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  • richardmitnick 10:53 pm on May 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Excitation spectral microscopy integrates multi-target imaging and quantitative biosensing", , phys.org   

    From University of California- Berkeley (US) and From Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) via phys.org : “Excitation spectral microscopy integrates multi-target imaging and quantitative biosensing” 

    From University of California-Berkeley (US)


    From Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN)



    May 12, 2021

    a, Schematic of the setup. Full-frame spectral micrographs are obtained by the synchronized fast modulation of the excitation wavelength in consecutive frames. P, polarizer; L, lens; F, bandpass filter; DM, dichroic mirror. b, Unmixed images of 6 subcellular targets in a live COS-7 cell with 8 excitation wavelengths. LipidSpot 488: lipid droplets (LDs), SYBR Green: mitochondrial DNA, Mito-PhiYFP: mitochondrial matrix, WGA-CF532: cell membrane, LysoBrite Orange: lysosomes, tdTomato-ER3: ER. c, Reference excitation spectra of the 6 fluorophores, separately measured on the setup using singly labeled samples. d, Mito-pHRed absolute pH maps of the mitochondrial matrix in a live HeLa cell, before (top) and after (bottom) 120 s treatment with 20 μM CCCP. e, Color-coded FRET maps for a macromolecular crowding sensor, for two live COS-7 cells before (left), ~10 s after (center), and ~25 s after (right) 150% hypertonic treatment. f, Unmixed images of color-coded Mito-pHRed absolute pH map, mOrange2-Parkin, PhiYFP-LC3, and LAMP1-Clover for two Parkin-expressing live HeLa cells after the application of 20 μM CCCP for 4 h. g, Zoom-in of the white box in (f) Credit: Kun Chen, Rui Yan, Limin Xiang, and Ke Xu.

    The multiplexing capability of fluorescence microscopy is severely limited by the broad fluorescence spectral width. Spectral imaging offers potential solutions, yet typical approaches to disperse the local emission spectra notably impede the attainable throughput and place substantial constraints on temporal resolution. Tunable bandpass filters provide a possibility to scan through the emission wavelength in the wide field. However, applying narrow bandpasses to the fluorescence emission results in inefficient use of the scarce signal.

    In a new paper published in Light: Science & Applications, a team of scientists, led by Professor Ke Xu from College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley(US) have demonstrated that using a single, fixed fluorescence emission detection band, through frame-synchronized fast scanning of the excitation wavelength from a white lamp via an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), up to 6 subcellular targets, labeled by common fluorophores of substantial spectral overlap, can be simultaneously imaged in live cells with low (~1%) crosstalk and high temporal resolution (down to ~10 ms).

    The demonstrated capability to quantify the abundances of different fluorophores in the same sample through unmixing the excitation spectra next enabled them to devise novel, quantitative imaging schemes for both bi-state and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) fluorescent biosensors in live cells. They thus achieved full-frame high sensitivities and spatiotemporal resolutions in quantifying the mitochondrial matrix pH and the intracellular macromolecular crowding. They thus unveiled significant spatial heterogeneities in both parameters, including spontaneous sudden jumps in the mitochondrial matrix pH accompanied by dramatic mitochondrial shape changes. They further demonstrated, for the first time, the multiplexing of absolute pH imaging with three additional target organelles/proteins to elucidate the complex, Parkin-mediated mitophagy pathway.

    “The potential extension of our approach to even more fluorophores may be achieved by further increasing the number of excitation wavelengths or integrating emission dispersion. Whereas in this work we focused on a facile system based on a lamp-operated epifluorescence microscope, the fast multi-fluorophore and quantitative biosensor imaging capabilities we demonstrated here should be readily extendable to other systems, including light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and structured illumination microscopy” the scientists commented.

    Together, these results “unveil the exceptional opportunities excitation spectral microscopy provides for highly multiplexed fluorescence imaging. The prospect of acquiring fast spectral images in the wide-field without the need for fluorescence dispersion or the care for the spectral response of the detector offers tremendous potential,” the scientists conclude.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) is the linchpin of China’s drive to explore and harness high technology and the natural sciences for the benefit of China and the world. Comprising a comprehensive research and development network, a merit-based learned society and a system of higher education, CAS brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems using world-class scientific and management approaches.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its Innovation 2020 programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

    The University of California-Berkeley (US) is a public land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the state’s first land-grant university, it was the first campus of the University of California (US) system and a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US). Its 14 colleges and schools offer over 350 degree programs and enroll some 31,000 undergraduate and 12,000 graduate students. Berkeley is ranked among the world’s top universities by major educational publications.

    Berkeley hosts many leading research institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. It founded and maintains close relationships with three national laboratories at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(US), DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Los Alamos National Lab(US), and has played a prominent role in many scientific advances, from the Manhattan Project and the discovery of 16 chemical elements to breakthroughs in computer science and genomics. Berkeley is also known for student activism and the Free Speech Movement of the 1960s.

    Berkeley alumni and faculty count among their ranks 110 Nobel laureates (34 alumni), 25 Turing Award winners (11 alumni), 14 Fields Medalists, 28 Wolf Prize winners, 103 MacArthur “Genius Grant” recipients, 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, and 19 Academy Award winners. The university has produced seven heads of state or government; five chief justices, including Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren; 21 cabinet-level officials; 11 governors; and 25 living billionaires. It is also a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars, MacArthur Fellows, and Marshall Scholars. Berkeley alumni, widely recognized for their entrepreneurship, have founded many notable companies.

    Berkeley’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA, primarily in the Pac-12 Conference, and are collectively known as the California Golden Bears. The university’s teams have won 107 national championships, and its students and alumni have won 207 Olympic medals.

    Made possible by President Lincoln’s signing of the Morrill Act in 1862, the University of California was founded in 1868 as the state’s first land-grant university by inheriting certain assets and objectives of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College. Although this process is often incorrectly mistaken for a merger, the Organic Act created a “completely new institution” and did not actually merge the two precursor entities into the new university. The Organic Act states that the “University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions”.

    Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the fledgling university when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings, a trustee of the College of California, suggested that a new campus site north of Oakland be named in honor of Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. The university began admitting women the following year. In 1870, Henry Durant, founder of the College of California, became its first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students.

    Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan.

    20th century

    In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which ultimately became the University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.

    In 1917, one of the nation’s first ROTC programs was established at Berkeley and its School of Military Aeronautics began training pilots, including Gen. Jimmy Doolittle. Berkeley ROTC alumni include former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Army Chief of Staff Frederick C. Weyand as well as 16 other generals. In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval ROTC unit at Berkeley.

    In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US)) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Using the cyclotron, Berkeley professors and Berkeley Lab researchers went on to discover 16 chemical elements—more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg’s then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. Physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley founded and was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).

    By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard University (US) in the number of distinguished departments.

    In 1952, the University of California reorganized itself into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with each campus given its own chancellor, and Clark Kerr became Berkeley’s first Chancellor, while Sproul remained in place as the President of the University of California.

    Berkeley gained a worldwide reputation for political activism in the 1960s. In 1964, the Free Speech Movement organized student resistance to the university’s restrictions on political activities on campus—most conspicuously, student activities related to the Civil Rights Movement. The arrest in Sproul Plaza of Jack Weinberg, a recent Berkeley alumnus and chair of Campus CORE, in October 1964, prompted a series of student-led acts of formal remonstrance and civil disobedience that ultimately gave rise to the Free Speech Movement, which movement would prevail and serve as precedent for student opposition to America’s involvement in the Vietnam War.

    In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was established on campus with support from the National Science Foundation and at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians — Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.

    21st century

    In the current century, Berkeley has become less politically active and more focused on entrepreneurship and fundraising, especially for STEM disciplines.

    Modern Berkeley students are less politically radical, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives than in the 1960s and 70s. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1. On the whole, Democrats outnumber Republicans on American university campuses by a ratio of 10:1.

    In 2007, the Energy Biosciences Institute was established with funding from BP and Stanley Hall, a research facility and headquarters for the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, opened. The next few years saw the dedication of the Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, funded by a lead gift from billionaire Li Ka-shing; the opening of Sutardja Dai Hall, home of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society; and the unveiling of Blum Hall, housing the Blum Center for Developing Economies. Supported by a grant from alumnus James Simons, the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing was established in 2012. In 2014, Berkeley and its sister campus, Univerity of California-San Fransisco (US), established the Innovative Genomics Institute, and, in 2020, an anonymous donor pledged $252 million to help fund a new center for computing and data science.

    Since 2000, Berkeley alumni and faculty have received 40 Nobel Prizes, behind only Harvard and MIT among US universities; five Turing Awards, behind only Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) and Stanford; and five Fields Medals, second only to Princeton University (US). According to PitchBook, Berkeley ranks second, just behind Stanford University, in producing VC-backed entrepreneurs.

    UC Berkeley Seal

  • richardmitnick 9:33 pm on May 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Discovery of new geologic process calls for changes to plate tectonic cycle", Istanbul Technical University [İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi] (TR), phys.org, The researchers arrived at the results following a mysterious observation of major extension of rocks in alpine regions in Italy and Turkey.,   

    From University of Toronto (CA) with Istanbul Technical University [İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi] (TR) via phys.org : “Discovery of new geologic process calls for changes to plate tectonic cycle” 

    From University of Toronto (CA)



    Istanbul Technical University [İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi] (TR)



    May 11, 2021

    Elements of a newly discovered process in plate tectonics include a mass (rock slab weight), a pulley (trench), a dashpot (microcontinent), and a string (oceanic plate) that connects these elements to each other. In the initial state, the microcontinent drifts towards the subduction zone (Figure a). The microcontinent then extends during its journey to the subduction trench owing to the tensional force applied by the pull of the rock slab pull across the subduction zone (Figure b). Finally, the microcontinent accretes to the overriding plate and resists subduction due to its low density, causing the down-going slab to break off (Figure c). Credit: Erkan Gün/University of Toronto.

    Geoscientists at the University of Toronto (U of T) and Istanbul Technical University [İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi] (TR) have discovered a new process in plate tectonics which shows that tremendous damage occurs to areas of Earth’s crust long before it should be geologically altered by known plate-boundary processes, highlighting the need to amend current understandings of the planet’s tectonic cycle.

    Plate tectonics, an accepted theory for over 60 years that explains the geologic processes occurring below the surface of Earth, holds that its outer shell is fragmented into continent-sized blocks of solid rock, called “plates,” that slide over Earth’s mantle, the rocky inner layer above the planet’s core. As the plates drift around and collide with each other over million-years-long periods, they produce everything from volcanoes and earthquakes to mountain ranges and deep ocean trenches, at the boundaries where the plates collide.

    Now, using supercomputer modelling, the researchers show that the plates on which Earth’s oceans sit are being torn apart by massive tectonic forces even as they drift about the globe. The findings are reported in a study published this week in Nature Geoscience.

    The thinking up to now focused only on the geological deformation of these drifting plates at their boundaries after they had reached a subduction zone, such as the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean where the massive Pacific plate dives beneath the smaller Philippine plate and is recycled into Earth’s mantle.

    The new research shows much earlier damage to the drifting plate further away from the boundaries of two colliding plates, focused around zones of microcontinents—continental crustal fragments that have broken off from main continental masses to form distinct islands often several hundred kilometers from their place of origin.

    “Our work discovers that a completely different part of the plate is being pulled apart because of the subduction process, and at a remarkably early phase of the tectonic cycle,” said Erkan Gün, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Earth Sciences in the Faculty of Arts & Science at U of T and lead author of the study.

    The researchers term the mechanism a “subduction pulley” where the weight of the subducting portion that dives beneath another tectonic plate, pulls on the drifting ocean plate and tears apart the weak microcontinent sections in an early phase of potentially significant damage.

    “The damage occurs long before the microcontinent fragment reaches its fate to be consumed in a subduction zone at the boundaries of the colliding plates,” said Russell Pysklywec, professor and chair of the Department of Earth Sciences at U of T, and a coauthor of the study. He says another way to look at it is to think of the drifting ocean plate as an airport baggage conveyor, and the microcontinents are like pieces of luggage travelling on the conveyor.

    “The conveyor system itself is actually tearing apart the luggage as it travels around the carousel, before the luggage even reaches its owner.”

    The researchers arrived at the results following a mysterious observation of major extension of rocks in alpine regions in Italy and Turkey. These observations suggested that the tectonic plates that brought the rocks to their current location were already highly damaged prior to the collisional and mountain-building events that normally cause deformation.

    “We devised and conducted computational Earth models to investigate a process to account for the observations,” said Gün. “It turned out that the temperature and pressure rock histories that we measured with the virtual Earth models match closely with the enigmatic rock evolution observed in Italy and Turkey.”

    According to the researchers, the findings refine some of the fundamental aspects of plate tectonics and call for a revised understanding of this fundamental theory in geoscience.

    “Normally we assume—and teach—that the ocean plate conveyor is too strong to be damaged as it drifts around the globe, but we prove otherwise,” said Pysklywec.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Toronto (CA) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen’s Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King’s College, the oldest university in the province of Ontario.

    Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution.

    As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history. The university also operates two satellite campuses located in Scarborough and Mississauga.

    University of Toronto has evolved into Canada’s leading institution of learning, discovery and knowledge creation. We are proud to be one of the world’s top research-intensive universities, driven to invent and innovate.

    Our students have the opportunity to learn from and work with preeminent thought leaders through our multidisciplinary network of teaching and research faculty, alumni and partners.

    The ideas, innovations and actions of more than 560,000 graduates continue to have a positive impact on the world.

    Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School.

    The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first electron microscope in North America; the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1; multi-touch technology, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness.

    The university was one of several universities involved in early research of deep learning. It receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities (US) outside the United States, the other being McGill(CA).

    The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with ties to gridiron football, rowing and ice hockey. The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto’s University College in November 1861.

    The university’s Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.

    The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, three foreign leaders, and fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court. As of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.

    Early history

    The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada and founder of York, the colonial capital. As an University of Oxford (UK)-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States. The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York.

    On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming “from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University … for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature … to continue for ever, to be called King’s College.” The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college’s first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen’s Park.

    Under Strachan’s stewardship, King’s College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy’s control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of the Province of Canada voted to rename King’s College as the University of Toronto and severed the school’s ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866. The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.

    Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843 medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees. The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884.

    A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges including Strachan’s Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions. The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada’s first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean was Canada’s first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools.

    World wars and post-war years

    The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted. Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held. The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935 followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949. The university opened satellite campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. The university’s former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph (CA) in 1964 and York University (CA) in 1965 respectively. Beginning in the 1980s reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.

    Since 2000

    In 2000 Kin-Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination. In 2017 a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns. In 2018 the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and antisemitism in an internal investigation after a complaint was filed by one of its students.

    The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than c. $1 billion in 2007. On September 24, 2020 the university announced a $250 million gift to the Faculty of Medicine from businessman and philanthropist James C. Temerty- the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history. This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when Gerry Schwartz and Heather Reisman jointly donated $100 million for the creation of a 750,000-square foot innovation and artificial intelligence centre.


    Since 1926 the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities (US) a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010. In 2018 the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $1,147.584 million in 2017. In the same year the university’s faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $428,200 while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $63,700. The federal government was the largest source of funding with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations- mostly in the healthcare industry.

    The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II the university developed the G-suit- a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots later adopted for use by astronauts.Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963 the asteroid 2104 Toronto was discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory (CA) in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972 studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes. Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax; the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III; and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology the university designed and built UTEC- one of the world’s first operational computers- and later purchased Ferut- the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013 was developed by the university’s team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.

    The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963 forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia; brain tumors; and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index; the infant cereal Pablum; the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery; and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker. The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981 followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988; and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division and discovered the T-cell receptor which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia; cystic fibrosis; and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972 the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories- now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.

    The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world’s largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the university grounds in Toronto’s Discovery District conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university’s technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.

  • richardmitnick 12:05 pm on May 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New sub-Neptune exoplanet discovered by astronomers", , , , , , Newly found alien world designated TOI-269 b, phys.org   

    From phys.org : “New sub-Neptune exoplanet discovered by astronomers” 

    From phys.org

    May 10, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    TESS target pixel file image of TOI-269 in Sector 3. Credit: Cointepas et al., 2021.

    A team of astronomers from the Grenoble Alps University [Université Grenoble Alpes] (FR) and elsewhere, reports the detection of a new sub-Neptune exoplanet orbiting an M dwarf star. The newly found alien world, designated TOI-269 b, is nearly three times larger than the Earth. The finding was detailed in a paper published April 30 in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is conducting a survey of about 200,000 of the brightest stars near the sun with the aim of searching for transiting exoplanets. So far, it has identified nearly 2,700 candidate exoplanets (TESS Objects of Interest, or TOI), of which 125 have been confirmed so far.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) TESS

    Additional partners include Northrop Grumman, based in Falls Church, Virginia; NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley; the Center for Astrophysics – Harvard and Smithsonian; MIT Lincoln Laboratory; and the NASA Space Telescope Science Institute (US) in Baltimore.

    TOI-269 (also known as TIC 220479565) is an M dwarf located some 186 light years away from the Earth. It has a spectral type of M2V, radius of about 0.4 solar radii and mass of approximately 0.39 solar masses. The star’s effective temperature is estimated to be some 3,500 K, while its metallicity is at a level of around -0.29.

    TOI-269 was observed by the TESS spacecraft between September 2018 and July 2019, which resulted in the identification of a transit signal in its light curve. Now, using various ground-based telescopes, including the Exoplanets in Transits and their Atmospheres (ExTrA) facility at La Silla Observatory in Chile, a group of astronomers led by Marion Cointepas has confirmed the planetary nature of this signal.

    “We present the confirmation of a new sub-Neptune close to the transition between super-Earths and sub-Neptunes transiting the M2 dwarf TOI-269,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    The newly detected alien world has a radius of about 2.77 Earth radii, is 8.8 times more massive than our planet and orbits its host every 3.7 days. The observations show that TOI-269 b is separated by around 0.0345 AU from the parent star and its equilibrium temperature is most likely at a level of 530 K.

    What is interesting is that TOI-269 b has an unusually high orbital eccentricity—approximately 0.425. This is one of the highest eccentricities among the known extrasolar planets with periods below 10 days and suggests that the object may have recently arrived in its position.

    “We surmise TOI-269 b may have acquired its high eccentricity as it migrated inward through planet-planet interactions,” the astronomers wrote in the study.

    Moreover, the density of TOI-269 b, calculated to be some 2.28 g/cm3, is significantly lower than the typical density of rock planets and indicates the presence of a volatile envelope. Such low density and its other properties make it an interesting target for atmospheric characterization in order to compare it with other sub-Neptunes. In particular, the authors of the paper propose to probe the atmosphere of TOI-269 b with transmission spectroscopy to shed more light on its composition.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

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  • richardmitnick 12:43 pm on May 6, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , phys.org, University of Oldenburg [Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg] (DE)   

    From phys.org : “Homing in on the smallest possible laser” 

    From phys.org

    In their experiments, the resesearchers used ultrathin crystals consisting of a single layer of atoms. These sheet was sandwiched between two layers of mirror-like materials. The whole structure acts like a cage for light and is called a “microcavity”. This setup was cooled to a few degrees above absolute zero. The researchers stimulated the crystal in the middle by short pulses of laser light (not shown). A sudden increase in the light emissions from the sample (red) indicated that a Bose-Einstein Condensate out of exciton-polaritons had been formed. Credit: Johannes Michl.

    At extremely low temperatures, matter often behaves differently than in normal conditions. At temperatures only a few degrees above absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius), physical particles may give up their independence and merge for a short time into a single object in which all the particles share the same properties. Such structures are known as Bose-Einstein Condensates, and they represent a special aggregate state of matter.

    An international team of researchers led by physicists Dr. Carlos Anton-Solanas and Professor Christian Schneider from the University of Oldenburg [Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg] (DE) has now succeeded for the first time in generating this unusual quantum state in charge carrier complexes that are closely linked to light particles and located in ultrathin semiconductor sheets consisting of a single layer of atoms. As the team reports in the scientific journal Nature Materials, this process produces light similar to that generated by a laser. This means that the phenomenon could be used to create the smallest possible solid-state lasers.

    The work is the result of a collaboration between the Oldenburg researchers and the research groups of Professor Sven Höfling and Professor Sebastian Klembt from the University of Oldenburg [Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg] (DE), Professor Sefaattin Tongay from Arizona State University (U.S.), Professor Alexey Kavokin from Westlake University [ 西湖大学] (CN) , and Professor Takashi Taniguchi and Professor Kenji Watanabe from the National Institute for Materials Science [物質・材料研究機構] (JP).

    The study focuses on quasi particles that consist of both matter and light, known as exciton-polaritons—the product of strong couplings between excited electrons in solids and light particles (photons). They form when electrons are stimulated by laser light into a higher energy state. After a short time in the order of one trillionth of a second, the electrons return to their ground state by re-emitting light particles.

    When these particles are trapped between two mirrors, they can in turn excite new electrons—a cycle that repeats until the light particle escapes the trap. The light-matter hybrid particles that are created in this process are called exciton-polaritons. They combine interesting properties of electrons and photons and behave in a similar way to certain physical particles called bosons. “Devices that can control these novel light-matter states hold the promise of a technological leap in comparison with current electronic circuits,” said lead author Anton-Solanas, a postdoctoral researcher in the Quantum Materials Group at the University of Oldenburg’s Institute of Physics. Such optoelectronic circuits, which operate using light instead of electric current, could be better and faster at processing information than today’s processors.

    In the new study, the team led by Anton-Solanas and Schneider looked at exciton-polaritons in ultrathin crystals consisting of a single layer of atoms. These two-dimensional crystals often have unusual physical properties. For example, the semiconductor material used here, molybdenum diselenide, is highly reactive to light.

    The researchers constructed sheets of molybdenum diselenide less than one nanometre (a billionth of a meter) thick and sandwiched the two-dimensional crystal between two layers of other materials that reflect light particles like mirrors do. “This structure acts like a cage for light,” Anton-Solanas explained. Physicists call it a “microcavity.”

    Anton-Solanas and his colleagues cooled their setup to a few degrees above absolute zero and stimulated the formation of exciton-polaritons using short pulses of laser light. Above a certain intensity they observed a sudden increase in the light emissions from their sample. This, together with other evidence, allowed them to conclude that they had succeeded in creating a Bose-Einstein Condensate out of exciton-polaritons.

    “In theory, this phenomenon could be used to construct coherent light sources based on just a single layer of atoms,” said Anton-Solanas. “This would mean we had created the smallest possible solid-state laser.” The researchers are confident that with other materials the effect could also be produced at room temperature, so that in the long term it would also be suitable for practical applications. The team’s first experiments heading in this direction have already been successful.

    See the full article here .


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    About Science X in 100 words
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  • richardmitnick 7:45 pm on May 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Study investigates chemical properties of globular cluster NGC 1261", , , , , phys.org,   

    From U Heidelberg [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE) via phys.org : “Study investigates chemical properties of globular cluster NGC 1261” 

    U Heidelberg bloc

    From U Heidelberg [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE)



    May 3, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    CMD of NGC 1261 from the photometry of Kravtsov et al. (2010, left panel) and Kiel diagram (right panel). The two investigated stars are indicated as red symbols. Credit: Koc-Hansen et al., 2021.

    Using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph, astronomers have conducted a chemical abundance study of a galactic globular cluster known as NGC 1261. Results of the research, published April 22 for Astronomy & Astrophysics, provide insights into chemical composition of this cluster.

    Globular clusters (GCs) are collections of tightly bound stars orbiting galaxies. Astronomers perceive them as natural laboratories enabling studies on the evolution of stars and galaxies. In particular, globular clusters could help researchers better understand the formation history and evolution of early type galaxies, as the origin of GCs seems to be closely linked to periods of intense star formation.

    At a distance of some 53,000 light years, NGC 1261 is a GC in the Milky Way’s outer halo. The cluster is 10.3 billion years old, has a mass of about 341,000 solar masses, and metallicity at a level of -1.38. The chemical composition of NGC 1261 is still poorly understood, however some studies managed to determine abundance ratios for over 20 elements and suggested that multiple stellar populations may be present in this GC.

    A team of astronomers led by Andreas J. Koc-Hansen of the Heidelberg University, Germany, decided to take a closer look at NGC 1261, focusing on its chemical properties. By employing the MIKE spectrograph mounted on the 6.5 m Magellan2/Clay Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, they performed a chemical abundance analysis of this cluster.

    MIKE allowed the researchers to measure 31 species of 29 elements in two stars of NGC 1261, by conducting a standard analysis based on equivalent width (EW) measurements and spectral synthesis. The results suggest that the cluster is moderately metal poor—with a metallicity of approximately -1.26. However, despite its relatively low metallicity, it showcases heavy element abundances that are consistent with r-process nucleosynthesis.

    “In particular the Eu-overabundance quantitatively suggests that one single r-process event, such as a neutron-star neutron-star merger or a rare kind of supernova, can be responsible for the stellar enhancement or even the cluster’s enrichment with the excess r-material,” the scientists noted.

    Moreover, the study found that the light elements like sodium (Na), oxygen (O), magnesium (Mg), and aluminum (Al) differ significantly between the two investigated stars, in contrast to the majority of other elements with smaller scatter. This supports the scenario that multiple generations of stars coexis in NGC 1261.

    All in all, the results of the study provide some hints regarding the origin of NGC 1261. According to the authors of the paper, this GC was born in the Gaia-Enceladus galaxy and has been subsequently accreted into the galactic halo. It is assumed that Gaia-Enceladus merged with the Milky Way between 8 and 11 billion years ago. The researchers added that in general NGC 1261 appears chemically very similar to Gaia-Enceladus in that it occupies the same mean metallicity and alpha-enhancement.

    “Thus far, the merger-GC ties are likely, but to further sculpt this picture, the addition of a chemical abundance space is imperative,” they concluded.

    See the full article here .


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    U Heidelberg Campus

    Founded in 1386, From U Heidelberg [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE) , a state university of BadenWürttemberg, is Germany’s oldest university. In continuing its timehonoured tradition as a research university of international standing the Ruprecht-Karls-University’s mission is guided by the following principles:
    Firmly rooted in its history, the University is committed to expanding and disseminating our knowledge about all aspects of humanity and nature through research and education. The University upholds the principle of freedom of research and education, acknowledging its responsibility to humanity, society, and nature.

  • richardmitnick 7:06 pm on May 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What on earth? Fragments of ancient ocean floor- Earth's inner mantle identified in Baltimore-area rocks", , , , phys.org   

    From Johns Hopkins University via phys.org : “What on earth? Fragments of ancient ocean floor- Earth’s inner mantle identified in Baltimore-area rocks” 

    From Johns Hopkins University



    May 3, 2021
    Jean Marbella

    Credit: CC0 Public Domain.

    Separately and to the untrained eye, they are not particularly distinguished rocks—the backdrop to several holes at the Forest Park Golf Course, part of an excavation to improve the water system at Lake Ashburton, or left behind in abandoned quarries and mines around the area.

    But new research has concluded they are part of a geological upheaval hundreds of millions of years ago, when the collision of the Earth’s tectonic plates thrust fragments of the floor and rocks of a now-vanished ocean up through the surface, where they remain to this day.

    It is not every day that the Baltimore area, not normally as geologically wondrous as a Grand Canyon or a Norwegian fjord, figures into such a finding.

    “We can’t see a huge amount of the geology because there’s a big ol’ city built on top of it,” said George Guice, the lead researcher and a geologist at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington. “These windows into the Earth’s crust are relatively rare.”

    Guice and a team that includes Johns Hopkins University geologists published their research in February in Geosphere, a journal of the Geological Society of America, and it drew a wider audience last week when National Geographic posted an article online about it.

    Geologists have long theorized that outcroppings in the area contain ophiolite fragments—parts of oceanic crust and the underlying layer of rocks known as the mantle that have been propelled onto land. But the researchers say this is the first time chemical analysis has provided evidence for that in this area.

    Beneath the science of all this is a mind-boggling geological story. It’s one in which continental masses collide into one another and break apart and oceans form and disappear, a world in continual, if exceedingly slow, flux and in which at one point, the Appalachians of the eastern United States were part of the same range as mountains in Scotland and Morocco.

    Guice’s research stems from his move two years ago to Washington, where he is a postdoctoral fellow at the Smithsonian’s natural history museum. A native of the Birmingham, England, area—”Peaky Blinders” territory, as he describes it, referring to the period British crime drama on Netflix—he scoped out the local rock situation, what was known about it, who had or was researching it.

    That and professional connections led him to take the train to Baltimore on “a swelteringly hot day” in August 2019 to meet geologists from Hopkins. At Penn Station, he realized he didn’t know who to look for, but then saw “a minibus full of various geologist-looking people.” (Apparently one giveaway: clothing with lots of pockets for pens and tools and such.)

    “We scooped him up and went straight to the field,” said Daniel Viete, an assistant professor in Hopkins’ earth and planetary sciences department.

    On “a whirlwind tour” of Baltimore rock formations, followed, of course, by an Orioles game at Camden Yards, the seeds of a research project started to take root.

    The group went on to take samples of rocks that are part of the Baltimore Mafic Complex, a band of intermittent outcroppings that extends from the metropolitan area northeast to the Pennsylvania line and was involved in the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. The samples came from five sites, including the Hollofield Quarry in the Patapsco Valley State Park and Soldiers Delight Natural Environment Area in Owings Mills, and were then analyzed for chemical signs that would indicate their origins.

    The research brought the deep, deep past into present-day life in these areas, such as at Lake Ashburton, where an ongoing project to build underground water tanks provided a pile of rocks for the geologists to rummage through, to the Forest Park golf course, where the rocks are such a part of the landscape that they are included in its logo.

    “Neat,” responded Ed Miller, the course’s golf pro, when he learned of the findings. The outcroppings draw even nongolfers to the municipal course—they like to picnic on them—and are akin to a sand trap or water hazard for those who do play, he said.

    “Not infrequently,” Miller said, “they’ll get the crooked shots.”

    At Soldiers Delight, the new study aligns with what “we’ve basically understood” about its unusual rock formations, said Laura Van Scoyoc, who heads the area’s group of volunteers, “that they were originally oceanic crust that got smushed up onto the land.”

    She and others say that while they welcome the new scholarship, they fear it may draw amateurs who decide to chisel out a souvenir piece of the Earth’s mantle.

    That’s neither cool nor legal at state-controlled areas like Soldiers Delight, where visitors should stay on trails to avoid trampling rare species, or the Patapsco park.

    “Public lands are completely off limits to help protect our shared natural resources,” the state Department of Natural Resources says on a webpage for amateur mineral hunters.

    For Hopkins’ Viete, the research took him full circle. When he moved to Baltimore five years ago, he quickly noticed similarities in some of the building materials to Scotland, where he previously had done research.

    “They have the same rocks,” he said.

    The ocean that produced the Baltimore ophiolite fragments is the long-gone Iapetus, named for the mythical father of Atlas. Around 460 million years ago, the Iapetus began closing as various continental masses converged and collided, and masses of rocks piled up to eventually form the Appalachians.

    The Baltimore area is part of a belt running from Alabama north to Newfoundland that was part of this formation.

    Less is known about the central and southern portion than the northern end, geologists say. That’s in part because in a place like Newfoundland, the rocks are much more exposed.

    Another contributing factor may simply be that it is a big world, billions of years in the making.

    “There’s a long list of outstanding questions in geology, more than the number of geologists,” said William Junkin, a geologist with Maryland Geological Survey.

    Junkin said state geologists have long cataloged and studied these rocks, and in the past developed good evidence working with available data at the time supporting theories of their origins. And indeed, the new research cites work from the 1970s of a state geologist, the late William Patrick Crowley.

    “We’re just thrilled to get new evidence that supports our past work,” Junkin said.

    Viete said he has secured funding for related research on the subject, in Baltimore and beyond, that he hopes will have the added benefit of expanding the view of his field—that it’s not just something found in the exotic, remote outposts of the planet where the geology is on glamorous display.

    “The cool thing about Baltimore is it’s very different from the others,” Viete said. “People don’t associate geology with an urban area. But the rocks here in Baltimore are just as cool.”

    See the full article here .


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    Johns Hopkins Unversity campus.

    The Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

  • richardmitnick 7:49 pm on April 28, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Helping symmetric quantum systems survive in an imperfect world", , Certain types of motion enjoy eternal stability against outside forces meaning that the earth's orbit will remain stable into the far future., In everyday life symmetry is often associated with the idea of beauty. This is equally true in physics., In Physics these laws tell us that nature will behave tomorrow much as it behaved yesterday., In the real world symmetries are frequently imperfect and outside influences have an impact on them., , Now collaborators from Macquarie University (AU); University of Bari Aldo Moro (IT); and Waseda University (JP) have identified similar behavior in quantum systems e.g. atoms and molecules., phys.org, , Robust symmetries are cornerstones in quantum physics which we can depend on in designing quantum devices., Symmetry principles of classical physics that help keep our solar system stable have an intriguing counterpart in the quantum world., The team has established rules for when the same kind of stability first defined in the 1960s can be relied on in the quantum world., The team hopes to identify design strategies for more robust quantum computing both in hardware and software., The whole program of quantum engineering today is about finding ways to constrain the evolution of quantum systems and prevent the dissipation of information from highly sensitive quantum states.   

    From Macquarie University (AU) via phys.org : “Helping symmetric quantum systems survive in an imperfect world” 

    From Macquarie University (AU)



    April 28, 2021

    Credit: Daniel Burgarth

    Symmetry principles of classical physics that help keep our solar system stable have an intriguing counterpart in the quantum world according to new research by a team of physicists from Australia Italy and Japan.

    In everyday life symmetry is often associated with the idea of beauty. This is equally true in physics, where it relates to the concept of conserved quantities (such as the conservation of energy, meaning energy cannot be created or destroyed). These laws tell us that nature will behave tomorrow much as it behaved yesterday: the earth will continue to rotate around the sun in a stable predictable motion.

    But in the real world symmetries are frequently imperfect and outside influences have an impact on them. In the solar system, the earth’s motion is perturbed by the weak gravity of thousands of other bodies. Motivated by questions like these, Kolmogorov, Arnold and Moser showed in the 1960s that certain types of motion enjoy eternal stability against these outside forces, meaning that the earth’s orbit will remain stable into the far future. This stability proof is a milestone in classical mechanics and permeates a number of concepts in physics.

    Now, collaborators from Macquarie University, Sydney and the University of Bari Aldo Moro [Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro] (IT) and Waseda University [早稲田大学] (JP), Tokyo have identified similar behavior in the dynamics of quantum systems such as atoms and molecules with imperfect symmetry.

    In a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team has established rules for when the same kind of stability first defined in the 1960s can be relied on in the quantum world.

    According to lead author Macquarie University’s Associate Professor Daniel Burgarth, “There is a formal distinction between fundamental, robust symmetries and accidental, fragile ones. The robust symmetries are cornerstones in quantum physics which we can depend on in designing quantum devices. Other symmetries are easily perturbed, and give a quantum system more freedom to undergo unpredictable, and usually undesirable, behavior.”

    Professor Kazuya Yuasa (Tokyo) explains, “Every quantum system is weakly coupled to numerous others. The whole program of quantum engineering today is about finding ways to constrain the evolution of quantum systems and prevent the dissipation of information from highly sensitive quantum states. By clarifying exactly which types of symmetries are most insensitive to this decay we hope to identify design strategies for more robust quantum computing both in hardware and software.”

    See the full article here .


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    Macquarie University campus

    Established in 1964, Macquarie University (AU)began as a bold experiment in higher education. Built to break from traditions: to be distinctive, progressive, and to be transformational. Today our pioneering history continues to be a source of inspiration as we celebrate our place among the best and brightest minds.

    Recognised internationally, Macquarie University is consistently ranked in the top two per cent of universities in the world* and within the top 10 in Australia*.

    Our research is leading the way in ground-breaking discoveries. Our academics are at the forefront of innovation and, as accomplished researchers, we are embracing the opportunity to tackle the big issues of our time.

    Led by the Vice-Chancellor, Professor S Bruce Dowton, Macquarie is home to five faculties. The fifth and newest – Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences – was formed in 2014. We are also home to some of Australia’s most exceptional facilities – hubs of innovation that unite our students, researchers, academics and partners to achieve extraordinary things.

    Discover our story.

  • richardmitnick 2:24 pm on April 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Complex organic molecules detected in the starless core Lynds 1521E", , , , , , phys.org, ,   

    From University of Arizona via phys.org : “Complex organic molecules detected in the starless core Lynds 1521E” 

    From University of Arizona



    L1521E: A map of the average line-of-sight dust temperature (color scale) and column density (contours) determined from SED fitting of Herschel Space Observatory. Credit: Scibelli et al., 2021.

    Using the ARO 12-m telescope, astronomers have investigated a young starless core known as Lynds 1521E (or L1521E). The study resulted in the detection of complex organic molecules in this object. The finding is detailed in a paper April 15 in MNRAS.

    Starless cores are dense, cold regions within interstellar molecular clouds. They represent the earliest observable stage of low-mass star formation. Observations show that even in such cold environments, complex organic molecules can be present. Finding these molecules in starless cores could help us better understand the processes of stellar formation and evolution.

    L1521E is a dynamically and chemically young starless core in the Taurus Molecular Cloud, one of the two known in this cloud. It has a modest central density of around 200,000−300,000 cm−3 and it is assumed that it can only have existed at its present density for less than 100,000 years, which makes it one of the youngest starless cores so far detected and an excellent object to study how complex organic molecules form.

    So a group of astronomers led by Samantha Scibelli of the University of Arizona searched for complex organic molecules in L1521E using the 12-meter telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), with promising results.

    “Molecular line observations were made with the ARO 12m telescope during three separate seasons, two years apart, using two different backend receivers. The first observing shifts between January 12, 2017 and April 27, 2017 with 10 tunings between 84 and 102 GHz (3.6 − 2.9mm),” the researchers explained.

    The observations detected dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), and vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). Additionally, the study identified eight transitions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and seven transitions of vinyl cyanide.

    The study confirmed that the estimated chemical age of L1521E is indeed young, as complex organic molecules first peak at about 60,000 years. This is consistent with the carbon monoxide (CO) depletion age of this starless core.

    The astronomers note that the detected abundances of complex organic molecules for L1521E are in general underestimated. This suggests that a desorption mechanism is missing, or the current description of the already considered mechanisms should be revised by further studies.

    All in all, the results obtained by the team seem to suggest that complex organic molecules observed in cold gas formed not only in gas-phase reactions, but also on surfaces of interstellar grains. The new findings could also have implications for future studies of starless cores.

    The detection of a rich COM [complex organic molecules] chemistry in young cold core L1521E presents an interesting challenge for future modeling efforts, requiring some type of unified approach combining cosmic-ray chemistry, reactive desorption and non-diffusive surface reactions,” the astronomers concluded.

    See the full article here .

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    As of 2019, the University of Arizona enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the UArizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). UArizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), the UArizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UArizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved the UArizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.


    UArizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. UArizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The UArizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. UArizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, UArizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. UArizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, the UArizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    UArizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    UArizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at UArizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at UArizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, the UArizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of UArizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.
    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on April 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A two-qubit engine powered by entanglement and local measurements", , , phys.org, , Saint Louis University(US),   

    From CNRS-The National Center for Scientific Research [Centre national de la recherche scientifique] (FR) and From University of Rochester (US) and From Saint Louis University(US) via phys.org : “A two-qubit engine powered by entanglement and local measurements” 

    From CNRS-The National Center for Scientific Research [Centre national de la recherche scientifique] (FR)


    From University of Rochester (US)


    From Saint Louis University(US)



    April 26, 2021

    Credit: Bresque et al.

    Researchers at Institut Néel-CNRS, University of Saint Louis and University of Rochester recently realized a two-qubit engine fueled by entanglement and local measurements. This engine’s unique design, outlined in a paper published in Physical Review Letters, could open up exciting possibilities for thermodynamics research and inform the development of new quantum technologies.

    “Our paper is based on a very simple and deep effect of quantum mechanics: Measuring a quantum system disturbs the system, i.e., changes its state in a random way,” Alexia Auffèves, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. “As an immediate consequence, the measuring device provides both energy and entropy to the quantum system, playing a role similar to a hot source fueling a thermal engine. The noticeable difference is that here, the fuel is not thermal, but quantum.”

    A few years ago, Auffèves and some of her colleagues at Institut Néel-CNRS introduced the proof of concept for a measurement-fueled engine based on a single qubit. This was the first of a series of proposals that revealed the energetic counterpart of measurement devices.

    So far, measurement processes were typically modeled using classical theoretical approaches. In their new paper, the researchers took a bold step forward by opening ‘the black box’ of measuring devices and looking at it from a quantum physics perspective.

    “We specifically considered the creation of quantum correlations between the system to measure and a ‘quantum meter,'” Auffeves said. “We tracked the energy and entropy flows along this process, unveiling the microscopic origin of the measurement fuel. This was the most important objective of our work.”

    In their study, Auffeves and her colleagues thus focused on so-called ‘composite systems.” Their analysis ultimately led to the design of a measurement-powered engine based on entangled qubits. In addition to local measurements, this engine is fueled by a physical phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. Entanglement occurs when a set of particles interact or remain connected such that the actions performed by one affect the other, even if there is a significant distance between them.

    The new engine proposed by the researchers has two qubits. A qubit is a quantum system with two energy states: the ground state |0> and the excited state |1>,

    “When a qubit is measured in |1>, one can deterministically extract a quantum of energy from it, dubbed a photon,” Auffèves said. “When the photon is released, the qubit is back to |0> by energy conservation. Respectively, when the qubit is in |0>, one can provide one photon to excite it in the |1> state.”

    Auffèves and her colleagues played with two qubits of different colors: a red one and a blue one. The red qubit exchanges red photons, while the blue one exchanges blue photons. Notably, the red qubit carries less energy than the blue qubit.

    The protocol used by the researchers initially provides a red photon to the red qubit, preparing |1a > while the blue qubit is |0b>. Subsequently, the qubits interact by exchanging photons with each other, becoming entangled.

    “We then measured the blue qubit,” Auffeves said. “If it is measured in |0b> we are back to the initial state, and the process restarts. If it is measured in |1b> a blue photon can be extracted. Since blue photons are more energetic than red ones, one gains energy from the process on average. As we show and analyze, this energy comes from the measuring device.”

    The measurement-powered engine proposed by Auffèves and her colleagues relies on a composite working substance, and entanglement plays a crucial role in its fueling mechanism. The researchers were able to carry out a quantitative assessment of the two physical resources brought by quantum measurement, namely information and fuel. In addition, they examined the effects of these resources on the engine’s performance.

    “Our findings provide new insights into the fundamental energetic resources at play when a quantum system is measured, or equivalently, when quantum correlations are created between a quantum system and a quantum meter,” Auffèves said. “Originally, these results are valid in the absence of a well-defined temperature as the only considered source of noise is measurement itself.”

    Auffèves and her colleagues were among the first to extend measurement-powered engines to composite working substances and to offer a microscopic interpretation of the fueling mechanism. Their findings could help to extend concepts related to thermodynamics to quantum sources of noise, such as those that can appear inside a cryostat.

    In the future, the researchers’ work could inspire other teams to realize similar engines. In addition, their study could open up an entirely new field of research, which they suggest could be called “quantum energetics.”

    “Our results shed new light on the measurement postulate in quantum mechanics,” Auffèves said. “Since this mechanism still feeds fundamental debates, one can hope that quantum energetics provides new measurable quantities to distinguish between the various interpretations of quantum mechanics. On a more applied side, the energetic footprints of quantum measurement and entanglement will have an impact on the energy cost of quantum technologies and their potential for scalability.”

    See the full article here.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    Saint Louis University (SLU) is a private Jesuit research university with campuses in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by Louis William Valentine DuBourg, it is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and the second-oldest Jesuit university in the United States. It is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

    From 2019–2020, SLU had an enrollment of 12,546 students, with an additional 7,101 students enrolled in its 1818 Advanced College Credit Program. The student body included 8,072 undergraduate students and 4,474 graduate students that represents all 50 states and more than 82 foreign countries. The university is classified as a Research II university by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.

    For more than 50 years, the university has maintained a campus in Madrid, Spain. The Madrid campus was the first freestanding campus operated by an American university in Europe and the first American institution to be recognized by Spain’s higher education authority as an official foreign university. The campus has 850 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 17 and a student-faculty ratio of 12:1.

    SLU’s athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s Division I and are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference.

    U Rochester

    The University of Rochester (US) is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester (US) enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation (US), Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world. The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy (US) supported national laboratory.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music (US) ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history university alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.


    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University(US) and the University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University (US).


    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.

    For the next 10 years the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century


    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at the university as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.


    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to the university during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music (US) was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The university award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, the university was invited to join the
    Association of American Universities(US) as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to the university after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 the University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s(US) endowment and the University of Texas (US) System’s Permanent University Fund. Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity the university’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response the University commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan

    In 1995 university president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in chemical engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, the university announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 the University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of the University and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.


    Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities (US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”. Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018. In 2008 Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018. Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Recently the university has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in biomedical engineering and optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus. Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. UR also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

    CNRS (FR) campus via Glassdoor

    CNRS-The National Center for Scientific Research [Centre national de la recherche scientifique](FR) is the French state research organisation and is the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

    In 2016, it employed 31,637 staff, including 11,137 tenured researchers, 13,415 engineers and technical staff, and 7,085 contractual workers. It is headquartered in Paris and has administrative offices in Brussels; Beijing; Tokyo; Singapore; Washington D.C.; Bonn; Moscow; Tunis; Johannesburg; Santiago de Chile; Israel; and New Delhi.

    The CNRS was ranked No. 3 in 2015 and No. 4 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    The CNRS operates on the basis of research units, which are of two kinds: “proper units” (UPRs) are operated solely by the CNRS, and “joint units” (UMRs – French: Unité mixte de recherche)[9] are run in association with other institutions, such as universities or INSERM. Members of joint research units may be either CNRS researchers or university employees (maîtres de conférences or professeurs). Each research unit has a numeric code attached and is typically headed by a university professor or a CNRS research director. A research unit may be subdivided into research groups (“équipes”). The CNRS also has support units, which may, for instance, supply administrative, computing, library, or engineering services.

    In 2016, the CNRS had 952 joint research units, 32 proper research units, 135 service units, and 36 international units.

    The CNRS is divided into 10 national institutes:

    Institute of Chemistry (INC)
    Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE)
    Institute of Physics (INP)
    Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3)
    Institute of Biological Sciences (INSB)
    Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences (INSHS)
    Institute for Computer Sciences (INS2I)
    Institute for Engineering and Systems Sciences (INSIS)
    Institute for Mathematical Sciences (INSMI)
    Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU)

    The National Committee for Scientific Research, which is in charge of the recruitment and evaluation of researchers, is divided into 47 sections (e.g. section 41 is mathematics, section 7 is computer science and control, and so on).Research groups are affiliated with one primary institute and an optional secondary institute; the researchers themselves belong to one section. For administrative purposes, the CNRS is divided into 18 regional divisions (including four for the Paris region).

    Some selected CNRS laboratories

    APC laboratory
    Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements
    Centre européen de calcul atomique et moléculaire
    Centre de Recherche et de Documentation sur l’Océanie
    CINTRA (joint research lab)
    Institut de l’information scientifique et technique
    Institut de recherche en informatique et systèmes aléatoires
    Institut d’astrophysique de Paris
    Institut de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire
    Institut Jean Nicod
    Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie
    Laboratoire d’Informatique, de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier
    Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems
    Laboratoire d’Informatique de Paris 6
    Laboratoire d’informatique pour la mécanique et les sciences de l’ingénieur
    Observatoire océanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer

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