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  • richardmitnick 3:37 pm on September 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Physics Illinois, University of Illinois team finds Wigner crystal—not Mott insulator—in 'magic-angle' graphene   

    From University of Illinois Physics: “University of Illinois team finds Wigner crystal—not Mott insulator—in ‘magic-angle’ graphene” 

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    From University of Illinois Physics

    U Illinois Physics bloc

    9/24/2018
    Siv Schwink

    Recently, a team of scientists led by Pablo Jarillo-Herrero at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created a huge stir in the field of condensed matter physics when they showed that two sheets of graphene twisted at specific angles—dubbed “magic-angle” graphene—display two emergent phases of matter not observed in single sheets of graphene. Graphene is a honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms—it’s essentially a one-atom-thick layer of graphite, the dark, flaky material in pencils.

    In two articles published online in March 2018 and appearing in the April 5, 2018 issue of the journal Nature, the team reported the twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) exhibits an unconventional superconducting phase, akin to what is seen in high-temperature superconducting cuprates. This phase is obtained by doping (injecting electrons into) an insulating state, which the MIT group interpreted as an example of Mott insulation. A joint team of scientists at UCSB and Columbia University has reproduces the remarkable MIT results. The discovery holds promise for the eventual development of room-temperature superconductors and a host of other equally groundbreaking applications.

    Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have recently shown that the insulating behavior reported by the MIT team has been misattributed. Professor Philip Phillips, a noted expert in the physics of Mott insulators, says a careful review of the MIT experimental data by his team revealed that the insulating behavior of the “magic-angle” graphene is not Mott insulation, but something even more profound—a Wigner crystal.

    “People have been looking for clear examples of Wigner crystals since Wigner first predicted them in the 1930s,” Phillips asserts. “I think this is even more exciting than if it were a Mott insulator.”

    Lead author of the U of I study, graduate student Bikash Padhi, explains, “When one sheet of graphene is twisted on top of another, moiré patterns emerge as a result of the offset in the honeycomb structure. By artificially injecting electrons into these sheets, the MIT group obtained novel phases of matter which can be understood by studying these extra electrons on the bed of this moiré pattern. By increasing the electron density, the MIT group observed an insulating state when 2 and 3 electrons reside in a moiré unit cell. They argued this behavior is an example of Mott physics.”

    Why can’t it be Mott physics?

    1
    Proposed Wigner crystals for magic-angle bilayer graphene. In Figure A, the criterion for observing this lattice structure is not satisfied experimentally, resulting in metallic transport when a single electron occupies a moiré cell. Figures B and C show the insulating state, explaining the experimental observation when 2 or 3 electrons are in a moiré cell. Credit: Philip Phillips, University of Illinois at Ubana-Champaign

    Phillips explains, “Mott insulators are a class of materials that should be conductive if electronic interactions are not taken into account, but once that’s taken into account, are insulating instead. There are two primary reasons why we suspect the tBLG does not form a Mott insulator—the observed metal-insulator transition offers only one characteristic energy scale, whereas conventional Mott insulators are described by two scales. Next, in the MIT report, in contrast to what one expects for a Mott system, there was no insulator when there was only 1 electron per unit cell. This is fundamentally inconsistent with Mottness.”

    The accompanying figure displays the crystalline states that explain this data.

    What is a Wigner crystal?

    2
    Zorbing, rolling and bouncing in an inflated transparent ball, has become popular around the world. Bikash Pahdi, a University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign graduate student in theoretical condensed matter physics, compares Wigner crystallization to swelling zorbs in a closed field, where the zorb passengers are electrons and the zorb itself is measure of each electron’s repulsion to other electrons. Credit: Username:Rodw/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

    To understand Wigner crystals, Padhi offers this analogy: “Imagine a group of people each inside a large orb and running around in a closed room. If this orb is small they can move freely but as it grows bigger one may collide more frequently than before and eventually there might be a point when all of them are stuck at their positions since any small movement will be immediately prevented by the next person. This is basically what a crystal is. The people here are electrons, and the orb is a measure of their repulsion.”

    Phillips credits Padhi with providing the impetus for the study.

    These results were pre-published online in the journal Nano Letters in the article, Doped Twisted Bilayer Graphene near Magic Angles: Proximity to Wigner Crystallization not Mott Insulation, on September 5, 2018, with the final official redaction to be included in the journal’s October 2018 issue.

    This research was funded by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, a Department of Energy–funded Energy Frontier Research Center, and by the National Science Foundation. The conclusions presented are those of the researchers and not necessarily those of the funding agencies.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Illinois campus

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign community of students, scholars, and alumni is changing the world.

    With our land-grant heritage as a foundation, we pioneer innovative research that tackles global problems and expands the human experience. Our transformative learning experiences, in and out of the classroom, are designed to produce alumni who desire to make a significant, societal impact.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on April 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Majorana fermion science, , Physics Illinois, , , , Topological quantum computation,   

    From Physics Illinois: “Topological insulator �flips� for superconductivity” 

    U Illinois bloc

    Physics Illinois

    U Illinois Physics bloc

    4/27/2018
    Siv Schwink

    Topology meets superconductivity through innovative reverse-order sample preparation.

    1
    (L-R) Professor of Physics James Eckstein, his graduate student Yang Bai, and Professor of Physics Tai-Chang Chiang pose in front of the atomic layer by layer molecular beam epitaxy system used to grow the topological insulator thin-film samples for this study, in the Eckstein laboratory at the University of Illinois. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    A groundbreaking sample preparation technique has enabled researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of Tokyo to perform the most controlled and sensitive study to date of a topological insulator (TI) closely coupled to a superconductor (SC). The scientists observed the superconducting proximity effect—induced superconductivity in the TI due to its proximity to the SC—and measured its relationship to temperature and the thickness of the TI.

    TIs with induced superconductivity are of paramount interest to physicists because they have the potential to host exotic physical phenomena, including the elusive Majorana fermion—an elementary particle theorized to be its own antiparticle—and to exhibit supersymmetry—a phenomenon reaching beyond the standard model that would shed light on many outstanding problems in physics. Superconducting TIs also hold tremendous promise for technological applications, including topological quantum computation and spintronics.

    Naturally occurring topological superconductors are rare, and those that have been investigated have exhibited extremely small superconducting gaps and very low transition temperatures, limiting their usefulness for uncovering the interesting physical properties and behaviors that have been theorized.

    TIs have been used in engineering superconducting topological superconductors (TI/SC), by growing TIs on a superconducting substrate. Since their experimental discovery in 2007, TIs have intrigued condensed matter physicists, and a flurry of theoretical and experimental research taking place around the globe has explored the quantum-mechanical properties of this extraordinary class of materials. These 2D and 3D materials are insulating in their bulk, but conduct electricity on their edges or outer surfaces via special surface electronic states which are topologically protected, meaning they can’t be easily destroyed by impurities or imperfections in the material.

    But engineering such TI/SC systems via growing TI thin films on superconducting substrates has also proven challenging, given several obstacles, including lattice structure mismatch, chemical reactions and structural defects at the interface, and other as-yet poorly understood factors.

    2
    The �flip-chip� cleavage-based sample preparation: (A) A photo and a schematic diagram of assembled Bi2Se3(0001)/Nb sample structure before cleavage. (B) Same sample structure after cleavage exposing a �fresh� surface of the Bi2Se3 film with a pre-determined thickness. Image courtesy of James Eckstein and Tai-Chang-Chiang, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory.

    Now, a novel sample-growing technique developed at the U. of I. has overcome these obstacles. Developed by physics professor James Eckstein in collaboration with physics professor Tai-Chang Chiang, the new “flip-chip” TI/SC sample-growing technique allowed the scientists to produce layered thin-films of the well-studied TI bismuth selenide on top of the prototypical SC niobium—despite their incompatible crystalline lattice structures and the highly reactive nature of niobium.

    These two materials taken together are ideal for probing fundamental aspects of the TI/SC physics, according to Chiang: “This is arguably the simplest example of a TI/SC in terms of the electronic and chemical structures. And the SC we used has the highest transition temperature among all elements in the periodic table, which makes the physics more accessible. This is really ideal; it provides a simpler, more accessible basis for exploring the basics of topological superconductivity,” Chiang comments.

    The method allows for very precise control over sample thickness, and the scientists looked at a range of 3 to 10 TI layers, with 5 atomic layers per TI layer. The team’s measurements showed that the proximity effect induces superconductivity into both the bulk states and the topological surface states of the TI films. Chiang stresses, what they saw gives new insights into superconducting pairing of the spin-polarized topological surface states.

    “The results of this research are unambiguous. We see the signal clearly,” Chiang sums up. “We investigated the superconducting gap as a function of TI film thickness and also as a function of temperature. The results are pretty simple: the gap disappears as you go above niobium’s transition temperature. That’s good—it’s simple. It shows the physics works. More interesting is the dependence on the thickness of the film. Not surprisingly, we see the superconducting gap reduces for increasing TI film thickness, but the reduction is surprisingly slow. This observation raises an intriguing question regarding how the pairing at the film surface is induced by coupling at the interface.”

    Chiang credits Eckstein with developing the ingenious sample preparation method. It involves assembling the sample in reverse order, on top of a sacrificial substrate of aluminum oxide, commonly known as the mineral sapphire. The scientists are able to control the specific number of layers of TI crystals grown, each of quintuple atomic thickness. Then a polycrystalline superconducting layer of niobium is sputter-deposited on top of the TI film. The sample is then flipped over and the sacrificial layer that had served as the substrate is dislodged by striking a “cleavage pin.” The layers are cleaved precisely at the interface of the TI and aluminum oxide.

    3
    A close-up shot of the atomic layer by layer molecular beam epitaxy system used to grow the topological insulator thin-film samples for this study, located in the Eckstein laboratory at the University of Illinois. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Eckstein explains, “The ‘flip-chip’ technique works because the layers aren’t strongly bonded—they are like a stack of paper, where there is strength in the stack, but you can pull apart the layers easily. Here, we have a triangular lattice of atoms, which comes in packages of five—these layers are strongly bonded. The next five layers sit on top, but are weakly bonded to the first five. It turns out, the weakest link is right at the substrate-TI interface. When cleaved, this method gives a pure surface, with no contamination from air exposure.”

    The cleavage was performed in an ultrahigh vacuum, within a highly sensitive instrument at the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo capable of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) at a range of temperatures.

    Chiang acknowledges, “The superconducting features occur at very small energy scales—it requires a very high energy resolution and very low temperatures. This portion of the experiment was completed by our colleagues in the University of Tokyo, where they have the instruments with the sensitivity to get the resolution we need for this kind of study. We couldn’t have done this without this international collaboration.”

    “This new sample preparation method opens up many new avenues in research, in terms of exotic physics, and, in the long term, in terms of possible useful applications—potentially even including building a better superconductor. It will allow preparation of samples using a wide range of other TIs and SCs. It could also be useful in miniaturization of electronic devices, and in spintronic computing, which would require less energy in terms of heat dissipation,” Chiang concludes.

    Eckstein adds, “There is a lot of excitement about this. If we can make a superconducting TI, theoretical predictions tell us that we could find a new elementary excitation that would make an ideal topological quantum bit, or qubit. We’re not there yet, and there are still many things to worry about. But it would be a qubit whose quantum mechanical wave function would be less susceptible to local perturbations that might cause dephasing, messing up calculations.”

    These findings were published online on 27 April 2018 in the journal Science Advances.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Illinois campus

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign community of students, scholars, and alumni is changing the world.

    With our land-grant heritage as a foundation, we pioneer innovative research that tackles global problems and expands the human experience. Our transformative learning experiences, in and out of the classroom, are designed to produce alumni who desire to make a significant, societal impact.

     
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