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  • richardmitnick 4:18 pm on November 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Searching for an Exoplanet", , , , , , , Planet designated Barnard's Star b   

    From ESOblog: “Searching for an Exoplanet” 

    ESO 50 Large

    From ESOblog

    1

    14 November 2018

    After archival data indicated the possible presence of a planet around nearby Barnard’s Star, a team of scientists undertook an epic campaign to try to confirm its presence. The result, published this week and described in an ESO press release, was the discovery of evidence for the second-closest exoplanet to Earth. In this blog post, lead scientist Ignasi Ribas helps us investigate the discovery further and look at the incredible story behind it.

    Related ESO press release can be found here.
    See https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2018/11/14/from-european-southern-observatory-super-earth-orbiting-barnards-star/ for a full accounting of the instrumentation used in this project and also the science team.

    Q. Could you start by telling us what you found and why it’s exciting?

    A. We have combined 20 years of observations to discover a candidate planet around Barnard’s Star, one of the nearest stars to the Sun. Barnard’s Star has been famous for a long time, not only because of its proximity and because it is the fastest moving star in the night sky, but also because back in the 1960s scientists thought that they found an exoplanet system orbiting it. Those planets were later disproved, but now we believe that we really have found one!

    We are 99% sure that this planet exists. It is a cold super-Earth at least 3.2 times the mass of the Earth, orbiting 60% closer to its parent star than Earth does to the Sun. Even so, Barnard’s Star is so small and cool that it provides this planet with just 2% of the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun, and therefore this planet is a very cold world.

    2
    Data from many different instruments, including ESO´s planet-hunter HARPS, have revealed this frozen, dimly lit world. (Artist´s impression)
    Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

    Q. Why do you think it’s important to search for planets around other stars?

    A. Personally I am involved in this area of research because I want to understand our place in the Universe. I think part of understanding our situation is to find out about nearby planets, to discover their properties and figure out how they formed. This will help us discover whether Earth is unique or whether life could be commonplace in the Universe.

    Much of the Universe is still a complete mystery; at the moment we are exploring it long-distance, from Earth, but perhaps someday in the distant future we will really be able to visit these planets, so we need to find out more about them first.

    Q. So tell us how you went about finding this planet.

    A. We used a technique called the radial velocity, or Doppler, method.

    Radial Velocity Method-Las Cumbres Observatory

    Radial velocity Image via SuperWasp http:// http://www.superwasp.org/exoplanets.htm

    When a planet orbits a star, its gravity pulls the star forwards and backwards just a tiny amount, changing its velocity slightly and making the star wobble. When a star comes towards us, its light becomes “squashed” and the wavelength we see is more blue, and when the star moves away, its light reddens, in what is known as the Doppler effect. This method allows us to find out the minimum mass of the planet, but we must use complementary techniques to determine a planet’s true mass.

    We went through huge amounts of data dating back to the 90s to look for a pattern in this star’s motions and saw that it was moving forwards and backwards with a regular rhythm. The wavelength, and therefore the star’s velocity, varies with a period of roughly 233 days, implying that a planet orbits once every 233 days. Determining how much the wavelength changes over this time allowed us to figure out how fast the star moves towards and away from us. The mass of the planet is related to the change in velocity, so we were able to calculate the minimum mass of the planet to be about three times the mass of Earth.


    This animation shows how astronomers watch for changes in the wavelength of light from a star to search for exoplanets.
    Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

    Q. Planets have been discovered around stars thousands of light-years away. Barnard’s Star is just six light-years away, so why was this planet not found before?

    A. There have actually been many previous searches for planets around Barnard’s Star, and even announcements of discoveries, but not one has ever been confirmed. The thing is that the candidate planet we found is so small and so far from its host star that its effect on the star is really, really tiny. The planet only changed the star’s speed by 4.3 km/h in each direction and with a long period of 233 days, making it extremely difficult to detect. Finding the planet was only possible by collecting an enormous number of velocity measurements. In total, we combined nearly 800 measurements from seven different facilities.

    In particular, between 2016 and 2017 we used the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) on the ESO 3.6-metre telescope to observe Barnard’s Star on every possible night that we could, to gather as much information as possible on how its velocity changes over time. It is thanks to HARPS and the CARMENES instrument at Calar Alto Observatory that we can be sufficiently confident that this planet exists.

    ESO/HARPS at La Silla


    ESO 3.6m telescope & HARPS at Cerro LaSilla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    CARMENES spectrograph, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5 meter Telescope, located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres



    Calar Alto 3.5 meter Telescope, located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres

    Q. You say that you are 99% sure that this is a planet. Where does the uncertainty come from? And how certain do you have to be before you are convinced this is a planet?

    A. We would like to be 99.9% certain that this is a planet before we stop observing it. We already feel very sure — it passes all the tests that a planet should pass, but we will continue to make more observations to become more certain.

    The uncertainty comes from the intrinsic error in each radial velocity measurement. In this case, the typical uncertainty of our data is 3.6 km/h, meaning that each velocity measurement we obtain could actually be anywhere within an interval of 3.6 km/h around the value we observe. This is large compared to the velocity values of 4.3 km/h that we are dealing with, so we needed hundreds of measurements to beat down the errors. Furthermore, such precision requires instruments to be extremely stable over timescales of decades so that we can trust that all radial velocities are free from systematic effects. Heat and cold, for example, can affect how instruments operate, so engineers try to keep the instruments at a constant temperature and we are sure to correct for any change. We are convinced that instrument effects cannot be responsible for the 4.3 km/h signal we observed because we see the same value in datasets from different instruments.

    Q. If it isn’t a planet, what else could it be?

    A. There is a small chance that the signal is produced naturally by the star. We found that Barnard’s Star spins very slowly, with a rotation period of about 140 days. As the star rotates, the starspots on its surface rotate with it, appearing and disappearing in a way that could give rise to a signal similar to the one we observed. We calculated the possibility of this to be 0.8% — small, but not zero. More observations will help us decrease this small chance even further and nail the case for the planetary nature of the radial velocity modulations that we are seeing.

    Q. Will you try to confirm that this is a planet in the future? How will you do this?

    A. Absolutely! It’s proximity makes this planet a prime target for exoplanet research. For now, we will continue to collect more radial velocity data to push down the uncertainty even further. Then we would like to observe the planet using different techniques, for example, we could use the Hubble Space Telescope or ESA’s Gaia mission to look for the change in the position of the star in the sky as the planet’s gravity pulls the star around as it orbits. Using a space telescope to do this would tell us more about the properties of this planet.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    ESA/GAIA satellite

    This planet is one billion times fainter than its parent star, so it would be extremely difficult to take a direct image of it — we could not dream of doing this with the telescopes that exist today. But now we know where to look for it, we would like to use the amazing imaging capabilities of ESO’s future Extremely Large Telescope to image it.

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).

    This would reveal a huge amount of information about the planet, for example about its orbit, radius, mass and temperature.

    Q. Earlier you mentioned that scientists thought they found a planet around Barnard’s Star back in the 1960s. Did you see any sign of this “planet” whilst you were carrying out this research?

    A. We did find something! Our analysis revealed that the velocity of Barnard’s Star varies not only with the 233-day period of the planet discovered by us, but also with an intriguing long-term period of 15–20 years. This period is similar to that of the planets proposed in the 1960s but the radial velocity variations are much smaller than would be expected. If the variations were caused by a second planet, it would be very distant from its parent star and with a mass similar to Neptune.

    But we actually think it’s more likely that the long-term variation is caused by changes in the magnetic activity of the star. Just like the Sun — which has a sunspot cycle of about 11 years — Barnard’s Star gets more and less active over time. Very precise position measurements using the Hubble Space Telescope or Gaia could be used to further investigate the possibility of an outer planet orbiting Barnard’s star.

    See the full article here .


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    ESO/Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT 4 lasers on Yepun


    ESO Vista Telescope
    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO NTT
    ESO/NTT at Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT Survey telescope
    VLT Survey Telescope at Cerro Paranal with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ALMA Array
    ALMA on the Chajnantor plateau at 5,000 metres.

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).


    ESO APEX
    APEX Atacama Pathfinder 5,100 meters above sea level, at the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert.

    Leiden MASCARA instrument, La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA cabinet at ESO Cerro la Silla located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey at Cerro Paranel, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    SPECULOOS four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes 2016 in the ESO Paranal Observatory, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO ExTrA telescopes at Cerro LaSilla at an altitude of 2400 metres

     
  • richardmitnick 3:33 pm on November 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Planet designated Barnard's Star b, Super-Earth Orbiting Barnard’s Star   

    From European Southern Observatory: “Super-Earth Orbiting Barnard’s Star” 

    ESO 50 Large

    From European Southern Observatory

    14 November 2018

    Ignasi Ribas (Lead Scientist)
    Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and the Institute of Space Sciences, CSIC
    Barcelona, Spain
    Tel: +34 93 737 97 88 (ext 933027)
    Email: iribas@ice.cat

    Guillem Anglada-Escudé
    Queen Mary University of London
    London, United Kingdom
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7882 3002
    Email: g.anglada@qmul.ac.uk

    Calum Turner
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6670
    Cell: +49 151 1537 3591
    Email: pio@eso.org

    1
    The nearest single star to the Sun hosts an exoplanet at least 3.2 times as massive as Earth — a so-called super-Earth. One of the largest observing campaigns to date using data from a world-wide array of telescopes, including ESO’s planet-hunting HARPS instrument [below], have revealed this frozen, dimly lit world. The newly discovered planet is the second-closest known exoplanet to the Earth. Barnard’s star is the fastest moving star in the night sky.

    A planet has been detected orbiting Barnard’s Star, a mere 6 light-years away. This breakthrough — announced in a paper published today in the journal Nature — is a result of the Red Dots and CARMENES projects, whose search for local rocky planets has already uncovered a new world orbiting our nearest neighbour, Proxima Centauri.

    The planet, designated Barnard’s Star b, now steps in as the second-closest known exoplanet to Earth [1]. The gathered data indicate that the planet could be a super-Earth, having a mass at least 3.2 times that of the Earth, which orbits its host star in roughly 233 days. Barnard’s Star, the planet’s host star, is a red dwarf, a cool, low-mass star, which only dimly illuminates this newly-discovered world. Light from Barnard’s Star provides its planet with only 2% of the energy the Earth receives from the Sun.

    Despite being relatively close to its parent star — at a distance only 0.4 times that between Earth and the Sun — the exoplanet lies close to the snow line, the region where volatile compounds such as water can condense into solid ice. This freezing, shadowy world could have a temperature of –170 ℃, making it inhospitable for life as we know it.

    Named for astronomer E. E. Barnard, Barnard’s Star is the closest single star to the Sun. While the star itself is ancient — probably twice the age of our Sun — and relatively inactive, it also has the fastest apparent motion of any star in the night sky [2]. Super-Earths are the most common type of planet to form around low-mass stars such as Barnard’s Star, lending credibility to this newly discovered planetary candidate. Furthermore, current theories of planetary formation predict that the snow line is the ideal location for such planets to form.

    Previous searches for a planet around Barnard’s Star have had disappointing results — this recent breakthrough was possible only by combining measurements from several high-precision instruments mounted on telescopes all over the world [3].

    “After a very careful analysis, we are 99% confident that the planet is there,” stated the team’s lead scientist, Ignasi Ribas (Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia and the Institute of Space Sciences, CSIC in Spain). “However, we’ll continue to observe this fast-moving star to exclude possible, but improbable, natural variations of the stellar brightness which could masquerade as a planet.”

    Among the instruments used were ESO’s famous planet-hunting HARPS and UVES spectrographs.

    UVES spectrograph mounted on the VLT at the Nasmyth B focus of UT2

    “HARPS played a vital part in this project. We combined archival data from other teams with new, overlapping, measurements of Barnard’s star from different facilities,” commented Guillem Anglada Escudé (Queen Mary University of London), co-lead scientist of the team behind this result [4]. “The combination of instruments was key to allowing us to cross-check our result.”

    The astronomers used the Doppler effect to find the exoplanet candidate. While the planet orbits the star, its gravitational pull causes the star to wobble. When the star moves away from the Earth, its spectrum redshifts; that is, it moves towards longer wavelengths. Similarly, starlight is shifted towards shorter, bluer, wavelengths when the star moves towards Earth.

    Astronomers take advantage of this effect to measure the changes in a star’s velocity due to an orbiting exoplanet — with astounding accuracy. HARPS can detect changes in the star’s velocity as small as 3.5 km/h — about walking pace. This approach to exoplanet hunting is known as the radial velocity method, and has never before been used to detect a similar super-Earth type exoplanet in such a large orbit around its star.

    “We used observations from seven different instruments, spanning 20 years of measurements, making this one of the largest and most extensive datasets ever used for precise radial velocity studies.” explained Ribas. ”The combination of all data led to a total of 771 measurements — a huge amount of information!”

    “We have all worked very hard on this breakthrough,” concluded Anglada-Escudé. “This discovery is the result of a large collaboration organised in the context of the Red Dots project, that included contributions from teams all over the world.

    ESO Red Dots Campaign

    Follow-up observations are already underway at different observatories worldwide.”

    Notes

    [1] The only stars closer to the Sun make up the triple star system Alpha Centauri.

    Centauris Alpha Beta Proxima 27, February 2012. Skatebiker

    In 2016, astronomers using ESO telescopes and other facilities found clear evidence of a planet orbiting the closest star to Earth in this system, Proxima Centauri. That planet lies just over 4 light-years from Earth, and was discovered by a team led by Guillem Anglada Escudé.

    [2] The total velocity of Barnard’s Star with respect to the Sun is about 500 000 km/h. Despite this blistering pace, it is not the fastest known star. What makes the star’s motion noteworthy is how fast it appears to move across the night sky as seen from the Earth, known as its apparent motion. Barnard’s Star travels a distance equivalent to the Moon’s diameter across the sky every 180 years — while this may not seem like much, it is by far the fastest apparent motion of any star.

    [3] The facilities used in this research were: HARPS [above] at the ESO 3.6-metre telescope [below]; UVES [above] at the ESO VLT [below]; HARPS-N at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo;

    Harps North at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo –

    HIRES at the Keck 10-metre telescope;

    Keck telescope HIRES


    Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA.4,207 m (13,802 ft), above sea level, showing also NASA’s IRTF and NAOJ Subaru

    PFS at the Carnegie’s Magellan 6.5-m telescope;

    Carnegie Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope at Las Campanas, Chile, Altitude 2,380 m (7,810 ft)

    Las Campanas Clay Magellan telescope, located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    APF at the 2.4-m telescope at Lick Observatory;

    UC Observatories Lick Autmated Planet Finder, fully robotic 2.4-meter optical telescope at Lick Observatory, situated on the summit of Mount Hamilton, east of San Jose, California, USA

    and CARMENES at the Calar Alto Observatory.

    CARMENES spectrograph, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5 meter Telescope, located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres


    Calar Alto 3.5 meter Telescope, located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres

    Additionally, observations were made with the 90-cm telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory,

    Sierra Remote Observatory in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin

    90 cm telescope at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada

    SNO Sierra Nevada Observatory is a high elevation observatory 2900m above the sea level located in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada Spain and operated maintained and supplied by IAC. Altitude 2,896 m (9,501 ft)

    the 40-cm robotic telescope at the SPACEOBS observatory,

    SPACEOBS, the San Pedro de Atacama Celestial Explorations Observatory is located at 2450m above sea level, north of the Atacama Desert, in Chile, near to the village of San Pedro de Atacama and close to the border with Bolivia and Argentina

    and the 80-cm Joan Oró Telescope of the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM).

    80-cm Joan Oró Telescope at Montsec Astronomical Observatory

    Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM)located in the town of Sant Esteve de la Sarga (Pallars Jussà), 1,570 meters above sea level

    [4] The story behind this discovery will be explored in more detail in this week’s ESOBlog.

    More information

    The team was composed of I. Ribas (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), M. Tuomi (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom), A. Reiners (Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Germany), R. P. Butler (Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), J. C. Morales (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), M. Perger (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), S. Dreizler (Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Germany), C. Rodríguez-López (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain), J. I. González Hernández (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Spain & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), A. Rosich (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), F. Feng (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom), T. Trifonov (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Germany), S. S. Vogt (Lick Observatory, University of California, USA), J. A. Caballero (Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Spain), A. Hatzes (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Germany), E. Herrero (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), S. V. Jeffers (Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Germany), M. Lafarga (Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Spain & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain), F. Murgas (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), R. P. Nelson (School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom), E. Rodríguez (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain), J. B. P. Strachan (School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom), L. Tal-Or (Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Germany & School of Geosciences, Tel-Aviv University, Israel), J. Teske (Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA & Hubble Fellow), B. Toledo-Padrón (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), M. Zechmeister (Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Germany), A. Quirrenbach (Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Germany), P. J. Amado (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain), M. Azzaro (Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán, Spain), V. J. S. Béjar (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), J. R. Barnes (School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, United Kingdom), Z. M. Berdiñas (Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile), J. Burt (Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), G. Coleman (Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Switzerland), M. Cortés-Contreras (Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Spain), J. Crane (The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), S. G. Engle (Department of Astrophysics & Planetary Science, Villanova University, USA), E. F. Guinan (Department of Astrophysics & Planetary Science, Villanova University, USA), C. A. Haswell (School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, United Kingdom), Th. Henning (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Germany), B. Holden (Lick Observatory, University of California, USA), J. Jenkins (Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile), H. R. A. Jones (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom), A. Kaminski (Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Germany), M. Kiraga (Warsaw University Observatory, Poland), M. Kürster (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Germany), M. H. Lee (Department of Earth Sciences and Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong), M. J. López-González (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain), D. Montes (Dep. de Física de la Tierra Astronomía y Astrofísica & Unidad de Física de Partículas y del Cosmos de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain), J. Morin (Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, France), A. Ofir (Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science. Israel), E. Pallé (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), R. Rebolo (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain, & Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas & Universidad de La Laguna, Spain), S. Reffert (Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Germany), A. Schweitzer (Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Germany), W. Seifert (Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Germany), S. A. Shectman (The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), D. Staab (School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, United Kingdom), R. A. Street (Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, USA), A. Suárez Mascareño (Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, Switzerland & Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Spain), Y. Tsapras (Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Germany), S. X. Wang (Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), and G. Anglada-Escudé (School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom & Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain).

    See the full article here .


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    ESO La Silla HELIOS (HARPS Experiment for Light Integrated Over the Sun)

    ESO/HARPS at La Silla

    ESO 3.6m telescope & HARPS at Cerro LaSilla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO 2.2 meter telescope at La Silla, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO/Cerro LaSilla, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT Platform at Cerro Paranal elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft)


    ESO VLT 4 lasers on Yepun

    Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO_s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT.

    ESO/NTT at Cerro La Silla, Chile, at an altitude of 2400 metres



    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).

    ESO/APEX high on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama region, at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA instrument, La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA cabinet at ESO Cerro la Silla located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey at Cerro Paranel, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    SPECULOOS four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes 2016 in the ESO Paranal Observatory, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO ExTrA telescopes at Cerro LaSilla at an altitude of 2400 metres

     
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