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  • richardmitnick 7:51 am on October 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Researchers detect the first definitive proof of elusive sea level fingerprints", , ,   

    From Harvard University Via “phys.org” : “Researchers detect the first definitive proof of elusive sea level fingerprints” 

    From Harvard University

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.29.22

    1
    Photo of a glacier. Credit: Kenichiro Tani.

    2
    The Greenland Ice Sheet provided scientists with the evidence they needed to prove sea level fingerprints do exist.
    Photo by Matthew Hoffman.

    When ice sheets melt, something strange and highly counterintuitive happens to sea levels.

    It works basically like a seesaw. In the area close to where theses masses of glacial ice melt, ocean levels fall. Yet thousands of miles away, they actually rise. It largely happens because of the loss of a gravitational pull toward the ice sheet, causing the water to disperse away. The patterns have come to be known as “sea level fingerprints” since each melting glacier or ice sheet uniquely impacts sea level. Elements of the concept—which lies at the heart of the understanding that global sea levels don’t rise uniformly—have been around for over a century and modern sea level science has been built around it. But there’s long been a hitch to the widely accepted theory. A sea level fingerprint has never definitively been detected by researchers.

    A team of scientists—led by Harvard alumna Sophie Coulson and featuring Harvard geophysicist Jerry X. Mitrovica—believe they have detected the first. The findings are described in a new study published Thursday in Science [below]. The work validates almost a century of sea level science and helps solidify confidence in models predicting future sea level rise.


    Melting of the greenland ice sheet is accelerating

    “Ocean level projections, urban and coastal planning—all of it—has been built on the idea of fingerprints,” said Mitrovica, the Frank B. Baird Jr. Professor of Science in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. “That’s why fingerprints are so important. They allow you to estimate what the geometry of the sea level changes is going to be like… so we now have much more confidence in how sea level changes are going to evolve…. If fingerprint physics wasn’t correct, then we’d have to rethink all modern sea level research.”

    Sea level fingerprints have been notoriously difficult to detect because of the major fluctuations in ocean levels brought on by changing tides, currents, and winds. What makes it such a conundrum is that researchers are trying to detect millimeter level motions of the water and link them to melting glaciers thousands of miles away.

    Mitrovica compared the search to the one for the subatomic particle the Higgs Boson.

    “Almost all physicists thought that the Higgs existed, but it was nevertheless a transformative accomplishment when it was firmly detected,” Mitrovica said. “In sea level physics, almost everyone assumed that the fingerprints existed, but they had never been detected at a comparable level of confidence.”

    The new study uses newly released satellite data from a European marine monitoring agency that captures over 30 years of observations in the vicinity of the Greenland Ice Sheet and much of the ocean close to the middle of Greenland to capture the seesaw in ocean levels from the fingerprint.

    The satellite data caught the eye of Mitrovica and colleague David Sandwell of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Typically, satellite records from this region had only extended up to the southern tip of Greenland, but in this new release the data reached ten degrees higher in latitude, allowing them to eyeball a potential hint of the seesaw caused by the fingerprint.

    Mitrovica quickly turned to Coulson, a former Ph.D. student in Mitrovica’s lab and now postdoctoral fellow at The DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory, to verify if this was truly the fingerprint signal sea level scientists had been chasing for decades.

    “She was the best person to … accurately model what the fingerprint would look like given our understanding of how the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass, and she could establish whether that prediction matched the satellite observation,” Mitrovica said.

    Coulson, an expert in modeling sea level change and crustal deformation associated with melting of ice sheets and glaciers, was visiting family in the U.K. when the datasets hit her inbox. She immediately recognized the potential, she said.

    Coulson quickly collected three decades worth of the best observations she could find on ice height change within the Greenland Ice Sheet as well as reconstructions of glacier height change across the Canadian Arctic and Iceland. She combined these different datasets to create predictions of sea level change in the region from 1993 to 2019, which she then compared with the new satellite data. The fit was perfect. A one-to-one match that showed with more than 99.9% confidence that the pattern of sea level change revealed by the satellites is a fingerprint of the melting ice sheet.

    “I was completely amazed, there it was—a sea level fingerprint, proof of their existence,” Coulson said. “This was a really, really exciting moment for all of us. There are very few moments in science which provide such simple, remarkable clarity on complex earth processes.”

    “This work, led so remarkably by Sophie, is one of the highlights of my career, a book end to all the theoretical and computational work we’ve built with a community of international colleagues,” added Mitrovica, who’s group was the first to present models and predictions of what sea level fingerprints should look like.

    Scientific research usually takes years to develop the results and then get drafted into a paper, but here the researchers were able to act quickly. In total, the process took only a few months from when they saw the satellite data to when they submitted the piece.

    That’s because the bulk of the legwork was already done. Much of the theory, technology, and methods had all been well developed already and advanced since Mitrovica and his team presented their work on sea level fingerprints about 20 years ago—computations which were widely accepted and have been factored into almost all models predicting sea level rise.

    “This was high risk, high reward science and no-one expected a detection this quickly. We benefited an incredible amount from the groups supporting us, notably the Star-Friedman Challenge,” Mitrovica said.

    Now that the first sea level fingerprint has been detected, the question with the biggest global implications is now where does this all leads.

    “More detections will come,” Mitrovica said. “Soon the full power of fingerprint physics will be available to project sea level changes into the next decade, century, and beyond.”

    Science paper:
    Science

    See the full article here .

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    Harvard University campus

    Harvard University is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s best known landmark.

    Harvard University has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

    The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard University’s founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard University (US) had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot’s long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he liberalized admissions after the war.

    The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area. Harvard University’s endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.

    Harvard University has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni also include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

    Colonial

    Harvard University was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America’s first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge (UK) who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

    A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.” It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard University has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

    Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

    19th century

    In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.

    Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

    20th century

    In the 20th century, Harvard University’s reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard University became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.

    The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians.” A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories.

    President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard University’s preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.

    Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.

    Harvard University’s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard University professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard University classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard University has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard University.

    21st century

    Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard University’s first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:47 pm on September 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Exploring a new algorithm for reconstructing particles", "phys.org", , , , , , , ,   

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Via phys.org : “Exploring a new algorithm for reconstructing particles” 


    Cern New Particle Event

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN]

    Via

    phys.org

    9.28.22

    Fig. 1
    1
    Schematic representation of the right-handed Cartesian coordinate system adopted to describe the detector. Credit: The European Physical Journal C (2022).

    Fig. 2
    2
    Left: schematic representation of the detector longitudinal sampling structure. Right: transverse view of the last active layer. Different colors represent different materials: copper (orange), stainless steel and lead (gray), air (white) and active sensors made of silicon (black)

    There are more instructive images in the science paper.

    A team of researchers from CERN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Staffordshire University have implemented a new algorithm for reconstructing particles at the Large Hadron Collider.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built which sits in a tunnel 100 meters underground at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, near Geneva in Switzerland. It is the site of long-running experiments which enable physicists worldwide to learn more about the nature of the universe.

    The project is part of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment [below] —one of seven installed experiments which uses detectors to analyze the particles produced by collisions in the accelerator.

    The subject of a new academic paper published in European Physical Journal C [below], the project has been carried out ahead of the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider.

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project aims to crank up the performance of the LHC in order to increase the potential for discoveries after 2029. The HL-LHC will increase the number of proton-proton interactions in an event from 40 to 200.

    Professor Raheel Nawaz, Pro Vice-Chancellor for Digital Transformation, at Staffordshire University, has supervised the research. He explained that “limiting the increase of computing resource consumption at large pileups is a necessary step for the success of the HL-LHC physics program and we are advocating the use of modern machine learning techniques to perform particle reconstruction as a possible solution to this problem.”

    He added that “this project has been both a joy and a privilege to work on and is likely to dictate the future direction of research on particle reconstruction by using a more advanced AI-based solution.”

    Dr. Jan Kieseler from the Experimental Physics Department at CERN added that “this is the first single-shot reconstruction of about 1,000 particles from and in an unprecedentedly challenging environment with 200 simultaneous interactions each proton-proton collision. Showing that this novel approach, combining dedicated graph neural network layers (GravNet) and training methods (Object Condensation), can be extended to such challenging tasks while staying within resource constraints represents an important milestone towards future particle reconstruction.”

    Shah Rukh Qasim, leading this project as part of his Ph.D. at CERN and Manchester Metropolitan University, says that “the amount of progress we have made on this project in the last three years is truly remarkable. It was hard to imagine we would reach this milestone when we started.”

    Professor Martin Jones, Vice-Chancellor and Chief Executive at Staffordshire University, added that “CERN is one of the world’s most respected centers for scientific research and I congratulate the researchers on this project which is effectively paving the way for even greater discoveries in years to come.”

    “Artificial Intelligence is continuously evolving to benefit many different industries and to know that academics at Staffordshire University and elsewhere are contributing to the research behind such advancements is both exciting and significant.”

    Science paper:
    European Physical Journal C

    See the full article here.


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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier


    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    ALICE

    CMS

    LHCb

    LHC

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    3D cut of the LHC dipole CERN LHC underground tunnel and tube.

    CERN SixTrack LHC particles.

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AEGIS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA Antimatter Factory.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA-g Detector.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AMS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ASACUSA.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ATRAP.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Antiproton Decelerator.


    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE instrument.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] [CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CAST Axion Solar Telescope.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CLOUD.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] COMPASS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CRIS experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] DIRAC.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] FASER experiment schematic.

    CERN FASER is designed to study the interactions of high-energy neutrinos and search for new as-yet-undiscovered light and weakly interacting particles. Such particles are dominantly produced along the beam collision axis and may be long-lived particles, travelling hundreds of metres before decaying. The existence of such new particles is predicted by many models beyond the Standard Model that attempt to solve some of the biggest puzzles in physics, such as the nature of dark matter and the origin of neutrino masses.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] GBAR.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ISOLDE Looking down into the ISOLDE experimental hall.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] LHCf.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The MoEDAL experiment- a new light on the high-energy frontier.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA62.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA64.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] n_TOF.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] TOTEM.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] UA9.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The SPS’s new RF system.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Proto Dune.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] HiRadMat-High Radiation to Materials.

    1
    The SND@LHC experiment consists of an emulsion/tungsten target for neutrinos (yellow) interleaved with electronic tracking devices (grey), followed downstream by a detector (brown) to identify muons and measure the energy of the neutrinos. (Image: Antonio Crupano/SND@LHC)

     
  • richardmitnick 8:01 pm on September 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Team designs system to create bioplastics", , , , , In the first unit electricity converts the carbon dioxide to ethanol and other two-carbon molecules—a process called electrocatalysis., In the second unit the bacteria consume the ethanol and carbon molecules to become a machine to produce bioplastics., , The research addresses two challenges: the accumulation of nondegradable plastics and the remediation of greenhouse gas emissions., Using CO2 as a feedstock for bacteria to grow in a nutrient solution and produce bioplastics   

    From Texas A&M University Via phys.org : “Team designs system to create bioplastics” 

    From Texas A&M University

    Via

    phys.org

    9.28.22
    Helen White

    1
    Graphical abstract. Credit: Chem (2022).

    A team of Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists has developed a system that uses carbon dioxide-CO2-to produce biodegradable plastics, or bioplastics, that could replace the nondegradable plastics used today. The research addresses two challenges: the accumulation of nondegradable plastics and the remediation of greenhouse gas emissions.

    Published Sept. 28 in Chem [below], the research was a collaboration of Susie Dai, Ph.D., associate professor in the Texas A&M Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, and Joshua Yuan, Ph.D., formerly with the Texas A&M Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology as chair for synthetic biology and renewable products and now Lopata professor and chair in the Washington University in St. Louis Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering.

    Creating bioplastics

    Dai said today’s petroleum-based plastics do not degrade easily and create a massive issue in the ecosystems and, ultimately, oceans.

    To address these issues, the Texas A&M College of Agriculture and Life Sciences researchers and their teams worked for almost two years to develop an integrated system that uses CO2 as a feedstock for bacteria to grow in a nutrient solution and produce bioplastics. Peng Zhang, Ph.D., postdoctoral research associate, and Kainan Chen, doctoral student, both in the Texas A&M Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, contributed to the work. The Texas A&M University System has filed a patent application for the integrated system.

    “Carbon dioxide has been used in concert with bacteria to produce many chemicals, including bioplastics, but this design produces a highly efficient, smooth flow through our carbon dioxide-to-bioplastics pipeline,” Dai said.

    “In theory, it is kind of like a train with units connected to each other,” Dai said. “The first unit uses electricity to convert the carbon dioxide to ethanol and other two-carbon molecules—a process called electrocatalysis. In the second unit the bacteria consume the ethanol and carbon molecules to become a machine to produce bioplastics, which are different from petroleum-based plastic polymers that are harder to degrade.”

    Capturing and re-using CO2 waste

    Using CO2 in the process could also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Many manufacturing processes emit CO2 as a waste product.

    “If we can capture the waste carbon dioxide, we reduce greenhouse gas emission and can use it as a feedstock to produce something,” Dai said. “This new platform has great potential to address sustainability challenges and transform the future design of carbon dioxide reduction.”

    The major strength of the new platform is a much faster reaction rate than photosynthesis and higher energy efficiency.

    “We are expanding the capacity of this platform to broad product areas such as fuels, commodity chemicals and diverse materials,” Dai said. “The study demonstrated the blueprint for ‘decarbonized biomanufacturing’ that could transform our manufacturing sector.”

    Expanding future impacts

    Dai said currently, bioplastics are more expensive than petroleum-based plastics. But if the technology is successful enough to produce bioplastics at an economic scale, industries could replace traditional plastic products with ones that have fewer negative environmental impacts. In addition, mitigating CO2 emissions from energy sectors such as gas and electric facilities would also be a benefit.

    “This innovation opens the door for new products if the bacterium is engineered to consume carbon dioxide-derived molecules and produce target products,” Dai said. “One of the advantages of this design is the condition the bacteria grow in is mild and adaptable to industry-scale conditions.”

    Science paper:
    Chem

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Texas A&M University is a public land-grant research university in College Station, Texas. It was founded in 1876 and became the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System in 1948. As of 2020, Texas A&M’s student body is the second largest in the United States. Texas A&M’s designation as a land, sea, and space grant institution—the only university in Texas to hold all three designations—reflects a range of research with ongoing projects funded by organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health , the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities . The school’s students, alumni—over 500,000 strong—and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference.

    The first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876, as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas under the provisions of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. Originally, the college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages, literature, and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in scientific agriculture, civil and mechanical engineering, and language and literature. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A.M.C. desegregated, became coeducational, and dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution’s expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963. The letters “A&M”, originally A.M.C. and short for “Agricultural and Mechanical College”, are retained as a link to the university’s tradition.

    The main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres (21 km^2), and is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has more than 1,000 officially recognized student organizations. Many students also observe the traditions, which govern daily life, as well as special occasions, including sports events. Working with various A&M-related agencies, the school has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes.

    As a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets who study alongside civilian undergraduate students.

    Research

    The Texas A&M University System, in 2006, was the first to explicitly state in its policy that technology commercialization was a criterion that could be used for tenure. Passage of this policy was intended to give faculty more academic freedom and strengthen the university’s industry partnerships. Texas A&M works with both state and university agencies on various local and international research projects to forge innovations in science and technology that can have commercial applications. This work is concentrated in two primary locations–Research Valley and Research Park. Research Valley, an alliance of educational and business organizations, consists of 11,400 acres (50 km^2) with 2,500,000 square feet (232,000 m^2) of dedicated research space. An additional 350 acres (1 km^2), with 500,000 square feet (46,000 m^2) of research space, is located in Research Park. Among the school’s research entities are the Texas Institute for Genomic Medicine, the Texas Transportation Institute, the Cyclotron Institute, the Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and the Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology. Texas A&M University is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium.

    In 2017 Texas A&M ranked 19th nationally in R&D spending with total expenditure of $905.5 million. In 2004, Texas A&M System faculty and research submitted 121 new inventions and established 78 new royalty-bearing licensing agreements; the innovations resulted in income of $8 million. The Texas A&M Technology Licensing Office filed for 88 patents for protection of intellectual property in 2004.

    Spearheaded by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M scientists created the first cloned pet, a cat named ‘cc’, on December 22, 2001. Texas A&M was also the first academic institution to clone each of six different species: cattle, a Boer goat, pigs, a cat, a deer and a horse.

    In 2004, Texas A&M joined a consortium of universities and countries to build the Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile; the largest optical telescope ever constructed, the facility has seven mirrors, each with a diameter of 8.4 meters (9.2 yd).

    This gives the telescope the equivalent of a 24.5 meters (26.8 yd) primary mirror and is ten times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope. Ground-breaking for the construction of the telescope began in November 2015.

    As part of a collaboration with the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration, Texas A&M completed the first conversion of a nuclear research reactor from using highly enriched uranium fuel (70%) to utilizing low-enriched uranium (20%).

    The eighteen-month project ended on October 13, 2006, after the first ever refueling of the reactor, thus fulfilling a portion of U.S. President George W. Bush’s Global Nuclear Threat Reduction Initiative.

    TAMU researchers have named the largest volcano on Earth, Tamu Massif, after the university.

    In 2016, the university was targeted by animal rights group PETA, who alleged abusive experiments on dogs. Texas A&M responded that a video had been posted by PETA with insufficient context, and it said that the dogs had a genetic condition that also affects humans — Duchenne muscular dystrophy — for which there is no cure. “The dogs — who are already affected by this disease — are treated with the utmost respect and exceptional care on site by board-certified veterinarians and highly trained staff. The care team is further subject to scientific oversight by agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association, among other regulatory bodies.”

    Worldwide

    Texas A&M has participated in more than 500 research projects in more than 80 countries and leads the Southwestern United States in annual research expenditures. The university conducts research on every continent and has formal research and exchange agreements with 100 institutions in 40 countries. Texas A&M ranks 13th among U.S. research universities in exchange agreements with institutions abroad and student participation in study abroad programs, and has strong research collaborations with the National Natural Science Foundation of China [国家自然科学基金] (CN)and many leading universities in China.

    Texas A&M owns three international facilities, a multipurpose center in Mexico City, Mexico, the Soltis Research and Education Center near the town of San Isidro, Costa Rica, and the Santa Chiara Study Abroad Center in Castiglion Fiorentino, Italy. In 2003, over 1,200 Aggie students, primarily undergraduates, studied abroad. Marine research occurs on the university’s branch campus, Texas A&M University at Galveston. It also has collaborations with international facilities such as the Hacienda Santa Clara in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato.

    Texas A&M’s Center for International Business Studies is one of 28 supported by the Department of Education . The university is also one of only two American universities in partnership with CONACyT – Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología] (CONACYT)(MX), Mexico’s equivalent of the National Science Foundation, to support research in areas including biotechnology, telecommunications, energy, and urban development. In addition, the university is the home of “Las Americas Digital Research Network”, an online architecture network for 26 universities in 12 nations, primarily in Central and South America.

    Texas A&M has a campus in Education City, Doha, Qatar. The campus is part of Qatar’s “massive venture to import elite higher education from the United States”. TAMUQ was set up through an agreement between Texas A&M and the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community Development, a foundation started in 1995 by then-emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and his wife and mother of the current emir, Sheikha Moza bint Nasser. TAMUQ was opened in 2003, and the current contract extends through 2023. The campus offers undergraduate degrees in chemical, electrical, mechanical and petroleum engineering and a graduate degree in chemical engineering. TAMUQ has received numerous awards for its research. Texas A&M receives $76.2 million per year from the Qatar Foundation for the campus. In the agreement with the Qatar Foundation, TAMU agreed that 70% of its undergraduate population at its Qatar campus would be Qatari citizens. The curriculum aims to “duplicate as closely as possible” the curriculum at College Station, but questions constantly arise over whether this is possible due to Qatar’s strict stance on some of the freedoms granted to U.S. students. TAMU has also been the subject of criticism over its Qatari campus due to Qatar’s support of global terrorism and appalling human rights record. Texas A&M Aggie Conservatives, a campus activism group, has spoken out against the campus and called for its immediate closure on the grounds that it violates a commitment to educating Texans, and diminishes the credibility of engineering degrees earned by students at College Station.

    In late 2013, Texas A&M signed an agreement to open a $200 million campus in Nazareth, Israel as a “peace campus” for Arabs and Israelis. The agreement led to protests from students at the Qatari campus who claimed that it was “an insult to [their] people”. The campus was never opened. Instead, Texas A&M opened a $6 million marine biology center in Haifa, Israel.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:56 pm on September 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Dozens of newly discovered gravitational lenses could reveal ancient galaxies and the nature of dark matter", "phys.org", , , , ,   

    From The ARC Centres of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (AU) Via phys.org : “Dozens of newly discovered gravitational lenses could reveal ancient galaxies and the nature of dark matter” 

    arc-centers-of-excellence-bloc

    From The ARC Centres of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (AU)

    Via

    phys.org

    9.26.22

    1
    Pictures of gravitational lenses from the AGEL survey. The pictures are centred on the foreground galaxy and include the object name. Each panel includes the confirmed distance to the foreground galaxy (zdef) and distant background galaxy (zsrc). Credit: Kim-Vy H. Tran et al, The Astronomical Journal (2022)

    [Many more images are available in the science paper.]

    Earlier this year a machine learning algorithm identified up to 5,000 potential gravitational lenses that could transform our ability to chart the evolution of galaxies since the Big Bang.

    Now astronomer Kim-Vy Tran from ASTRO 3D and UNSW Sydney and colleagues have assessed 77 of the lenses using the Keck Observatory in Hawai’i and the Very Large Telescope in Chile. She and her international team confirmed that 68 out of the 77 are strong gravitational lenses spanning vast cosmic distances.

    This success rate of 88% suggests that the algorithm is reliable and that we could have thousands of new gravitational lenses. To date, gravitational lenses have been hard to find and only about a hundred are routinely used.

    Kim-Vy Tran’s paper published today in The Astronomical Journal [below] presents spectroscopic confirmation of strong gravitational lenses previously identified using Convolutional Neural Networks, developed by data scientist Dr. Colin Jacobs at ASTRO 3D and Swinburne University.

    The work is part of the ASTRO 3D Galaxy Evolution with Lenses (AGEL) survey.

    “Our spectroscopy allowed us to map a 3D picture of the gravitational lenses to show they are genuine and not merely chance superposition,” says corresponding author Dr. Tran from the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3-Dimensions (ASTRO3D) and the University of NSW (UNSW).

    “Our goal with AGEL is to spectroscopically confirm around 100 strong gravitational lenses that can be observed from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres throughout the year,” she says.

    The paper is the result of a collaboration spanning the globe with researchers from Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Chile.

    The work was made possible by the development of the algorithm to look for certain digital signatures.

    “With that we could identify many thousands of lenses compared to just a few handfuls,” says Dr. Tran.

    Gravitational lensing was first identified as a phenomenon by Einstein who predicted that light bends around massive objects in space in the same way that light bends going through a lens.

    In doing so, it greatly magnifies images of galaxies that we would not otherwise be able to see.

    While it has been used by astronomers to observe far away galaxies for a long time, finding these cosmic magnifying glasses in the first place has been hit and miss.

    “These lenses are very small so if you have fuzzy images, you’re not going to really be able to detect them,” says Dr. Tran.

    While these lenses let us see objects that are millions of light years away more clearly, it should also let us “see” invisible dark matter that makes up most of the Universe.

    “We know that most of the mass is dark,” says Dr. Tran. “We know that mass is bending light and so if we can measure how much light is bent, we can then infer how much mass must be there.”

    Having many more gravitational lenses at various distances will also give us a more complete image of the timeline going back almost to the Big Bang.

    “The more magnifying glasses you have, the better chance you can try to survey these more distant objects. Hopefully, we can better measure the demographics of very young galaxies,” says Dr. Tran.

    “Then somewhere between those really early first galaxies and us there’s a whole lot of evolution that’s happening, with tiny star forming regions that convert pristine gas into the first stars to the sun, the Milky Way.”

    “And so with these lenses at different distances, we can look at different points in the cosmic timeline to track essentially how things change over time, between the very first galaxies and now.”

    Dr. Tran’s team spanned the globe, with each group providing different expertise.

    “Being able to collaborate with people, at different universities, has been so crucial, both for setting the project up in the first place, and now continuing with all of the follow-up observations,” she says.

    Professor Stuart Wyithe of the University of Melbourne and Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (Astro 3D) says each gravitational lens is unique and tells us something new.

    “Apart from being beautiful objects, gravitational lenses provide a window to studying how mass is distributed in very distant galaxies that are not observable via other techniques. By introducing ways to use these new large data sets of the sky to search for many new gravitational lenses, the team opens up the opportunity to see how galaxies get their mass,” he says.

    Professor Karl Glazebrook of Swinburne University, and Dr. Tran’s Co-Science Lead on the paper, paid tribute to the work that had gone before.

    “This algorithm was pioneered by Dr. Colin Jacobs at Swinburne. He sifted through tens of millions of galaxy images to prune the sample down to 5,000. Never did we dream that the success rate would be so high,” he says.

    “Now we are getting images of these lenses with the Hubble Space Telescope, they range from jaw-droppingly beautiful to extremely strange images that will take us considerable effort to figure out.”

    Associate Professor Tucker Jones of UC Davis, another co-science lead on the paper, described the new sample as “a giant step forward in learning how galaxies form over the history of the Universe.”

    “Normally these early galaxies look like small fuzzy blobs, but the lensing magnification allows us to see their structure with much better resolution. They are ideal targets for our most powerful telescopes to give us the best possible view of the early universe,” he says.

    “Thanks to the lensing effect we can learn what these primitive galaxies look like, what they are made of, and how they interact with their surroundings.”

    Science paper:
    The Astronomical Journal

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (AU)

    Unifies over 200 world-leading astronomers to understand the evolution of the matter, light, and elements from the Big Bang to the present day.

    We are combining Australian innovative 3D optical and radio technology with new theoretical supercomputer simulations on a massive scale, requiring new big data techniques.

    Through our nationwide training and education programs, we are training young scientific leaders and inspiring high-school students into STEM sciences to prepare Australia for the next generation of telescopes: the Square Kilometre Array and the Extremely Large Optical telescopes.

    The objectives for the ARC Centres of Excellence (AU) are to to:

    Undertake highly innovative and potentially transformational research that aims to achieve international standing in the fields of research envisaged and leads to a significant advancement of capabilities and knowledge.

    Link existing Australian research strengths and build critical mass with new capacity for interdisciplinary, collaborative approaches to address the most challenging and significant research problems.

    Develop relationships and build new networks with major national and international centres and research programs to help strengthen research, achieve global competitiveness and gain recognition for Australian research

    Build Australia’s human capacity in a range of research areas by attracting and retaining, from within Australia and abroad, researchers of high international standing as well as the most promising research students.

    Provide high-quality postgraduate and postdoctoral training environments for the next generation of researchers.

    Offer Australian researchers opportunities to work on large-scale problems over long periods of time.

    Establish Centres that have an impact on the wider community through interaction with SKA Murchison Widefield Array (AU), Boolardy station in outback Western Australia, at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

    The Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory,on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples, in outback Western Australia will house up to 130,000 antennas like these and the associated advanced technologies.

    EDGES telescope in a radio quiet zone at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia, on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

    SKA ASKAP Pathfinder Radio Telescopehigher education institutes, governments, industry and the private and non-profit sector.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:19 am on September 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , "phys.org", "Researchers answer fundamental question of quantum physics", The University of Augsburg [Universität Augsburg] (DE)   

    From The University of Augsburg [Universität Augsburg] (DE) Via “phys.org” : “Researchers answer fundamental question of quantum physics” 

    From The University of Augsburg [Universität Augsburg] (DE)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.22.22
    Michael Hallermayer

    1
    Fig. 1. Schematic depiction of the dynamics across a phase transition in a two-dimensional spin-1/2 model. In the initial paramagnetic state (bottom), spins align with the direction of the transverse magnetic field. A measurement of the spin configuration in that state along the ordering direction would then typically yield a random pattern of spins pointing up (blue cones) or down (red cones). After a slow ramp across a quantum critical point, the system develops a quantum superposition of ferromagnetic domains, which, upon measuring spin configurations along the ordering direction, will yield typically a collapse onto a mosaic of such domains (top). On the front face, we include the growth of the ferromagnetic correlation range as a function of time t starting from t = −τQ as the ramp progresses across the critical regime with the critical point located at t = 0. The healing length ξˆ that determines the size of domains in the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism is set at the characteristic time ∣∣t∣GS exceeds the maximal speed of the relevant sound, c, in the system. Credit: Science Advances (2022).

    2
    Fig. 2. Energy gap as a function of the transverse field g in a periodic lattice.
    We collect results for different linear system sizes L and fixed J = Jc = 1. The data were obtained using the NQS approach for excited states; see the main text and Methods. The inset shows the collapse of the data after finite-size rescaling with the known critical exponents z = 1 and ν ≈ 0.63. The collapse on the paramagnetic side was used to extrapolate the gap to L = 20 in the main panel. The black dashed lines on both sides of the transition—in the regimes near estimated ±tˆ, where the data are also converged in L—are consistent with exponent zν = 0.56 that is shifted by a small nonuniversal 7% correction from the exact 0.63.

    3
    Fig. 3. Kibble-Zurek dynamical scaling in 2D quantum Ising model; infinite lattice.
    In (A), we collect the scaled ferromagnetic correlation function at the critical point, ξˆ2ΔCzz(t=0,R)
    , as a function of the scaled distance, R/ξˆ, and in (B), a scaled excitation energy per site, ξˆ3Q, as a function of the scaled time, t/tˆ (the critical value of the field is reached at t = 0). The main panels show the collapse of the data for slower quenches with τQ ≥ 0.28, in agreement with the dynamical scaling hypothesis. We obtain the best collapse for tˆ=ξˆ=τ0.36Q, where for rescaling we fix the prefactor in Eqs. 3 and 4 to one. The exponent that we obtain for the available (limited) τQ’s is less than 10% below the expected one of 0.386. Insets show a full range of quench times τQ = 0.1 · 2m/10 = 0.1, …,3.2, with integer m in (A) and sparser data with integer m/5 in (B).

    More instructive images are available in the science paper.

    An international team of physicists, with the participation of the University of Augsburg, has for the first time confirmed an important theoretical prediction in quantum physics. The calculations for this are so complex that they have hitherto proved too demanding even for supercomputers. However, the researchers succeeded in simplifying them considerably using methods from the field of machine learning. The study improves the understanding of fundamental principles of the quantum world. It has been published in the journal Science Advances [below].

    The calculation of the motion of a single billiard ball is relatively simple. However, predicting the trajectories of a multitude of gas particles in a vessel which are constantly colliding, being slowed down and deflected, is way more difficult. But what if it is not even at all clear exactly how fast each particle is moving, so that they would have countless possible velocities at any given time, differing only in their probability?

    The situation is similar in the quantum world: Quantum mechanical particles can even have all potentially possible properties simultaneously. This makes the state space of quantum mechanical systems extremely large. If you aim to simulate how quantum particles interact with each other, you have to consider their complete state spaces.

    “And that is extremely complex,” says Prof. Dr. Markus Heyl from the Institute of Physics at the University of Augsburg. “The computational effort increases exponentially with the number of particles. With more than 40 particles, it is already so large that even the fastest supercomputers are unable to cope with it. This is one of the grand challenges of quantum physics.”

    Neural networks make the problem manageable

    To simplify this problem, Heyl’s group used methods from the field of machine learning—artificial neural networks. With these, the quantum mechanical state can be reformulated. “This makes it manageable for computers,” explains Heyl.

    Using this method, the scientists have investigated an important theoretical prediction that has remained an outstanding challenge so far—the quantum Kibble-Zurek mechanism. It describes the dynamical behavior of physical systems at what is called a quantum phase transition. An example of a phase transition from the macroscopic and more intuitive world is the transition from water to ice. Another example is the demagnetization of a magnet at high temperatures.

    If you go the other way round and cool the material , the magnet starts to form again below a certain critical temperature. However, this does not happen evenly across the entire material. Instead, many small magnets with differently aligned north and south poles are created at the same time. Thus, the resulting magnet is actually a mosaic of many different, smaller magnets. Physicists also say that it contains defects.

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts how many of these defects are to be expected (in other words, how many mini-magnets the material will eventually be composed of). What is particularly interesting is that the number of these defects is universal and thus independent of microscopic details. Accordingly, many different materials behave precisely identically, even if their microscopic composition is completely different.

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism and the formation of galaxies after the Big Bang

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism was originally introduced to explain the formation of structure in the universe. After the Big Bang, the universe was initially completely homogeneous, which means that the hosted matter was distributed perfectly evenly. For a long time it has been unclear how galaxies, suns or planets could have formed out of such a homogeneous state.

    In this context the Kibble-Zurek mechanism provides an explanation. As the universe was cooling down, defects developed in a similar way to magnets. In the meantime these processes in the macroscopic world are well understood. But there is one type of phase transition for which it has not yet been possible to verify the validity of the mechanism—namely the quantum phase transitions already mentioned before. “They only exist at the absolute zero temperature point of -273 degrees Celsius,” explains Heyl. “So the phase transition does not take place during cooling, but through changes in the interaction energy—you could think, perhaps, of varying the pressure.”

    The scientists have now simulated such a quantum phase transition on a supercomputer. They were thus able to show for the first time that the Kibble-Zurek mechanism also applies in the quantum world. “That was by no means an obvious conclusion,” says the Augsburg physicist. “Our study allows us to better describe the dynamics of quantum mechanical systems of many particles and hence to understand more precisely the rules that govern this exotic world.”

    Science paper:
    Science Advances

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Augsburg [Universität Augsburg] (DE) is a university located in the Universitätsviertel section of Augsburg, Germany. It was founded in 1970 and is organized in 8 Faculties.

    The University of Augsburg is a relatively young campus university with approx. 18,000 students in October 2012. About 14% of its students come from foreign countries, a larger percentage than at comparable German universities.

    The University of Augsburg was founded in 1970. It is one of the new, modern universities in Bavaria, and with approximately 18,000 (October 2012) students it is still of a manageable size. It attracts students from far beyond its immediate catchment area. About 20% of the German students come from outside Bavaria, and at 14% its share of foreign students is larger than at comparable universities.

    The University of Augsburg maintains partnerships with the Universities of Pittsburgh, Osijek (Croatia) and Iaşi (Romania), and the Far Eastern State University of Humanities, which is in Khabarovsk (Russia). It has cooperation agreements with over forty universities in Europe, Asia, South Africa, North America and Latin America. The number of ERASMUS exchange programmes also continues to grow. There are currently exchange programmes with more than 130 universities throughout Europe.

    Anyone who has studied or carried out research here can keep in touch with the University of Augsburg once they have returned home. “Alumni Augsburg International” is a network for Augsburg students, too, as they can use it to find contacts.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:07 pm on September 21, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New binary pulsar detected with CHIME", "phys.org", , , , , , The pulsar received designation PSR J2108+4516., The team acquired almost three years of near-daily CHIME/Pulsar observations of PSR J2108+4516 extending from October 2018 to September 2021.   

    From McGill University [Université McGill](CA) Via “phys.org” : “New binary pulsar detected with CHIME“ 

    From McGill University [Université McGill](CA)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.21.22

    1
    Figure 1. A 2-second section of CHIME/FRB intensity data from an early transit of PSR J2108+4516 on
    2018 October 13 (MJD 58404). The data has been dedispersed to 83.5 pc cm−3 and downsampled to 4 ms
    time resolution and 6.25 MHz frequency resolution (64 subbands) for plotting clarity. The highest-SNR pulse
    triggered the real-time intensity dump. The horizontal grey dashed line in the top panel denotes y = 0.
    The blank horizontal sections in the bottom panel indicate frequency channels that have been flagged due
    to RFI.

    1
    Credit: https://trend.newswal.com

    Using the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME), astronomers have detected a new radio pulsar in a binary system with a massive non-degenerate companion star. The discovery of the pulsar, which received designation PSR J2108+4516, was detailed in a paper published September 14 for The Astrophysical Journal [below].

    Pulsars are highly magnetized, rotating neutron stars emitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation.

    They are usually detected in the form of short bursts of radio emission; however, some of them are also observed via optical, X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes.

    Now, an international team of astronomers led by Bridget C. Andersen of McGill University in Montréal, Canada, reports the finding of a new rare type of a binary pulsar—hosting a massive companion. The detection was made using CHIME, a radio telescope possessing a very wide field of view, large collecting area and high sensitivity across the 400–800 MHz range.

    “We discovered and initially monitored PSR J2108+4516 with the CHIME telescope, using the CHIME/FRB and CHIME/Pulsar backends to acquire various types of data,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    All in all, the team acquired almost three years of near-daily CHIME/Pulsar observations of PSR J2108+4516 extending from October 20, 2018 to September 3, 2021. Profile drifts over pulse phase indicated that the pulsar was experiencing significant acceleration from orbiting with a massive binary companion.

    The observations of PSR J2108+4516 revealed that it has a spin period of about 0.58 seconds and orbital period of 269 days. The orbital eccentricity was found to be at a level of approximately 0.09 and the pulsar’s characteristic age was estimated to be around 2.1 million years. The surface magnetic field of PSR J2108+4516 was measured to be some 1.2 trillion Gauss.

    When it comes to the companion object, the results suggest that its mass should be between 11.7 and 113 solar masses. The study found that the companion is a bright OBe star, known as EM* UHA 138, located at a distance of about 10,600 light years. The researchers estimate that the mass of this star is most likely between 17 and 23 solar masses.

    Summing up the results, the astronomers underlined that PSR J2108+4516 is the sixth young pulsar with a massive non-degenerate companion so far detected.

    “We have presented the CHIME/FRB discovery and 2.8-yr CHIME/Pulsar timing of a new radio pulsar/massive-star binary, PSR J2108+4516, only the 6th such binary pulsar known,” they concluded.

    The authors of the paper added that PSR J2108+4516 may serve as a rare laboratory for the exploration of massive star winds and circumstellar disks. They propose future optical spectroscopic observations of this pulsar in order to determine the companion type and to investigate whether it has a disk, as well as X-ray and gamma-ray studies to inspect disk and wind interactions.

    Science paper:
    The Astrophysical Journal

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    All about
    McGill University [Université McGill] (CA)

    With some 300 buildings, more than 38,500 students and 250,000 living alumni, and a reputation for excellence that reaches around the globe, McGill has carved out a spot among the world’s greatest universities.

    Founded in Montreal, Quebec, in 1821, McGill University [Université McGill](CA) is a leading Canadian post-secondary institution. It has two campuses, 11 faculties, 11 professional schools, 300 programs of study and some 39,000 students, including more than 9,300 graduate students. McGill attracts students from over 150 countries around the world, its 8,200 international students making up 21 per cent of the student body.

    McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by King George IV, the university bears the name of James McGill, a Scottish merchant whose bequest in 1813 formed the university’s precursor, University of McGill College (or simply, McGill College); the name was officially changed to McGill University in 1885.

    McGill’s main campus is on the slope of Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with a second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, also on Montreal Island, 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of the main campus. The university is one of two universities outside the United States which are members of the Association of American Universities, alongside the University of Toronto (CA), and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum (GULF) within the World Economic Forum.

    McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average entering grades of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Management. With a 32.2% international student body coming to McGill from over 150 countries, its student body is the most internationally diverse of any medical-doctoral research university in the country. Additionally, over 41% of students are born outside of Canada. In all major rankings, McGill consistently ranks in the top 50 universities in the world and among the top 3 universities in Canada. It has held the top position for the past 16 years in the annual Maclean’s Canadian University Rankings for medical-doctoral universities.

    McGill counts among its alumni and faculty 12 Nobel laureates and 147 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as 13 billionaires, the current prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, a former Governor General of Canada, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors and more than 100 members of national legislatures. McGill alumni also include eight Academy Award winners, 10 Grammy Award winners, at least 13 Emmy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, and 121 Olympians with over 35 Olympic medals. The inventors of the game of basketball, modern organized ice hockey, and the pioneers of gridiron football, as well as the founders of several major universities and colleges are also graduates of the university.

    Notable researchers include Ernest Rutherford, who discovered the atomic nucleus and conducted his Nobel Prize-winning research on the nature of radioactivity while working as Professor of Experimental Physics at the university. Other notable inventions by McGillians include the world’s first artificial cell, web search engine, and charge-couple device, among others.

    McGill has the largest endowment per student in Canada. In 2019, it was the recipient of the largest single philanthropic gift in Canadian history, a $200 million donation to fund the creation of the McCall MacBain Scholarships programme.

    Research

    Research plays a critical role at McGill. McGill is affiliated with 12 Nobel Laureates and professors have won major teaching prizes. According to The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, “researchers at McGill are affiliated with about 75 major research centres and networks, and are engaged in an extensive array of research partnerships with other universities, government and industry in Quebec and Canada, throughout North America and in dozens of other countries.” In 2016, McGill had over $547 million of sponsored research income, the second highest in Canada, and a research intensity per faculty of $317,600, the third highest among full-service universities in Canada. McGill has one of the largest patent portfolios among Canadian universities. McGill’s researchers are supported by the McGill University Library, which comprises 13 branch libraries and holds over six million items.

    Since 1926, McGill has been a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization of leading research universities in North America. McGill is a founding member of Universitas 21, an international network of leading research-intensive universities that work together to expand their global reach and advance their plans for internationalization. McGill is one of 26 members of the prestigious Global University Leaders Forum (GULF), which acts as an intellectual community within the World Economic Forum to advise its leadership on matters relating to higher education and research. It is the only Canadian university member of GULF. McGill is also a member of the U15, a group of prominent research universities within Canada.

    McGill-Queen’s University Press began as McGill in 1963 and amalgamated with Queen’s in 1969. McGill-Queen’s University Press focuses on Canadian studies and publishes the Canadian Public Administration Series.

    McGill is perhaps best recognized for its research and discoveries in the health sciences. Sir William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill, many at the University’s Montreal Neurological Institute. The first hormone governing the Immune System (later christened the Cytokine ‘Interleukin-2’) was discovered at McGill in 1965 by Gordon & McLean.

    The invention of the world’s first artificial cell was made by Thomas Chang while an undergraduate student at the university. While chair of physics at McGill, nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford performed the experiment that led to the discovery of the alpha particle and its function in radioactive decay, which won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. Alumnus Jack W. Szostak was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.

    William Chalmers invented Plexiglas while a graduate student at McGill. In computing, MUSIC/SP, software for mainframes once popular among universities and colleges around the world, was developed at McGill. A team also contributed to the development of Archie, a pre-WWW search engine. A 3270 terminal emulator developed at McGill was commercialized and later sold to Hummingbird Software. A team has developed digital musical instruments in the form of prosthesis, called Musical Prostheses.

    Since 2017, McGill has partnered with the University of Montréal [Université de Montréal](CA) on Mila (research institute), a community of professors, students, industrial partners and startups working in AI, with over 500 researchers making the institute the world’s largest academic research center in deep learning.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:22 am on September 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Webb telescope captures 'breathtaking' images of Orion Nebula",   

    From The NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope Via “phys.org” : “Webb telescope captures ‘breathtaking’ images of Orion Nebula” 

    NASA Webb Header

    National Aeronautics Space Agency/European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ Canadian Space Agency [Agence Spatiale Canadienne](CA) James Webb Infrared Space Telescope annotated, finally launched December 25, 2021, ten years late.

    From The NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.12.22

    1
    The inner region of the Orion Nebula as seen by the James Webb Space Telescope’s NIRCam instrument [below]. Credit: NASA.

    The wall of dense gas and dust resembles a massive winged creature, its glowing maw lit by a bright star as it soars through cosmic filaments.

    An international research team on Monday revealed the first images of the Orion Nebula captured with the James Webb Space Telescope, leaving astronomers “blown away.”

    The stellar nursery is situated in the constellation Orion, 1,350 light-years away from Earth, in a similar setting in which our own solar system was birthed more than 4.5 billion years ago.

    Astronomers are interested in the region to better understand what happened during the first million years of our planetary evolution.


    Webb telescope captures ‘breathtaking’ images of Orion Nebula.

    The images were obtained as part of the Early Release Science program and involved more than 100 scientists in 18 countries, with institutions including the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Western University in Canada, and the University of Michigan.

    “We are blown away by the breathtaking images of the Orion Nebula,” Western University astrophysicist Els Peeters said in a statement.

    “These new observations allow us to better understand how massive stars transform the gas and dust cloud in which they are born,” she added.

    2
    Credit: NASA.

    Nebulas are obscured by large amounts of dust that made it impossible to observe with visible light telescopes, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Webb’s predecessor.

    Webb however operates primarily in the infrared spectrum, penetrating the dust.

    This revealed numerous spectacular structures, down to the scale of 40 astronomical units, or the size of our solar system.

    3
    Orion Nebula: JWST versus Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Credit: NASA.

    These include dense filaments of matter, which could birth new generations of stars, as well as forming stellar systems that consist of a central proto-star surrounded by a disk of dust and gas, in which planets form.

    “We hope to gain understanding about the entire cycle of star birth,” said Edwin Bergin, University of Michigan chair of astronomy and a member of the international research team.

    4
    Orion Nebula: JWST versus the Spitzer Space Telescope. Credit: NASA.

    “In this image we are looking at this cycle where the first generation of stars is essentially irradiating the material for the next generation. The incredible structures we observe will detail how the feedback cycle of stellar birth occurs in our galaxy and beyond.”

    The NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Webb was finally launched December 25, 2021, ten years late. The James Webb Space Telescope will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System.

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the world’s largest, most powerful, and most complex space science telescope ever built. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it.

    Webb telescope was formerly known as the “Next Generation Space Telescope” (NGST); it was renamed in Sept. 2002 after a former NASA administrator, James Webb.

    Webb is an international collaboration between National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center managed the development effort. The main industrial partner is Northrop Grumman; the Space Telescope Science Institute operates Webb.

    Several innovative technologies have been developed for Webb. These include a folding, segmented primary mirror, adjusted to shape after launch; ultra-lightweight beryllium optics; detectors able to record extremely weak signals, microshutters that enable programmable object selection for the spectrograph; and a cryocooler for cooling the mid-IR detectors to 7K.

    There are four science instruments on Webb: The Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), The Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRspec), The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and The Fine Guidance Sensor/ Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS-NIRISS). Webb’s instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range. It will be sensitive to light from 0.6 to 28 micrometers in wavelength.
    National Aeronautics Space Agency Webb NIRCam.

    The European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) Webb MIRI schematic.

    Webb Fine Guidance Sensor-Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph FGS/NIRISS.

    Webb has four main science themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life.

    Launch was December 25, 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket. The launch was from Arianespace’s ELA-3 launch complex at European Spaceport located near Kourou, French Guiana. Webb is located at the second Lagrange point, about a million miles from the Earth.

    ESA50 Logo large

    Canadian Space Agency

    See the full article here .

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    ESA50 Logo large

    Canadian Space Agency

     
  • richardmitnick 11:13 pm on September 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Scientists say mysterious diamonds came from outer space", Lonsdaleite-a rare hexagonal form of diamond-in ureilite meteorites from the mantle of a dwarf planet., Strange diamonds from an ancient dwarf planet in our solar system may have formed shortly after the dwarf planet collided with a large asteroid about 4.5 billion years ago., The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology [RMIT] (AU)   

    From The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology [RMIT] (AU) via “phys.org” : “Scientists say mysterious diamonds came from outer space” 

    From The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology [RMIT] (AU)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    1
    Professor Andy Tomkins (left) from Monash University with RMIT University PhD scholar Alan Salek and a ureilite meteor sample. Credit: RMIT University.

    Strange diamonds from an ancient dwarf planet in our solar system may have formed shortly after the dwarf planet collided with a large asteroid about 4.5 billion years ago, according to scientists.

    The research team says they have confirmed the existence of lonsdaleite-a rare hexagonal form of diamond-in ureilite meteorites from the mantle of the dwarf planet.

    Lonsdaleite is named after the famous British pioneering female crystallographer Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, who was the first woman elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society.

    The team—with scientists from Monash University, RMIT University, CSIRO, the Australian Synchrotron and Plymouth University—found evidence of how lonsdaleite formed in ureilite meteorites and published their findings in the PNAS [below]. The study was led by geologist Professor Andy Tomkins from Monash University.

    One of the senior researchers involved, RMIT Professor Dougal McCulloch, said the team predicted the hexagonal structure of lonsdaleite’s atoms made it potentially harder than regular diamonds, which had a cubic structure.

    “This study proves categorically that lonsdaleite exists in nature,” said McCulloch, Director of the RMIT Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility.

    “We have also discovered the largest lonsdaleite crystals known to date that are up to a micron in size—much, much thinner than a human hair.”

    The team says the unusual structure of lonsdaleite could help inform new manufacturing techniques for ultra-hard materials in mining applications.

    2
    Professor Dougal McCulloch (left) and PhD scholar Alan Salek from RMIT with Professor Andy Tomkins from Monash University (right) at the RMIT Microscopy and Microanalysis. Credit: RMIT University.

    McCulloch and his RMIT team, Ph.D. scholar Alan Salek and Dr. Matthew Field, used advanced electron microscopy techniques to capture solid and intact slices from the meteorites to create snapshots of how lonsdaleite and regular diamonds formed.

    “There’s strong evidence that there’s a newly discovered formation process for the lonsdaleite and regular diamond, which is like a supercritical chemical vapor deposition process that has taken place in these space rocks, probably in the dwarf planet shortly after a catastrophic collision,” McCulloch said.

    “Chemical vapor deposition is one of the ways that people make diamonds in the lab, essentially by growing them in a specialized chamber.”

    Tomkins said the team proposed that lonsdaleite in the meteorites formed from a supercritical fluid at high temperature and moderate pressures, almost perfectly preserving the shape and textures of the pre-existing graphite.

    “Later, lonsdaleite was partially replaced by diamond as the environment cooled and the pressure decreased,” said Tomkins, an ARC Future Fellow at Monash University’s School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment.

    “Nature has thus provided us with a process to try and replicate in industry. We think that lonsdaleite could be used to make tiny, ultra-hard machine parts if we can develop an industrial process that promotes replacement of pre-shaped graphite parts by lonsdaleite.”

    Tomkins said the study findings helped address a long-standing mystery regarding the formation of the carbon phases in ureilites.

    Science paper:
    PNAS

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The RMIT University (AU), formerly known as Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) and Melbourne Technical College, is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia.

    Founded by Francis Ormond in 1887, RMIT began as a night school offering classes in art, science, and technology, in response to the industrial revolution in Australia. It was a private college for more than a hundred years before merging with the Phillip Institute of Technology to become a public university in 1992. It has an enrollment of around 87,000 higher and vocational education students, making it the largest dual-sector education provider in Australia. With an annual revenue of around A$1.3 billion, it is also one of the wealthiest universities in Australia. It is rated a five star university by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) and is ranked 17th in the World for art and design subjects in the QS World University Rankings, making it the top art and design university in Australia.

    Its main campus is situated on the northern edge of the historic Hoddle Grid in the city centre of Melbourne. It also has two satellite campuses in the northern suburbs of Brunswick and Bundoora and an international language site on Bourke Street, situated on the Williams base of the Royal Australian Air Force, in the western suburb of Point Cook. Beyond Melbourne, it has a research site near the Grampians National Park in the rural city of Hamilton. Outside Australia, it has a presence in Asia and Europe. In Asia, it has two branch campuses in the Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as well as teaching partnerships in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore and Sri Lanka. In Europe, it has a coordinating centre in the Spanish city of Barcelona.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:45 pm on September 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers discover new brown dwarf with quasi-spherical mass loss", "phys.org", , , , , , SSTc2d J163134.1-24006 is most likely a brown dwarf with a mass of about 0.05 solar masses and an elliptical shell of carbon monoxide., , The newfound object designated SSTc2d J163134.1-24006   

    From The National Radio Astronomy Observatory Via “phys.org” : “Astronomers discover new brown dwarf with quasi-spherical mass loss” 

    NRAO Banner

    From The National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.12.22

    1
    Herschel column-density map of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The magenta star indicates the location of SSTc2d J163134.1. The Lynds L1709 dark cloud in the region is indicated. Credit: Ruiz-Rodriguez et al., 2022.

    Astronomers report the detection of a new brown dwarf as part of the Ophiuchus Disk Survey Employing ALMA [below] (ODISEA) program. The newfound object designated SSTc2d J163134.1-24006, appears to be experiencing a quasi-spherical mass loss. The discovery was detailed in a paper published September 2 for The Astrophysical Journal [below].

    Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects between planets and stars, occupying the mass range between 13 and 80 Jupiter masses (0.012 and 0.076 solar masses). They can burn deuterium but are unable to burn regular hydrogen, which requires a minimum mass of at least 80 Jupiter masses and a core temperature of about 3 million K.

    A team of astronomers led by Dary Ruiz-Rodriguez of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, have investigated SSTc2d J163134.1-24006, initially identified as a faint stellar object, under the ODISEA project, which is dedicated to study the entire population of protoplanetary disks in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. They found that SSTc2d J163134.1-24006 is most likely a brown dwarf with a mass of about 0.05 solar masses and an elliptical shell of carbon monoxide (CO).

    “SSTc2d J163134.1 was observed as part of the ‘Ophiuchus Disk Survey Employing ALMA’ (ODISEA) program (Project ID: 2016.1.00545.S PI: L. Cieza). ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations were performed on April 27 and August 22, 2018, during Cycle 5 using the C43-3 configuration (15–500 m baselines),” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    First of all, the team serendipitously discovered an expanding shell of carbon monoxide ejected from an object, with a temperature below 3,000 K, located in the direction of the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. Further observations revealed that this shell is associated with SSTc2d J163134.1.

    In order to explain the nature of SSTc2d J163134.1 and its expanding shell, Ruiz-Rodriguez’s team considered various scenarios, including the inside-out collapse of a dense molecular core in the Ophiuchus cloud, the mass loss of a giant star in the distant background, or a shell of gas expelled from a young brown dwarf. According to the researchers, the most plausible one is the brown dwarf hypothesis.

    “We conclude that the source is not a giant star in the distant background (>5–10 kpc) and is most likely to be a young brown dwarf in the Ophiuchus cloud, at a distance of just ∼139 pc,” the astronomers explained.

    Given that emission of carbon monoxide from SSTc2d J163134.1 has an elliptical shape, it was noted that this makes it the first brown dwarf known to exhibit a quasi-spherical mass loss. The authors of the paper assume that a deuterium flash could be responsible for this phenomenon, but more detailed theoretical work is required in order to verify this explanation.

    Science paper:
    The Astrophysical Journal

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of The National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by The Associated Universities, Inc.


    National Radio Astronomy Observatory Karl G Jansky Very Large Array located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro. The VLA comprises twenty-eight 25-meter radio telescopes.

    ngVLA, to be located near the location of the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array site on the plains of San Agustin, fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m) with additional mid-baseline stations currently spread over greater New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and Mexico.

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Long Baseline Array.

    The European Southern Observatory [La Observatorio Europeo Austral][Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL))/National Radio Astronomy Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on September 10, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Theoretical physicists argue that black holes admit vortex structures", Black hole vortex structures could explain the extremely strong magnetic fields emerging from active galactic nuclei in our universe., Black holes could potentially be at the root of almost all known galactic magnetic fields., , Recently a new quantum framework for black holes-namely in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons (the quanta of gravity itself)-has been introduced., , The MPG Institute for Physics [MPG Institut für Physik] (DE), The team's theorized existence of vortices in black holes offers a possible explanation for the lack of Hawking radiation for maximally-rotating black holes., Vorticity is an entirely new characteristic of black holes.   

    From The Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE) And The MPG Institute for Physics [MPG Institut für Physik] (DE) Via “phys.org” : “Theoretical physicists argue that black holes admit vortex structures” 

    From The Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE)

    And

    The MPG Institute for Physics [MPG Institut für Physik] (DE)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    9.9.22
    Ingrid Fadelli

    1
    Sketch of a black hole endowed with multiple vortices. Colors denote the orientation, with the associated trapped magnetic field lines in black. Credit: Dvali et al.

    Black holes are astronomical objects with extremely strong gravitational pulls from which not even light can escape. While the idea of bodies that would trap light has been around since the 18th century, the first direct observation of black holes took place in 2015.

    Since then, physicists have conducted countless theoretical and experimental studies aimed at better understanding these fascinating cosmological objects. This had led to many discoveries and theories about the unique characteristics, properties, and dynamics of black holes.

    Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik have recently carried out a theoretical study exploring the possible existence of vortices in black holes. Their paper, published in Physical Review Letters [below], shows that black holes should theoretically be able to admit vortex structures.

    “Recently, a new quantum framework for black holes, namely in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons (the quanta of gravity itself), has been introduced,” Florian Kühnel, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. “Up until our article was published, rotating black holes have not been thoroughly studied within this framework. However, they might not only exist, but also be the rule rather than the exception.”

    Kühnel and his colleagues Gia Dvali and Michael Zantedeschi performed several calculations based on existing physics theories, particularly the recently devised quantum model of black holes based on Bose-Einstein graviton condensates. The key goal of their study was to examine rotating black holes on the quantum level, to determine whether they would actually admit vortex structures.

    “Since rotating Bose-Einstein condensates have been subject to intense studies in laboratories, it is known that they admit vortex structure if rotating sufficiently fast,” Kühnel said. “We took this as an invitation to look for those structures also in models for rotating black holes—and indeed found them.”

    Kühnel and his colleagues showed that a black hole with extremal spin can be described as a graviton condensate with vorticity. This is aligned with previous studies suggesting that extremal black holes are stable against the so-called Hawking evaporation (i.e., a black body radiation that is believed to be released outside of a black hole’s outermost surface, or event horizon).

    In addition, the researchers showed that in the presence of mobile charges, the black hole’s overall vortex traps a magnetic flux of the gauge field, which would lead to signature emissions that could be observed experimentally. The team’s theoretical predictions could thus open new possibilities for the observation of new types of matter, including millicharged dark matter.

    “Vorticity is an entirely new characteristic of black holes, which are on the classical level (i.e., if one closes one’s eyes on their quantum structure) fully characterized by three entities: mass, spin and charge,” Kühnel said. “This is what we learned from textbooks—until now. We showed that we need to add vorticity.”

    The team’s theorized existence of vortices in black holes offers a possible explanation for the lack of Hawking radiation for maximally-rotating black holes. In the future, this theory could thus pave the way for new experimental observations and theoretical conclusions.

    For instance, black hole vortex structures could explain the extremely strong magnetic fields emerging from active galactic nuclei in our universe. In addition, they could potentially be at the root of almost all known galactic magnetic fields.

    “We have just recently established the field of black hole vorticity,” Kühnel added. “There is a wealth of important and exciting questions to address, including concerning those applications mentioned above. Furthermore, future gravitational-wave observations of merging black holes, each containing a vortex (of multiple of those), might open the door to these new and exciting quantum aspects of space-time.”

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The MPG Institute for Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik](DE) (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location.

    The founding of the institute traces back to 1914, as an idea from Fritz Haber, Walther Nernst, Max Planck, Emil Warburg, Heinrich Rubens. On October 1, 1917, the institute was officially founded in Berlin as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics) with Albert Einstein as the first head director. In October 1922, Max von Laue succeeded Einstein as managing director. Einstein gave up his position as a director of the institute in April 1933. The Institute took part in the German nuclear weapon project from 1939-1942.

    In June 1942, Werner Heisenberg took over as managing director. A year after the end of fighting in Europe in World War II, the institute was moved to Göttingen and renamed the MPG for Physics, with Heisenberg continuing as managing director. In 1946, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Karl Wirtz joined the faculty as the directors for theoretical and experimental physics, respectively.

    In 1955 the institute made the decision to move to Munich, and soon after began construction of its current building, designed by Sep Ruf. The institute moved into its current location on September 1, 1958 and took on the new name the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics, still with Heisenberg as the managing director. In 1991, the institute was split into the Max Planck Institute for Physics the MPG Institute for Astrophysics [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik] (DE) and the MPG Institute for extraterrestrial Physics [MPG Institut für extraterrestrische Physik] (DE).

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

    The Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, [FAU] (DE} is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich–Alexander comes from the university’s first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and its benefactor Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.

    FAU is the second largest state university in the state of Bavaria. It has 5 faculties, 24 departments/schools, 25 clinical departments, 21 autonomous departments, 579 professors, 3,457 members of research staff and roughly 14,300 employees.

    In winter semester 2018/19 around 38,771 students (including 5,096 foreign students) enrolled in the university in 265 fields of study, with about 2/3 studying at the Erlangen campus and the remaining 1/3 at the Nuremberg campus. These statistics put FAU in the list of top 10 largest universities in Germany. In 2018, 7,390 students graduated from the university and 840 doctorates and 55 post-doctoral theses were registered. Moreover, FAU received 201 million Euro (2018) external funding in the same year, making it one of the strongest third-party funded universities in Germany.

    FAU is also a member of DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network.

     
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