realization of controlled nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source.

    “Experiments using laser-driven implosions on OMEGA have created extreme matter at pressures several billion times the atmospheric pressure at Earth’s surface for us to probe how atoms and molecules behave at such extreme conditions,” Hu says. “These conditions correspond to the conditions inside the so-called envelope of white dwarf stars as well as inertial fusion targets.”

    2
    (left to right) Philip Nilson, a senior scientist in the LLE’s Laser-Plasma Interaction group; graduate student Alex Chin; Suxing Hu, a distinguished scientist and group leader of the High Energy Density Physics Theory group at the LLE and an associate professor of mechanical engineering; and graduate student David Bishel (inset) contributed to the research to better understand how plasmas emit or absorb radiation. The research will be used to improve models of plasma. Credit: Eugene Kowaluk/University of Rochester.

    Using x-ray spectroscopy

    The researchers used x-ray spectroscopy to measure how radiation is transported through plasmas. X-ray spectroscopy involves aiming a beam of radiation in the form of x-rays at a plasma made of atoms—in this case, copper atoms—under extreme pressure and heat. The researchers used the OMEGA laser both to create the plasma and to create the x-rays aimed at the plasma.

    When the plasma is bombarded with x-rays, the electrons in the atoms “jump” from one energy level to another by either emitting or absorbing photons of light. A detector measures these changes, revealing the physical processes that are occurring inside the plasma, similar to taking an x-ray diagnostic of a broken bone.

    A break from conventional theory

    The researchers’ experimental measurements indicate that, when radiation travels through a dense plasma, the changes in atomic energy levels do not follow conventional quantum mechanics theories often used in plasma physics models—so-called “continuum-lowering” models. The researchers instead found that the measurements they observed in their experiments can be best explained using a self-consistent approach based on density-functional theory (DFT). DFT offers a quantum mechanical description of the bonds between atoms and molecules in complex systems. The DFT method was first described in the 1960s and was the subject of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    “This work reveals fundamental steps for rewriting current textbook descriptions of how radiation generation and transport occurs in dense plasmas,” Hu says. “According to our experiments, using a self-consistent DFT approach more accurately describes the transport of radiation in a dense plasma.”
    Says Nilson, “Our approach could provide a reliable way for simulating radiation generation and transport in dense plasmas encountered in stars and inertial fusion targets. The experimental scheme reported here, based on a laser-driven implosion, can be readily extended to a wide range of materials, opening the way for far-reaching investigations of extreme atomic physics at tremendous pressures.”

    Researchers from Prism Computational Sciences and Sandia National Laboratories and additional researchers from the LLE, including physics graduate students David Bishel and Alex Chin, also contributed to this project.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    3
    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE)

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochester’s south campus, located in Brighton, New York. The lab was established in 1970 and its operations since then have been funded jointly; mainly by the United States Department of Energy, the University of Rochester and the New York State government. The Laser Lab was commissioned to serve as a center for investigations of high-energy physics, specifically those involving the interaction of extremely intense laser radiation with matter. Many types of scientific experiments are performed at the facility with a strong emphasis on inertial confinement, direct drive, laser-induced fusion, fundamental plasma physics and astrophysics using OMEGA. In June 1995, OMEGA became the world’s highest-energy ultraviolet laser. The lab shares its building with the Center for Optoelectronics and Imaging and the Center for Optics Manufacturing. The Robert L. Sproull Center for Ultra High Intensity Laser Research was opened in 2005 and houses the OMEGA EP laser, which was completed in May 2008.

    The laboratory is unique in conducting big science on a university campus. More than 180 Ph.D.s have been awarded for research done at the LLE. During summer months the lab sponsors a program for high school students which involves local-area high school juniors in the research being done at the laboratory. Most of the projects are done on current research that is led by senior scientists at the lab.

    The LLE was founded on the University of Rochester’s campus in 1970, by Dr. Moshe Lubin. Working with outside companies such as Kodak the team built Delta, a four beam laser system in 1972. Construction started on the current LLE site in 1976. The facility opened a six beam laser system in 1978 and followed with a 24 beam system two years later. In 2018, Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou shared a Nobel prize for work they had undertaken in 1985 while at LLE. They invented a method to amplify laser pulses by “chirping” for which they would share the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics. This method disperses a short, broadband pulse of laser light into a temporally longer spectrum of wavelengths. The system amplifies the laser at each wavelength and then reconstitutes the beam into one color. Chirp pulsed amplification became instrumental in building the National Ignition Facility at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Omega EP system. In 1995, the omega laser system was increased to 60 beams, and in 2008 the Omega extended performance system was opened.

    The Guardian and Scientific American provided simplified summaries of the work of Strickland and Mourou: it “paved the way for the shortest, most intense laser beams ever created”. “The ultrabrief, ultrasharp beams can be used to make extremely precise cuts so their technique is now used in laser machining and enables doctors to perform millions of corrective” laser eye surgeries.

    University of Rochester campus

    The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation, Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world.

    The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy supported national laboratory.

    University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history university alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University and the University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University.

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.”

    For the next 10 years the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities’ houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at the university as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to the university during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman, the Eastman School of Music was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The university award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II University of Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, the university was invited to join the Association of American Universities as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to the university after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 the University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s endowment and the University of Texas System’s Permanent University Fund. Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity the university’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response the University commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan
    In 1995 University of Rochester president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in chemical engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, the university announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 the University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of the University and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018.

    In 2008 Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018.

    Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

    Recently the university has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in biomedical engineering and optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus.

    Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. UR also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:16 pm on October 22, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "'Twisted' laser light experiments offer new insights into plasma physics", , , Electromagnetic vortices occur naturally throughout the universe and have recently been observed in association with black holes., , Plasma Physics, Plasma-known as the “fourth state of matter”-makes up nearly all observable matter in the universe and consists of freely moving ions and free electrons., Scientists have sought methods to investigate how extremely strong electromagnetic vortices interact with matter-specifically plasma-in a laboratory setting., Spiral phase mirrors when incorporated into a laser system may enable scientists to “twist” the laser light and generate an optical vortex., The COMET laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Jupiter Laser Facility.,   

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “‘Twisted’ laser light experiments offer new insights into plasma physics” 

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    10.21.22
    Shelby Conn

    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    Andrew Longman aligns the COMET laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Jupiter Laser Facility. Upcoming experiments using the COMET laser in early 2023 aim to create some of the strongest static magnetic fields ever generated by a laser.

    Electromagnetic vortices occur naturally throughout the universe and have recently been observed in association with black holes. Over the last decade, scientists have sought methods to investigate how extremely strong electromagnetic vortices interact with matter, specifically plasma, in a laboratory setting.

    Plasma, known as the “fourth state of matter,” makes up nearly all observable matter in the universe and consists of freely moving ions and free electrons. The use of high-intensity lasers to generate electromagnetic vortices have shown great promise and have the potential to unlock new physics when such beams interact with plasma.

    Andrew Longman, a High Energy Density Science (HEDS) Center postdoctoral fellow for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), proposes that spiral phase mirrors, when incorporated into a laser system, will enable scientists to “twist” the laser light and generate an optical vortex. An optical vortex is best described as a beam with a helical wavefront, like a whirlpool but spinning at the speed of light.

    Journey to Livermore

    While pursuing his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering at the University of Alberta, Longman gave a presentation at the University of Rochester on the use of spiral mirrors in high-power laser systems. His work grabbed the attention of several scientists from Lawrence Livermore, including David Strozzi, who encouraged Longman to consider coming to the Laboratory. Longman’s unique research proposal on how to use these mirrors to “twist” the laser light and create extreme magnetic fields — something which has, until now, been primarily theoretical — landed him a two-year fellowship with LLNL’s HEDS Center.

    “We launched the HEDS Center postdoctoral fellowship in 2019 with the support of Weapons and Complex Integration’s Weapons Physics and Design Program,” said the HEDS Center’s Deputy Director and fellowship coordinator Félicie Albert. “Andrew exemplifies the quality of research and talent this fellowship is about. The program gives our fellows the opportunity to pursue their own original research, use the Lab’s resources and interact with other scientists; while also benefiting our programs and strengthening the pipeline in HEDS, one of our core competencies.”

    As a fellow, Longman has had the opportunity to expand on his graduate research and improve the fabrication process of his spiral mirror design using the Laboratory’s unique optic fabrication capabilities with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology — a technique for polishing ultraprecise corrective topographical structures onto optical surfaces.

    2
    Optical vortices, as illustrated here, are best described as a beam with a helical wavefront. In Andrew Longman’s research, optical vortices are used to rotate plasma to extremely high angular speeds, enabling studies of new physical phenomena. To generate these vortices at ultra-high intensities, Longman uses an off-axis spiral phase mirror — a mirror that has a wavelength-deep (less than one-thousandth of a millimeter) spiral imprinted on its surface.

    Mirror, mirror on the wall

    The spiral mirror technology used to generate an optical vortex is relatively simple. “To fabricate the specialized off-axis spiral phase mirrors, we used MRF techniques to imprint a wavelength-deep (less than one-thousandth of a millimeter) spiral on the surface of the mirror,” Longman explained. “When the laser beam reflects off of the mirror, it picks up a ‘twist,’ and can transfer this angular momentum to any kind of target — solid, gas or plasma.” Therefore, allowing researchers to drive helical plasma waves and currents capable of generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as trapping, guiding and accelerating particles that could enhance laser‒plasma interactions.

    When researching methods for how to generate vortices at high power, Longman had to take into consideration the constraints associated with making direct modifications to a given laser facility’s components. Installing specialized mirrors offered the most practical solution. Overall, Longman’s mirror design has turned out to be extremely successful, generating the highest intensity optical vortices ever to be produced. In fact, the design has now been implemented in roughly 10 laser facilities around the world. Longman said, “It is a great feeling to see something that I created utilized so widely.”

    From humble beginnings

    After years of research, Longman’s journey at LLNL has come full circle. His first introduction to LLNL and its facilities was in 2015 and 2016 as a graduate student when he assisted LLNL scientists Art Pak and Tony Link in a series of experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF). Now, as a fellow, Longman will have the opportunity to lead an upcoming experiment at JLF, where he will use the finished spiral mirrors to “add a twist” to the JLF’s COMET laser platform in an attempt to generate and measure extreme magnetic fields.

    Reflecting on his experience at LLNL so far, Longman admitted that it was tough to start at a new laboratory in the middle of a pandemic. “For the first year of my fellowship, I didn’t have the opportunity to routinely interact with the other scientists because of COVID restrictions, but now that I am on site more frequently, I get to be more involved and have quality conversations with other scientists about their research.” He added: “There is so much talent under one roof and the people here are so welcoming.”

    Longman’s mentor Pierre Michel said: “Andrew came to the Lab with a remarkable skill set, ranging from hands-on experimental expertise to advanced theory and simulation techniques. He independently drives his own research project while collaborating with large teams, and he makes full use of the resources that the Lab offers, from advanced manufacturing to large-scale computing. This makes him a perfect fit for the HEDS fellowship and for the Lab in general.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California- Berzerkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by The U.S. Department of Energy and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.
    The National Ignition Facility, is a large laser-based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research device, located at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. NIF uses lasers to heat and compress a small amount of hydrogen fuel with the goal of inducing nuclear fusion reactions. NIF’s mission is to achieve fusion ignition with high energy gain, and to support nuclear weapon maintenance and design by studying the behavior of matter under the conditions found within nuclear weapons. NIF is the largest and most energetic ICF device built to date, and the largest laser in the world.

    Construction on the NIF began in 1997 but management problems and technical delays slowed progress into the early 2000s. Progress after 2000 was smoother, but compared to initial estimates, NIF was completed five years behind schedule and was almost four times more expensive than originally budgeted. Construction was certified complete on 31 March 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy, and a dedication ceremony took place on 29 May 2009. The first large-scale laser target experiments were performed in June 2009 and the first “integrated ignition experiments” (which tested the laser’s power) were declared completed in October 2010.

    Bringing the system to its full potential was a lengthy process that was carried out from 2009 to 2012. During this period a number of experiments were worked into the process under the National Ignition Campaign, with the goal of reaching ignition just after the laser reached full power, sometime in the second half of 2012. The Campaign officially ended in September 2012, at about 1⁄10 the conditions needed for ignition. Experiments since then have pushed this closer to 1⁄3, but considerable theoretical and practical work is required if the system is ever to reach ignition. Since 2012, NIF has been used primarily for materials science and weapons research.

    National Igniton Facility- NIF at LLNL

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration


     
  • richardmitnick 10:00 am on July 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ITER" - a facility based on the tokamak principle which is currently under construction in southern France., "On the Way to the next Stellarator Generation", "The Simons Collaboration on Hidden Symmetries and Fusion Energy", , Plasma Physics, , ,   

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE): “On the Way to the next Stellarator Generation” 

    MPIPP bloc

    From The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik] (DE)

    7.8.22

    Frank Fleschner
    Press officer
    +49 89 3299-1317
    press@ipp.mpg.de

    How can even better stellarators be built in the future? This is the key question that an international group of theoretical physicists pursued at the Simons Workshop at IPP in Greifswald. The two-week format was the culmination of a scientific collaboration that is probably unique worldwide – funded by the Simons Foundation.

    1
    Prof. Dr. Amitava Bhattacharjee (left) and Prof. Dr. Per Helander at the Simons Workshop 2022. Photo: IPP.

    For a fortnight, not all eyes were focused on the display screen in the Günter Grieger lecture theatre. Researchers walked around the room. Others sat together in groups and discussed with each other, while other participants joined in via video conference. Coffee breaks were scheduled, but many of the scientists just kept working – and decided for themselves when to go outside. The Simons Workshop at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald (27 June to 8 July 2022) deliberately left researchers free space so that the unexpected could emerge. “Of course, we also set a framework,” explains host Prof. Dr. Per Helander, head of the stellarator theory department at IPP in Greifswald. So there were usually two to three lectures a day that specified topics. “But otherwise, we fully rely on self-organization of the participants.”

    Theorists optimize magnetic fields

    Technically, the Simons Workshop was about the next generation of stellarators. These devices pursue one of the two concepts (the other being tokamaks) that physicists hope to use in the future to generate energy through magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas.

    While the sun uses powerful gravitational forces to cause atomic nuclei to fuse, physical tricks are needed on earth to mimic this kind of energy generation. And this is where magnetic cages come into play, such as those used by tokamaks and stellarators. Whereas these extremely strong magnetic fields are shaped axially symmetrically in tokamaks, stellarators follow a completely different concept: using specifically twisted magnetic coils, they generate complex asymmetric fields, which can overcome the technical disadvantages of tokamaks.

    The largest and most powerful stellarator facility in the world is Wendelstein 7-X at the IPP in Greifswald – whose design demanded high performance from theoretical physicists and required the use of elaborate computer simulations.

    “With stellarators we have many more possibilities than with tokamaks to achieve better results by optimizing the magnetic field,” says Prof. Helander. IPP scientists had demonstrated how effective optimization strategies are for stellarators in a publication in the renowned journal Nature in 2021.

    Funding from the Simons Foundation

    The participants of the Simons Workshop are working on using their theories to make stellarators possible that will one day far surpass the performance of Wendelstein 7-X. To this end, the international specialists have come together to form what is probably a unique scientific collaboration worldwide: the Simons Collaboration on Hidden Symmetries and Fusion Energy. Since 2018, the international project has been funded by the US Simons Foundation with two million dollars annually.

    Stellarators are a unique scientific concept of such complexity that we can only advance it together, says Prof. Dr. Amitava Bhattacharjee, a physicist at Princeton University in New Jersey, and leader of the Simons Collaboration. All of our members agree that they discuss all of their interim findings with each other and hold nothing back. There is a video conference every fortnight – always in the morning between eight and nine o clock US East Coast time. We call it the Simons Hour, explains Prof Bhattacharjee. A core team of 20 researchers is almost always there, he says. Sometimes, however, 80 stellerator specialists join in. Once a year in March, they meet in person in Princeton and in New York.

    The highlight of the collaboration, however, is the Simons Workshop, which has had to be cancelled so far due to the Corona pandemic, but which is to take place regularly in the coming years. The event in Greifswald was therefore also a premiere. 74 scientists took part. Because some of them fell ill with Covid-19, not all of them were able to come to the IPP in person, but were only connected via video conference. They only partially experienced the intensive character of the Simons Workshop: Scientists from different institutions around the world meeting in one place for a fortnight – to work together and also spend free time together.

    Accelerated scientific progress

    During two weeks of Simons Workshop, many of the most important aspects of stellarator optimization were addressed – such as minimizing turbulence in the plasma, fast ions that carry much of the energy generated during fusion, and diverters that cleanse the plasma of reaction products in fusion facilities. “A particularly promising result of the collaboration is the new computer code SIMSOPT, which achieves better results than previous methods,” says Prof. Helander. This makes it possible, for example, to design stellarators that can confine alpha particles (i.e. the helium-4 nuclei produced during fusion) better than the large-scale international fusion experiment ITER – a facility based on the tokamak principle which is currently under construction.

    Alpha particles are supposed to heat the plasma in fusion power plants, thereby helping to sustain the fusion reaction. SIMSOPT can also design stellarator concepts in which micro-turbulence of the ITG (Ion Temperature Gradient) type is significantly reduced compared to Wendelstein 7-X.

    For Prof. Bhattacharjee, the successes of the Simons Collaboration are no coincidence. He is certain: The intensive collaboration dramatically accelerates scientific progress.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The MPG Institute for Plasma Physics [MPG Institut für Plasmaphysik](DE) is a physics institute for the investigation of plasma physics, with the aim of working towards fusion power. The institute also works on surface physics, also with focus on problems of fusion power.

    The IPP is an institute of the Max Planck Society, part of the European Atomic Energy Community, and an associated member of the Helmholtz Association.

    The IPP has two sites: Garching near Munich (founded 1960) and Greifswald (founded 1994), both in Germany.

    It owns several large devices, namely

    the experimental tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (in operation since 1991)

    ASDEX tokamak at MPG Institute for Plasma Physics.

    It also cooperates with the ITER and JET projects.

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

     
  • richardmitnick 1:58 pm on March 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "WVU researcher makes magnetic reconnection breakthrough-may help predict space weather", , , Magnetic reconnection plays a major role in how eruptions of plasma occur on the sun., , , Plasma Physics,   

    From West Virginia University: “WVU researcher makes magnetic reconnection breakthrough-may help predict space weather” 

    From West Virginia University

    March 11, 2022

    Jessica McGee
    Director of Marketing and Communications
    Eberly College of Arts and Sciences
    304-293-6867
    Jessica.McGee1@mail.wvu.edu

    1
    Peiyun Shi, postdoctoral researcher in the WVU Department of Physics and Astronomy, recently discovered a breakthrough in magnetic reconnection that could ultimately help predict space weather. Credit: Andrew Marvin/WVU.

    A West Virginia University postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics and Astronomy has made a breakthrough in the study of magnetic reconnection, which could prevent space storms from wreaking havoc on the Earth’s satellite and power grid systems.

    Peiyun Shi’s research is the first-of-its-kind in the laboratory setting and is part of the PHASMA project, a complex experiment composed of advanced diagnostics, electromagnets and lab-created plasma to reveal new details about how the universe functions.

    For his experiment, Shi uses a laser-based diagnostic to probe plasma. Laser beams are directed in the diagnostic and the light scatters off of electrons. The way the light scatters gives insight into how fast the electrons are moving. And because the plasma is more than 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the lasers allow for measuring particles without using a probe or a thermometer which would melt at such high temperatures.

    According to Shi, the technique is analogous to the Doppler effect, which is an increase or decrease in the frequency of sound or light waves emanating from a source as an observer moves towards or away from the source.

    Shi’s findings were published in Physical Review Letters, considered one of the most prestigious journals in Physics.

    “It’s like a radar gun for particles,” said Earl Scime, director of the WVU Center for Kinetic Experiment, Theory and Integrated Computation Physics and Oleg D. Jefimenko professor of Physics. According to Scime, similar studies are only able to determine the average properties of the electrons, but with the technology available as part of the PHASMA project, Shi is able to measure the actual speeds of the electrons.

    “Our work proves to the fundamental plasma community that advanced laser diagnostics can measure important kinetic features not accessible to any other conventional diagnostics,” Shi said. “This is essential for understanding various plasma physics processes and for complementing modern satellite observations. It’s a great privilege to work on such a promising project with a fantastic team here, and the productive collaboration with Paul Cassak and his graduate M. Hasan Barbhuiya is also critical for this work and much appreciated.”

    This research has a big impact on broader issues such as predicting space weather events. Magnetic reconnection plays a major role in how eruptions of plasma occur on the sun. Those eruptions can result in solar flares which increase X-ray and ultraviolent emissions, which poses a threat to astronauts in the International Space Station. The eruptions can also result in large masses of plasma that travel through space and slam into the Earth’s magnetosphere. Those space storms can play havoc with satellite and power grid systems on Earth.

    “Every time we understand more about magnetic reconnection, it has applications from space weather to thermonuclear fusion, to a basic understanding of how the universe works,” Scime said.

    The PHASMA project is located in the Center for KINETIC Plasma Physics. PHASMA – or the PHAse Space MApping experiment as it’s officially dubbed – is the focus of the WVU Center for Kinetic Experiment, Theory and Integrated Computation Plasma Physics.

    PHASMA is designed to make three-dimensional measurements of the motion of the ions and electrons in a plasma at very small scales and is the only facility in the world capable of performing these detailed measurements.

    The facility was constructed through a grant from the National Science Foundation and receives ongoing support from NSF, the U.S. Department of Energy and The National Aeronautics and Space Agency.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    West Virginia University is a public land-grant research university with its main campus in Morgantown, West Virginia. Its other campuses are those of the West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Beckley, Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser, and a second clinical campus for the university’s medical and dental schools at Charleston Area Medical Center in Charleston. WVU Extension Service provides outreach with offices in all of West Virginia’s 55 counties.

    Enrollment for the Fall 2018 semester was 26,839 for the main campus, while enrollment across all three non-clinical campuses was 29,933. The Morgantown campus offers more than 350 bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral, and professional degree programs throughout 14 colleges and schools.

    The university has produced 46 Goldwater Scholars, 25 Truman Scholars, three Marshall Scholars, six Udall Scholars, 28 Boren Scholars, 75 Gilman Scholars, 64 Fulbright Scholars, three Department of Homeland Security Scholars, 36 Critical Language Scholars, five NIST Fellows, and 27 NSF Graduate Research Fellows. Twenty-four Rhodes Scholars are WVU alumni, including former WVU president David C. Hardesty, Jr.

    Under the terms of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, the West Virginia Legislature created the Agricultural College of West Virginia on February 7, 1867, and the school officially opened on September 2 of the same year. On December 4, 1868, lawmakers renamed the college West Virginia University to represent a broader range of higher education. It built on the grounds of three former academies, the Monongalia Academy of 1814, the Morgantown Female Academy of 1831, and Woodburn Female Seminary of 1858. Upon its founding, the local newspaper claimed that “a place more eligible for the quiet and successful pursuit of science and literature is nowhere to be found”.

    The first campus building was constructed in 1870 as University Hall and was renamed Martin Hall in 1889 in honor of West Virginia University’s first president, the Rev. Alexander Martin of Scotland. After a fire destroyed the Woodburn Seminary building in 1873, the centerpiece of what is now Woodburn Hall was completed in 1876, under the name New Hall. The name was changed to University Building in 1878 when the College of Law was founded as the first professional school in the state of West Virginia. The precursor to Woodburn Circle was finished in 1893 when Chitwood Hall (then Science Hall) was constructed on the bluff’s north side. In 1909 a north wing was added to University Building, and the facility was renamed Woodburn Hall. Throughout the next decade, Woodburn Hall underwent several renovations and additions, including the construction of the south wing and east tower (in 1930) housing the Seth Thomas clock. The three Woodburn Circle buildings were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In 1899, the Vance Farm was acquired for the West Virginia University Experiment Station.

    West Virginia University was required to have a Cadet Corps under the terms of the Morrill Act of 1862, which allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. The United States Department of War—a predecessor of the U.S. Department of Defense—offered military equipment to the university at no charge, forming the basis of the school’s Military Tactics department. The heavy military influence led to opposition of female enrollment that lasted through the first decade of the university. The trend changed in 1889, when ten women were allowed to enroll and seek degrees at the university. In June 1891, Harriet Lyon became the first woman to receive a degree from West Virginia University, finishing first in the class ahead of all male students. Lyon’s academic success supported the acceptance of women in the university as students and educators.

    During the university’s early years, daily chapel services and roll call for all students were mandatory, limiting time for student recreation. Following the removal of these obligations, students became active in extracurricular activities and established many of the school’s first athletic and student organizations. The first edition of the student newspaper known as the Athenaeum, now The Daily Athenaeum, was published in 1887, and the West Virginia Law Review became the fourth-oldest law review in the United States when it was founded in 1894. Phi Kappa Psi was the first fraternity on campus, founded May 23, 1890, while Kappa Delta, the first sorority at West Virginia University, was established in 1899. The first football team was formed in 1891, and the first basketball team appeared in 1903.

    The university’s outlook at the turn of the 20th century was optimistic, as the school constructed the first library in present-day Stewart Hall in 1902.

    The campus welcomed U.S. President William Howard Taft to the campus for West Virginia University President Thomas Hodges’s inauguration in 1911. On November 2, 1911, President Taft delivered the address “World Wide Speech”, from the front porch of Purinton House. However, the university’s efforts to attract more qualified educators, increase enrollment, and expand the campus was hindered during a period that saw two World Wars and the Great Depression. With a heavy military influence in the university, many students left college to join the army during World War I, and the local ROTC was organized in 1916. Women’s involvement in the war efforts at home led to the creation of Women’s Hall dormitory, now Stalnaker Hall, in 1918.

    Despite its wartime struggles, the university established programs in biology, medicine, journalism, pharmacy, and the first mining program in the nation. In 1918, Oglebay Hall was built to house the expanded agriculture and forestry programs. Additionally, the first dedicated sports facilities were constructed including “The Ark” for basketball in 1918, and the original Mountaineer Field in 1925. Stansbury Hall was built in 1928 and included a new basketball arena named “The Fieldhouse” that held 6,000 spectators. Elizabeth Moore Hall, the woman’s physical education building, was also completed in 1928. Men’s Hall, the first dormitory built for men on campus, was built in 1935, and was funded in part by the Works Progress Administration. The Mountaineer mascot was adopted during the late 1920s, with an unofficial process to select the Mountaineer through 1936. An official selection process began naming the mascot annually in 1937, with Boyd “Slim” Arnold becoming the first Mountaineer to wear the buckskin uniform.

    As male students left for World War II in 1941–42, women became more prominent in the university and surpassed the number of males on campus for the first time in 1943. Soldiers returning from the war qualified for the G.I. Bill and helped increase enrollment to over 8,000 students for the first time, but the university’s facilities were becoming inadequate to accommodate the surging student population.

    Preparation for the baby boomer generation and plans for curriculum expansion led to the purchase of land for the Evansdale and Medical campuses. The growth of downtown Morgantown limited the space available on the original campus; therefore, the new site was nearly two miles north on what had been farmland. Beginning in the late 1950s the university experienced the most rapid period of growth in its history. In 1957, West Virginia University opened a Medical Center on the new campus and founded the first school of dentistry in West Virginia. The basketball program reached a new level of success when the university admitted future 14‑time NBA All-Star and Hall of Fame player Jerry West, who led the team to the national championship game in 1959. As enrollment approached 14,000 in the 1960s, the university continued expansion plans by building the Evansdale Residential Complex to house approximately 1,800 students, the Mountainlair student union, and several engineering and creative arts facilities on the Evansdale campus. In 1970 the West Virginia University Coliseum, a basketball facility with a capacity of 14,000, opened near the new campus. As the facilities expanded, the university researched ways to move its growing student population across the split campuses and to solve its worsening traffic congestion. The resulting Personal Rapid Transit system opened in 1973 as the world’s first automated rapid transit system.

    The student population continued to grow in the late 1970s, reaching 22,000. With no room for growth on the downtown campus, the football stadium was closed, and the new Mountaineer Field was opened near the Medical campus on September 6, 1980. Mountaineer Field would later be named Mountaineer Field at Milan Puskar Stadium. After an $8 million donation to the university, Ruby Memorial Hospital opened on the Medical campus in 1988, providing the state’s first level-one trauma center. Early the next year, the undefeated Mountaineer football team, led by Major Harris, made it to the national championship game before losing to Notre Dame in the Fiesta Bowl.

    During the 1990s the university developed several recreational activities for students, including FallFest and West Virginia University “Up All Night”. While the programs were created to provide safe entertainment for students and to combat West Virginia University’s inclusion as one of the nation’s top party schools, they also garnered national attention as solutions for reducing alcohol consumption and partying on college campuses across the country. In 2001, a $34 million, 177,000-square-foot (16,400 m2) recreation facility opened on the Evansdale campus, providing students with exercise facilities, recreational activities, and personal training programs.

    West Virginia University reached a new level of athletic success to start the new millennium. The football team featured a 3‑0 BCS bowl record, ten consecutive bowl game appearances, a #1 ranking in the USA Today Coaches’ Poll, three consecutive 11‑win seasons amassing a 33–5 record, 41 consecutive weeks in the top 25, and 6 conference championships. The men’s basketball team won the 2007 NIT Championship and the 2010 Big East championship, while appearing four times in the sweet sixteen, twice in the elite-eight, and once in the final-four of the NCAA tournament. The athletic successes brought the university a new level of national exposure, and enrollment has since increased to nearly 30,000 students.

    On April 24, 2008, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette reported the university had improperly granted an MBA degree to Heather Bresch, the daughter of the state’s governor Joe Manchin and an employee of Mylan, a pharmaceutical company whose then-chairman Milan Puskar was one of the University’s largest donors. In the aftermath, the university determined Bresch’s degree had been awarded without the prerequisite requirements having been met. They subsequently rescinded it, leading to the resignation of president Michael Garrison, provost Gerald Lang, and business school dean Steve Sears. Garrison had been profiled as a trend toward non-traditional university presidents by the Chronicle of Higher Education and Inside Higher Ed, but the Faculty Senate approved a vote of no confidence in the search that selected him.

    West Virginia University is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation, West Virginia University spent $185.1 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 121st in the nation. West Virginia University is affiliated with the Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, dedicated to the study of Alzheimer’s and other diseases that affect the brain. West Virginia University is also a leader in biometric technology research and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s lead academic partner in biometrics research.

    West Virginia University is organized into 15 degree-granting colleges or schools and also offers an Honors College.

    Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources & Design
    Eberly College of Arts & Sciences
    John Chambers College of Business & Economics
    College of Creative Arts
    Benjamin M. Statler College of Engineering & Mineral Resources
    College of Education & Human Services
    Reed College of Media
    College of Law
    School of Dentistry
    School of Medicine
    School of Nursing
    School of Pharmacy
    School of Public Health
    College of Physical Activity & Sport Sciences
    University College
    Honors College

     
  • richardmitnick 11:17 pm on February 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Origin of Supermassive Black Hole Flares Identified-Largest-Ever Simulations Suggest Flickering Powered by 'Magnetic Reconnection’", , , , Plasma Physics, , , The Flatiron Center for Computational Astrophysics's (US)   

    From Simons Foundation (US) and Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics(US) : “Origin of Supermassive Black Hole Flares Identified-Largest-Ever Simulations Suggest Flickering Powered by ‘Magnetic Reconnection’” 

    From Simons Foundation (US)

    and

    Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics (US)

    February 3, 2022
    Thomas Sumner

    1

    Researchers at the Flatiron Institute and their collaborators found that breaking and reconnecting magnetic field lines near the event horizon release energy from a black hole’s magnetic field, accelerating particles that generate intense flares. The findings hint at exciting new possibilities in black hole observation.

    Black holes aren’t always in the dark. Astronomers have spotted intense light shows shining from just outside the event horizon of supermassive black holes, including the one at our galaxy’s core. However, scientists couldn’t identify the cause of these flares beyond the suspected involvement of magnetic fields.

    By employing computer simulations of unparalleled power and resolution, physicists say they’ve solved the mystery: Energy released near a black hole’s event horizon during the reconnection of magnetic field lines powers the flares, the researchers report January 14 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    The new simulations show that interactions between the magnetic field and material falling into the black hole’s maw cause the field to compress, flatten, break and reconnect. That process ultimately uses magnetic energy to slingshot hot plasma particles at near light speed into the black hole or out into space. Those particles can then directly radiate away some of their kinetic energy as photons and give nearby photons an energy boost. Those energetic photons make up the mysterious black hole flares.

    In this model, the disk of previously infalling material is ejected during flares, clearing the area around the event horizon. This tidying up could provide astronomers an unhindered view of the usually obscured processes happening just outside the event horizon.

    “The fundamental process of reconnecting magnetic field lines near the event horizon can tap the magnetic energy of the black hole’s magnetosphere to power rapid and bright flares,” says study co-lead author Bart Ripperda, a joint postdoctoral fellow at the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics (CCA) in New York City and Princeton University (US). “This is really where we’re connecting plasma physics with astrophysics.”

    Ripperda co-authored the new study with CCA associate research scientist Alexander Philippov, Harvard University (US) scientists Matthew Liska and Koushik Chatterjee, The University of Amsterdam [Universiteit van Amsterdam](NL) scientists Gibwa Musoke and Sera Markoff, Northwestern University (US) scientist Alexander Tchekhovskoy and University College London (UK) scientist Ziri Younsi.

    A black hole, true to its name, emits no light. So flares must originate from outside the black hole’s event horizon — the boundary where the black hole’s gravitational pull becomes so strong that not even light can escape. Orbiting and infalling material surrounds black holes in the form of an accretion disk, like the one around the behemoth black hole found in the M87 galaxy. This material cascades toward the event horizon near the black hole’s equator. At the north and south poles of some of these black holes, jets of particles shoot out into space at nearly the speed of light.

    Identifying where the flares form in a black hole’s anatomy is incredibly difficult because of the physics involved. Black holes bend time and space and are surrounded by powerful magnetic fields, radiation fields and turbulent plasma — matter so hot that electrons detach from their atoms. Even with the help of powerful computers, previous efforts could only simulate black hole systems at resolutions too low to see the mechanism that powers the flares.

    Ripperda and his colleagues went all in on boosting the level of detail in their simulations. They used computing time on three supercomputers — the Summit supercomputer at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US), the Longhorn supercomputer at The University of Texas-Austin (US) The Texas Advanced Computer Center (US), and the Flatiron Institute’s Popeye supercomputer located at The University of California-San Diego (US)[no image available].

    ORNL OLCF IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, was No.1 on the TOP500.

    TACC IBM Longhorn supercomputer

    In total, the project took millions of computing hours. The result of all this computational muscle was by far the highest-resolution simulation of a black hole’s surroundings ever made, with over 1,000 times the resolution of previous efforts.

    The increased resolution gave the researchers an unprecedented picture of the mechanisms leading to a black hole flare. The process centers on the black hole’s magnetic field, which has magnetic field lines that spring out from the black hole’s event horizon, forming the jet and connecting to the accretion disk. Previous simulations revealed that material flowing into the black hole’s equator drags magnetic field lines toward the event horizon. The dragged field lines begin stacking up near the event horizon, eventually pushing back and blocking the material flowing in.

    3
    A snapshot from one of the new black hole simulations. Here, green magnetic field lines are overlaid on a map of hot plasma. Just outside the black hole’s event horizon, the connection of magnetic field lines pointing in opposite directions makes an X-point where they crisscross. This process of reconnection launches some particles in the plasma into the black hole and others into space, an important step in the generation of black hole flares. B. Ripperda et al., The Astrophysical Journal Letters 2022.

    With its exceptional resolution, the new simulation for the first time captured how the magnetic field at the border between the flowing material and the black hole’s jets intensifies, squeezing and flattening the equatorial field lines. Those field lines are now in alternating lanes pointing toward the black hole or away from it. When two lines pointing in opposite directions meet, they can break, reconnect and tangle. In between connection points, a pocket forms in the magnetic field. Those pockets are filled with hot plasma that either falls into the black hole or is accelerated out into space at tremendous speeds, thanks to energy taken from the magnetic field in the jets.

    “Without the high resolution of our simulations, you couldn’t capture the subdynamics and the substructures,” Ripperda says. “In the low-resolution models, reconnection doesn’t occur, so there’s no mechanism that could accelerate particles.”

    Plasma particles in the catapulted material immediately radiate some energy away as photons. The plasma particles can further dip into the energy range needed to give nearby photons an energy boost. Those photons, either passersby or the photons initially created by the launched plasma, make up the most energetic flares. The material itself ends up in a hot blob orbiting in the vicinity of the black hole. Such a blob has been spotted near the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole. “Magnetic reconnection powering such a hot spot is a smoking gun for explaining that observation,” Ripperda says.

    The researchers also observed that after the black hole flares for a while, the magnetic field energy wanes, and the system resets. Then, over time, the process begins anew. This cyclical mechanism explains why black holes emit flares on set schedules ranging from every day (for our Milky Way’s supermassive black hole) to every few years (for M87 and other black holes).

    Ripperda thinks that observations from the recently launched James Webb Space Telescope combined with those from the Event Horizon Telescope could confirm whether the process seen in the new simulations is happening and if it changes images of a black hole’s shadow. “We’ll have to see,” Ripperda says. For now, he and his colleagues are working to improve their simulations with even more detail.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Flatiron Center for Computational Astrophysics’s (US) mission is to create new computational frameworks that allow scientists to analyze big astronomical datasets and to understand complex, multi-scale physics in astrophysical systems ranging in scales from planets to cosmology.

    Increasingly more sophisticated ground-based observatories and space missions are collecting data to make tremendous discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics, but to make those discoveries will require the combined power of theory, data analysis and simulation. CCA’s mission is to develop the computational tools needed for these simulations and analyses.

    Mission and Model

    The Simons Foundation (US)’s mission is to advance the frontiers of research in mathematics and the basic sciences.

    Co-founded in New York City by Jim and Marilyn Simons, the foundation exists to support basic — or discovery-driven — scientific research undertaken in the pursuit of understanding the phenomena of our world.

    The Simons Foundation’s support of science takes two forms: We support research by making grants to individual investigators and their projects through academic institutions, and, with the launch of the Flatiron Institute (US) in 2016, we now conduct scientific research in-house, supporting teams of top computational scientists.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:13 pm on January 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Bringing the Sun into the lab", Alfvén waves: solar plasma waves, , At 15 million degrees Celsius the center of our Sun is unimaginably hot., At the Sun’s surface it emits its light in photons at a comparatively moderate 6000 degrees Celsius., Conditions of the magnetic canopy-considered crucial for corona heating-remained inaccessible to experimenters until now., , It is astonishing that temperatures of several million degrees suddenly prevail again in the overlying Sun's corona., Just below the Sun's corona lies the so-called magnetic canopy-a layer in which magnetic fields are aligned largely parallel to the solar surface., Plasma Physics, , , That magnetic fields play a dominant role in heating the Sun's corona is now widely accepted in solar physics., The phenomenon of corona heating remains one of the great mysteries of solar physics., Why the Sun's corona reaches temperatures of several million degrees Celsius is one of the great mysteries of solar physics.   

    From Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) : “Bringing the Sun into the lab” 

    From Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR)

    HZDR is a member of theHelmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren] (DE)

    January 3, 2022

    Dr. Frank Stefani
    Institute of Fluid Dynamics at HZDR
    Phone: +49 351 260 3069
    f.stefani@hzdr.de

    Media contact:

    Simon Schmitt | Head
    Communications and Media Relations at HZDR
    Phone: +49 351 260 3400
    s.schmitt@hzdr.de

    Liquid-metal experiment provides insight into the heating mechanism of the Sun’s corona.

    Coronal mass ejections. Credit: National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Goddard Space Flight Center (US)/ Solar Dynamics Observatory(US).

    1
    A plasma ejection during a solar flare. Immediately after the eruption, cascades of magnetic loops form over the eruption area as the magnetic fields attempt to reorganize.
    Source: NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Solar Dynamics Observatory(US)

    Why the Sun’s corona reaches temperatures of several million degrees Celsius is one of the great mysteries of solar physics. A “hot” trail to explain this effect leads to a region of the solar atmosphere just below the corona, where sound waves and certain plasma waves travel at the same speed. In an experiment using the molten alkali metal rubidium and pulsed high magnetic fields, a team from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) has developed a laboratory model and for the first time experimentally confirmed the theoretically predicted behavior of these plasma waves – so-called Alfvén waves – as the researchers report in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    At 15 million degrees Celsius the center of our Sun is unimaginably hot. At its surface, it emits its light at a comparatively moderate 6000 degrees Celsius. “It is all the more astonishing that temperatures of several million degrees suddenly prevail again in the overlying Sun’s corona,” says Dr. Frank Stefani. His team conducts research at the HZDR Institute of Fluid Dynamics on the physics of celestial bodies – including our central star. For Stefani, the phenomenon of corona heating remains one of the great mysteries of solar physics, one that keeps running through his mind in the form of a very simple question: “Why is the pot warmer than the stove?”

    That magnetic fields play a dominant role in heating the Sun’s corona is now widely accepted in solar physics. However, it remains controversial whether this effect is mainly due to a sudden change in magnetic field structures in the solar plasma or to the dampening of different types of waves. The new work of the Dresden team focuses on the so-called Alfvén waves that occur below the corona in the hot plasma of the solar atmosphere, which is permeated by magnetic fields. The magnetic fields acting on the ionized particles of the plasma resemble a guitar string, whose playing triggers a wave motion. Just as the pitch of a strummed string increases with its tension, the frequency and propagation speed of the Alfvén wave increases with the strength of the magnetic field.

    “Just below the Sun’s corona lies the so-called magnetic canopy-a layer in which magnetic fields are aligned largely parallel to the solar surface. Here, sound and Alfvén waves have roughly the same speed and can therefore easily morph into each other. We wanted to get to exactly this magic point – where the shock-like transformation of the magnetic energy of the plasma into heat begins,” says Stefani, outlining his team’s goal.

    A dangerous experiment?

    Soon after their prediction in 1942, the Alfvén waves had been detected in first liquid-metal experiments and later studied in detail in elaborate plasma physics facilities. Only the conditions of the magnetic canopy-considered crucial for corona heating- remained inaccessible to experimenters until now. On the one hand, in large plasma experiments the Alfvén speed is typically much higher than the speed of sound. On the other hand, in all liquid-metal experiments to date, it has been significantly lower. The reason for this: the relatively low magnetic field strength of common superconducting coils with constant field of about 20 tesla.

    But what about pulsed magnetic fields, such as those that can be generated at the HZDR’s Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) with maximum values of almost 100 tesla? This corresponds to about two million times the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field: Would these extremely high fields allow Alfvén waves to break through the sound barrier? By looking at the properties of liquid metals, it was known in advance that the alkali metal rubidium actually reaches this magic point already at 54 tesla.

    But rubidium ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water. The team therefore initially had doubts as to whether such a dangerous experiment was advisable at all. The doubts were quickly dispelled, recalls Dr. Thomas Herrmannsdörfer of the HLD: “Our energy supply system for operating the pulse magnets converts 50 megajoules in a fraction of a second – with that, we could theoretically get a commercial airliner to take off in a fraction of a second. When I explained to my colleagues that a thousandth of this amount of chemical energy of the liquid rubidium does not worry me very much, their facial expressions visibly brightened.”

    Pulsed through the magnetic sound barrier

    Nevertheless, it was still a rocky road to the successful experiment. Because of the pressures of up to fifty times the atmospheric air pressure generated in the pulsed magnetic field, the rubidium melt had to be enclosed in a sturdy stainless steel container, which an experienced chemist, brought out of retirement, was to fill. By injecting alternating current at the bottom of the container while simultaneously exposing it to the magnetic field, it was finally possible to generate Alfvén waves in the melt, whose upward motion was measured at the expected speed.

    The novelty: while up to the magic field strength of 54 tesla all measurements were dominated by the frequency of the alternating current signal, exactly at this point a new signal with halved frequency appeared. This sudden period doubling was in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions. The Alfvén waves of Stefani’s team had broken through the sound barrier for the first time. Although not all observed effects can yet be explained so easily, the work contributes an important detail to solving the puzzle of the Sun’s corona heating. For the future, the researchers are planning detailed numerical analyses and further experiments.

    Research on the heating mechanism of the Sun’s corona is also being carried out elsewhere: the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter space probes are about to gain new insights at close range.

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (US).

    NASA Parker Solar Probe schematic The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab(US)annotated.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    HIF_Hauptgebäude

    Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR)(DE) is a Dresden-based research laboratory. It conducts research in three of the Helmholtz Association’s areas: materials, health, and energy. HZDR is a member of theHelmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren](DE).

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (DE) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research centers. The official mission of the Association is “solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry”. Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.

    The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to €4.56 billion, of which about 72% is raised from public funds. The remaining 28% of the budget is acquired by the 19 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).

    The Helmholtz Association was ranked #8 in 2015 and #7 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    Members of the Helmholtz Association are:

    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, AWI), Bremerhaven
    Helmholtz Center for Information Security, CISPA, Saarbrücken
    German Electron Synchrotron (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY), Hamburg
    German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ), Heidelberg
    German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR), Cologne
    German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen; DZNE), Bonn
    Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) Jülich Research Center, Jülich
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, KIT), (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), Karlsruhe
    Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, (Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, HZI), Braunschweig
    GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences (Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam – Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon Geesthacht, formerly known as Gesellschaft für Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS)
    Helmholtz München German Research Centre for Environmental Health (HMGU), Neuherberg
    GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung), Darmstadt
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy (Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, HZB), Berlin
    Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung, UFZ), Leipzig
    Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, IPP), Garching
    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, MDC), Berlin-Buch
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) formerly known as Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) changed 2011 from the Leibniz Association to the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers,[6] Dresden
    Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR) formerly known as Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR)

    Helmholtz Institutes are partnerships between a Helmholtz Center and a university (the institutes are not members of the Helmholtz Association themselves). Examples of Helmholtz Institutes include:

    Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research (HIRI), Würzburg, established in 2017.

    Programme structure

    The works of the centers are categorised into programmes, which are divided into six research groups. The Helmholtz centers are grouped according to which research group they belong to:

    Energy includes contributions from DLR, KIT, FZJ, GFZ, HZB, HZDR, IPP.
    Topics are Renewable energies, energy efficient conversion, nuclear fusion and nuclear safety.
    Earth and environment is studied at AWI, DLR, FZJ, KIT, HZI, GEOMAR, GFZ, HZG, HMGU, UFZ. Topics are the changing earth, marine, coastal and polar systems, atmosphere and climate, biogeosystems and the topic terrestrial environment.
    Health is studied at the DKFZ, FZJ, KIT, HZI, DZNE HZG, HMGU, GSI, HZB, HZDR, MDC, and UFZ. This includes cancer research, cardio-vascular and metabolic disease research, nervous system, infection and immunity, environmental health studies, comparative genomics for human health.
    Key Technologies are studied at FZJ, KIT, HZG. In a single topic there is cooperations of the HZB.
    Structure of Matter is studied at DESY, FZJ, KIT, HZG, GSI, HZB, HZDR. Topics are elementary and astroparticle physics, hadrons and nuclear physics, PNI-research (research with Photons, Neutrons and Ions), aeronautics, space and transport research.
    Aeronautics, Space and Transport is studied at DLR. Major research topics are mobility, information systems and communication.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:16 am on October 27, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NASA’s Webb Will Join Forces with the Event Horizon Telescope to Reveal the Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole", , , , , Plasma Physics   

    From NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope: “NASA’s Webb Will Join Forces with the Event Horizon Telescope to Reveal the Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole” 

    NASA Webb Header

    From NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope

    October 27, 2021

    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Leah Ramsay
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland

    Christine Pulliam
    cpulliam@stsci.edu
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland

    Multiwavelength View of Galactic Center
    1
    About This Image

    An enormous swirling vortex of hot gas glows with infrared light, marking the approximate location of the supermassive black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy. This multiwavelength composite image includes near-infrared light captured by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, and was the sharpest infrared image ever made of the galactic center region when it was released in 2009.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)/European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne] [Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) Hubble Space Telescope

    Dynamic flickering flares in the region immediately surrounding the black hole, named Sagittarius A*, have complicated the efforts of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration to create a closer, more detailed image.

    EHT map.

    While the black hole itself does not emit light and so cannot be detected by a telescope, the EHT team is working to capture it by getting a clear image of the hot glowing gas and dust directly surrounding it.

    NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to launch in December 2021, will combine Hubble’s resolution with even more infrared light detection. In its first year of science operations, Webb will join with EHT in observing Sagittarius A*, lending its infrared data for comparison to EHT’s radio data, making it easier to determine when bright flares are present, producing a sharper overall image of the region.

    In the composite image shown here, colors represent different wavelengths of light. Hubble’s near-infrared observations are shown in yellow, revealing hundreds of thousands of stars, stellar nurseries, and heated gas. The deeper infrared observations of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope are shown in red, revealing even more stars and gas clouds. Light detected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory is shown in blue and violet, indicating where gas is heated to millions of degrees by stellar explosions and by outflows from the supermassive black hole.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope no longer in service. Launched in 2003 and retired on 30 January 2020.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Chandra X-ray telescope(US)

    Credits:

    SCIENCE: NASA, ESA, Caltech SSC Spitzer Science Center (US), Chandra X-ray Center (US), STScI.

    Multiwavelength view of Sagittarius A* Compass Image
    2

    About This Image

    Credits: SCIENCE: NASA, ESA, SSC, CXC, STScI

    Summary
    Webb will tackle the challenge of the supermassive black hole’s puzzling flares, which have proved both intriguing and frustrating for astronomers.

    In its first year of operations, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will join forces with a global collaborative effort to create an image of the area directly surrounding the supermassive black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is famous for its first image of the “shadow” of the black hole at the core of galaxy Messier 87, and it has now turned its efforts to the more complex environment of Sagittarius A*, the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole. While Messier 87’s core presented a steady target, Sagittarius A* exhibits mysterious flickering flares on an hourly basis, which make the imaging process much more difficult. Webb will assist with its own infrared images of the black hole region, providing data about when flares are present that will be a valuable reference to the EHT team.
    ___________________________________________________________________________

    On isolated mountaintops across the planet, scientists await word that tonight is the night: The complex coordination between dozens of telescopes on the ground and in space is complete, the weather is clear, tech issues have been addressed—the metaphorical stars are aligned. It is time to look at the supermassive black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy.

    This “scheduling Sudoku,” as the astronomers call it, happens each day of an observing campaign by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, and they will soon have a new player to factor in; NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will be joining the effort. During Webb’s first slate of observations, astronomers will use its infrared imaging power to address some of the unique and persistent challenges presented by the Milky Way’s black hole, named Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*; the asterisk is pronounced as “star”).

    In 2017, EHT used the combined imaging power of eight radio telescope facilities across the planet to capture the historic first view of the region immediately surrounding a supermassive black hole, in the galaxy Messier 87.

    Messier 87*, The first image of the event horizon of a black hole. This is the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy Messier 87. Image via The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released on 10 April 2019 via National Science Foundation(US).

    Sgr A* is closer but dimmer than Messier 87’s black hole, and unique flickering flares in the material surrounding it alter the pattern of light on an hourly basis, presenting challenges for astronomers.

    “Our galaxy’s supermassive black hole is the only one known to have this kind of flaring, and while that has made capturing an image of the region very difficult, it also makes Sagittarius A* even more scientifically interesting,” said astronomer Farhad Yusef-Zadeh, a professor at Northwestern University(US) and principal investigator on the Webb program to observe Sgr A*.

    The flares are due to the temporary but intense acceleration of particles around the black hole to much higher energies, with corresponding light emission. A huge advantage to observing Sgr A* with Webb is the capability of capturing data in two infrared wavelengths (F210M and F480M) simultaneously and continuously, from the telescope’s location beyond the Moon. Webb will have an uninterrupted view, observing cycles of flaring and calm that the EHT team can use for reference with their own data, resulting in a cleaner image.

    The source or mechanism that causes Sgr A*’s flares is highly debated. Answers as to how Sgr A*’s flares begin, peak, and dissipate could have far-reaching implications for the future study of black holes, as well as particle and plasma physics, and even flares from the Sun.

    “Black holes are just cool,” said Sera Markoff, an astronomer on the Webb Sgr A* research team and currently vice chairperson of EHT’s Science Council. “The reason that scientists and space agencies across the world put so much effort into studying black holes is because they are the most extreme environments in the known universe, where we can put our fundamental theories, like general relativity, to a practical test.”

    Black holes, predicted by Albert Einstein as part of his general theory of relativity, are in a sense the opposite of what their name implies—rather than an empty hole in space, black holes are the most dense, tightly-packed regions of matter known. A black hole’s gravitational field is so strong that it warps the fabric of space around itself, and any material that gets too close is bound there forever, along with any light the material emits. This is why black holes appear “black.” Any light detected by telescopes is not actually from the black hole itself, but the area surrounding it. Scientists call the ultimate inner edge of that light the event horizon, which is where the EHT collaboration gets its name.

    The EHT image of Messier 87 was the first direct visual proof that Einstein’s black hole prediction was correct. Black holes continue to be a proving ground for Einstein’s theory, and scientists hope carefully scheduled multi-wavelength observations of Sgr A* by EHT, Webb, X-ray, and other observatories will narrow the margin of error on general relativity calculations, or perhaps point to new realms of physics we don’t currently understand.

    As exciting as the prospect of new understanding and/or new physics may be, both Markoff and Zadeh noted that this is only the beginning. “It’s a process. We will likely have more questions than answers at first,” Markoff said. The Sgr A* research team plans to apply for more time with Webb in future years, to witness additional flaring events and build up a knowledge base, determining patterns from seemingly random flares. Knowledge gained from studying Sgr A* will then be applied to other black holes, to learn what is fundamental to their nature versus what makes one black hole unique.

    So the stressful scheduling Sudoku will continue for some time, but the astronomers agree it’s worth the effort. “It’s the noblest thing humans can do, searching for truth,” Zadeh said. “It’s in our nature. We want to know how the universe works, because we are part of the universe. Black holes could hold clues to some of these big questions.”

    NASA’s Webb telescope will serve as the premier space science observatory for the next decade and explore every phase of cosmic history—from within our solar system to the most distant observable galaxies in the early universe, and everything in between. Webb will reveal new and unexpected discoveries, and help humanity understand the origins of the universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Launch is planned for October 2021.

    Webb telescope will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System.

    Webb telescope was formerly known as the “Next Generation Space Telescope” (NGST); it was renamed in Sept. 2002 after a former NASA administrator, James Webb.

    Webb is an international collaboration between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (US) is managing the development effort. The main industrial partner is Northrop Grumman; the Space Telescope Science Institute (US) will operate Webb after launch.

    Several innovative technologies have been developed for Webb. These include a folding, segmented primary mirror, adjusted to shape after launch; ultra-lightweight beryllium optics; detectors able to record extremely weak signals, microshutters that enable programmable object selection for the spectrograph; and a cryocooler for cooling the mid-IR detectors to 7K.

    There will be four science instruments on Webb: the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), the Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRspec), the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and the Fine Guidance Sensor/ Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS-NIRISS). Webb’s instruments will be designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range. It will be sensitive to light from 0.6 to 28 micrometers in wavelength.

    Webb has four main science themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life.

    Launch is scheduled for later in the decade on an Ariane 5 rocket. The launch will be from Arianespace’s ELA-3 launch complex at European Spaceport located near Kourou, French Guiana. Webb will be located at the second Lagrange point, about a million miles from the Earth.

    ESA50 Logo large

    Canadian Space Agency

     
  • richardmitnick 12:59 pm on September 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists demonstrate pathway to forerunner of rugged nanotubes that could lead to widespread industrial fabrication", , , , , , Plasma Physics, ,   

    From DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US) at Princeton University (US) : “Scientists demonstrate pathway to forerunner of rugged nanotubes that could lead to widespread industrial fabrication” 

    From DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US)

    at

    Princeton University

    Princeton University (US)

    September 16, 2021
    John Greenwald

    1
    Author and co-authors with figure from paper. Clockwise from top left: Lead author Yuri Barsukov with co-authors Igor Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabry, Omesh Dwivedi, Sierra Jubin, Stephane Ethier. Credits: Batalova Valentina, Elle Starkman/Office of Communications, Elle Starkman, Han Wei, Hannah Smith, Elle Starkman. Collage by Elle Starkman.

    Scientists have identified a chemical pathway to an innovative insulating nanomaterial that could lead to large-scale industrial production for a variety of uses – including in spacesuits and military vehicles. The nanomaterial — thousands of times thinner than a human hair, stronger than steel and noncombustible — could block radiation to astronauts and help shore up military vehicle armor, for example.

    Collaborative researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have proposed a step-by-step chemical pathway to the precursors of this nanomaterial, known as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), which could lead to their large-scale production.

    “Pioneering work”

    The breakthrough brings together plasma physics and quantum chemistry and is part of the expansion of research at PPPL. “This is pioneering work that takes the Laboratory in new directions,” said PPPL physicist Igor Kaganovich, principal investigator of the BNNT project and co-author of the paper that details the results in the journal Nanotechnology.

    Collaborators identified the key chemical pathway steps as the formation of molecular nitrogen and small clusters of boron, which can chemically react together as the temperature created by a plasma jet cools, said lead author Yuri Barsukov of The Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University [Санкт-Петербургский политехнический университет Петра Великого](RU). He developed the chemical reaction pathways by performing quantum chemistry simulations with the assistance of Omesh Dwivedi, a PPPL intern from Drexel University (US), and Sierra Jubin, a graduate student in the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics.

    The interdisciplinary team included Alexander Khrabry, a former PPPL researcher now at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US) who developed a thermodynamic code used in this research, and PPPL physicist Stephane Ethier who helped the students compile the software and set up the simulations.

    The results solved the mystery of how molecular nitrogen, which has the second strongest chemical bond among diatomic, or double-atom molecules, can nonetheless break apart through reactions with boron to form various boron-nitride molecules, Kaganovich said. “We spent considerable amount of time thinking about how to get boron – nitride compounds from a mixture of boron and nitrogen,” he said. “What we found was that small clusters of boron, as opposed to much larger boron droplets, readily interact with nitrogen molecules. That’s why we needed a quantum chemist to go through the detailed quantum chemistry calculations with us.”

    BNNTs have properties similar to carbon nanotubes, which are produced by the ton and found in everything from sporting goods and sportswear to dental implants and electrodes. But the greater difficulty of producing BNNTs has limited their applications and availability.

    Chemical pathway

    Demonstration of a chemical pathway to the formation of BNNT precursors could facilitate BNNT production. The process of BNNT synthesis begins when scientists use a 10,000-degree plasma jet to turn boron and nitrogen gas into plasma consisting of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions, embedded in a background gas. This shows how the process unfolds:

    • The jet evaporates the boron while the molecular nitrogen largely stays intact;

    • The boron condenses into droplets as the plasma cools;

    • The droplets form small clusters as the temperature falls to a few thousand degrees;

    • The critical next step is the reaction of nitrogen with small clusters of boron molecules to form boron-nitrogen chains;

    • The chains grow longer by colliding with one another and fold into precursors of boron nitride nanotubes.

    “During the high-temperature synthesis the density of small boron clusters is low,” Barsukov said. “This is the main impediment to large-scale production.”

    The findings have opened a new chapter in BNNT nanomaterial synthesis. “After two years of work we have found the pathway,” Kaganovich said. “As boron condenses it forms big clusters that nitrogen doesn’t react with. But the process starts with small clusters that nitrogen reacts with and there is still a percentage of small clusters as the droplets grow larger,” he said.

    “The beauty of this work,” he added, “is that since we had experts in plasma and fluid mechanics and quantum chemistry we could go through all these processes together in an interdisciplinary group. Now we need to compare possible BNNT output from our model with experiments. That will be the next stage of modeling.”

    Support for this research comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


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    PPPL campus

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US) is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory managed by Princeton University. PPPL, on Princeton University’s Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro, N.J., is devoted to creating new knowledge about the physics of plasmas — ultra-hot, charged gases — and to developing practical solutions for the creation of fusion energy. Results of PPPL research have ranged from a portable nuclear materials detector for anti-terrorist use to universally employed computer codes for analyzing and predicting the outcome of fusion experiments. The Laboratory is managed by the University for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the largest single supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://energy.gov/science.

    Princeton University

    Princeton University

    About Princeton: Overview

    Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey(US). Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later. It was renamed Princeton University in 1896.

    Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university also manages the DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States.

    As of October 2020, 69 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 14 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Two U.S. Presidents, twelve U.S. Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton’s alumni body. Princeton has also graduated many prominent members of the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    Princeton University, founded as the College of New Jersey, was considered the successor of the “Log College” founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy, PA in about 1726. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Its purpose was to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. Unlike Harvard University(US), which was originally “intensely English” with graduates taking the side of the crown during the American Revolution, Princeton was founded to meet the religious needs of the period and many of its graduates took the American side in the war. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher’s interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Belcher replied: “What a name that would be!” In 1756, the college moved its campus to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England.

    Following the untimely deaths of Princeton’s first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college’s focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon’s presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it.

    In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with “enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey.” Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access.

    Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college’s sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country’s capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall’s role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall’s bell rang after the hall’s construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855.

    James McCosh became the college’s president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor.

    In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877.

    In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established.

    In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.

    In 1906, the reservoir Carnegie Lake was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton’s campus. On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. In 1919 the School of Architecture was established. In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until its own campus was finished and opened in 1939.

    Coeducation

    In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women’s college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school’s operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study “critical languages” in which Princeton’s offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.

    As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton’s eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn’s appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied. In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of “Old Nassau” to reflect the school’s co-educational student body. From 2009 to 2011, Princeton professor Nannerl O. Keohane chaired a committee on undergraduate women’s leadership at the university, appointed by President Shirley M. Tilghman.

    The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km^2) in Princeton. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia.

    The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street. The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton’s architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St Louis (US) and University of Pennsylvania(US)) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today. Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter and later enforced by the University’s supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960. A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).

    A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Richard Serra’s The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.

    At the southern edge of the campus is Carnegie Lake, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake’s construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus. Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered “not gentlemanly.” The Shea Rowing Center on the lake’s shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.

    Cannon Green

    Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the “Big Cannon,” which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.

    A second “Little Cannon” is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.

    In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. The next bonfire happened on November 24, 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet.

    Landscape

    Princeton’s grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for the campus. Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton’s consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus.

    Buildings

    Nassau Hall

    Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus. The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879. Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather. In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

    Residential colleges

    Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, First College and Forbes College (formerly Woodrow Wilson College and Princeton Inn College, respectively), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university’s sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.

    Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton’s Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories.

    First and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. First served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the “New New Quad”) before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including “waffle ceilings,” the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen.

    Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years. Forbes currently houses nearly 500 undergraduates in its residential halls.

    In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton’s sixth residential college that same year.

    The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. Wilson’s model was much closer to Yale University (US)’s present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alumnus, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale.

    Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed. The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style.

    McCarter Theatre

    The Tony-award-winning McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States.

    Art Museum

    The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.

    Numbering over 92,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol’s Blue Marilyn.

    One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture.

    University Chapel

    The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of $2.3 million [approximately $34.2 million in 2020 dollars]. Ralph Adams Cram, the University’s supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King’s College Chapel, Cambridge. It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.

    Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages. The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.

    The Chapel seats almost 2,000. It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services, daily Roman Catholic mass, and several annual special events.

    Murray-Dodge Hall

    Murray-Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray-Dodge Café, the Muslim Prayer Room and the Interfaith Prayer Room. The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden, and a number of university chaplains, including the country’s first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country’s first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan.

    Sustainability

    Published in 2008, Princeton’s Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University’s Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement. Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020: Energy without the purchase of offsets. The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009. The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics. Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 75% sustainable food products by 2015. The student organization “Greening Princeton” seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.

    Organization

    The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University’s endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.

    With an endowment of $26.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university had the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over $2 million for undergraduates) in 2011. Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers. Some of Princeton’s wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists.

    Academics

    Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.).

    The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in most disciplines. It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master’s degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice.

    The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University(US).

    Undergraduate

    Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a “precept.” To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as “junior papers.” Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements (which include, for example, classes in ethics, literature and the arts, and historical analysis) with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.

    Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student’s suspension or expulsion. The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students’ academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall. Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.

    Graduate

    The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences; engineering; natural sciences; and humanities. These departments include the Department of Psychology; Department of History; and Department of Economics.

    In 2017–2018, it received nearly 11,000 applications for admission and accepted around 1,000 applicants. The University also awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final master’s degrees. Princeton has no medical school, law school, business school, or school of education. (A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture; engineering; finance and public policy- the last through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and U.S. president) Woodrow Wilson, and most recently renamed in 2020.

    Libraries

    The Princeton University Library system houses over eleven million holdings including seven million bound volumes. The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world. Additionally, it is among the largest “open stack” libraries in existence. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan’s Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources.

    Institutes

    High Meadows Environmental Institute

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute is an “interdisciplinary center of environmental research, education, and outreach” at the university. The institute was started in 1994. About 90 faculty members at Princeton University are affiliated with it.

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute has the following research centers:

    Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI): This is a 15-year-long partnership between PEI and British Petroleum with the goal of finding solutions to problems related to climate change. The Stabilization Wedge Game has been created as part of this initiative.
    Center for BioComplexity (CBC)
    Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS): This is a collaboration with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.
    Energy Systems Analysis Group
    Grand Challenges

     
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