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  • richardmitnick 10:31 pm on January 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", , , , , , In all but one case it is known that the stellar component is a massive hot star., In contrast the nature of the compact objects in these binary systems is usually not known., Nine known or suspected gamma-ray sources are in binary systems-compact objects orbiting a star with periodic releases of energy., Space based UV/Visible light Astronomy, The gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057-located about five thousand light-years away in our galaxy-is coincident with the hot optical star MWC 148 and an associated X-ray source., VHE-very high energy gamma rays   

    From The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) via phys.org: “The gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057” 

    From The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US)

    via

    phys.org

    January 17, 2022

    1
    Credit: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

    Gamma rays are the most energetic known form of electromagnetic radiation, with each gamma-ray being at least one hundred thousand times more energetic than an optical light photon. Very high energy (VHE) gamma rays pack energies a billion times this amount, or even more. Astronomers think that VHE gamma rays are produced in the environment of the winds or jets of the compact, ultra-dense remnant ashes of massive stars left behind from supernova explosions. There are two kinds of compact remnants: black holes and neutron stars (stars made up predominantly of neutrons, with densities equivalent to the mass of the Sun packed into a volume about 10 kilometers in radius). The winds or jets from the environments of such objects can accelerate charged particles to very close to the speed of light, and radiation that scatters off such energetic particles can become energized, as well, sometimes turning into VHE gamma rays.

    Nine known or suspected gamma-ray sources are in binary systems, compact objects orbiting a star with periodic releases of energy. Every member of this class has its own unique characteristics but in all but one case it is known that the stellar component is a massive hot star, often surrounded by an equatorial disk. In contrast the nature of the compact objects in these binary systems is usually not known. The gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057, located about five thousand light-years away in our galaxy, is coincident with the hot optical star MWC 148 and an associated X-ray source. In 2007 H.E.S.S. (The High Energy Stereoscopic System) discovered that this source emitted gamma rays, but in 2009 VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, located at the SAO’s Fred L. Whipple Observatory in Arizona) could not detect it and set a limit that showed the source was variable at gamma-ray energies.

    H.E.S.S. Čerenkov Telescope Array, located on the Cranz family farm, Göllschau, in Namibia, near the Gamsberg searches for cosmic rays, altitude, 1,800 m (5,900 ft).

    The University of Arizona (US) Veritas Four Čerenkov telescopes A novel gamma ray telescope under construction at the CfA Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (US), Mount Hopkins, Arizona (US), altitude 2,606 m 8,550 ft. A large project known as the Čerenkov Telescope Array, composed of hundreds of similar telescopes to be situated at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias ](ES) in the Canary Islands and Chile at European Southern Observatory Cerro Paranal(EU) site. The telescope on Mount Hopkins will be fitted with a prototype high-speed camera, assembled at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (US) and capable of taking pictures at a billion frames per second. Credit: Vladimir Vassiliev.

    Then in 2009, VERITAS and the MAGIC gamma-ray telescopes detected the source with enhanced emission.

    MAGIC Čerenkov telescopes at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Garfia, La Palma (ES), Altitude 2,396 m (7,861 ft).

    Around the same time observations taken with the Swift-XRT mission found that the source had a period in X-ray emission of about 321 days, establishing the binary nature of the object; radio observations found it had a jet a few astronomical units in length.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Neil Gehrels Swift X-ray, and UV/Visible light Observatory.

    CfA astronomer Wystan Benbow and a large international team probed the nature of the compact object in this binary system. They completed an analysis of 15 years of gamma-ray observations, as well as X-ray observations from a number of facilities. For the first time they were able to determine the orbital period in VHE emission, 316.7 days with an uncertainty of about 1.4 percent, and consistent with the period measured at other wavelengths. The strong correlation between the X-ray and gamma-ray behaviors suggests that a single population of rapidly moving charged particles is responsible for both, while the absence of a correlation with emission lines of atomic hydrogen implies that any variations in the hot star play a negligible role. The astronomers now are planning deeper, multi-year simultaneous multiwavelength observations to further characterize the emission and the source structure.

    Science paper:
    The Astrophysical Journal

    See the full article here .


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    The The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) combines the resources and research facilities of the Harvard College Observatory(US) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) under a single director to pursue studies of those basic physical processes that determine the nature and evolution of the universe. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution(US), founded in 1890. The Harvard College Observatory, founded in 1839, is a research institution of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University(US), and provides facilities and substantial other support for teaching activities of the Department of Astronomy.

    Founded in 1973 and headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the CfA leads a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, Earth and space sciences, as well as science education. The CfA either leads or participates in the development and operations of more than fifteen ground- and space-based astronomical research observatories across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the forthcoming Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory(US), one of NASA’s Great Observatories.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NSF (US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL) some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Chandra X-ray telescope(US).

    Hosting more than 850 scientists, engineers, and support staff, the CfA is among the largest astronomical research institutes in the world. Its projects have included Nobel Prize-winning advances in cosmology and high energy astrophysics, the discovery of many exoplanets, and the first image of a black hole. The CfA also serves a major role in the global astrophysics research community: the CfA’s Astrophysics Data System(ADS)(US), for example, has been universally adopted as the world’s online database of astronomy and physics papers. Known for most of its history as the “Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics”, the CfA rebranded in 2018 to its current name in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. The CfA’s current Director (since 2004) is Charles R. Alcock, who succeeds Irwin I. Shapiro (Director from 1982 to 2004) and George B. Field (Director from 1973 to 1982).

    The Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian is not formally an independent legal organization, but rather an institutional entity operated under a Memorandum of Understanding between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. This collaboration was formalized on July 1, 1973, with the goal of coordinating the related research activities of the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under the leadership of a single Director, and housed within the same complex of buildings on the Harvard campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CfA’s history is therefore also that of the two fully independent organizations that comprise it. With a combined lifetime of more than 300 years, HCO and SAO have been host to major milestones in astronomical history that predate the CfA’s founding.

    History of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)

    Samuel Pierpont Langley, the third Secretary of the Smithsonian, founded the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory on the south yard of the Smithsonian Castle (on the U.S. National Mall) on March 1,1890. The Astrophysical Observatory’s initial, primary purpose was to “record the amount and character of the Sun’s heat”. Charles Greeley Abbot was named SAO’s first director, and the observatory operated solar telescopes to take daily measurements of the Sun’s intensity in different regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, the observatory enabled Abbot to make critical refinements to the Solar constant, as well as to serendipitously discover Solar variability. It is likely that SAO’s early history as a solar observatory was part of the inspiration behind the Smithsonian’s “sunburst” logo, designed in 1965 by Crimilda Pontes.

    In 1955, the scientific headquarters of SAO moved from Washington, D.C. to Cambridge, Massachusetts to affiliate with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO). Fred Lawrence Whipple, then the chairman of the Harvard Astronomy Department, was named the new director of SAO. The collaborative relationship between SAO and HCO therefore predates the official creation of the CfA by 18 years. SAO’s move to Harvard’s campus also resulted in a rapid expansion of its research program. Following the launch of Sputnik (the world’s first human-made satellite) in 1957, SAO accepted a national challenge to create a worldwide satellite-tracking network, collaborating with the United States Air Force on Project Space Track.

    With the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) the following year and throughout the space race, SAO led major efforts in the development of orbiting observatories and large ground-based telescopes, laboratory and theoretical astrophysics, as well as the application of computers to astrophysical problems.

    History of Harvard College Observatory (HCO)

    Partly in response to renewed public interest in astronomy following the 1835 return of Halley’s Comet, the Harvard College Observatory was founded in 1839, when the Harvard Corporation appointed William Cranch Bond as an “Astronomical Observer to the University”. For its first four years of operation, the observatory was situated at the Dana-Palmer House (where Bond also resided) near Harvard Yard, and consisted of little more than three small telescopes and an astronomical clock. In his 1840 book recounting the history of the college, then Harvard President Josiah Quincy III noted that “…there is wanted a reflecting telescope equatorially mounted…”. This telescope, the 15-inch “Great Refractor”, opened seven years later (in 1847) at the top of Observatory Hill in Cambridge (where it still exists today, housed in the oldest of the CfA’s complex of buildings). The telescope was the largest in the United States from 1847 until 1867. William Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor to produce the first clear Daguerrotypes of the Moon (winning them an award at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London). Bond and his son, George Phillips Bond (the second Director of HCO), used it to discover Saturn’s 8th moon, Hyperion (which was also independently discovered by William Lassell).

    Under the directorship of Edward Charles Pickering from 1877 to 1919, the observatory became the world’s major producer of stellar spectra and magnitudes, established an observing station in Peru, and applied mass-production methods to the analysis of data. It was during this time that HCO became host to a series of major discoveries in astronomical history, powered by the Observatory’s so-called “Computers” (women hired by Pickering as skilled workers to process astronomical data). These “Computers” included Williamina Fleming; Annie Jump Cannon; Henrietta Swan Leavitt; Florence Cushman; and Antonia Maury, all widely recognized today as major figures in scientific history. Henrietta Swan Leavitt, for example, discovered the so-called period-luminosity relation for Classical Cepheid variable stars, establishing the first major “standard candle” with which to measure the distance to galaxies. Now called “Leavitt’s Law”, the discovery is regarded as one of the most foundational and important in the history of astronomy; astronomers like Edwin Hubble, for example, would later use Leavitt’s Law to establish that the Universe is expanding, the primary piece of evidence for the Big Bang model.

    Upon Pickering’s retirement in 1921, the Directorship of HCO fell to Harlow Shapley (a major participant in the so-called “Great Debate” of 1920). This era of the observatory was made famous by the work of Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin, who became the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy from Radcliffe College (a short walk from the Observatory). Payne-Gapochkin’s 1925 thesis proposed that stars were composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, an idea thought ridiculous at the time. Between Shapley’s tenure and the formation of the CfA, the observatory was directed by Donald H. Menzel and then Leo Goldberg, both of whom maintained widely recognized programs in solar and stellar astrophysics. Menzel played a major role in encouraging the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to move to Cambridge and collaborate more closely with HCO.

    Joint history as the Center for Astrophysics (CfA)

    The collaborative foundation for what would ultimately give rise to the Center for Astrophysics began with SAO’s move to Cambridge in 1955. Fred Whipple, who was already chair of the Harvard Astronomy Department (housed within HCO since 1931), was named SAO’s new director at the start of this new era; an early test of the model for a unified Directorship across HCO and SAO. The following 18 years would see the two independent entities merge ever closer together, operating effectively (but informally) as one large research center.

    This joint relationship was formalized as the new Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on July 1, 1973. George B. Field, then affiliated with UC Berkeley(US), was appointed as its first Director. That same year, a new astronomical journal, the CfA Preprint Series was created, and a CfA/SAO instrument flying aboard Skylab discovered coronal holes on the Sun. The founding of the CfA also coincided with the birth of X-ray astronomy as a new, major field that was largely dominated by CfA scientists in its early years. Riccardo Giacconi, regarded as the “father of X-ray astronomy”, founded the High Energy Astrophysics Division within the new CfA by moving most of his research group (then at American Sciences and Engineering) to SAO in 1973. That group would later go on to launch the Einstein Observatory (the first imaging X-ray telescope) in 1976, and ultimately lead the proposals and development of what would become the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra, the second of NASA’s Great Observatories and still the most powerful X-ray telescope in history, continues operations today as part of the CfA’s Chandra X-ray Center. Giacconi would later win the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for his foundational work in X-ray astronomy.

    Shortly after the launch of the Einstein Observatory, the CfA’s Steven Weinberg won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on electroweak unification. The following decade saw the start of the landmark CfA Redshift Survey (the first attempt to map the large scale structure of the Universe), as well as the release of the Field Report, a highly influential Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey chaired by the outgoing CfA Director George Field. He would be replaced in 1982 by Irwin Shapiro, who during his tenure as Director (1982 to 2004) oversaw the expansion of the CfA’s observing facilities around the world.

    Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics(US) Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(US) located near Amado, Arizona on the slopes of Mount Hopkins, Altitude 2,606 m (8,550 ft)

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne](EU)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) SOHO satellite. Launched in 1995.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) NASA Kepler Space Telescope (US)

    CfA-led discoveries throughout this period include canonical work on Supernova 1987A, the “CfA2 Great Wall” (then the largest known coherent structure in the Universe), the best-yet evidence for supermassive black holes, and the first convincing evidence for an extrasolar planet.

    The 1990s also saw the CfA unwittingly play a major role in the history of computer science and the internet: in 1990, SAO developed SAOImage, one of the world’s first X11-based applications made publicly available (its successor, DS9, remains the most widely used astronomical FITS image viewer worldwide). During this time, scientists at the CfA also began work on what would become the Astrophysics Data System (ADS), one of the world’s first online databases of research papers. By 1993, the ADS was running the first routine transatlantic queries between databases, a foundational aspect of the internet today.

    The CfA Today

    Research at the CfA

    Charles Alcock, known for a number of major works related to massive compact halo objects, was named the third director of the CfA in 2004. Today Alcock overseas one of the largest and most productive astronomical institutes in the world, with more than 850 staff and an annual budget in excess of $100M. The Harvard Department of Astronomy, housed within the CfA, maintains a continual complement of approximately 60 Ph.D. students, more than 100 postdoctoral researchers, and roughly 25 undergraduate majors in astronomy and astrophysics from Harvard College. SAO, meanwhile, hosts a long-running and highly rated REU Summer Intern program as well as many visiting graduate students. The CfA estimates that roughly 10% of the professional astrophysics community in the United States spent at least a portion of their career or education there.

    The CfA is either a lead or major partner in the operations of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, the Submillimeter Array, MMT Observatory, the South Pole Telescope, VERITAS, and a number of other smaller ground-based telescopes. The CfA’s 2019-2024 Strategic Plan includes the construction of the Giant Magellan Telescope as a driving priority for the Center.

    CFA Harvard Smithsonian Submillimeter Array on MaunaKea, Hawaii, USA, Altitude 4,205 m (13,796 ft).

    South Pole Telescope SPTPOL. The SPT collaboration is made up of over a dozen (mostly North American) institutions, including The University of Chicago (US); The University of California Berkeley (US); Case Western Reserve University (US); Harvard/Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (US); The University of Colorado, Boulder; McGill(CA) University, The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign;The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. It is funded by the National Science Foundation(US).

    Along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the CfA plays a central role in a number of space-based observing facilities, including the recently launched Parker Solar Probe, Kepler Space Telescope, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and HINODE. The CfA, via the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, recently played a major role in the Lynx X-ray Observatory, a NASA-Funded Large Mission Concept Study commissioned as part of the 2020 Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics (“Astro2020”). If launched, Lynx would be the most powerful X-ray observatory constructed to date, enabling order-of-magnitude advances in capability over Chandra.

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker. [/caption]

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)Solar Dynamics Observatory(US)

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (国立研究開発法人宇宙航空研究開発機構] (JP)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) HINODE spacecraft.

    SAO is one of the 13 stakeholder institutes for the Event Horizon Telescope Board, and the CfA hosts its Array Operations Center. In 2019, the project revealed the first direct image of a black hole.

    Messier 87*, The first image of the event horizon of a black hole. This is the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy Messier 87. Image via The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released on 10 April 2019 via National Science Foundation(US).

    The result is widely regarded as a triumph not only of observational radio astronomy, but of its intersection with theoretical astrophysics. Union of the observational and theoretical subfields of astrophysics has been a major focus of the CfA since its founding.

    In 2018, the CfA rebranded, changing its official name to the “Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian” in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. Today, the CfA receives roughly 70% of its funding from NASA, 22% from Smithsonian federal funds, and 4% from the National Science Foundation. The remaining 4% comes from contributors including the United States Department of Energy, the Annenberg Foundation, as well as other gifts and endowments.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:20 am on January 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Persistent radio source QRS121102 investigated in detail", "phys.org", A persistent radio source known as QRS121102 that is associated with the fast radio burst FRB 121102., , , , FRB 121102 is the first repeating fast radio burst detected and one of the most extensively studied FRB sources., , , , The physical nature of FRBs is yet unknown.   

    From The California Institute of Technology (US) via phys.org : “Persistent radio source QRS121102 investigated in detail” 

    Caltech Logo

    From The California Institute of Technology (US)

    via

    phys.org

    January 11, 2022
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    VLA images (in J2000 coordinates) of QRS121102 in seven epochs, with band indicated in parentheses. Credit: Ge Chen et al., 2022.

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)Karl G Jansky Very Large Array located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro. The VLA comprises twenty-eight 25-meter radio telescopes.

    Astronomers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have investigated a persistent radio source known as QRS121102 that is associated with the fast radio burst FRB 121102. Results of the study, published January 4 in The Astrophysical Journal, shed more light on the origin of this source and could help us better understand the nature of fast radio bursts.

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are intense bursts of radio emission lasting milliseconds and showcasing characteristic dispersion sweep of radio pulsars. The physical nature of these bursts is yet unknown, and astronomers consider a variety of explanations ranging from synchrotron maser emission from young magnetars in supernova remnants to cosmic string cusps.

    FRB 121102 is the first repeating fast radio burst detected and one of the most extensively studied FRB sources. It exhibits complex burst morphology, sub-burst downward frequency drifts, and also complex pulse phenomenology. FRB 121102 is also one of only two FRBs reported to be spatially associated with persistent radio emission of unknown origin.

    A team of astronomers led by Caltech’s Ge Chen took a closer look at this persistent radio source. For this purpose, they observed QRS121102 with the G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA)[above] and the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at the Keck Observatory.

    UCO Keck LRIS on Keck 1.

    W.M. Keck Observatory two ten meter telescopes operated by California Institute of Technology(US) and The University of California(US), at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii USA, altitude 4,207 m (13,802 ft). Credit: Caltech.

    “In this work, we investigated the origin of the persistent radio source, QRS121102, associated with FRB 121102. We present new VLA monitoring data (12 to 26 GHz) and new spectra from Keck/LRIS,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    The observations allowed the team to estimate the physical size of QRS121102. It was found that the emission radius is most likely between 0.1 and 1 light year. Such a relatively small size suggests a few compact radio source candidates, for instance, active galactic nuclei (AGN), pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), very young supernova remnants (SNRs) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows.

    Given that QRS121102 may be an AGN, the astronomers constrained the mass of the potential black hole. They found that this mass would be lower than 100,000 solar masses, which does not support the AGN scenario as this source is too faint in the X-ray for its calculated low black hole mass and bright radio emission.

    The radio luminosity of QRS121102, from 400 MHz to 10 GHz, was measured to be approximately 20 billion TW/Hz. Therefore, according to the researchers, this source is too luminous to be an SNR. It was added that QRS121102 is also too bright to be a long-duration GRB (LGRB) radio afterglow.

    Summing up the results, the researchers noted that it is too early to draw final conclusions regarding the true origin of QRS121102 and further observations are required in order to get more insights into the nature of this source.

    “We urge continued broadband radio monitoring of QRS121102 to search for long-term evolution, and the detailed evaluation of potential analogs that may provide greater insight into the nature of this remarkable, mysterious class of object,” the authors of the paper concluded.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Caltech campus

    The The California Institute of Technology (US) is a private research university in Pasadena, California. The university is known for its strength in science and engineering, and is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences.

    The California Institute of Technology was founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891 and began attracting influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes, and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1920. In 1934, The California Institute of Technology was elected to the Association of American Universities, and the antecedents of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US)’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which The California Institute of Technology continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán.

    The California Institute of Technology has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at The California Institute of Technology. Although The California Institute of Technology has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations. The The California Institute of Technology Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III’s Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SCIAC).

    As of October 2020, there are 76 Nobel laureates who have been affiliated with The California Institute of Technology, including 40 alumni and faculty members (41 prizes, with chemist Linus Pauling being the only individual in history to win two unshared prizes). In addition, 4 Fields Medalists and 6 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with The California Institute of Technology. There are 8 Crafoord Laureates and 56 non-emeritus faculty members (as well as many emeritus faculty members) who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies. Four Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Science or Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) as well as National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US). According to a 2015 Pomona College(US) study, The California Institute of Technology ranked number one in the U.S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD.

    Research

    The California Institute of Technology is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”. Caltech was elected to The Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with “very high” research activity, primarily in STEM fields. The largest federal agencies contributing to research are National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US); National Science Foundation(US); Department of Health and Human Services(US); Department of Defense(US), and Department of Energy(US).

    In 2005, The California Institute of Technology had 739,000 square feet (68,700 m^2) dedicated to research: 330,000 square feet (30,700 m^2) to physical sciences, 163,000 square feet (15,100 m^2) to engineering, and 160,000 square feet (14,900 m^2) to biological sciences.

    In addition to managing NASA-JPL/Caltech (US), The California Institute of Technology also operates the Caltech Palomar Observatory(US); the Owens Valley Radio Observatory(US);the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory(US); the W. M. Keck Observatory at the Mauna Kea Observatory(US); the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory at Livingston, Louisiana and Richland, Washington; and Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory(US) in Corona del Mar, California. The Institute launched the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at The California Institute of Technology in 2006; the Keck Institute for Space Studies in 2008; and is also the current home for the Einstein Papers Project. The Spitzer Science Center(US), part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center(US) located on The California Institute of Technology campus, is the data analysis and community support center for NASA’s Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope [no longer in service].

    The California Institute of Technology partnered with University of California at Los Angeles(US) to establish a Joint Center for Translational Medicine (UCLA-Caltech JCTM), which conducts experimental research into clinical applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer.

    The California Institute of Technology operates several Total Carbon Column Observing Network(US) stations as part of an international collaborative effort of measuring greenhouse gases globally. One station is on campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:46 am on January 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Too much heavy metal stops stars producing more", , , , , Many stars in the center of the Milky Way have high heavy metal content., The ARC Centres of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (AU)   

    From The ARC Centres of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (AU) via phys.org : “Too much heavy metal stops stars producing more” 

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    From The ARC Centres of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D (AU)

    via

    phys.org

    January 11, 2022

    1
    Many stars in the center of the Milky Way have high heavy metal content. Credit: Michael Franklin.

    Stars are giant factories that produce most of the elements in the universe—including the elements in us, and in Earth’s metal deposits. But how do stars produce changes over time?

    Two new papers published in MNRAS here and here shed light on how the youngest generation of stars will eventually stop contributing metals back to the universe.

    The authors are all members of ASTRO 3D, the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions. They are based at Monash University (AU), The Australian National University (AU), and The Space Telescope Science Institute (US).

    “We know the first two elements of the periodic table—hydrogen and helium—were created in the Big Bang,” says Amanda Karakas, first author of a paper studying metal-rich stars.

    “Over time, the stars that came after the Big Bang produce heavier elements.”

    These “metal-rich” stars, like our sun, spew out their products into space, enriching the composition of the galaxy over time.

    These objects affect us directly as around half of the carbon and all elements heavier than iron are synthesized by stars like our sun.

    About 90 percent of all the lead on Earth, for example, was made in low-mass stars that also produce elements such as strontium and barium.

    But this ability to produce more metals changes depending on the composition of a star at its birth. “Introducing just a tiny bit more metal into the stars’ gas has really large implications on their evolution,” says Giulia Cinquegrana. Her paper uses modeling from the earlier paper to study the chemical output of metal-rich stars.

    “We discovered that at a certain threshold of initial metal content in the gas, stars will stop sending more metals into the universe over their lifetime,” Cinquegrana says.

    The sun, born about 4.5 billion years ago, is a typical “middle-aged” star. It is “metal-rich” compared to the first stellar generations and has a heavy element content similar to many other stars in the center of the Milky Way.

    “Our papers predict the evolution of younger stars (most-recent generations) which are up to seven times more metal-rich than the sun,” says Karakas.

    “My simulations show that this really high level of chemical enrichment causes these stars to act quite weirdly, compared to what we believe is happening in the sun,” says Cinquegrana.

    “Our models of super metal-rich stars show that they still expand to become red giants and go on to end their lives as white dwarfs, but by that time they are not expelling any heavy elements. The metals get locked up in the white dwarf remnant,” she says.

    “But the process of stars constantly adding elements to the universe means that the make-up of the universe is always changing. In the far distant future, the distribution of elements will look very different to what we see now in our solar system,” says Karakas.

    The papers are published in MNRAS, issue Jan 2022 and Feb 2022.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (AU)

    Unifies over 200 world-leading astronomers to understand the evolution of the matter, light, and elements from the Big Bang to the present day.

    We are combining Australian innovative 3D optical and radio technology with new theoretical supercomputer simulations on a massive scale, requiring new big data techniques.

    Through our nationwide training and education programs, we are training young scientific leaders and inspiring high-school students into STEM sciences to prepare Australia for the next generation of telescopes: the Square Kilometre Array and the Extremely Large Optical telescopes.

    The objectives for the ARC Centres of Excellence (AU) are to to:

    Undertake highly innovative and potentially transformational research that aims to achieve international standing in the fields of research envisaged and leads to a significant advancement of capabilities and knowledge.

    Link existing Australian research strengths and build critical mass with new capacity for interdisciplinary, collaborative approaches to address the most challenging and significant research problems.

    Develop relationships and build new networks with major national and international centres and research programs to help strengthen research, achieve global competitiveness and gain recognition for Australian research

    Build Australia’s human capacity in a range of research areas by attracting and retaining, from within Australia and abroad, researchers of high international standing as well as the most promising research students.

    Provide high-quality postgraduate and postdoctoral training environments for the next generation of researchers.

    Offer Australian researchers opportunities to work on large-scale problems over long periods of time.

    Establish Centres that have an impact on the wider community through interaction with SKA Murchison Widefield Array (AU), Boolardy station in outback Western Australia, at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

    The Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory,on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples, in outback Western Australia will house up to 130,000 antennas like these and the associated advanced technologies.

    EDGES telescope in a radio quiet zone at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia, on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

    SKA ASKAP Pathfinder Radio Telescopehigher education institutes, governments, industry and the private and non-profit sector.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on January 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Our galaxy's most recent major collision", "phys.org", , Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus (GSE), , , , , The Small Magellanic Cloud   

    From The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) via phys.org : “Our galaxy’s most recent major collision” 

    From The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US)

    via

    phys.org

    1
    A photograph of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a nearby dwarf galaxy that is merging with the Milky Way. (The foreground globular cluster 47 Tucana is seen at the right.) Astronomers using the Gaia mission and the new H3 Survey of stars in the Milky Way’s halo have shown that the Galaxy’s last major merger was with a dwarf system known as Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus about 8-10 billion years ago, and about half of the stars in the galactic halo descend from that system. Credit: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

    lmc Large Magellanic Cloud. ESO’s VISTA telescope reveals a remarkable image of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Part of ESO’s Paranal Observatory the VLT Survey Telescope (VISTA) observes the brilliantly clear skies above the Atacama Desert of Chile. It is the largest survey telescope in the world in visible light, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    One of the characteristic features of modern cosmology is its description of how galaxies evolve: via a hierarchical process of colliding and merging with other systems. Nowhere in the universe do we have a clearer view of this buildup than in our own Milky Way. Currently one of our nearby neighbors, the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, is being tidally disrupted (a dwarf galaxy has less than about 1% of the stellar mass of a normal spiral galaxy like the Milky Way, and often much less). Two other nearby dwarfs, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (with about 1% and 0.7% of the stellar mass of the Milky Way, respectively) are falling towards us. Meanwhile streams of globular clusters encircle the Galaxy, marking the effects of prior mergers. The record of even more ancient mergers can be extracted from the positions and motions of stars in the Milky Way’s stellar halo, the roughly spherical distribution of stars (about one hundred thousand light-years in diameter) older than about 10-12 billion years. Meanwhile Andromeda, our nearest large neighboring galaxy, is about ten times farther away than these dwarfs; a merger with it is expected in another five billion years.

    Andromeda Galaxy Messier 31. Credit: Adam Evans.

    Milkdromeda with Andromeda on the left-Earth’s night sky in 3.75 billion years. No one will be here on Earth to see it. Maybe humans will have escaped the Sun’s becoming a Red Giant and observe it from a new home. Credit: NASA.

    The Gaia spacecraft was launched in 2013 with the goal of making a precise three-dimensional map of the Milky Way by surveying 1% of its approximately 100 billion stars.

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) GAIA satellite.

    CfA astronomers Rohan Naidu, Charlie Conroy, Ana Bonaca, Rainer Weinberger, Nelson Caldwell, Sandro Tacchella, Jiwon Han and Phillip Cargile and their team used Gaia results combined with a new survey of the outer reaches of our Galaxy with the 6.5m MMT telescope in AZ (the “H3 Survey”) to piece together the history of the Milky Way’s stars in unprecedented detail in order to determine the nature of the Galaxy’s last merger.

    MMT U Arizona Multi Mirror Telescope in Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, located near Amado, Arizona on the slopes of Mount Hopkins, Altitude 2,606 m (8,550 ft)

    Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory located near Amado, Arizona on the slopes of Mount Hopkins, Altitude 2,606 m (8,550 ft)

    he evidence was already convincing that a single dwarf galaxy merged with the Milky Way about 8-10 billion years ago. Known as Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus (GSE), what is left of the object today is inferred from the stars in the inner halo by their stellar motions and compositions. Still uncertain, however, was whether GSE collided with our galaxy head-on, or if instead it orbited the galaxy before gradually merging, and if so, what that orbit looked like.

    The astronomers addressed these questions by modeling Gaia’s measured halo stars with a set of numerical simulations coupled with a comparison to the stellar ages and compositions. They show that GSE contained about half a billion stars, and did not orbit the Milky Way but approached it moving in a retrograde direction (that is, opposite to the Galaxy’s rotational motion). They also conclude that roughly 50% of the Milky Way’s current stellar halo and about 20% of its dark matter halo descend from it. The Milky Way contains stars that are about 13 billion years old, although these may have been captured by the Galaxy after it formed. With the completion of this study, however, almost the entire growth of the Milky Way over the past ten billion years can be accounted for.

    The research was published in The Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US) combines the resources and research facilities of the Harvard College Observatory(US) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) under a single director to pursue studies of those basic physical processes that determine the nature and evolution of the universe. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory(US) is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution(US), founded in 1890. The Harvard College Observatory, founded in 1839, is a research institution of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University(US), and provides facilities and substantial other support for teaching activities of the Department of Astronomy.

    Founded in 1973 and headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the CfA leads a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, Earth and space sciences, as well as science education. The CfA either leads or participates in the development and operations of more than fifteen ground- and space-based astronomical research observatories across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the forthcoming Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory(US), one of NASA’s Great Observatories.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) NSF (US) NOIRLab(US) NOAO(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL) some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) Chandra X-ray telescope(US).

    Hosting more than 850 scientists, engineers, and support staff, the CfA is among the largest astronomical research institutes in the world. Its projects have included Nobel Prize-winning advances in cosmology and high energy astrophysics, the discovery of many exoplanets, and the first image of a black hole. The CfA also serves a major role in the global astrophysics research community: the CfA’s Astrophysics Data System(ADS)(US), for example, has been universally adopted as the world’s online database of astronomy and physics papers. Known for most of its history as the “Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics”, the CfA rebranded in 2018 to its current name in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. The CfA’s current Director (since 2004) is Charles R. Alcock, who succeeds Irwin I. Shapiro (Director from 1982 to 2004) and George B. Field (Director from 1973 to 1982).

    The Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian is not formally an independent legal organization, but rather an institutional entity operated under a Memorandum of Understanding between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. This collaboration was formalized on July 1, 1973, with the goal of coordinating the related research activities of the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under the leadership of a single Director, and housed within the same complex of buildings on the Harvard campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CfA’s history is therefore also that of the two fully independent organizations that comprise it. With a combined lifetime of more than 300 years, HCO and SAO have been host to major milestones in astronomical history that predate the CfA’s founding.

    History of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)

    Samuel Pierpont Langley, the third Secretary of the Smithsonian, founded the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory on the south yard of the Smithsonian Castle (on the U.S. National Mall) on March 1,1890. The Astrophysical Observatory’s initial, primary purpose was to “record the amount and character of the Sun’s heat”. Charles Greeley Abbot was named SAO’s first director, and the observatory operated solar telescopes to take daily measurements of the Sun’s intensity in different regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, the observatory enabled Abbot to make critical refinements to the Solar constant, as well as to serendipitously discover Solar variability. It is likely that SAO’s early history as a solar observatory was part of the inspiration behind the Smithsonian’s “sunburst” logo, designed in 1965 by Crimilda Pontes.

    In 1955, the scientific headquarters of SAO moved from Washington, D.C. to Cambridge, Massachusetts to affiliate with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO). Fred Lawrence Whipple, then the chairman of the Harvard Astronomy Department, was named the new director of SAO. The collaborative relationship between SAO and HCO therefore predates the official creation of the CfA by 18 years. SAO’s move to Harvard’s campus also resulted in a rapid expansion of its research program. Following the launch of Sputnik (the world’s first human-made satellite) in 1957, SAO accepted a national challenge to create a worldwide satellite-tracking network, collaborating with the United States Air Force on Project Space Track.

    With the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) the following year and throughout the space race, SAO led major efforts in the development of orbiting observatories and large ground-based telescopes, laboratory and theoretical astrophysics, as well as the application of computers to astrophysical problems.

    History of Harvard College Observatory (HCO)

    Partly in response to renewed public interest in astronomy following the 1835 return of Halley’s Comet, the Harvard College Observatory was founded in 1839, when the Harvard Corporation appointed William Cranch Bond as an “Astronomical Observer to the University”. For its first four years of operation, the observatory was situated at the Dana-Palmer House (where Bond also resided) near Harvard Yard, and consisted of little more than three small telescopes and an astronomical clock. In his 1840 book recounting the history of the college, then Harvard President Josiah Quincy III noted that “…there is wanted a reflecting telescope equatorially mounted…”. This telescope, the 15-inch “Great Refractor”, opened seven years later (in 1847) at the top of Observatory Hill in Cambridge (where it still exists today, housed in the oldest of the CfA’s complex of buildings). The telescope was the largest in the United States from 1847 until 1867. William Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor to produce the first clear Daguerrotypes of the Moon (winning them an award at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London). Bond and his son, George Phillips Bond (the second Director of HCO), used it to discover Saturn’s 8th moon, Hyperion (which was also independently discovered by William Lassell).

    Under the directorship of Edward Charles Pickering from 1877 to 1919, the observatory became the world’s major producer of stellar spectra and magnitudes, established an observing station in Peru, and applied mass-production methods to the analysis of data. It was during this time that HCO became host to a series of major discoveries in astronomical history, powered by the Observatory’s so-called “Computers” (women hired by Pickering as skilled workers to process astronomical data). These “Computers” included Williamina Fleming; Annie Jump Cannon; Henrietta Swan Leavitt; Florence Cushman; and Antonia Maury, all widely recognized today as major figures in scientific history. Henrietta Swan Leavitt, for example, discovered the so-called period-luminosity relation for Classical Cepheid variable stars, establishing the first major “standard candle” with which to measure the distance to galaxies. Now called “Leavitt’s Law”, the discovery is regarded as one of the most foundational and important in the history of astronomy; astronomers like Edwin Hubble, for example, would later use Leavitt’s Law to establish that the Universe is expanding, the primary piece of evidence for the Big Bang model.

    Upon Pickering’s retirement in 1921, the Directorship of HCO fell to Harlow Shapley (a major participant in the so-called “Great Debate” of 1920). This era of the observatory was made famous by the work of Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin, who became the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy from Radcliffe College (a short walk from the Observatory). Payne-Gapochkin’s 1925 thesis proposed that stars were composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, an idea thought ridiculous at the time. Between Shapley’s tenure and the formation of the CfA, the observatory was directed by Donald H. Menzel and then Leo Goldberg, both of whom maintained widely recognized programs in solar and stellar astrophysics. Menzel played a major role in encouraging the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to move to Cambridge and collaborate more closely with HCO.

    Joint history as the Center for Astrophysics (CfA)

    The collaborative foundation for what would ultimately give rise to the Center for Astrophysics began with SAO’s move to Cambridge in 1955. Fred Whipple, who was already chair of the Harvard Astronomy Department (housed within HCO since 1931), was named SAO’s new director at the start of this new era; an early test of the model for a unified Directorship across HCO and SAO. The following 18 years would see the two independent entities merge ever closer together, operating effectively (but informally) as one large research center.

    This joint relationship was formalized as the new Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on July 1, 1973. George B. Field, then affiliated with UC Berkeley(US), was appointed as its first Director. That same year, a new astronomical journal, the CfA Preprint Series was created, and a CfA/SAO instrument flying aboard Skylab discovered coronal holes on the Sun. The founding of the CfA also coincided with the birth of X-ray astronomy as a new, major field that was largely dominated by CfA scientists in its early years. Riccardo Giacconi, regarded as the “father of X-ray astronomy”, founded the High Energy Astrophysics Division within the new CfA by moving most of his research group (then at American Sciences and Engineering) to SAO in 1973. That group would later go on to launch the Einstein Observatory (the first imaging X-ray telescope) in 1976, and ultimately lead the proposals and development of what would become the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra, the second of NASA’s Great Observatories and still the most powerful X-ray telescope in history, continues operations today as part of the CfA’s Chandra X-ray Center. Giacconi would later win the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for his foundational work in X-ray astronomy.

    Shortly after the launch of the Einstein Observatory, the CfA’s Steven Weinberg won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on electroweak unification. The following decade saw the start of the landmark CfA Redshift Survey (the first attempt to map the large scale structure of the Universe), as well as the release of the Field Report, a highly influential Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey chaired by the outgoing CfA Director George Field. He would be replaced in 1982 by Irwin Shapiro, who during his tenure as Director (1982 to 2004) oversaw the expansion of the CfA’s observing facilities around the world.

    Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics(US) Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(US) located near Amado, Arizona on the slopes of Mount Hopkins, Altitude 2,606 m (8,550 ft)

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne](EU)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) SOHO satellite. Launched in 1995.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(US) NASA Kepler Space Telescope (US)

    CfA-led discoveries throughout this period include canonical work on Supernova 1987A, the “CfA2 Great Wall” (then the largest known coherent structure in the Universe), the best-yet evidence for supermassive black holes, and the first convincing evidence for an extrasolar planet.

    The 1990s also saw the CfA unwittingly play a major role in the history of computer science and the internet: in 1990, SAO developed SAOImage, one of the world’s first X11-based applications made publicly available (its successor, DS9, remains the most widely used astronomical FITS image viewer worldwide). During this time, scientists at the CfA also began work on what would become the Astrophysics Data System (ADS), one of the world’s first online databases of research papers. By 1993, the ADS was running the first routine transatlantic queries between databases, a foundational aspect of the internet today.

    The CfA Today

    Research at the CfA

    Charles Alcock, known for a number of major works related to massive compact halo objects, was named the third director of the CfA in 2004. Today Alcock overseas one of the largest and most productive astronomical institutes in the world, with more than 850 staff and an annual budget in excess of $100M. The Harvard Department of Astronomy, housed within the CfA, maintains a continual complement of approximately 60 Ph.D. students, more than 100 postdoctoral researchers, and roughly 25 undergraduate majors in astronomy and astrophysics from Harvard College. SAO, meanwhile, hosts a long-running and highly rated REU Summer Intern program as well as many visiting graduate students. The CfA estimates that roughly 10% of the professional astrophysics community in the United States spent at least a portion of their career or education there.

    The CfA is either a lead or major partner in the operations of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, the Submillimeter Array, MMT Observatory, the South Pole Telescope, VERITAS, and a number of other smaller ground-based telescopes. The CfA’s 2019-2024 Strategic Plan includes the construction of the Giant Magellan Telescope as a driving priority for the Center.

    CFA Harvard Smithsonian Submillimeter Array on MaunaKea, Hawaii, USA, Altitude 4,205 m (13,796 ft).

    South Pole Telescope SPTPOL. The SPT collaboration is made up of over a dozen (mostly North American) institutions, including The University of Chicago (US); The University of California Berkeley (US); Case Western Reserve University (US); Harvard/Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (US); The University of Colorado, Boulder; McGill(CA) University, The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign;The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. The University of California, Davis; Ludwig Maximilians Universität München(DE); DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory; and The National Institute for Standards and Technology. It is funded by the National Science Foundation(US).

    Along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the CfA plays a central role in a number of space-based observing facilities, including the recently launched Parker Solar Probe, Kepler Space Telescope, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and HINODE. The CfA, via the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, recently played a major role in the Lynx X-ray Observatory, a NASA-Funded Large Mission Concept Study commissioned as part of the 2020 Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics (“Astro2020”). If launched, Lynx would be the most powerful X-ray observatory constructed to date, enabling order-of-magnitude advances in capability over Chandra.

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)Solar Dynamics Observatory(US)

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (国立研究開発法人宇宙航空研究開発機構] (JP)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) HINODE spacecraft.

    SAO is one of the 13 stakeholder institutes for the Event Horizon Telescope Board, and the CfA hosts its Array Operations Center. In 2019, the project revealed the first direct image of a black hole.

    Messier 87*, The first image of the event horizon of a black hole. This is the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy Messier 87. Image via The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released on 10 April 2019 via National Science Foundation(US).

    The result is widely regarded as a triumph not only of observational radio astronomy, but of its intersection with theoretical astrophysics. Union of the observational and theoretical subfields of astrophysics has been a major focus of the CfA since its founding.

    In 2018, the CfA rebranded, changing its official name to the “Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian” in an effort to reflect its unique status as a joint collaboration between Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. Today, the CfA receives roughly 70% of its funding from NASA, 22% from Smithsonian federal funds, and 4% from the National Science Foundation. The remaining 4% comes from contributors including the United States Department of Energy, the Annenberg Foundation, as well as other gifts and endowments.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:37 pm on January 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers find the biggest structure in the Milky Way- A filament of hydrogen 3900 light-years long", "phys.org", The MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie] (DE)   

    From The MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie] (DE) via phys.org : “Astronomers find the biggest structure in the Milky Way- A filament of hydrogen 3900 light-years long” 

    Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (DE)

    From The MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie] (DE)

    via

    phys.org

    January 6, 2022

    1
    The section of the Milky Way, as measured by ESA’s Gaia satellite (top). The box marks the location of the “Maggie” filament and the false-color image of atomic hydrogen distribution (bottom), the red line indicating the “Maggie” filament. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC/T. Müller/J. Syed/MPIA

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) GAIA satellite.

    Roughly 13.8 billion years ago, our universe was born in a massive explosion that gave rise to the first subatomic particles and the laws of physics as we know them. About 370,000 years later, hydrogen had formed, the building block of stars, which fuse hydrogen and helium in their interiors to create all the heavier elements. While hydrogen remains the most pervasive element in the universe, it can be difficult to detect individual clouds of hydrogen gas in the interstellar medium (ISM).

    This makes it difficult to research the early phases of star formation, which would offer clues about the evolution of galaxies and the cosmos. An international team led by astronomers from the Max Planck Institute of Astronomy (MPIA) recently noticed a massive filament of atomic hydrogen gas in our galaxy. This structure, named Maggie, is located about 55,000 light-years away (on the other side of the Milky Way) and is one of the longest structures ever observed in our galaxy.

    The study that describes their findings, which recently appeared in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, was led by Jonas Syed, a Ph.D. student at the MPIA. He was joined by researchers from The University of Vienna [Universität Wien](AT), The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (US), The MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy[MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE), The University of Calgary (CA), The University of Heidelberg [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg](DE), The University of Kent Centre for astrophysics and planetary science, Argelander-Institut für Astronomie The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn](DE), The Indian Institute of Science [भारतीय विज्ञान संस्थान bhaarateey vigyaan sansthaan](IN), and NASA-JPL/Caltech (US).

    The research is based on data obtained by the HI/OH/Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR), an observation program that relies on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico.

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)Karl G Jansky Very Large Array located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro. The VLA comprises twenty-eight 25-meter radio telescopes.

    Using the VLA’s centimeter-wave radio dishes, this project studies molecular cloud formation, the conversion of atomic to molecular hydrogen, the galaxy’s magnetic field, and other questions related to the ISM and star formation.

    The ultimate purpose is to determine how the two most common hydrogen isotopes converge to create dense clouds that rise to new stars. The isotopes include atomic hydrogen (H), composed of one proton, one electron, and no neutrons, and molecular hydrogen (H2)—or Deuterium—is composed of one proton, one neutron and one electron. Only the latter condenses into relatively compact clouds that will develop frosty regions where new stars eventually emerge.


    The “Maggie” filament: Physical properties of a giant atomic cloud.
    Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

    The process of how atomic hydrogen transitions to molecular hydrogen is still largely unknown, which made this extraordinarily long filament an especially exciting find. Whereas the largest known clouds of molecular gas typically measure around 800 light-years in length, Maggie measures 3,900 light-years long and 130 light-years wide. As Syed explained in a recent MPIA press release:

    “The location of this filament has contributed to this success. We don’t yet know exactly how it got there. But the filament extends about 1600 light-years below the Milky Way plane. The observations also allowed us to determine the velocity of the hydrogen gas. This allowed us to show that the velocities along the filament barely differ.”

    The team’s analysis showed that matter in the filament had a mean velocity of 54 km/s-1, which they determined mainly by measuring it against the rotation of the Milky Way disk. This meant that radiation at a wavelength of 21 cm (aka the “hydrogen line”) was visible against the cosmic background, making the structure discernible. “The observations also allowed us to determine the velocity of the hydrogen gas,” said Henrik Beuther, the head of THOR and a co-author on the study. “This allowed us to show that the velocities along the filament barely differ.”

    From this, the researchers concluded that Maggie is a coherent structure. These findings confirmed observations made a year before by Juan D. Soler, an astrophysicist with the University of Vienna and co-author on the paper. When he observed the filament, he named it after the longest river in his native Colombia: the Río Magdalena (Anglicized: Margaret, or “Maggie”). While Maggie was recognizable in Soler’s earlier evaluation of the THOR data, only the current study proves beyond a doubt that it is a coherent structure.

    Based on previously published data, the team also estimated that Maggie contains 8 percent molecular hydrogen by a mass fraction. On closer inspection, the team noticed that the gas converges at various points along the filament, which led them to conclude that the hydrogen gas accumulates into large clouds at those locations. They further speculate that atomic gas will gradually condense into a molecular form in those environments.

    “However, many questions remain unanswered,” Syed added. “Additional data, which we hope will give us more clues about the fraction of molecular gas, are already waiting to be analyzed.” Fortunately, several space-based and ground-based observatories will become operational soon, telescopes that will be equipped to study these filaments in the future. These include the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and radio surveys like the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will allow us to view the very earliest period of the universe (“cosmic dawn”) and the first stars in our universe.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency(US)/European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU)/ Canadian Space Agency [Agence Spatiale Canadienne](CA) James Webb Infrared Space Telescope(US) annotated. Scheduled for launch in 2011 delayed to October 2021 finally launched December 25, 2021.

    SKA-Square Kilometer Array

    SKA ASKAP Pathfinder Radio Telescope.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About Science X in 100 words
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    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy campus, Heidelberg (DE)

    The MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie] (DE), MPIA) is a research institute of the MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] (DE). It is located in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany near the top of the Königstuhl, adjacent to the historic Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl astronomical observatory. The institute primarily conducts basic research in the natural sciences in the field of astronomy.

    In addition to its own astronomical observations and astronomical research, the Institute is also actively involved in the development of observation instruments. The instruments or parts of them are manufactured in the institute’s own workshops.

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the Max Planck Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) Max Planck Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The Max Planck Institutes focus on excellence in research. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the Max Planck institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard (US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), Stanford (US) and the National Institutes of Health (US)). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN), the Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the Max Planck Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The Max Planck Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History
    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.
    The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the Max Planck Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and the DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US).
    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.
    Max Planck Institutes and research groups
    The Max Planck Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.
    The Max Planck Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.
    Internally, Max Planck Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.
    In addition, there are several associated institutes:
    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:
    Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the MPG Institute for Intelligent Systems (DE) located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPG for Astronomy
    International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPG Institute for Astrophysics
    International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPG Institute for Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the MPG Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the MPG Institute for Developmental Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the MPG Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the MPG Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen (DE), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich[
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster (DE) and the MPG Institute for Molecular Biomedicine (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz (DE) and the MPG Institute for Ornithology (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at MPG Institute of Microstructure Physics (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science[49] at theUniversity of Göttingen – Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (DE) hosted by MPG Institute for Solar System Research [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at MPG Institute for Iron Research [MPG Institut für Eisenforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    International Max Planck Research Schools
    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:
    Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the MPG Institute for Intelligent Systems (DE) located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPG for Astronomy
    International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPG Institute for Astrophysics
    International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPG Institute for Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the MPG Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the MPG Institute for Developmental Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the MPG Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the MPG Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen (DE), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich[
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster (DE) and the MPG Institute for Molecular Biomedicine (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz (DE) and the MPG Institute for Ornithology (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at MPG Institute of Microstructure Physics (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science[49] at theUniversity of Göttingen – Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (DE) hosted by MPG Institute for Solar System Research [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at MPG Institute for Iron Research [MPG Institut für Eisenforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

     
  • richardmitnick 11:01 pm on January 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Matter and antimatter seem to respond equally to gravity", "phys.org", , , European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(EU) [CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment., , , , , RIKEN[理](JP)   

    From RIKEN[理](JP) via phys.org : “Matter and antimatter seem to respond equally to gravity” 

    RIKEN bloc

    From RIKEN[理](JP)

    via

    phys.org

    1
    Credit: CC0 Public Domain

    As part of an experiment to measure—to an extremely precise degree—the charge-to-mass ratios of protons and antiprotons, the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, has found that, within the uncertainty of the experiment, matter and antimatter respond to gravity in the same way.

    European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(EU) [CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    CERN BASE experiment

    Matter and antimatter create some of the most interesting problems in physics today. They are essentially equivalent, except that where a particle has a positive charge its antiparticle has a negative one. In other respects they seem equivalent. However, one of the great mysteries of physics today, known as “baryon asymmetry,” is that, despite the fact that they seem equivalent, the universe seems made up entirely of matter, with very little antimatter. Naturally, scientists around the world are trying hard to find something different between the two, which could explain why we exist.

    As part of this quest, scientists have explored whether matter and antimatter interact similarly with gravity, or whether antimatter would experience gravity in a different way than matter, which would violate Einstein’s weak equivalence principle. Now, the BASE collaboration has shown, within strict boundaries, that antimatter does in fact respond to gravity in the same way as matter.

    The finding, published in Nature, actually came from a different experiment, which was examining the charge-to-mass ratios of protons and antiprotons, one of the other important measurements that could determine the key difference between the two.

    This work involved 18 months of work at CERN’s antimatter factory. To make the measurements, the team confined antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions, which they used as a proxy for protons, in a Penning trap. In this device, a particle follows a cyclical trajectory with a frequency, close to the cyclotron frequency, that scales with the trap’s magnetic-field strength and the particle’s charge-to-mass ratio. By feeding antiprotons and negatively charged hydrogen ions into the trap, one at a time, they were able to measure, under identical conditions, the cyclotron frequencies of the two particle types, comparing their charge-to-mass ratios. According to Stefan Ulmer, the leader of the project, “By doing this, we were able to obtain a result that they are essentially equivalent, to a degree four times more precise than previous measures. To this level of CPT invariance, causality and locality hold in the relativistic quantum field theories of the Standard Model.”

    Interestingly, the group used the measurements to test a fundamental physics law known as the weak equivalence principle. According to this principle, different bodies in the same gravitational field should undergo the same acceleration in the absence of frictional forces. Because the BASE experiment was placed on the surface of the Earth, the proton and antiproton cyclotron-frequency measurements were made in the gravitational field on the Earth’s surface, and any difference between the gravitational interaction of protons and antiprotons would result in a difference between the cyclotron frequencies.

    By sampling the gravitational field of the Earth as the planet orbited the Sun, the scientists found that matter and antimatter responded to gravity in the same way up to a degree of three parts in 100, which means that the gravitational acceleration of matter and antimatter are identical within 97% of the experienced acceleration.

    Ulmer adds that these measurements could lead to new physics. He says, “The 3% accuracy of the gravitational interaction obtained in this study is comparable to the accuracy goal of the gravitational interaction between antimatter and matter that other research groups plan to measure using free-falling anti-hydrogen atoms. If the results of our study differ from those of the other groups, it could lead to the dawn of a completely new physics.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    RIKEN campus

    RIKEN [理研](JP) is Japan’s largest comprehensive research institution renowned for high-quality research in a diverse range of scientific disciplines. Founded in 1917 as a private research foundation in Tokyo, RIKEN has grown rapidly in size and scope, today encompassing a network of world-class research centers and institutes across Japan. Founded in 1917, it now has about 3,000 scientists on seven campuses across Japan, including the main site at Wakō, Saitama Prefecture, just outside Tokyo. Riken is a Designated National Research and Development Institute, and was formerly an Independent Administrative Institution.
    Riken conducts research in many areas of science including physics; chemistry; biology; genomics; medical science; engineering; high-performance computing and computational science and ranging from basic research to practical applications with 485 partners worldwide. It is almost entirely funded by the Japanese government, and its annual budget is about ¥88 billion (US$790 million).

    Organizational structure:

    The main divisions of Riken are listed here. Purely administrative divisions are omitted.

    Headquarters (mostly in Wako)
    Wako Branch
    Center for Emergent Matter Science (research on new materials for reduced power consumption)
    Center for Sustainable Resource Science (research toward a sustainable society)
    Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (site of the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory, a heavy-ion accelerator complex)
    Center for Brain Science
    Center for Advanced Photonics (research on photonics including terahertz radiation)
    Research Cluster for Innovation
    Cluster for Pioneering Research (chief scientists)
    Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences Program
    Tokyo Branch
    Center for Advanced Intelligence Project (research on artificial intelligence)
    Tsukuba Branch
    BioResource Research Center
    Harima Institute
    Riken SPring-8 Center (site of the SPring-8 synchrotron and the SACLA x-ray free electron laser)

    Riken SPring-8 synchrotron, located in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.

    RIKEN/HARIMA (JP) X-ray Free Electron Laser
    Yokohama Branch (site of the Yokohama Nuclear magnetic resonance facility)
    Center for Sustainable Resource Science
    Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (research toward personalized medicine)
    Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (also based in Kobe and Osaka) [6]
    Program for Drug Discovery and Medical Technology Platform
    Structural Biology Laboratory
    Sugiyama Laboratory
    Kobe Branch
    Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (developmental biology and nuclear medicine medical imaging techniques)
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS, home of the K computer and The post-K (Fugaku) computer development plan)

    Riken Fujitsu K supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, installed at the Riken Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.

    Fugaku is a claimed exascale supercomputer (while only at petascale for mainstream benchmark), at the RIKEN Center for Computational Science in Kobe, Japan. It started development in 2014 as the successor to the K computer, and is officially scheduled to start operating in 2021. Fugaku made its debut in 2020, and became the fastest supercomputer in the world in the June 2020 TOP500 list, the first ever supercomputer that achieved 1 exaFLOPS. As of April 2021, Fugaku is currently the fastest supercomputer in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:55 pm on January 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New epoch of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors", "phys.org", , , , Electronic Engineering, , , , The Nanyang Technological University [நன்யாங் தொழில்நுட்ப](SG),   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) via phys.org : “New epoch of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN)

    via

    phys.org

    January 4, 2022

    1
    Schematics of surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. b, Field pattern of Čerenkov radiation with Dyakonov surface waves. c-d, Field patterns of Čerenkov radiation without Dyakonov surface waves. Credit: Hao, Hu, Lin, Yu Luo.

    Recently, the research team led by Prof. Yu Luo from the school of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The Nanyang Technological University [நன்யாங் தொழில்நுட்ப](SG), discovered surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. This new type of Čerenkov radiation not only presages the next generation of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but also provides an indispensable route to detect particle trajectory. Moreover, this work offers a feasible route to excite Dyakonov surface waves, opening a new area of research in Dyakonov surface optics.

    Čerenkov radiation refers to the photon emission from the swift charged particle moves with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the surrounding materials. Ever since its experimental observation by a Soviet physicist P.A. Čerenkov in 1934, Čerenkov radiation has been widely explored and applied in many research fields ranging from cosmology and information, to medical and life sciences. Among all these applications, the detection of high-energy particles (i.e., identifying the type of detected particles from the direction of the photon emission) is the most important one. With the help of Čerenkov radiation, scientists discovered many elementary particles including anti-proton and J-particle. Owing to its impacts on both the fundamental research and practical applications, Čerenkov radiation and its related applications were awarded at least six Nobel Prizes in Physics (in 1958, 1959, 1988, 1995, 2002 and 2015, respectively).

    Although Čerenkov detectors are widely used in the high-energy and particle physics, their bulky sizes hinder their applications to emerging research fields such as particle detection on chip. Thus, achieving miniaturized particle detectors could potentially broadens the applications of Čerenkov detection. Surface waves propagating at the interface of two different materials provide a possible solution towards this goal.

    Generally speaking, there are two major branches of surface waves in nature: surface plasmons propagating along the metallodielectric interface; and Dyakonov surface waves propagating along the surface of a birefringent material.

    Since the 1950s, surface plasmons have been widely applied to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced sensing, and surface-enhanced fluorescence, etc. Recently, surface plasmons were deployed to enhance Čerenkov radiation and achieve integrated Čerenkov light sources (Nature Photonics). Nevertheless, the implementation of a miniaturized Čerenkov detector with surface plasmons is still challenging, mainly for two reasons: (1) The significant metallic dissipation hinders the detection of Čerenkov signals in the far field; (2) The strong chromatic dispersion of plasmons presents an inherent limit on the working bandwidth of the detector. On the contrary, Dyakonov surface waves can be excited in an all-dielectric platform with negligible dissipation loss and weak chromatic dispersion. Despite these advantages, applications of Dyakonov surface waves have been thus far quite limited due to the lack of an efficient excitation mechanism.

    This research team led by Prof. Yu Luo from Nanyang Technological University has uncovered a new type of free-electron radiations, namely surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. It is achieved by exploring the interaction between the free charged particle and Dyakonov surface waves. Such a discovery not only facilitates the development of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but may also inspires future explorations of Dyakonov surface waves.

    The research team investigated the emission behaviors of a swift charged particle moving atop the surface of a birefringent crystal. They found that when the particle velocity and trajectory fulfill a specific condition, the swift charged particle allows for efficient photon emission in terms of Dyakonov surface waves.

    Surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is one of the best candidates for achieving miniaturized particle detectors on a chip. First, Dyakonov surface waves can significantly enhance the photon emission, offering a feasible route to reduce the interaction length of the swift charged particle and matter. Second, due to the negligible dissipation loss and weak chromatic dispersion of Dyakonov surface waves, the emitted photons can be readily collected in the far field.

    Remarkably, the research team also found that the excitation of surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is highly sensitive to both the particle trajectory and velocity value. Only when the particle trajectory falls within the vicinity of a particular direction, the surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is allowed. Such a unique property results from the directional nature of Dyakonov surface waves. It allows the surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation to detect the particle trajectory, with the accuracy up to 10 mrad.

    The surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation studied in this work also bridges the research gap between Čerenkov radiation and Dyakonov surface waves, and may produce far-reaching impacts on both areas. In the realm of Čerenkov radiation, this work not only facilitates the development of next-generation miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but also offers a unique technique to track and collimate the particle beams, which is highly desired in nonlinear, ultrafast and quantum optics. In the realm of Dyakonov surface waves, the efficient excitation mechanism revealed in this work may open a new research area of Dyakonov surface optics.

    Science paper:
    Light: Science & Applications

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó]. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the “Two Academies (两院)” along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

    It is the world’s largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes, and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world.

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list’s inception in 2016 by Nature Research.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its “Innovation 2020” programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:49 pm on January 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Breakthrough in the nonlinear generation of primordial gravitational waves", "phys.org", , , Capturing primordial gravitational waves has become almost the only chance for humans to reach new physics at high-energy scales beyond the standard model of particle physics., The desert zone of high-energy physics   

    From The University of Science and Technology of China [中国科学技术大学](CN) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) via phys.org : “Breakthrough in the nonlinear generation of primordial gravitational waves” 

    From The University of Science and Technology of China [中国科学技术大学](CN) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN)

    via

    phys.org

    January 3, 2022

    1
    The originally invisible gravitational wave signals were amplified by parametric resonance gain mechanism, and then detected by primordial gravitational wave detectors. Credit: European Space Agency/Planck Cooperation Group.

    In a Physics Review Letters paper published on Dec 15th, an international research team, led by Cai Yifu, Professor of the University of Science and Technology of China, and his collaborators discovered the hypothetical possibility of resonantly generating primordial gravitational waves within the high energy physics when the universe was in the babyhood. The originally invisible gravitational wave signals can be amplified by parametric resonance by 4 to 6 orders of magnitude or even larger through this phenomenon, and then become likely to be probed by primordial gravitational wave detectors, hence, validating some theoretical models of the very early universe that are “inaccesible” in traditional observational windows.

    In the baby universe, all matters once existed as extremely tiny elementary particles. The temperature of the baby universe was far beyound the highest temperature (energy scale) that human can reach in any high-energy experiments. Therefore, the new physics of this period is called the desert zone of high-energy physics.

    At present, the major method for exploring the origin of the universe is to search for primordial gravitational waves, whose magnitude is directly determined by the energy scale of the baby universe. Therefore, capturing primordial gravitational waves has become almost the only chance for humans to reach new physics at high-energy scales beyond the standard model of particle physics. However, if inflation occurred in the desert zone of high-energy physics, the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves will be too small to be detected. Thus, the traditional academic perspective considers it almost as a “mission impossible” to search for primordial gravitational waves and the related new physics in this energy scale.

    In this work, the research team led by Cai Yifu and Misao Sasaki from The University of Tokyo [東京大学](JP), introduced a heavy field with a behavior of parametric resonance to nonlinearly couple with primordial gravitational waves, thereby providing an adequate energy source for the resonant amplification of primordial gravitational waves. In addition, the special dynamical properties of the background evolution of inflation can ensure that the newly introduced heavy field can hardly interfere with the observed primordial density perturbations, and thus the new theory can perfectly fit to current cosmological observations.

    To be specific, by constructing a concrete example of the background model, the researchers accurately demonstrated that, even if inflation occurred in the desert zone of high-energy scale that exceeds the standard model of particle physics, primordial gravitational waves can be resonantly generated with a sufficiently large magnitude that is of observable interests.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries.

    From the theoretical perspective, this result explicitly showed that, even in the dune of high-energy physics there exists some oasis sustaining the life of new physics.

    This research provides an important scientific goal for the present and upcoming primordial gravitational wave experiments worldwide, and also opens a novel window for searching for high-energy new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The University of Science and Technology of China [中国科学技术大学](CN) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) is a national research university in Hefei, Anhui, China, under the direct leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN). It is a member of the C9 League, China’s equivalent of the Ivy League. It is also a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. Founded in Beijing by the CAS in September 1958, it was moved to Hefei in the beginning of 1970 during the Cultural Revolution.

    USTC was founded with the mission of addressing urgent needs to improve China’s economy, defense infrastructure, and science and technology education. Its core strength is scientific and technological research, and more recently has expanded into humanities and management with a strong scientific and engineering emphasis. USTC has 12 schools, 30 departments, the Special Class for the Gifted Young, the Experimental Class for Teaching Reform, Graduate Schools (Hefei, Shanghai, Suzhou), a Software School, a School of Network Education, and a School of Continuing Education. In 2012 the Institute of Advanced Technology, University of Science and Technology of China was founded.

    USTC was founded in Beijing by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN) in September 1958. The Director of CAS, Mr. Guo Moruo was appointed the first president of USTC. USTC’s founding mission was to develop a high-level science and technology workforce, as deemed critical for development of China’s economy, defense, and science and technology education. The establishment was hailed as “A Major Event in the History of Chinese Education and Science.” CAS has supported USTC by combining most of its institutes with the departments of the university. USTC is listed in the top 16 national key universities, becoming the youngest national key university.

    In 1969, during the Cultural Revolution, USTC was moved to Anhui province and eventually settled in Hefei in 1970.

    USTC set up the Special Class for the Gifted Young and the first graduate school in China in 1978. The campus for graduate study in Hefei was established in 1986. Original campus for graduate study in Beijing was later renamed the Graduate School of the CAS in 2001 and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2012.

    In 1995, USTC was amongst the first batch of universities obtaining support through the National 9th Five-Year Plan and the “Project 211”. In 1999, USTC was singled out as one of the 9 universities enjoying priority support from the nation’s “Plan of Vitalizing Education Action Geared to the 21st Century”. Since September 2002, USTC has been implementing its “Project 211” construction during the 10th National Development Plan.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:56 pm on December 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "phys.org", "Ultraluminous X-ray sources in NGC 891 investigated by researchers", Fordham University, Long-term monitoring using a wide range of spectral models is required in order to fully determine and understand the nature of ULXs., , , ULXs are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths.,   

    From The University of Chicago (US) and Fordham University via phys.org : “Ultraluminous X-ray sources in NGC 891 investigated by researchers” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    and

    4

    Fordham University

    via

    phys.org

    December 30, 2021
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    Jan 27, 2017 EPIC-pn observations of NGC 891 in the 0.3-10.0 keV band. Credit: Earley et al., 2021.

    Researchers from the University of Chicago and Fordham University have conducted a long-term monitoring of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the spiral galaxy NGC 891. Results of the research, presented in a paper published December 22 for Universe journal, provide more insights into the properties of these sources and could help us better understand the nature of the host galaxy.

    ULXs are point sources in the sky that are so bright in X-rays that each emits more radiation than 1 million suns emit at all wavelengths. They are less luminous than active galactic nuclei (AGN), but more consistently luminous than any known stellar process. Although numerous studies of ULXs have been conducted, the basic nature of these sources still remains a puzzle.

    Long-term monitoring using a wide range of spectral models is required in order to fully determine and understand the nature of ULXs. Now, a team of astronomers led by Nicholas M. Earley has analyzed the data collected from 2000 to 2017 with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s XMM-Newton spacecraft.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Chandra X-ray telescope(US)

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) XMM Newton X-ray telescope. http://sci.esa.int/xmm-newton/

    Combing through the datasets, they focused on the observations of NGC 891 (an edge-on, barred spiral galaxy about 30 million light years away) and its ultraluminous X-ray sources, designated ULX-1, ULX-2 and ULX-3.

    “We perform empirical fits to the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra of three ultraluminous X-ray sources in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891, monitoring the region over a 17-year time window,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    According to the study, ULX-1 shows some spectral evolution of this source from 2003 to 2016, and its light curve exhibits a possible slight decrease in flux over time, particularly from 2000 to 2003. However, the long-term stability of the light curve suggests that the source is not a highly variable object over these timescales. The luminosity of ULX-1 was measured to be about 8.4 duodecillion erg/s, while its column density was estimated to be around 8 sextillion cm^-2.

    ULX-2 has a remarkably constant flux that appears to be between 20 and 50 percent higher than that of ULX-1, which is expected from the count rates. The source has a column density of around 0.2 sextillion cm^−2. with some variations. This value is lower than that found for ULX-1 by a factor of a few and turns out to be lower than any of the column densities calculated for the other known ULXs.

    ULX-3 is the faintest of the three studied sources, with a luminosity at a level of 2 duodecillion erg/s, which places it in the lower luminosity range of detected ULXs. The derived column density was found to be approximately 2 sextillion cm^-2. The research revealed that flux and column density around this source are both found to decrease by a factor of seven from November 2016 to January 2017. The astronomers added that at this time ULX-3 no longer qualifies as ‘ultraluminous’ as its lower luminosity value is more consistent with other high energy sources such as X-ray binaries.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    4

    3

    Fordham University is a private Jesuit research university in New York City. Established in 1841 and named for the Fordham neighborhood of the Bronx in which its original campus is located, Fordham is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit university in the northeastern United States, and the third-oldest university in New York State.

    Founded as St. John’s College by John Hughes, then a coadjutor bishop of New York, the college was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, and has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees. The college’s first president, John McCloskey, was later the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, and the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham is the only Jesuit tertiary institution in New York City.

    Fordham’s alumni and faculty include U.S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several U.S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U.S. Army, a U.S. Postmaster General,a U.S. Attorney General, the first female vice presidential candidate of a major political party in the United States, and a president of the United States (Donald Trump, attended two years before transferring).

    Fordham enrolls approximately 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, and is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan’s Upper West Side, and the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York. In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines.

    The university’s athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasted a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, and numerous NFL players; the Rams also participated in history’s first televised college football game in 1939 and history’s first televised college basketball game in 1940. Fordham’s baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, and holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.

    Academics

    Fordham University is composed of four undergraduate and six graduate schools, and its academic ethos is heavily drawn from its Jesuit origins. The university promotes the Jesuit principles of cura personalis, which fosters a faculty and administrative respect for the individual student and all of his or her gifts and abilities; magis, which encourages students to challenge themselves and strive for excellence in their lives; and homines pro aliis, which intends to inspire service, a universal charity, among members of the Fordham community.

    Through its International and Study Abroad Programs (ISAP) Office, Fordham provides its students with over 130 study abroad opportunities. The programs range in duration from six weeks to a full academic year and vary in focus from cultural and language immersion to internship and service learning. Some of the programs are organized by Fordham itself, such as those in London, United Kingdom; Granada, Spain; and Pretoria, South Africa; while others are operated by partner institutions like The Georgetown University (US), The University of Oxford (UK), and the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE). In addition to the ISAP programs, the university’s constituent schools offer a range of study abroad programs that cater to their specific areas of study. Fordham has produced 168 Fulbright scholars since 2003.

    Graduate programs

    Master’s and doctoral degrees are offered through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Service, the Gabelli School of Business, and the Graduate School of Religion and Religious Education. Fordham’s graduate programs in business, education, English, history, law, psychology, and social work are all ranked among the top 100 in the nation by the 2016 U.S. News and World Report. Fordham participates in the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium, which allows its doctoral students to take classes at a number of schools in the New York metropolitan area.

    Fordham’s medical school officially closed in 1919, and its College of Pharmacy followed suit in 1972. Nevertheless, the university continues its tradition of medical education through a collaboration with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at The Yeshiva University (US). The partnership allows Fordham undergraduate and graduate science students to take classes, conduct research, and pursue early admission to select programs of Einstein. In addition, it involves a physician mentoring program, which permits students to shadow an attending physician at Einstein’s Montefiore Medical Center.

    Research

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies Fordham as a doctoral university with high research activity R2:(RU/H). The Fordham University Library System contains over 2.4 million volumes and 3.1 million microforms, subscribes to 16,000 periodicals including electronic access, and has 19,300 audiovisual materials. It is a depository for 363,227 United States Government documents. In addition, the university’s Interlibrary Loan office provides students and faculty with virtually unlimited access to the over 20 million volumes of the New York Public Library System as well as to media from the libraries of Columbia University (US), New York University (US), The City University of New York (US), and other libraries around the world. Fordham’s libraries include the William D. Walsh Family Library, ranked in 2004 as the fifth best collegiate library in the country, and the Science Library at the Rose Hill campus; the Gerald M. Quinn Library and the Leo T. Kissam Memorial Law Library at the Lincoln Center campus; and the Media Center at the Westchester campus. In addition to the university’s formal libraries, several academic departments, research institutes, and student organizations maintain their own literary collections. The Rose Hill campus’s Duane Library, despite its name, is no longer a library but offers reading and study space for students.

    Fordham maintains several special collections housed in museums and galleries on campus. The Fordham Museum of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Art is at the Rose Hill campus and contains more than 200 artifacts from Classical antiquity, including: sculptures, mosaics, ceramics and pottery, coins, and inscriptions, among other items. A gift from alumnus William D. Walsh, it is the largest collection of its kind in the New York metropolitan area. In addition, the university maintains an extensive art collection, which is housed in exhibition spaces at the Rose Hill and Lincoln Center campuses and in galleries around New York City. Finally, the university possesses a sizable collection of rare books, manuscripts, and other print media, which is housed in the O’Hare Special Collections Room at the Walsh Library.

    Other research facilities include the Louis Calder Center, a 114-acre biological field station and the middle site along an 81-mile (130 km) urban-forest transect known as the Urban-Rural Gradient Experiment; the William Spain Seismic Observatory, a data collection unit for the US Geological Survey; and other facilities. It is a member of the Bronx Scientific Research Consortium, which also includes the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University, and Montefiore Medical Center. Furthermore, Fordham faculty have conducted research with such institutions as the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, DOE’s Los Alamos National Lab (US), and organizations worldwide.

    Fordham University Press, the university’s publishing house and an affiliate of Oxford University Press, primarily publishes humanities and social sciences research. The university also hosts an Undergraduate Research Symposium every year during the spring semester and publishes the Undergraduate Research Journal in conjunction with the symposium. In addition, it facilitates research opportunities for undergraduates with such organizations as The National Science Foundation (US), The Cloisters, and The American Museum of Natural History (US).

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:31 pm on December 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Bayesian inversion", "phys.org", "Possible chemical leftovers from early Earth sit near the core", A planetary object about the size of Mars may have slammed into the infant planet. As a result a large body of molten material known as a magma ocean formed., An alternate hypothesis: that the ultra-low velocity zones may be regions made of different rocks than the rest of the mantle—and that their composition may hearken back to the early Earth., , , Between the crust and the iron-nickel core at the center of the planet is the mantle., , How can we have any idea what's going on in the mantle and the core? Seismic waves., It's not an ocean of lava—instead it's more like solid rock-but hot and with an ability to move that drives plate tectonics at the surface., Modeling suggests that it's possible some of these zones are leftovers from the processes that shaped the early Earth., Over the following billions of years as the mantle churned and convected the dense layer would have been pushed into small patches showing up as the layered ultra-low velocity zones we see today., , , , Scientific discovery provides tools to understand the initial thermal and chemical status of Earth's mantle., Scientists on the surface can measure how and when the waves arrive at monitoring stations around the world., The ocean would have sorted itself out as it cooled with dense materials sinking and layering on to the bottom of the mantle., The team used a reverse-engineering approach., , They can back-calculate how the waves were reflected and deflected by structures within the Earth., Ultra-low velocity zones sit at the bottom of the mantle atop the liquid metal outer core., , What does it mean that there are likely layers?   

    From The University of Utah (US) via phys.org : “Possible chemical leftovers from early Earth sit near the core” 

    From The University of Utah (US)

    via

    phys.org

    December 30, 2021

    1
    Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain.

    Let’s take a journey into the depths of the Earth, down through the crust and mantle nearly to the core. We’ll use seismic waves to show the way, since they echo through the planet following an earthquake and reveal its internal structure like radar waves.

    Down near the core, there are zones where seismic waves slow to a crawl. New research from the University of Utah finds that these enigmatic and descriptively-named ultra-low velocity zones are surprisingly layered. Modeling suggests that it’s possible some of these zones are leftovers from the processes that shaped the early Earth—remnants of incomplete mixing like clumps of flour in the bottom of a bowl of batter.

    “Of all of the features we know about in the deep mantle, ultra-low velocity zones represent what are probably the most extreme,” says Michael S. Thorne, associate professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics. “Indeed, these are some of the most extreme features found anywhere in the planet.”

    The study is published in Nature Geoscience and is funded by The National Science Foundation (US).

    Into the mantle

    Let’s review how the interior of the Earth is structured. We live on the crust, a thin layer of solid rock. Between the crust and the iron-nickel core at the center of the planet is the mantle. It’s not an ocean of lava—instead it’s more like solid rock-but hot and with an ability to move that drives plate tectonics at the surface.

    How can we have any idea what’s going on in the mantle and the core? Seismic waves. As they ripple through the Earth after an earthquake, scientists on the surface can measure how and when the waves arrive at monitoring stations around the world. From those measurements, they can back-calculate how the waves were reflected and deflected by structures within the Earth, including layers of different densities. That’s how we know where the boundaries are between the crust, mantle and core—and partially how we know what they’re made of.

    Ultra-low velocity zones sit at the bottom of the mantle atop the liquid metal outer core. In these areas, seismic waves slow by as much as half, and density goes up by a third.

    Scientists initially thought that these zones were areas where the mantle was partially melted, and might be the source of magma for so-called “hot spot” volcanic regions like Iceland.

    “But most of the things we call ultra-low velocity zones don’t appear to be located beneath hot spot volcanoes,” Thorne says, “so that cannot be the whole story.”

    So Thorne, postdoctoral scholar Surya Pachhai and colleagues from The Australian National University (AU), The Arizona State University (US) and The University of Calgary (CA) set out to explore an alternate hypothesis: that the ultra-low velocity zones may be regions made of different rocks than the rest of the mantle—and that their composition may hearken back to the early Earth.

    Perhaps, Thorne says, ultra-low velocity zones could be collections of iron oxide, which we see as rust at the surface but which can behave as a metal in the deep mantle. If that’s the case, pockets of iron oxide just outside the core might influence the Earth’s magnetic field which is generated just below.

    “The physical properties of ultra-low velocity zones are linked to their origin,” Pachhai says, “which in turn provides important information about the thermal and chemical status, evolution and dynamics of Earth’s lowermost mantle—an essential part of mantle convection that drives plate tectonics.”

    The Tectonic Plates of the world were mapped in 1996, Geological Survey (US).

    Reverse-engineering seismic waves

    To get a clear picture, the researchers studied ultra-low velocity zones beneath the Coral Sea, between Australia and New Zealand. It’s an ideal location because of an abundance of earthquakes in the area, which provide a high-resolution seismic picture of the core-mantle boundary. The hope was that high-resolution observations could reveal more about how ultra-low velocity zones are put together.

    But getting a seismic image of something through nearly 1800 miles of crust and mantle isn’t easy. It’s also not always conclusive—a thick layer of low-velocity material might reflect seismic waves the same way as a thin layer of even lower-velocity material.

    So the team used a reverse-engineering approach.

    “We can create a model of the Earth that includes ultra-low wave speed reductions,” Pachhai says, “and then run a computer simulation that tells us what the seismic waveforms would look like if that is what the Earth actually looked like. Our next step is to compare those predicted recordings with the recordings that we actually have.”

    Over hundreds of thousands of model runs, the method, called “Bayesian inversion,” yields a mathematically robust model of the interior with a good understanding of the uncertainties and trade-offs of different assumptions in the model.

    One particular question the researchers wanted to answer is whether there are internal structures, such as layers, within ultra-low velocity zones. The answer, according to the models, is that layers are highly likely. This is a big deal, because it shows the way to understanding how these zones came to be.

    “To our knowledge this is the first study using such a Bayesian approach at this level of detail to investigate ultra-low velocity zones,” Pachhai says, “and it is also the first study to demonstrate strong layering within an ultra-low velocity zone.”

    Looking back at the origins of the planet

    What does it mean that there are likely layers?

    More than four billion years ago, while dense iron was sinking to the core of the early Earth and lighter minerals were floating up into the mantle, a planetary object about the size of Mars may have slammed into the infant planet. The collision may have thrown debris into Earth’s orbit that could have later formed the Moon. It also raised the temperature of the Earth significantly—as you might expect from two planets smashing into each other.

    “As a result, a large body of molten material, known as a magma ocean, formed,” Pachhai says. The “ocean” would have consisted of rock, gases and crystals suspended in the magma.

    The ocean would have sorted itself out as it cooled, with dense materials sinking and layering on to the bottom of the mantle.

    Over the following billions of years, as the mantle churned and convected, the dense layer would have been pushed into small patches, showing up as the layered ultra-low velocity zones we see today.

    “So the primary and most surprising finding is that the ultra-low velocity zones are not homogenous but contain strong heterogeneities (structural and compositional variations) within them,” Pachhai says. “This finding changes our view on the origin and dynamics of ultra-low velocity zones. We found that this type of ultra-low velocity zone can be explained by chemical heterogeneities created at the very beginning of the Earth’s history and that they are still not well mixed after 4.5 billion years of mantle convection.”

    Not the final word

    The study provides some evidence of the origins of some ultra-low velocity zones, although there’s also evidence to suggest different origins for others, such as melting of ocean crust that’s sinking back into the mantle. But if at least some ultra-low velocity zones are leftovers from the early Earth, they preserve some of the history of the planet that otherwise has been lost.

    “Therefore, our discovery provides a tool to understand the initial thermal and chemical status of Earth’s mantle,” Pachhai says, “and their long-term evolution.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Utah (US) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. As the state’s flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs. The university is classified in the highest ranking: “R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity” by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The Carnegie Classification also considers the university as “selective”, which is its second most selective admissions category. Graduate studies include the S.J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah’s only medical school. As of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673.

    The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah’s oldest institution of higher education. It received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, and moved to its current location in 1900.

    The university ranks among the top 50 U.S. universities by total research expenditures with over $486 million spent in 2014. 22 Rhodes Scholars, three Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, three MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, and Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university’s Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U.S. The university has also been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country.

     
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