Tagged: Physics Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 11:48 am on April 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Marriage of a 20keV superconducting XFEL with a 100PW laser, Physics, ,   

    From SPIE: “Marriage of a 20keV superconducting XFEL with a 100PW laser” 

    SPIE

    SPIE

    16 April 2018
    Toshiki Tajima, University of California, Irvine
    Ruxin Li, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    A new regime of science at exawatts and zeptoseconds.

    The Chinese national science and technology major infrastructure, Shanghai Coherent Light Facility (SCLF), organized an international review meeting for the Station of Extreme Light (SEL) in Shanghai on July 10, 2017.

    The Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics is building a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser that is set to open to users in 2019. Credit Michael Banks

    The reviewing committee members included experts in strong-field laser physics, high-energy-density physics, and theoretical physics from Germany, USA, UK, France, Japan, Canada; and China chaired by R. Sauerbrey and N .Wang. The working group, led by Ruxin Li of the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has made a series of breakthroughs on high energy, high power, and high-repetition laser system development.

    Reflecting on this, the Review Committee Report1 stated: “The architecture of the laser system of the Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) and its interaction with the XFEL are well thought out. The proposed 1023 W/cm2 peak laser power is feasible. The working group has made a series of breakthroughs on high-power laser technologies in the past decades. Their constant effort has resulted in valuable experience, outstanding engineering skills, and international recognition for the group. Their strong track record has laid a strong foundation, which will provide the basis for successful construction of the 100 PW laser system.”

    Based on this, the Committee applauded the work, stating: “The Station of Extreme Light at Shanghai Coherent Light Facility is dedicated to cutting-edge research in strong field science and applications. This includes, for example, astrophysics, nuclear physics, cosmology, and matter under extreme conditions. The combination of the hard XFEL and the world-leading 100PW laser in SEL will initiate exploration of effects such as vacuum birefringence, one of the most prominent strong-field QED effects, acceleration mechanisms leading to ultra-high energy cosmic rays, simulation of black hole physics, and generation of new forms of matter.”

    The developments proposed are based on solid research carried out at SIOM (and other scientific organizations). In particular, the research and development of the OPCPA laser amplifier at the highest power level at SIOM. Shown in Figure 1 is SIOM’s 10PW laser CPA device and the 10PW laser system. The 10PW laser system, Shanghai Superintense-Ultrafast Lasers Facility (SULF), is based on CPA technology and the diameter of the Ti-Sapphire used in the main amplifier is 235mm, which is the largest crystal for the laser manufactured by the scientists at SIOM.

    Based on these developments, SIOM has launched a 100PW laser system, Station for Extreme Light (SEL). This system has two significant salient features. First, the level of its power will be an order of magnitude beyond the planned highest-powered laser, Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). Secondly, its design is a combination of the 100PW laser as part of the system in the SCLF’s XFEL. This project received strong endorsement from the International Review Meeting that convened at SCLF of SIOM on July 10, 2017, and was approved by the Government of China. The overall funding level is approximately USD$1.3 Billion.

    Figure 1 10PW laser system in Shanghai pumped by CPA.

    II. Extreme field regime
    The parameters of SEL are well beyond what has so far been available. Table 1 shows typical principal physical parameters. The coherent x-ray energy from the SCLF ranges between 3 to 15 keV (hard x-rays) produced from the superconducting x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). The photon number per pulse of this XFEL is 1012. Its pulse focusability is 200nm with the energy resolution of 0.6eV. The x-ray’s intensity at focus is as high as 1021W/cm2.

    The parameters of the 100PW laser for optical photons are as follows: Its peak power is 100PW, while its focal intensity is as high as 1023W/cm2. (If we can managed to focus better than this, it could go toward 1025W/cm2). While this is a single shot performance, it could deliver the repetition rate of 1Hz of optical laser if the power is at 0.1 to 1PW.

    These parameters by themselves are exciting. However, their coexistence and marriage as a combined unit shows a remarkable capability for future scienctific exploration. The combination of a synchrotron light source and an intense laser was first suggested and conducted in 1990s. Toshiki Tajima suggested that Professor Mamoru Fujiwara at Osaka University make use of the high-energy (8GeV) electrons of the SPRing-8 combined with an intense laser to make extremely high-energy gamma photons, which he did in his lab.2 Since then, the combination of these accelerator-based synchrotron light sources (or even more advanced XFEL with intense lasers) have come a long way. The present SCLF’s marriage of these two will uncover a new regime of science and greatly impact various technologies and applications, such as nuclear photonics and nonlinear interferometry.

    4
    Table 1 shows the schematic layout of the SEL. The interaction of XFEL and the plasma chamber takes place in the experimental area. Figure 3 indicates the 100PW laser based on the OPCPA technology.

    4
    Figure 2: Schematic layout figure of SEL that couples the 100PW laser with the XFEL.

    5
    Figure 3: Details of the amplification stages of the 100PW laser based on OPCPA.

    The scheme of this marriage is seen in the concept of the SEL at which the coherent high-energy x-rays photons are shone in the configuration shown in Figure 2. This way we will be able to observe the interaction of the high-energy x-ray photons and most intense lasers and their developed matter interaction. This will greatly increase the experimental probe of intense laser-matter interaction. The XFEL beam will provide ultra-short MHz x-ray beam with energy range of 3-5keV and significantly large photon number of 1012. Specific x-ray energy of 12.914keV will be used for QED experiments with very low energy spread of 0.6eV. The x-ray beam will collide head-on with the 100PW laser pulse in the experimental chamber. The 100PW laser system contains four beams and each beam reaches the peak power of 25 PW.

    Figure 2 shows that the main laser system will occupy two floors and its power supply and control system are set at different floors. After the four-beam combination, the laser pulse will be sent to the experimental area on the bottom floor. There is a large-size vacuum chamber, where the 100PW laser pulse will be focused to 5μm and collide with the x-ray beam.

    Details of the 100PW laser system are shown in Figure 3. At the core is the OPCPA system. The 100PW laser pulse starts at high temporal laser source, where its temporal synchronization signal comes from the XFEL beam. This source will generate high-quality seed pulses, which will go into the PW level repetition-rate OPCPA front-end. The laser energy will reach 25J and its spectrum width will support 15fs at PW level OPCPA front-end.

    The main amplifier is based on OPCPA technology and it provides 99% energy gain of the whole laser system, which requires sufficient pump energy from a Nd Glass pump laser. The final optics assembly will compress the high-energy of 2500J 4ns laser pulse to 15fs. After the compression, the laser pulse will be sent into the experimental chamber with the peak intensity 1023 W/cm2. As shown in Figure 1, we developed and tested the performance of a high-intensity laser with CPA up to 10PW level.

    III. High Field Science
    The proposed SEL aims to achieve the ultimate in high field science [3],[4],[5]. Here, we describe a simple way to reach that goal.

    The radiation dominance regime (1023 W/cm2) as described in Ref. 2 may be accessible and experimentally explored for the first time in sufficient details with the help of the coherent X-ray probe. As discussed in Sec. 1, if one can focus a bit narrowly, we may be able to enter the so-called QED Quantum regime (~1024 W/cm2)[4],[5].

    The particle acceleration by laser will enter a new regime. The wakefield generation [6] becomes so nonlinear that it enters what is sometimes called the bow-wake regime [7]. This may be relevant to the astrophysical extreme high-energy cosmic ray genesis by AGN (active galactic nuclei) jets [8]. In this regime, the physics of wakefield acceleration and that of the radiation pressure acceleration begin to merge (1023W/cm2)[9],[10]. Thus, the laser pulse should be able to pick up ions as well as electrons to become accelerated. Soon or later, the energy of ions begins to exceed that of electrons and their acceleration should become as coherent as the electron acceleration in this regime. Such acceleration will allow ion accelerators to be smaller. (A broader scope at this regime and slightly higher intensity regime than just mentioned has been reviewed [9].)

    However, it could go much further than that, since the invention of a new compression technique called “thin film compression11.” With this technique, a laser may be compressed to even higher power and intensity such as EW and further by relativistic compression into the shortest possible pulses ever in zs12. We will thus see the continuous manifestation of the Intensity-Pulse Duration Theorem into the extension of EW and zs [13]. It will not only explore strong field QED physics [14],[15], but we will also see the emergence of new phenomena at play in a wider variety of fundamental physics, including: (1) possible search of the proposed “fifth force” [16],[17]; (2) dark matter search by four wave mixing [18]; (3) x-ray wakefield in solid state matter [19] and related x-ray and optical solid state plasmonics [20]; (4) possible testing of the energy dependence of gamma photon propagation speed in a vacuum to test the foundational assumption of the Theory of Special Theory of Relativity [21]; and (5) zeptosecond streaking of the QED process [22].

    Chen et al.[23] suggested the exploration of general relativity using the equivalence principle of acceleration-gravity to test the Hawking-Unruh process.

    IV. Gamma-ray diagnosis and the marriage of XFEL and HFS
    In the issues of high field science, we often enter into the physical processes in higher energies and shorter timescales, which may not be easily resolvable in optical diagnosis. Here, the powerful XFEL’s resolution in time and space come in [24]. X-rays can be also signatures in high intensity experiments such as laser-driven acceleration experiments [25]. A typical display of such interplay may be seen in the diagnostics of the physical processes in the problem of x-ray wakefield acceleration in solid-state matter. In this case, nanoscopic materials with a nanohole structure [20] need to be observed and controlled. The surface of the nanotubes may be exhibiting surface plasmons and polaritons in nanometer size and zs temporal dynamics, best diagnosed by the XFEL. This is but an example of the marriage of a 20keV superconducting XFEL and a 100PW laser. In addition this technology will enhance studies in photon-induced nuclear physics [26] and the treatment of nuclear materials [27] (including nuclear waste), nuclear pharmacology, nuclear biochemistry, and medicine [28],[29].

    Another example is to use gamma photons to mediate the vacuum nonlinearity caused by intense laser pulse to exploit zeptosecond streaking via the gamma photon mediation [22]. In this scheme the presence of intense laser pulse and x-ray photon play a crucial role. If this example elucidates a beginning of exploration of zeptosecond photometric and zeptosecond optics, it would be an achievement comparable of the opening of the femtosecond optics flowing by attosecond optics [30].

    One more example of exploring the proposition was recently made for the Fifth Force [17]. In the Hungarian nuclear experiment, a mysterious photon at the energy of 17MeV was observed. The paper [5] suggested this emission of gamma photon may be due to the unknown force (the Fifth Force). It may be helpful if we can inject a large amount of monoenergetic photons at this energy to see if the reversal of this process of photon emission (i.e. injection of photon) can explore this process more quantitatively. We can check of the fifth force (17MeV gamma)16,17,31 with the process and an outcome of the following, utilizing the energy specific laser induced gamma photon interaction: e + 17MeV gamma → e + X.

    Finally, there is a recent suggestion by Day and Fairbairn [32] that XFEL laser pulses at 3.5keV may be used to investigate the astrophysically observed x-ray excess by fluorescent dark matter. Such an avenue may open up with this device. Such an effort along with the astrophysical observations may become an important interdisciplinary development.

    In order to maximize the success of these implications, we recommend the formation of a broad international collaboration with the organizations and institutions that are engaging in related fields. Learning from these labs in their technologies, practice, and collaborative engagements should reduce risks and duplications and enhance learning and the scope of experience. Collaborations with a variety technology sectors are important both for the execution of experiments and their applications.

    The authors are grateful for close discussions with all the committee members (Naiyan Wang, Roland Sauerbrey, Pisin Chen, See Leang Chin, Thomas Edward Cowan, Thomas Heinzl, Yongfeng Lu, Gerard Mourou, Edmond Turcu, Hitoki Yoneda, Lu Yu) of SEL. The discussions with Profs. T. Tait, K. Abazajian, T. Ebisuzaki, and K. Homma were also very useful. Prof. X. M. Zhang helped with our manuscript.

    References:
    1. Report of the International Review Meeting for Station of Extreme Light (2017).

    2. G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima and S. V. Bulanov, Optics in the relativistic regime, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, p. 309, 2006.

    3. T. Tajima, K. Mima and H. Baldis, Eds., High-Field Science, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, 2000.

    4. T. Tajima and G. Mourou, Zettawatt-exawatt lasers and their applications in ultrastrong-field physics, Phys. Rev. ST AB 5, p. 031301, 2002.

    5. G. Mourou and T. Tajima, Summary of the IZEST science and aspiration, Eur. Phys. J. ST 223, pp. 979-984, 2014.

    6. T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Laser electron accelerator, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, p. 267, 1979.

    7. C. K. Lau, P. C. Yeh, O. Luk, J. McClenaghan, T. Ebisuzaki and T. Tajima, Ponderomotive acceleration by relativistic waves, Phys. Rev. ST AB 18, p. 024401, 2015; T. Tajima, Laser acceleration in novel media, Eur. Phys. J. ST 223, pp. 1037-1044, 2014.

    8. T. Ebisuzaki and T. Tajima, Astrophysical ZeV acceleration in the relativistic jet from an accreting supermassive blackhole, Astropart. Phys. 56, pp. 9-15, 2014.

    9. T. Tajima, B. C. Barish, C. P. Barty, S. Bulanov, P. Chen, J. Feldhaus, et al., Science of extreme light infrastructure, AIP Conf. Proc. 1228, pp. 11-35, 2010.

    10. T. Esirkepov, M. Borghesi, S. V. Bulanov, G. Mourou and T. Tajima, Highly efficient relativistic-ion generation in the laser-piston regime, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, p. 175003, 2004.

    11. G. Mourou, S. Mironov, E. Khazanov and A. Sergeev, Single cycle thin film compressor opening the door to Zeptosecond-Exawatt physics, Eur. Phys. J. ST 223, pp. 1181-1188, 2014.

    12. N. Naumova, J. Nees, I. Sokolov, and G. Mourou, Relativistic generation of isolated attosecond pulses in a λ3 focal volume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, p. 063902, 2004.

    13. G. Mourou and T. Tajima, More intense, shorter pulses, Science 331, pp. 41-42, 2011.

    14. M. Marklund and P. K. Shukla, Nonlinear collective effects in photon-photon and photon-plasma interactions, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, p. 591, 2006.

    15. A. Di Piazza, C. Müller, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan and C. H. Keitel, Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, p. 1177, 2012.

    16. A. J. Krasznahorkay, M. Csatlós, L. Csige, Z. Gácsi, J. Gulyás, M. Hunyadi, et al., Observation of anomalous internal pair creation in Be 8: a possible indication of a light, neutral boson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, p. 042501, 2016.

    17. J. L. Feng, B. Fornal, I. Galon, S. Gardner, J. Smolinsky, T. M. Tait and P. Tanedo, Protophobic fifth-force interpretation of the observed anomaly in Be-8 nuclear transitions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, p. 071803, 2016.

    18. K. Homma, D. Habs and T. Tajima, Probing the semi-macroscopic vacuum by higher-harmonic generation under focused intense laser fields, Appl. Phys. B 106, pp. 229-240, 2012.

    19. T. Tajima, Laser acceleration in novel media, Eur. Phys. J. ST 223, pp. 1037-1044, 2014.

    20. X. Zhang, T. Tajima, D. Farinella, Y. Shin, G. Mourou, J. Wheeler and B. Shen, Particle-in-cell simulation of x-ray wakefield acceleration and betatron radiation in nanotubes, Phys. Rev. AB 19, p. 101004, 2016.

    21. T. Tajima, M. Kando and M. Teshima, Feeling the texture of vacuum: laser acceleration toward PeV, Progr. Theor. Phys. 125, pp. 617-631, 2011.

    22. T. Tajima, G. Mourou and K. Nakajima, Laser acceleration, Riv. Nuovo Cim. 40, p. 1, 2017.

    23. P. Chen and G. Mourou, Accelerating plasma mirrors to investigate the black hole information loss paradox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, p. 045001, 2017.

    24. C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli and S. Reiche, The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, p. 015006, 2016.

    25. S. Corde, K. T. Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, A. Rousse and E. Lefebvre, Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, p. 1, 2013.

    26. S. V. Bulanov, T. Z. Esirkepov, M. Kando, H. Kiriyama and K. Kondo, Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 122, pp. 426-433, 2016.

    27. S. Gales, IZEST meeting presentation, ELI-EP, French Embassy in Tokyo, 2013. https://gargantua.polytechnique.fr/siatel-web/linkto/mICYYYSI7yY6. Accessed 10 November 2017.

    28. D. Habs and U. Köster, Production of medical radioisotopes with high specific activity in photonuclear reactions with γ-beams of high intensity and large brilliance, Appl. Phys. B 103, pp. 501-519, 2011; Ö. Özdemir, Eds., Current Cancer Treatment – Novel Beyond Conventional Approaches, INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2011.

    29. A. Bracco and G. Köerner, Eds., Nuclear Physics for Medicine, Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, 2014.

    30. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Attosecond physics, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, p. 163, 2009.

    31. T. Tajima, T. Tait, and J. Feng, private comment, 2017.

    32. F. Day and M. Fairbairn, submitted to J. High Energy Phys., 2017.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Advertisements
     
  • richardmitnick 4:17 pm on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , LARP-US LHC Accelerator Research Program, , , Physics   

    From CERN: “LHC luminosity upgrade project moving to next phase” [2015. Really? So what is new here?] 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    29 Oct 2015 [Really?]

    1
    29 October 2015. This week more than 230 scientists and engineers from around the world met at CERN1 to discuss the High-Luminosity LHC – a major upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that will increase the accelerator’s discovery potential from 2025.

    After a four year long design study the project is now moving into its second phase, which will see the development of industrial prototypes for various parts of the accelerator.

    Luminosity is a crucial indicator of performance for an accelerator. It is proportional to the number of particles colliding within a defined amount of time. Since discoveries in particle physics rely on statistics, the greater the number of collisions, the more chances physicists have to see a particle or process that they have not seen before.

    The High-Luminosity LHC will increase the luminosity by a factor of 10, delivering 10 times more collisions than the LHC would do over the same period of time.

    It will therefore provide more accurate measurements of fundamental particles and enable physicists to observe rare processes that occur below the current sensitivity level of the LHC. With this upgrade, the LHC will continue to push the limits of human knowledge, enabling physicists to explore beyond the Standard Model and Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.

    “The LHC already delivers proton collisions at the highest energy ever,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The High-Luminosity LHC will produce collisions 10 times more rapidly, increasing our discovery potential and transforming the LHC into a machine for precision studies: the natural next step for the high energy frontier.”

    The increase in luminosity will mean physicists will be able to study new phenomena discovered by the LHC, such as the Higgs boson, in more detail. The High-Luminosity LHC will produce 15 million Higgs bosons per year compared to the 1.2 million in total created at the LHC between 2011 and 2012.

    Upgrading the LHC will be a challenging procedure and relies on several breakthrough technologies currently under development.

    “We have to innovate in many fields, developing cutting-edge technologies for magnets, the optics of the accelerator, superconducting radiofrequency cavities, and superconducting links,” explained Lucio Rossi, Head of the High-Luminosity LHC project.

    Some 1.2 km of the LHC will be replaced by these new technologies, which include cutting-edge 12 Tesla superconducting quadrupole magnets built using a superconducting compound of niobium and tin [built by whom?*]. These will strongly focus the beam to increase the probability of collisions occurring and will be installed at each side of the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

    There are also brand new superconducting radiofrequency cavities, called “crab cavities” [built by whom?*], which will be used to orientate the beam before the collision to increase the length of the area where the beams overlap. New electrical transfer lines, based on high temperature superconductors, will be able to carry currents of record intensities to the accelerator, up to 100,000 amps, over 100 metres.

    “The High-Luminosity LHC will use pioneering technologies – such as high field niobium-tin magnets [built by whom?] – for the first time,” said Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. “This will not only increase the discovery potential of the LHC but also serve as a proof of concept for future accelerators.”

    All these technologies have been explored since 2011 in the framework of the HiLumi LHC Design Study – partly financed by the European Commission’s FP7 programme. HiLumi LHC brought together a large number of laboratories from CERN’s member states, as well as from Russia, Japan and the US. American institutes participated in the project with the support of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Some 200 scientists from 20 countries collaborated on this first successful phase.

    The meeting this week marks the end of this hugely complex and collaborative design phase of the High-Luminosity LHC project. The project will now focus on the prototyping and industrialization of the technologies before the construction phase can begin.

    *Outside builders, such as BNL,FNAL,LBNL, SLAC, DESY, KEK, etc. deserve to be credited.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 10:12 am on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Physics, Ready- Set- Go   

    From CERN ALICE: “Ready, Set, Go” 

    CERN
    CERN New Masthead

    16 April 2018
    Virginia Greco

    During the recent weeks, test, calibration and configuration activities were carried on to prepare the ALICE detector for the imminent restart of beam. In advance with respect to the original plan, the LHC is expected to deliver collisions with stable beams on 17 April.

    1
    The LHC is getting ready for injecting physics beam. The first collisions with stable beams of 2018 will be delivered between 16 and 17 of April.

    Thanks to the excellent performance exhibited by the LHC during the latest weeks, the schedule of the accelerator restarting has been compressed and collisions with stable beams will be delivered beforehand. As a consequence, the ALICE experiment has sped up its commissioning as well to be ready to take data as soon as possible.

    The operations in the experimental cavern, which included some minor repairing and interventions on the muon arm and the TPC, are concluded. Technical runs were started at the beginning of March. During them, the various detectors and systems were left working for many hours in a row – without beams in the accelerator – to check their correct functioning and their stability over time. In the first two weeks, these tests were performed only between 7 am and 11 pm and then the detector switched off, so that no crew was required to stay in the control room at night. Following this, full shifts (24 hours a day) were started and tests continued. Dry runs like these are key to the preparation for data taking, since they allow the experts to identify possible issues and glitches and to fix them in time for the restart.

    The detectors were gradually included in these common coordinated runs but only after successfully completing a reintegration procedure of their detector control system (DCS), necessary to ensure proper transitioning of detectors from normal to beam-safe running conditions.

    CERN/ALICE Detector

    ALICE Run Control Center

    The TPC and the TRD also went through an energy calibration (called “krypton calibration”) performed using a solid rubidium source, which decays into a gaseous excited state of krypton that mixes with the gas volumes of the detectors. This excited state returns to its ground state inside the detector with a known energy spectrum.

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) together with the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), in turn, worked to get prepared for the Pb-Pb collisions that will be delivered at the end of the year, from November on. In particular, various tests have been carried out – and will be continued throughout the year whenever possible – to check, tune and improve how the full chain (from the detector signals to the final data storage) behaves when pushed to the limit of its capacity. Specifically, ‘fake’ events, carrying no meaningful information but having rates and sizes similar to those of the events expected in the future Pb-Pb collisions, were generated to put a significant load on the data channels and – partially – on the processing stages.

    After completion of two weeks of dry runs, the ALICE magnet was switched on and data from cosmic ray interactions were taken with many of the detectors until the accelerator team was ready to start test injection in the beam pipe.

    During this beam operation time, when the experts of the machine put in place their commissioning procedure, the ALICE detector has been put in a beam-safe state. In practice, only the systems that have minimal risk of being damaged when hit by the beam when switched on can actually run. The others have to stay in standby mode or run in a non-standard configuration (for example, no high voltage is applied to the detectors that normally require it).

    Collisions with unstable beams were delivered on April 12 and stable beams will be declared at some point between 16 and 17 of April. The ALICE experiment is all set and ready to start its 2018 race.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:


    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS
    ATLAS
    CERN/ATLAS detector

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN/CMS Detector

    LHCb

    CERN/LHCb

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles


    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Physics, U.S. and India sign agreement providing for neutrino physics collaboration at Fermilab and in India   

    From FNAL: “U.S., India sign agreement providing for neutrino physics collaboration at Fermilab and in India” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 16, 2018

    1
    U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry, left, and Indian Atomic Energy Secretary Sekhar Basu, right, signed an agreement on Monday in New Delhi, opening the door for continued cooperation on neutrino research in both countries. In attendance were Hema Ramamoorthi, chief of staff of the U.S. DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and U.S. Ambassador to India Kenneth Juster. Photo: Fermilab.

    Earlier today, April 16, 2018, U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry and India’s Atomic Energy Secretary Dr. Sekhar Basu signed an agreement in New Delhi to expand the two countries’ collaboration on world-leading science and technology projects. It opens the way for jointly advancing cutting-edge neutrino science projects under way in both countries: the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) with the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab and the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO).

    LBNF/DUNE brings together scientists from around the world to discover the role that tiny particles known as neutrinos play in the universe. More than 1,000 scientists from over 170 institutions in 31 countries work on LBNF/DUNE and celebrated its groundbreaking in July 2017. The project will use Fermilab’s powerful particle accelerators to send the world’s most intense beam of high-energy neutrinos to massive neutrino detectors that will explore their interactions with matter.

    INO scientists will observe neutrinos that are produced in Earth’s atmosphere to answer questions about the properties of these elusive particles. Scientists from more than 20 institutions are working on INO.

    “The LBNF/DUNE project hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermilab is an important priority for the DOE and America’s leadership in science, in collaboration with our international partners,” said Secretary of Energy Rick Perry. “We are pleased to expand our partnership with India in neutrino science and look forward to making discoveries in this promising area of research.”

    Scientists from the United States and India have a long history of scientific collaboration, including the discovery of the top quark at Fermilab.

    “India has a rich tradition of discoveries in basic science,” said Atomic Energy Secretary Basu. “We are pleased to expand our accelerator science collaboration with the U.S. to include the science for neutrinos. Science knows no borders, and we value our Indian scientists working hand-in-hand with our American colleagues. The pursuit of knowledge is a true human endeavor.”

    This DOE-DAE agreement builds on the two countries’ existing collaboration on particle accelerator technologies. In 2013, DOE and DAE signed an agreement authorizing the joint development and construction of particle accelerator components in preparation for projects at Fermilab and in India. This collaborative work includes the training of Indian scientists in the United States and India’s development and prototyping of components for upgrades to Fermilab’s particle accelerator complex for LBNF/DUNE. The upgrades, known as the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), include the construction of a 600-foot-long superconducting linear accelerator at Fermilab. It will be the first ever particle accelerator built in the United States with significant contributions from international partners, including also the UK and Italy. Scientists from four institutions in India – BARC in Mumbai, IUAC in New Delhi, RRCAT in Indore and VECC in Kolkata – are contributing to the design and construction of magnets and superconducting particle accelerator components for PIP-II at Fermilab and the next generation of particle accelerators in India.

    Under the new agreement signed today, U.S. and Indian institutions will expand this productive collaboration to include neutrino research projects. The LBNF/DUNE project will use the upgraded Fermilab particle accelerator complex to send the world’s most powerful neutrino beam 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) through the earth to a massive neutrino detector located at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. This detector will use almost 70,000 tons of liquid argon to detect neutrinos and will be located about a mile (1.5 kilometers) underground; an additional detector will measure the neutrino beam at Fermilab as it leaves the accelerator complex. Prototype neutrino detectors already are under construction at the European research center CERN, another partner in LBNF/DUNE.

    “Fermilab’s international collaboration with India and other countries for LBNF/DUNE and PIP-II is a win-win situation for everybody involved,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Our partners get to work with and learn from some of the best particle accelerator and particle detector experts in the world at Fermilab, and we benefit from their contributions to some of the most complex scientific machines in the world, including LBNF/DUNE and the PIP-II accelerator.”

    INO will use a different technology — known as an iron calorimeter — to record information about neutrinos and antineutrinos generated by cosmic rays hitting Earth’s atmosphere. Its detector will feature what could be the world’s biggest magnet, allowing INO to be the first experiment able to distinguish signals produced by atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos. The DOE-DAE agreement enables U.S. and Indian scientists to collaborate on the development and construction of these different types of neutrino detectors. More than a dozen Indian institutions are involved in the collaboration on neutrino research.

    Additional quotes:

    Prof. Vivek Datar, INO spokesperson and project director, Taha Institute of Fundamental Research:

    “This will facilitate U.S. participation in building some of the hardware for INO, while Indian scientists do the same for the DUNE experiment. It will also help in building expertise in India in cutting-edge detector technology, such as in liquid-argon detectors, where Fermilab will be at the forefront. At the same time we will also pursue some new ideas.”

    Prof. Naba Mondal, former INO spokesperson, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics:

    “This agreement is a positive step towards making INO a global center for fundamental research. Students working at INO will get opportunities to interact with international experts.”

    Prof. Ed Blucher, DUNE co-spokesperson, University of Chicago, United States:

    “The international DUNE experiment could fundamentally change our understanding of the universe. Contributions from India and other partner countries will enable us to build the world’s most technologically advanced neutrino detectors as we aim to make groundbreaking discoveries regarding the origin of matter, the unification of forces, and the formation of neutron stars and black holes.”

    Prof. Stefan Soldner-Rembold, DUNE co-spokesperson, University of Manchester, UK:

    “DUNE will be the world’s most ambitious neutrino experiment, driven by the commitment and expertise of scientists in more than 30 countries. We are looking forward to the contributions that our colleagues in India will make to this extraordinary project.”

    To learn more about LBNF/DUNE, visit http://www.fnal.gov/dunemedia. More information about PIP-II is available at http://pip2.fnal.gov.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 8:56 am on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Attosecond X-ray science, , , Physics, , , XLEAP X-ray Laser-Enhanced Attosecond Pulse generation   

    From European XFEL: “Entering the realm of attosecond X-ray science” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    European XFEL

    2018/04/13

    New methods for producing and characterizing attosecond X-ray pulses.

    1
    Ultrashort X-ray pulses (pink) at the Linac Coherent Light Source ionize neon gas at the center of a ring of detectors. An infrared laser (orange) sweeps the outgoing electrons (blue) across the detectors with circularly polarized light. Scientists read data from the detectors to learn about the time and energy structure of the pulses, information they will need for future experiments. Copyright: Terry Anderson / SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    SLAC/LCLS

    European XFEL produces unfathomably fast X-ray pulses that are already being used by scientists to explore the unchartered territory of the atomic and molecular cosmos. Intense X-ray pulses lasting only a few femtoseconds – or a few millionths of a billionth of a second – are being used to reveal insights into the dynamics of chemical reactions and the atomic structures of biological molecules such as proteins and viruses. And while there is much more to discover in this femtosecond time range, scientists are already looking to take European XFEL to the next time dimension, exploring reactions and dynamics that occur on an even briefer time scale – the attosecond time regime.

    If you leave the shutter of your camera open for too long while photographing a race, the resulting pictures will only be a smear of colour. To capture clear and sharp images of the athletes’ movements you need to make sure the shutter is only open for the shortest time; in fact the best shutter speed to capture a clear snapshot of the runners’ legs frozen in action would be faster than the time the runner needed to move their legs. Good light conditions help too to make sure your photos are sharp and in focus. And so it is as scientists attempt to take snapshots of some of nature’s fastest processes such as the movements of electrons within atoms and molecules. To capture snapshots of these movements in action we need pulses of intense X-rays that reflect the timescale on which these reactions occur – and these reactions can occur even down to the attosecond timescale.

    XLEAP

    Attosecond X-ray science is expected to allow scientists to delve even deeper into ultrafast chemical and molecular processes and the tiniest details of our world than already possible. But how to produce X-ray flashes that are even shorter than the already ultrafast femtosecond flashes? One of the methods currently being explored by scientists is ‘X-ray Laser-Enhanced Attosecond Pulse generation’ (XLEAP). The method, being developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the USA, is expected to be possible with only moderate modifications to the layout of existing FEL facilities. If successful, the usually chaotic time and energy structure of XFEL (X-ray Free-Electron Laser) pulses, consisting of a sequence of many intensity spikes based on the so-called SASE (Self-Amplification by Spontaneous Emission) principle, can be reliably narrowed down to one single, coherent intensity spike of only few hundreds of attoseconds. In a recent review article in the Journal of Optics, European XFEL scientists propose how the XLEAP method might be implemented at the SASE 3 branch of the facility, eventually providing attosecond pulses for experiments.

    2
    European XFEL scientist Markus Ilchen working on the original angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer at PETRA III, DESY. Copyright: European XFEL

    DESY Petra III


    DESY Petra III interior

    Angular Streaking diagnostics

    While the free-electron laser technology is almost ready to provide attosecond pulses, another hurdle is to actually prove and characterize their existence. Experiments to date at XFEL facilities have often relied on indirect measurements and simulations of X-ray pulses to calibrate results. However, only with detailed information from direct measurements of the exact time and energy structure of each X-ray pulse, can X-ray science enter a new era of time resolved and coherence dependent experiments.

    With this in mind, a novel experimental approach was conceived as part of an international collaboration including scientists from SLAC, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), European XFEL, the Technical University of Munich, University of Kassel, University of Gothenburg, University of Bern, University of Colorado, University of the Basque Country in Spain, and Lomonosov Moscow State University in Russia. In a study published in the journal Nature Photonics, the international groupdemonstrated the capability of a so-called ‘angular streaking’ method to characterize the time and energy structure of X-ray spikes. The scientists used the shortest pulses available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC in the USA for their experiment. Using the new angular streaking diagnostic method, millions of pulses, each of a few femtoseconds in length, were successfully captured and analyzed. “Being able to get the precise information about the energy spectrum, as well as the time and intensity structure of every single X-ray pulse is unprecedented” explains Markus Ilchen from the Small Quantum Systems group at European XFEL, one of the principal investigators of this work. “This is really one of the holy grails of FEL diagnostics” he adds enthusiastically.

    The new angular streaking technique works by using the rotating electrical field of intense circularly polarized optical laser pulses to extract the time and energy structure of the XFEL pulses. Interaction with the XFEL pulse causes atoms to eject electrons which are then strongly kicked around by the surrounding laser field. Information about the electron’s exact time of birth is not only imprinted in the energy of the electron but also in the ejecting angle. This all provides a ‘clock’ by which to sort the resulting experimental data. Pulses generated by the SASE process, as implemented at European XFEL and SLAC, are intrinsically variable and chaotic. Some of the recorded pulses during the experiment at SLAC were, therefore, already single spikes in the attosecond regime which then were fully characterized for their time-energy structure.

    Angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer

    1
    An illustration of the ring-shaped array of 16 individual detectors arranged in a circle like numbers on the face of a clock. An X-ray laser pulse hits a target at the center and sets free electrons that are swept around the detectors. The location, where the electrons reach the “clock,” reveals details such as the variation of the X-ray energy and intensity as a function of time within the ultrashort pulse itself. Copyright: Frank Scholz & Jens Buck, DESY.

    he underlying spectroscopic method is based on an angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer setup consisting of 16 individual spectrometers aligned in a plane perpendicular to the XFEL beam. These are used to characterize the X-ray beam by correlating the electrons’ energies and their angle dependent intensities. An adapted version of the spectrometer setup originally developed at the PETRA III storage ring at DESY, was built in the diagnostics group of European XFEL and provided for the beamtime at SLAC.

    At European XFEL the diagnostic goal is that scientists will eventually be able to use the method to extract all information online during their experiments and correlate and adjust their data analysis accordingly. Furthermore, although the method has so far only been designed and tested for soft X-rays, Ilchen and his colleagues are optimistic that it could also be used for experiments using hard X-rays. “By reducing the wavelength of the optical laser, we could even resolve the few hundreds of attosecond broad spikes of the hard X-ray pulses here at the SASE 1 branch of European XFEL” Ilchen says.

    Time-resolved experiments

    During the experiment at SLAC the scientists also showed that it was even possible to use the acquired data to select pulses with exactly two intensity spikes with a variable time delay between them. This demonstrates the capability of FELs to enable time-resolved X-ray measurements attosecond to few femtosecond delay. “By determining the time duration and distance of those two spikes, we can sort our data for matching pulse properties and use them to understand how certain reactions and processes have progressed on an attosecond timescale” explains Ilchen. “Since our method gives us precise information about the pulse structure, we will be able to reliably reconstruct what is happening in our samples by producing a sequence of snapshots, so that much like a series of photographs pasted together makes a moving film sequence, we can make ‘movies’ of the reactions” he adds.

    From principle to proof

    Due to the limited pulse repetition rate currently available at most XFELs, however, moving from a proof-of-principle experiment to actually using specifically structured pulses for so-called pump-probe experiments requires a large leap of the imagination. European XFEL, however, already provides more pulses per second than other similar facilities, and will eventually provide 27,000 pulses per second, making the dream of attosecond time-resolved experiment a real possibility. “Although, currently, no machine in the world can provide attosecond X-ray pulses with variable time delay below the femtosecond regime in a controlled fashion,” says Ilchen, “the technologies available at European XFEL in combination with our method, could enable us to produce so much data that we can pick the pulse structures of interest and sort the rest out while still getting enough statistics for new scientific perspectives.”

    Further reading:

    News from SLAC – “Tick, Tock on the ‘Attoclock’: Tracking X-Ray Laser Pulses at Record Speeds

    Overview of options for generating high-brightness attosecond x-ray pulses at free-electron lasers and applications at the European XFEL
    S. Serkez et al., Journal of Optics, 9 Jan 2018 doi:10.1088/2040-8986/aa9f4f

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:37 pm on April 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Physics,   

    From LBNL: “Valleytronics Discovery Could Extend Limits of Moore’s Law” 

    Berkeley Logo

    Berkeley Lab

    April 13, 2018
    John German
    jdgerman@lbl.gov
    (510) 486-6601

    1
    Valleytronics utilizes different local energy extrema (valleys) with selection rules to store 0s and 1s. In SnS, these extrema have different shapes and responses to different polarizations of light, allowing the 0s and 1s to be directly recognized. This schematic illustrates the variation of electron energy in different states, represented by curved surfaces in space. The two valleys of the curved surface are shown. No image credit.

    Research appearing today in Nature Communications finds useful new information-handling potential in samples of tin(II) sulfide (SnS), a candidate “valleytronics” transistor material that might one day enable chipmakers to pack more computing power onto microchips.

    The research was led by Jie Yao of the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Shuren Lin of UC Berkeley’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering and included scientists from Singapore and China. The research team used the unique capabilities of Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science user facility.

    For several decades, improvements in conventional transistor materials have been sufficient to sustain Moore’s Law – the historical pattern of microchip manufacturers packing more transistors (and thus more information storage and handling capacity) into a given volume of silicon. Today, however, chipmakers are concerned that they might soon reach the fundamental limits of conventional materials. If they can’t continue to pack more transistors into smaller spaces, they worry that Moore’s Law would break down, preventing future circuits from becoming smaller and more powerful than their predecessors.

    That’s why researchers worldwide are on the hunt for new materials that can compute in smaller spaces, primarily by taking advantage of the additional degrees of freedom that the materials offer – in other words, using a material’s unique properties to perform more computations in the same space. Spintronics, for example, is a concept for transistors that harnesses the up and down spins of electrons in materials as the on/off transistor states.

    Valleytronics, another emerging approach, utilizes the highly selective response of candidate crystalline materials under specific illumination conditions to denote their on/off states – that is, using the materials’ band structures so that the information of 0s and 1s is stored in separate energy valleys of electrons, which are dependent on the crystal structures of the materials.

    In this new study, the research team has shown that tin(II) sulfide (SnS) is able to absorb different polarizations of light and then selectively reemit light of different colors at different polarizations. This is useful for concurrently accessing both the usual electronic and valleytronic degrees of freedom, which would substantially increase the computing power and data storage density of circuits made with the material.

    “We show a new material with distinctive energy valleys that can be directly identified and separately controlled,” said Yao. “This is important because it provides us a platform to understand how valley signatures are carried by electrons and how information can be easily stored and processed between the valleys, which are of both scientific and engineering significance.”

    Lin, the first author of the paper, said the material is different from previously investigated candidate valleytronics materials because it possesses such selectivity at room temperature without additional biases apart from the excitation light source, which alleviates the previously stringent requirements in controlling the valleys. Compared to its predecessor materials, SnS is also much easier to process.

    With this finding, researchers will be able to develop operational valleytronic devices, which may one day be integrated into electronic circuits. The unique coupling between light and valleys in this new material may also pave the way toward future hybrid electronic/photonic chips.

    Berkeley Lab’s “Beyond Moore’s Law” initiative leverages the basic science capabilities and unique user facilities of Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley to evaluate promising candidates for next-generation electronics and computing technologies. Its objective is to build close partnerships with industry to accelerate the time it typically takes to move from the discovery of a technology to its scale-up and commercialization.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California

    University of California Seal

    DOE Seal

     
  • richardmitnick 3:18 pm on April 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Physics, ,   

    From SLAC: “Scientists Use Machine Learning to Speed Discovery of Metallic Glass” 


    SLAC Lab

    April 13, 2018
    Glennda Chui

    1
    Fang Ren, who developed algorithms to analyze data on the fly while a postdoctoral scholar at SLAC, at a Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline where the system has been put to use. (Dawn Harmer/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    SLAC and its collaborators are transforming the way new materials are discovered. In a new report, they combine artificial intelligence and accelerated experiments to discover potential alternatives to steel in a fraction of the time.

    Blend two or three metals together and you get an alloy that usually looks and acts like a metal, with its atoms arranged in rigid geometric patterns.

    But once in a while, under just the right conditions, you get something entirely new: a futuristic alloy called metallic glass that’s amorphous, with its atoms arranged every which way, much like the atoms of the glass in a window. Its glassy nature makes it stronger and lighter than today’s best steel, plus it stands up better to corrosion and wear.

    Even though metallic glass shows a lot of promise as a protective coating and alternative to steel, only a few thousand of the millions of possible combinations of ingredients have been evaluated over the past 50 years, and only a handful developed to the point that they may become useful.

    Now a group led by scientists at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Northwestern University has reported a shortcut for discovering and improving metallic glass – and, by extension, other elusive materials – at a fraction of the time and cost.

    The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC’s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning – a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data – with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time.

    SLAC/SSRL

    This allowed the team to discover three new blends of ingredients that form metallic glass, and to do this 200 times faster than it could be done before, they reported today in Science Advances.

    2
    (Yvonne Tang/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    “It typically takes a decade or two to get a material from discovery to commercial use,” said Northwestern Professor Chris Wolverton, an early pioneer in using computation and AI to predict new materials and a co-author of the paper. “This is a big step in trying to squeeze that time down. You could start out with nothing more than a list of properties you want in a material and, using AI, quickly narrow the huge field of potential materials to a few good candidates.”

    The ultimate goal, he said, is to get to the point where a scientist could scan hundreds of sample materials, get almost immediate feedback from machine learning models and have another set of samples ready to test the next day – or even within the hour.

    Over the past half century, scientists have investigated about 6,000 combinations of ingredients that form metallic glass, added paper co-author Apurva Mehta, a staff scientist at SSRL: “We were able to make and screen 20,000 in a single year.”

    Just Getting Started

    While other groups have used machine learning to come up with predictions about where different kinds of metallic glass can be found, Mehta said, “The unique thing we have done is to rapidly verify our predictions with experimental measurements and then repeatedly cycle the results back into the next round of machine learning and experiments.”

    There’s plenty of room to make the process even speedier, he added, and eventually automate it to take people out of the loop altogether so scientists can concentrate on other aspects of their work that require human intuition and creativity. “This will have an impact not just on synchrotron users, but on the whole materials science and chemistry community,” Mehta said.

    The team said the method will be useful in all kinds of experiments, especially in searches for materials like metallic glass and catalysts whose performance is strongly influenced by the way they’re manufactured, and those where scientists don’t have theories to guide their search. With machine learning, no previous understanding is needed. The algorithms make connections and draw conclusions on their own, and this can steer research in unexpected directions.

    “One of the more exciting aspects of this is that we can make predictions so quickly and turn experiments around so rapidly that we can afford to investigate materials that don’t follow our normal rules of thumb about whether a material will form a glass or not,” said paper co-author Jason Hattrick-Simpers, a materials research engineer at NIST. “AI is going to shift the landscape of how materials science is done, and this is the first step.”

    Strength in Numbers

    The paper is the first scientific result associated with a DOE-funded pilot project where SLAC is working with a Silicon Valley AI company, Citrine Informatics, to transform the way new materials are discovered and make the tools for doing that available to scientists everywhere.

    Founded by former graduate students from Northwestern and Stanford University, Citrine has created a materials science data platform where data that had been locked away in published papers, spreadsheets and lab notebooks is stored in a consistent format so it can be analyzed with AI specifically designed for materials.

    “We want to take materials and chemical data and use them effectively to design new materials and optimize manufacturing,” said Greg Mulholland, founder and CEO of the company. “This is the power of artificial intelligence: As scientists generate more data, it learns alongside them, bringing hidden trends to the surface and allowing scientists to identify high-performance materials much faster and more effectively than relying on traditional, purely human-driven materials development.”

    Until recently, thinking up, making and assessing new materials was painfully slow. For instance, the authors of the metallic glass paper calculated that even if you could cook up and examine five potential types of metallic glass a day, every day of the year, it would take more than a thousand years to plow through every possible combination of metals. When they do discover a metallic glass, researchers struggle to overcome problems that hold these materials back. Some have toxic or expensive ingredients, and all of them share glass’s brittle, shatter-prone nature.

    Over the past decade, scientists at SSRL and elsewhere have developed ways to automate experiments so they can create and study more novel materials in less time. Today, some SSRL users can get a preliminary analysis of their data almost as soon as it comes out with AI software developed by SSRL in conjunction with Citrine and the CAMERA project at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    “With these automated systems we can analyze more than 2,000 samples per day,” said Fang Ren, the paper’s lead author, who developed algorithms to analyze data on the fly and coordinated their integration into the system while a postdoctoral scholar at SLAC.

    Experimenting with Data

    In the metallic glass study, the research team investigated thousands of alloys that each contain three cheap, nontoxic metals.

    They started with a trove of materials data dating back more than 50 years, including the results of 6,000 experiments that searched for metallic glass. The team combed through the data with advanced machine learning algorithms developed by Wolverton and graduate student Logan Ward at Northwestern.

    Based on what the algorithms learned in this first round, the scientists crafted two sets of sample alloys using two different methods, allowing them to test how manufacturing methods affect whether an alloy morphs into a glass.

    Both sets of alloys were scanned by an SSRL X-ray beam, the data fed into the Citrine database, and new machine learning results generated, which were used to prepare new samples that underwent another round of scanning and machine learning.

    By the experiment’s third and final round, Mehta said, the group’s success rate for finding metallic glass had increased from one out of 300 or 400 samples tested to one out of two or three samples tested. The metallic glass samples they identified represented three different combinations of ingredients, two of which had never been used to make metallic glass before.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    SLAC Campus
    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:31 am on April 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , NIF petawatt-class Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), Physics   

    From LLNL: “A powerful new source of high-energy protons” 

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    April 12, 2018
    Breanna Bishop
    bishop33@llnl.gov
    925-423-9802

    1
    Illustration of a typical experiment on high-energy, or fast, proton acceleration from a laser-irradiated solid target. Credit: Andrea Macchi, et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 85, No. 2, April–June 2013

    Nearly 20 years ago, researchers conducting experiments on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Nova Petawatt laser system — the world’s first quadrillion-watt laser — discovered that when the system’s intense short-pulse laser beams struck a thin foil target, an unexpected torrent of high-energy electrons and protons streamed off the back of the target.

    (LLNL) Nova Petawatt laser system

    Earlier this month, an international team of researchers used the Nova Petawatt’s successor, the National Ignition Facility’s (NIF) petawatt-class Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), to begin developing an experimental platform that promises to turn Nova’s surprise discovery into a powerful new source of protons to study the extreme conditions deep inside the planets and the stars, enhance targeted tumor therapy and advance the frontiers of high energy density (HED) science.

    LLNL National Ignition Facility’s (NIF) petawatt-class Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC)

    In two NIF Discovery Science experiments, the researchers fired four ARC beamlets at a 33-micron-thick titanium foil, setting up a strong electrostatic sheath field called a Target Normal Sheath Accelerating (TNSA) field perpendicular to the target (normal is a geometric term for perpendicular). As the field blew away from the back of the target, it accelerated high-energy protons and ions from the contamination layer of proton-rich hydrocarbons and water coating the target’s surface, all moving rapidly in the same direction.

    “The results were as good as we had hoped for,” said LLNL physicist Tammy Ma, the campaign’s principal investigator. “It was definitely a win. ARC is not as intense as a lot of other short-pulse lasers, so some in the community were concerned that the intensities might not be sufficient to generate these beams. But (the result) was more protons than we expected with energies approaching 20 MeV (million electron volts) — definitely a source that will enable other applications and cool physics.”

    In the experiments, two of NIF’s 192 beamlines were split to form the four short-pulse ARC beamlets. The beamlets were fired simultaneously for 10 or one picoseconds (trillionths of a second), generating up to 200 terawatts (trillion watts) of power per beamlet. The total of about 700 terawatts in the second experiment was the highest peak power yet generated on NIF.

    ARC’s high peak power is made possible by a process called chirped-pulse amplification, in which a short, broadband pulse generated by an oscillator is stretched in time to reduce its peak intensity, then amplified at intensities below the damage threshold in the laser amplifiers, and finally compressed to a short pulse and highest peak power in large compressor vessels.

    The new Discovery Science platform, supported by LLNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, is designed to study the physics of particle-beam generation at previously unexplored ultra-high short-pulse laser energies and long pulse durations. Coupled to NIF’s 1.8 million joules of ultraviolet energy, the capability will enable myriad HED applications and allow the creation and study of extreme states of matter.

    3
    After amplification in the NIF laser, the ARC beamlets are compressed in the Target Bay and focused to Target Chamber Center.

    NIF is the world’s only facility capable of achieving conditions like those in the interiors of stars and giant planets. Using ARC short-pulse generated proton beams for ultrafast heating of matter to extreme states will enable opacity and equation-of-state measurements at unprecedented energy-density states.

    In addition, “protons deposit their energy very specifically,” noted LLNL postdoc Derek Mariscal, lead experimentalist for the project. “That’s why protons are promising for applications such as tumor therapy. You can send a beam of protons toward a tumor and get it to deposit all of its energy exactly where you want it to without damaging other areas of the body.

    “Likewise with a solid material,” he said. “(The proton beam) deposits its energy where you want it to very quickly, so you can heat up a material really fast before it has time to hydrodynamically expand — your material stays dense, and that’s the name of the game — high energy, high density.”

    Once the proton-acceleration platform has been demonstrated and understood, Mariscal said, the next step in the project will be to fire the ARC beams at a deuterated carbon (CD) foil to generate a beam of deuterons. “You could impact those onto a second foil, like lithium fluoride or beryllium, and then you get a beam of neutrons — a real, laser-like neutron source, only using two beams of NIF instead of all 192.”

    Along with managing the project, Ma serves as the LLNL liaison with the collaborating institutions: the University of California, San Diego, General Atomics, Oxford University, the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of Alberta and Osaka University. Scott Wilks, who was a member of the team that discovered the TNSA process on the Nova Petawatt laser, is coordinating the theory and modeling effort.

    Other LLNL team members are Jackson Williams, Nuno Lemos, Hui Chen, Prav Patel, Bruce Remington, Andrew MacPhee, Andreas Kemp, Matt Mcmahon, Art Pak, Sasha Rubenchik, Max Tabak, Steve Hatchett (retired), Mark Sherlock, Andy Mackinnon, Anthony Link, Mark Hermann and Constantin Haefner.

    4
    Members of the ARC proton acceleration team outside the NIF Control Room: Front row, from left: Derek Mariscal (LLNL), Alessio Morace (Osaka University), Krish Bhutwala (UCSD), Tammy Ma (LLNL), Alex Savin (Oxford University), Chris McGuffey (UCSD), and Mingsheng Wei (GA). Back row: Graeme Scott (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), Joohwan Kim (UCSD), Mark Sherlock (LLNL), Scott Wilks (LLNL), Andreas Kemp (LLNL), Nuno Lemos (LLNL), Sasha Rubenchik (LLNL), Jackson Williams (LLNL), Chandra Curry (University of Alberta), Constantin Haefner (LLNL) and Max Tabak (LLNL). Not pictured: Bruce Remington, Hui Chen, Prav Patel, Matthew Mcmahon, Andrew MacPhee, Andy Mackinnon, Mark Hermann and Steve Hatchett (LLNL); Farhat Beg, Pierre Forestier-Colleoni, and Brandon Edghill (UCSD); Peter Norreys (Oxford University); Yasuhiko Sentoku and Natsumi Iwata (Osaka University); Shaun Kerr (University of Alberta); Alex Zylstra (LANL); David Neely (RAL); and Mario Manuel (GA). Credit: Jason Laurea

    The proton acceleration shots were among a weeklong series of Discovery Science experiments on NIF. Four other campaigns studied planar direct-drive hydrodynamics, the iron melt curve for studying magnetospheres and exoplanets, high-pressure compressed carbon and laser-driven magnetic field generation. Principal investigators for those experiments were Alexis Casner from the University of Bordeaux, Russell Hemley from the George Washington University and the Capital/DOE Alliance Center, Justin Wark from Oxford University and Brad Pollock from LLNL.

    -Charlie Osolin

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 8:58 am on April 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , First LHC test collisions of 2018, , , , Physics   

    From CERN: “First LHC collisions of 2018” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    12 Apr 2018
    Ana Lopes

    1
    A test collision recorded by the CMS experiment on 12 April 2018. The CMS collaboration uses these first collisions to prepare for data taking, fine-tuning and powering on various subsystems as needed. (Image: CERN)

    Proton slamming has resumed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Almost a fortnight after the collider began circulating proton beams for the first time in 2018, the machine’s operations team has today steered beams into collision. While these are only test collisions, they are an essential step along the way to serious data taking, which is expected to kick off in early May.

    Achieving first test collisions is anything but an easy job. It involves round-the-clock checking and rechecking of the thousands of systems that comprise the LHC. It includes ramping up the energy of each beam to the operating value of 6.5 TeV, checking the beams’ instrumentation and optics, testing electronic feedback systems, aligning jaw-like devices called collimators that close around the beams to absorb stray particles and, finally, focusing the beams to make them collide.

    Each beam consists of packets of protons called bunches. For these test collisions, each beam contains only two “nominal” bunches, each made up of 120 billion protons. This is far fewer than the 1200 bunches per beam that will mark the start of serious data taking and particle hunting. As the year progresses, the operations team will continue to increase the number of bunches in each beam, up to the maximum of 2556.

    With today’s test collisions, the teams of the experiments located at four collision points around the LHC ring (ALICE, LHCb, CMS and ATLAS) will now be able to check and calibrate their detectors. Stay tuned for the next steps.

    Beams are back in the LHC
    29 Mar 2018
    Corinne Pralavorio

    3
    View of the LHC in 2018, before the restart of the accelerato. (Image: Maximilien Brice, Julien Ordan/CERN)

    The Large Hadron Collider is back in business! On Friday 30 March, at 12:17 pm, protons circulated in the 27-km ring for the first time in 2018. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator thus entered its seventh year of data taking and its fourth year at 13 TeV collision energy.

    Restarting an accelerator involves much more than just flicking a switch, especially as the LHC is the final link in an accelerator chain comprising five separate machines. Following the winter break, which enabled teams to carry out a whole host of maintenance operations, the machine operators gradually have brought the infrastructures and accelerators back on line. At the beginning of March, the first protons were extracted from their hydrogen bottle and injected into the Linac2, and then into the PS Booster. On 8 March, it was the turn of the Proton Synchrotron (PS) to receive beams, and then, a week later, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    4
    Applause in the CERN Control Centre after the beam makes a first turn of the LHC loop. Sitting, the operators in charge of restarting the accelerator. Standing behind them, from left to right, Rende Steerenberg, Head of Operation, Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, Rossano Giachino, from the LHC operation team, and Jörg Wenninger, in charge of the LHC operation team. (Image: CERN)

    In parallel, the teams have been checking all the LHC hardware, such as the cryogenic cooling systems, the radiofrequency cavities (which accelerate the particles), the power supplies, the magnets, the vacuum system and the safety installations. For example, no fewer than 1 560 electrical circuits had to be powered and about 10 000 tests performed. Only once all these tests had been completed could particles be injected into the LHC.

    Even so, commissioning is far from over. The first beams circulating only have one bunch of particles, which contains 20 times fewer protons than in normal operation. And their energy is limited to the injection energy of 450 GeV. Further adjustments and tests will be needed over the coming days before the energy and the number of bunches in each beam can be increased and the bunches squeezed to produce first collisions. Physics operation should start in May.

    The operation objective for 2018 is to accumulate more data than in 2017: the target is 60 inverse femtobarns (fb-1) of integrated luminosity (against 50 fb-1 in 2017). Luminosity is a measurement of the number of potential collisions per surface unit in a given period of time.

    5
    “LHC page 1” shows the status of the LHC on 30 March. The blue line on the right of the screen indicates the first beam circulating in the LHC in 2018. (Image: CERN)

    While we await collisions in the LHC, data taking is already starting elsewhere. CERN’s accelerators provide particles for a diverse array of experiments. The PS has already started supplying beams to the nuclear physics facility n_TOF and to the experiments in the East Hall. The nuclear physics programme at ISOLDE should start up on 9 April, while the Antiproton decelerator should start again in the second half of April.

    2018 is an important year for the collaborations using CERN’s accelerators, as it will be the last year of Run 2. In December, the accelerator complex will be shut down for two years of upgrade work aimed at improving performance further still and preparing for the High-Luminosity LHC.

    Accelerator hibernation ends

    9 Mar 2018
    Achintya Rao

    Today, 9 March, marks the end of CERN’s annual winter shut down. The Laboratory’s massive accelerator complex will soon begin to lumber out of its winter hibernation and resume accelerating and colliding particles.

    But while the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has not been filled with protons since the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) began on 4 December 2017, its tunnels and experimental caverns have been packed with people performing maintenance and repairs as well as testing components for future accelerators.

    Today, CERN’s Engineering department hands the accelerator complex back to the Beams department, who will commence hardware commissioning for 2018. This commissioning will culminate in the restart of the LHC, planned for early April.

    See the full article and following articles here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 12:43 pm on April 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Physics, ,   

    From U Washington via UC Berkeley: “Start of most sensitive search yet for dark matter axion” 

    U Washington

    University of Washington

    UC Berkeley

    UC Berkeley

    April 9, 2018
    Robert Sanders
    rlsanders@berkeley.edu

    1
    The SQUID-based amplifier, which is about a millimeter square, is supercooled to be sensitive to faint signals from axions, should they convert into a microwave photon in the ADMX detector. Sean O’Kelley image

    Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at UC Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today’s top candidates for dark matter.

    The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) reported results today showing that it is the world’s first and only experiment to have achieved the necessary sensitivity to “hear” the telltale signs of dark matter axions.

    The milestone is the result of more than 30 years of research and development, with the latest piece of the puzzle coming in the form of a quantum device that allows ADMX to listen for axions more closely than any experiment ever built.

    John Clarke, a professor of physics in the graduate school at UC Berkeley and a pioneer in the development of sensitive magnetic detectors called SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), developed the amplifier two decades ago. ADMX scientists, with Clarke’s input, have now incorporated it into the ADMX detector at the University of Washington, Seattle, and are ready to roll.

    “ADMX is a complicated and quite expensive piece of machinery, so it took a while to build a suitable detector so that they could put the SQUID amplifier on it and demonstrate that it worked as advertised. Which it did,” Clarke said.

    The ADMX team published their results online today in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    “This result signals the start of the true hunt for axions,” said Andrew Sonnenschein at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, the operations manager for ADMX. “If dark matter axions exist within the frequency band we will be probing for the next few years, then it’s only a matter of time before we find them.”

    Dark matter: MACHOs, WIMPs or axions?

    U Washington ADMX cutaway rendering of the ADMX detector

    Dark matter is the missing 84 percent of matter in the universe, and physicists have looked extensively for many possible candidates, most prominently massive compact halo objects, or MACHOs, and weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. Despite decades of searching for MACHOs and WIMPs, scientists have struck out; they can see the effects of dark matter in the universe, in how galaxies and stars within galaxies move, but they can’t see dark matter itself.

    Axions are becoming the favored alternative, in part because their existence would also solve problems with the standard model of particle physics today, including the fact that the neutron should have an electric dipole moment, but doesn’t.

    Like other dark-matter candidates, axions are everywhere but difficult to detect. Because they interact with ordinary matter so rarely, they stream through space, even passing through the Earth, without “touching” ordinary matter. ADMX employs a strong magnetic field and a tuned, reflective box to encourage axions to convert to microwave-frequency photons, and uses the quantum amplifier to “listen” for them. All this is done at the lowest possible temperature to reduce background noise.

    Clarke learned of a key stumbling block for ADMX in 1994, when meeting with physicist Leslie Rosenberg, now a professor at the University of Washington and chief scientist for ADMX, and Karl van Bibber, now chair of UC Berkeley’s Department of Nuclear Engineering. Because the axion signal would be very faint, any detector would have to be very cold and “quiet.” Noise from heat, or thermal radiation, is easy to eliminate by cooling the detector down to 0.1 Kelvin, or roughly 460 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. But eliminating the noise from standard semiconductor transistor amplifiers proved difficult.

    They asked Clarke, would SQUID amplifiers solve this problem?

    Supercold amplifiers lower noise to absolute limit

    Though he had built SQUID amplifiers that worked up to 100 MHz frequencies, none worked at the gigahertz frequencies needed, so he set to work to build one. By 1998, he and his collaborators had solved the problem, thanks in large part to initial funding from the National Science Foundation and subsequent funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The amplifiers on ADMX were funded by DOE through the University of Washington.


    Listening for dark matter: How ADMX employs cold cavities and SQUID amplifiers to find the elusive axion. Courtesy of University of Washington, Seattle.

    Clarke and his group showed that, cooled to temperatures of tens of milliKelvin above absolute zero, the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier (MSA) could achieve a noise that was quantum limited, that is, limited only by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle.

    “You can’t do better than that,” Clarke said.

    This much quieter technology, combined with the refrigeration unit, reduced the noise by a factor of about 30 at 600 MHz so that a signal from the axion, if there is one, should come through loud and clear. The MSA currently in operation on ADMX was fabricated by Gene Hilton at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, and tested, calibrated and packaged by Sean O’Kelley, a graduate student in Clarke’s research group at UC Berkeley.

    The ADMX team plans to slowly tune through millions of frequencies in hopes of hearing a clear tone from photons produced by axion decay.

    “This result plants a flag,” said Rosenberg. “It tells the world that we have the sensitivity, and have a very good shot at finding the axion. No new technology is needed. We don’t need a miracle anymore, we just need the time.”

    Clarke noted too that the high-frequency, low-noise quantum SQUID amplifiers he invented for ADMX have since been employed in another hot area of physics, to read out the superconducting quantum bits, or qubits, for quantum computers of the future.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Founded in the wake of the gold rush by leaders of the newly established 31st state, the University of California’s flagship campus at Berkeley has become one of the preeminent universities in the world. Its early guiding lights, charged with providing education (both “practical” and “classical”) for the state’s people, gradually established a distinguished faculty (with 22 Nobel laureates to date), a stellar research library, and more than 350 academic programs.

    UC Berkeley Seal

    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.

    So what defines us — the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: