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  • richardmitnick 2:08 pm on January 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerating light beams in curved space, Acceleration, , , , phys.org,   

    From Technion, Harvard and CfA via phys.org: “Accelerating light beams in curved space” 

    Technion bloc

    Technion

    Harvard University

    Harvard University

    Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    Center For Astrophysics

    phys.org

    January 12, 2018
    Lisa Zyga

    1
    The accelerating light beam propagates on a nongeodesic trajectory, rather than the geodesic trajectory taken by a non-accelerating beam. Credit: Patsyk et al. ©2018 American Physical Society

    By shining a laser along the inside shell of an incandescent light bulb, physicists have performed the first experimental demonstration of an accelerating light beam in curved space. Rather than moving along a geodesic trajectory (the shortest path on a curved surface), the accelerating beam bends away from the geodesic trajectory as a result of its acceleration.

    Previously, accelerating light beams have been demonstrated on flat surfaces, on which their acceleration causes them to follow curved trajectories rather than straight lines. Extending accelerating beams to curved surfaces opens the doors to additional possibilities, such as emulating general relativity phenomena (for example, gravitational lensing) with optical devices in the lab.

    The physicists, Anatoly Patsyk, Miguel A. Bandres, and Mordechai Segev at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, along with Rivka Bekenstein at Harvard University and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, have published a paper on the accelerating light beams in curved space in a recent issue of Physical Review X.

    “This work opens the doors to a new avenue of study in the field of accelerating beams,” Patsyk told Phys.org. “Thus far, accelerating beams were studied only in a medium with a flat geometry, such as flat free space or slab waveguides. In the current work, optical beams follow curved trajectories in a curved medium.”

    In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. As the scientists explain, this imprints a specific wavefront upon the beam. The resulting beam is both accelerating and shape-preserving, meaning it doesn’t spread out as it propagates in a curved medium, like ordinary light beams would do. The accelerating light beam is then launched into the shell of an incandescent light bulb, which was painted to scatter light and make the propagation of the beam visible.

    When moving along the inside of the light bulb, the accelerating beam follows a trajectory that deviates from the geodesic line. For comparison, the researchers also launched a nonaccelerating beam inside the light bulb shell, and observed that that beam follows the geodesic line. By measuring the difference between these two trajectories, the researchers could determine the acceleration of the accelerating beam.

    3
    (a) Experimental setup, (b) propagation of the green beam inside of the red shell of an incandescent light bulb, and (c) photograph of the lobes of the accelerating beam. Credit: Patsyk et al. ©2018 American Physical Society

    Whereas the trajectory of an accelerating beam on a flat surface is determined entirely by the beam width, the new study shows that the trajectory of an accelerating beam on a spherical surface is determined by both the beam width and the curvature of the surface. As a result, an accelerating beam may change its trajectory, as well as periodically focus and defocus, due to the curvature.

    The ability to accelerate light beams along curved surfaces has a variety of potential applications, one of which is emulating general relativity phenomena.

    “Einstein’s equations of general relativity determine, among other issues, the evolution of electromagnetic waves in curved space,” Patsyk said. “It turns out that the evolution of electromagnetic waves in curved space according to Einstein’s equations is equivalent to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a material medium described by the electric and magnetic susceptibilities that are allowed to vary in space. This is the foundation of emulating numerous phenomena known from general relativity by the electromagnetic waves propagating in a material medium, giving rise to the emulating effects such as gravitational lensing and Einstein’s rings, gravitational blue shift or red shift, which we have studied in the past, and much more.”

    The results could also offer a new technique for controlling nanoparticles in blood vessels, microchannels, and other curved settings. Accelerating plasmonic beams (which are made of plasma oscillations instead of light) could potentially be used to transfer power from one area to another on a curved surface. The researchers plan to further explore these possibilities and others in the future.

    “We are now investigating the propagation of light within the thinnest curved membranes possible—soap bubbles of molecular thickness,” Patsyk said. “We are also studying linear and nonlinear wave phenomena, where the laser beam affects the thickness of the membrane and in return the membrane affects the light beam propagating within it.”

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

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  • richardmitnick 11:18 am on December 25, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Counterfactual communication, phys.org, , , ,   

    From U Cambridge via phys.org: “Researchers chart the ‘secret’ movement of quantum particles” 

    U Cambridge bloc

    University of Cambridge

    phys.org

    December 22, 2017

    1
    Credit: Robert Couse-Baker

    Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. In a theoretical paper published in the journal Physical Review A, they have shown that the way that particles interact with their environment can be used to track quantum particles when they’re not being observed, which had been thought to be impossible.

    One of the fundamental ideas of quantum theory is that quantum objects can exist both as a wave and as a particle, and that they don’t exist as one or the other until they are measured. This is the premise that Erwin Schrödinger was illustrating with his famous thought experiment involving a dead-or-maybe-not-dead cat in a box.

    “This premise, commonly referred to as the wave function, has been used more as a mathematical tool than a representation of actual quantum particles,” said David Arvidsson-Shukur, a Ph.D. student at Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, and the paper’s first author. “That’s why we took on the challenge of creating a way to track the secret movements of quantum particles.”

    Any particle will always interact with its environment, ‘tagging’ it along the way. Arvidsson-Shukur, working with his co-authors Professor Crispin Barnes from the Cavendish Laboratory and Axel Gottfries, a Ph.D. student from the Faculty of Economics, outlined a way for scientists to map these ‘tagging’ interactions without looking at them. The technique would be useful to scientists who make measurements at the end of an experiment but want to follow the movements of particles during the full experiment.

    Some quantum scientists have suggested that information can be transmitted between two people – usually referred to as Alice and Bob – without any particles travelling between them. In a sense, Alice gets the message telepathically. This has been termed counterfactual communication because it goes against the accepted ‘fact’ that for information to be carried between sources, particles must move between them.

    “To measure this phenomenon of counterfactual communication, we need a way to pin down where the particles between Alice and Bob are when we’re not looking,” said Arvidsson-Shukur. “Our ‘tagging’ method can do just that. Additionally, we can verify old predictions of quantum mechanics, for example that particles can exist in different locations at the same time.”

    The founders of modern physics devised formulas to calculate the probabilities of different results from quantum experiments. However, they did not provide any explanations of what a quantum particle is doing when it’s not being observed. Earlier experiments have suggested that the particles might do non-classical things when not observed, like existing in two places at the same time. In their paper, the Cambridge researchers considered the fact that any particle travelling through space will interact with its surroundings. These interactions are what they call the ‘tagging’ of the particle. The interactions encode information in the particles that can then be decoded at the end of an experiment, when the particles are measured.

    The researchers found that this information encoded in the particles is directly related to the wave function that Schrödinger postulated a century ago. Previously the wave function was thought of as an abstract computational tool to predict the outcomes of quantum experiments. “Our result suggests that the wave function is closely related to the actual state of particles,” said Arvidsson-Shukur. “So, we have been able to explore the ‘forbidden domain’ of quantum mechanics: pinning down the path of quantum particles when no one is observing them.”

    See the full article here .

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    The University of Cambridge (abbreviated as Cantab in post-nominal letters) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world’s fourth-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk. The two ancient universities share many common features and are often jointly referred to as “Oxbridge”.

    Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university. In the year ended 31 July 2014, the university had a total income of £1.51 billion, of which £371 million was from research grants and contracts. The central university and colleges have a combined endowment of around £4.9 billion, the largest of any university outside the United States. Cambridge is a member of many associations and forms part of the “golden triangle” of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as “Silicon Fen”.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:53 pm on December 15, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A strong pointer to the existence of unknown elementary particles is the movements of stars in galaxies, Cracow HP supercomputer Prometheus, , GAMBIT Collaboration, , phys.org, , Righ now only the neutralino is considered a potential candidate for dark matter   

    From phys.org: “GAMBIT project suggests theoretical particles are too massive for LHC detection” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    December 15, 2017

    Cracow HP supercomputer Prometheus


    For 80 million working hours, the GAMBIT Collaboration tracked possible clues of ‘new physics’ with the Cracow HP supercomputer Prometheus, confronting the predictions of several models of supersymmetry with data collected by the most sophisticated contemporary scientific experiments. (Source: Cyfronet, AGH) Credit: Cyfronet, AGH

    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY

    The elementary particles of new theoretical physics must be so massive that their detection in the LHC, the largest modern accelerator, will not be possible. This is the pessimistic conclusion of the most comprehensive review of observational data from many scientific experiments and their confrontation with several popular varieties of supersymmetry theory. The complicated, extremely computationally demanding analysis, carried out by the international GAMBIT Collaboration, leaves a shadow of hope for researchers.

    GAMBIT is the Global and Modular Beyond-the-Standard-Model Inference Tool. Researchers are now questioning whether its is possible for the LHC to detect the elementary particles proposed to explain such mysteries as the nature of dark matter and the lack of symmetry between matter and antimatter. To answer this question, GAMBIT comprehensively analyses data collected during LHC runs. The first results, which are quite intriguing for physicists, have just been published in the European Physical Journal C. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow participated in the work of the team.

    Theoretical physicists are convinced that the Standard Model, the current, well-verified theory of the structure of matter, needs to be expanded.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    A strong pointer to the existence of unknown elementary particles is the movements of stars in galaxies. The Polish astronomer Marian Kowalski was the first to investigate the statistical characteristics of these movements. In 1859, he discovered that the movements of the stars close to us cannot be explained by the movement of the sun itself. This was the first indication of the rotation of the Milky Way (Kowalski is thus the man who “moved the entire galaxy from its foundations”). In 1933, the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky took the next step.

    4
    Fritz Zwicky

    From his observation of galaxies in the Coma cluster, he concluded that they move around the clusters as if there were a large amount of invisible matter there.

    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble

    Although almost a century has passed since Zwicky’s discovery, it is still not possible to investigate the composition of dark matter, nor even to unambiguously confirm its existence. Over this period, theoreticians have constructed many extensions of the Standard Model containing particles that are to a greater or lesser extent exotic. Many of these are candidates for dark matter. The family of supersymmetric theories is popular, for example. Here, certain new equivalents of known particles that are massive and interact weakly with ordinary matter constitute dark matter. Naturally, many groups of experimental physicists are also looking for traces of such new physics. Each of them, based on theoretical assumptions, carries out a certain research project, and then deals with the analysis and interpretation of data flowing from it. This is almost always done in the context of one, usually quite narrow, field of physics, and one theory for what might be beyond the Standard Model.

    “The idea of the GAMBIT Collaboration is to create tools for analyzing data from as many experiments as possible, from different areas of physics, and to compare them very closely with the predictions of new theories. Looking comprehensively, it is possible to narrow the search areas of new physics much faster, and over time also eliminate those models whose predictions have not been confirmed in measurements,” explains Dr. Marcin Chrzaszcz (IFJ PAN).

    The idea to build a set of modular software tools for the global analysis of observational data from physical experiments arose in 2012 in Melbourne during an international conference on high energy physics. Currently, the GAMBIT group includes more than 30 researchers from scientific institutions in Australia, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Canada, Norway, Poland, the United States, Switzerland, Sweden and Great Britain. Dr Chrzaszcz joined the GAMBIT team three years ago in order to develop tools to model the physics of massive quarks, with particular reference to beauty quarks (usually this field of physics has a much more catchy name: heavy flavour physics).

    Verification of the new physics proposals takes place in the GAMBIT Collaboration as follows: Scientists choose a theoretical model and build it into the software. The program then scans the values of the main model parameters. For each set of parameters, predictions are calculated and compared to the data from the experiments.

    “In practice, nothing is trivial here. There are models where we have as many as 128 free parameters. Imagine scanning in a space of 128 dimensions—it’s something that kills every computer. Therefore, at the beginning, we limited ourselves to three versions of simpler supersymmetric models, known under the abbreviations CMSSM, NUHM1 and NUHM2. They have five, six and seven free parameters, respectively. But things nonetheless get complicated, because, for example, we only know some of the other parameters of the Standard Model with a certain accuracy. Therefore, they have to be treated like free parameters too, only changing to a lesser extent than the new physics parameters,” says Dr. Chrzaszcz.

    The scale of the challenge is best demonstrated by the total time taken for all the calculations of the GAMBIT Collaboration to date. They were carried out on the Prometheus supercomputer, one of the fastest computers in the world. The device, operating at the Academic Computer Centre CYFRONET of the University of Science and Technology in Cracow, has over 53,000 processing cores and a total computing power of 2,399 teraflops (a million million floating-point operations per second). Despite the use of such powerful equipment, the total working time of the cores in the GAMBIT Collaboration amounted to 80 million hours (over 9,100 years).

    “Such lengthy calculations are, among other things, a consequence of the diversity of the measured data. For example, groups from the main experiments at the LHC publish exactly the results the detectors measured. But each detector distorts what it sees in some way. Before we compare the data with the predictions of the model being verified, the distortions introduced by the detector must be removed from them,” explains Dr Chrzaszcz, and adds, “On the astrophysics side, we have to perform a similar procedure. For example, simulations should be carried out on how new physics phenomena would affect the behavior of the galactic halo of dark matter.”

    For seekers of new physics, the GAMBIT Collaboration does not bring the best news. The analyses suggest that if the supersymmetric particles predicted by the studied models exist, their masses must be on the order of many teraelectronvolts (in particle physics the mass of particles is given in energy units, one electronvolt corresponds to the energy necessary to shift the electron between points with a potential difference of one volt). In practice, this means that seeing such particles at the LHC will be either very difficult or even impossible. But there is also a shadow of hope. A few superparticles, neutralinos, charginos, staus and stops, although having quite large masses, do not exceed one teraelectronvolt. With some luck, their detection in the LHC remains possible. Unfortunately, in this group, only the neutralino is considered a potential candidate for dark matter.

    Unlike many other analytical research tools, the codes of all the GAMBIT modules are publicly available on the project website and can be quickly adapted to the analysis of new theoretical models. Researchers from the GAMBIT Collaboration hope that the openness of the code will speed up the search for new physics.

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:44 am on December 11, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , excitonium, Excitonium is a condensate—it exhibits macroscopic quantum phenomena like a superconductor or superfluid or insulating electronic crystal, M-EELS-momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, phys.org, Physicists excited by discovery of new form of matter,   

    From University of Illinois via phys.org: “Physicists excited by discovery of new form of matter, excitonium” 

    U Illinois bloc

    University of Illinois

    phys.org

    December 8, 2017
    Siv Schwink

    1
    Artist’s depiction of the collective excitons of an excitonic solid. These excitations can be thought of as propagating domain walls (yellow) in an otherwise ordered solid exciton background (blue). Credit: Peter Abbamonte, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

    Excitonium has a team of researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign… well… excited! Professor of Physics Peter Abbamonte and graduate students Anshul Kogar and Mindy Rak, with input from colleagues at Illinois, University of California, Berkeley, and University of Amsterdam, have proven the existence of this enigmatic new form of matter, which has perplexed scientists since it was first theorized almost 50 years ago.

    The team studied non-doped crystals of the oft-analyzed transition metal dichalcogenide titanium diselenide (1T-TiSe2) and reproduced their surprising results five times on different cleaved crystals. University of Amsterdam Professor of Physics Jasper van Wezel provided crucial theoretical interpretation of the experimental results.

    So what exactly is excitonium?

    Excitonium is a condensate—it exhibits macroscopic quantum phenomena, like a superconductor, or superfluid, or insulating electronic crystal. It’s made up of excitons, particles that are formed in a very strange quantum mechanical pairing, namely that of an escaped electron and the hole it left behind.

    It defies reason, but it turns out that when an electron, seated at the edge of a crowded-with-electrons valence band in a semiconductor, gets excited and jumps over the energy gap to the otherwise empty conduction band, it leaves behind a “hole” in the valence band. That hole behaves as though it were a particle with positive charge, and it attracts the escaped electron. When the escaped electron with its negative charge, pairs up with the hole, the two remarkably form a composite particle, a boson—an exciton.

    In point of fact, the hole’s particle-like attributes are attributable to the collective behavior of the surrounding crowd of electrons. But that understanding makes the pairing no less strange and wonderful.

    Why has excitonium taken 50 years to be discovered in real materials?

    Until now, scientists have not had the experimental tools to positively distinguish whether what looked like excitonium wasn’t in fact a Peierls phase. Though it’s completely unrelated to exciton formation, Peierls phases and exciton condensation share the same symmetry and similar observables—a superlattice and the opening of a single-particle energy gap.

    2
    The relationship between energy and momentum for the excitonic collective mode observed with M-EELS. Credit: Peter Abbamonte, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

    Abbamonte and his team were able to overcome that challenge by using a novel technique they developed called momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (M-EELS). M-EELS is more sensitive to valence band excitations than inelastic X-ray or neutron scattering techniques. Kogar retrofit an EEL spectrometer, which on its own could measure only the trajectory of an electron, giving how much energy and momentum it lost, with a goniometer, which allows the team to measure very precisely an electron’s momentum in real space.

    With their new technique, the group was able for the first time to measure collective excitations of the low-energy bosonic particles, the paired electrons and holes, regardless of their momentum. More specifically, the team achieved the first-ever observation in any material of the precursor to exciton condensation, a soft plasmon phase that emerged as the material approached its critical temperature of 190 Kelvin. This soft plasmon phase is “smoking gun” proof of exciton condensation in a three-dimensional solid and the first-ever definitive evidence for the discovery of excitonium.

    “This result is of cosmic significance,” affirms Abbamonte. “Ever since the term ‘excitonium’ was coined in the 1960s by Harvard theoretical physicist Bert Halperin, physicists have sought to demonstrate its existence. Theorists have debated whether it would be an insulator, a perfect conductor, or a superfluid—with some convincing arguments on all sides. Since the 1970s, many experimentalists have published evidence of the existence of excitonium, but their findings weren’t definitive proof and could equally have been explained by a conventional structural phase transition.”

    Rak recalls the moment, working in the Abbamonte laboratory, when she first understood the magnitude of these findings: “I remember Anshul being very excited about the results of our first measurements on TiSe2. We were standing at a whiteboard in the lab as he explained to me that we had just measured something that no one had seen before: a soft plasmon.”

    3
    U of I Professor of Physics Peter Abbamonte (center) works with graduate students Anshul Kogar (right) and Mindy Rak (left) in his laboratory at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory. Credit: L. Brian Stauffer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    “The excitement generated by this discovery remained with us throughout the entire project,” she continues. “The work we did on TiSe2 allowed me to see the unique promise our M-EELS technique holds for advancing our knowledge of the physical properties of materials and has motivated my continued research on TiSe2.”

    Kogar admits, discovering excitonium was not the original motivation for the research—the team had set out to test their new M-EELS method on a crystal that was readily available—grown at Illinois by former graduate student Young Il Joe, now of NIST. But he emphasizes, not coincidentally, excitonium was a major interest:

    “This discovery was serendipitous. But Peter and I had had a conversation about 5 or 6 years ago addressing exactly this topic of the soft electronic mode, though in a different context, the Wigner crystal instability. So although we didn’t immediately get at why it was occurring in TiSe2, we did know that it was an important result—and one that had been brewing in our minds for a few years.”

    The team’s findings are published in the December 8, 2017 issue of the journal Science in the article, “Signatures of exciton condensation in a transition metal dichalcogenide.”

    This fundamental research holds great promise for unlocking further quantum mechanical mysteries: after all, the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena is what has shaped our understanding of quantum mechanics. It could also shed light on the metal-insulator transition in band solids, in which exciton condensation is believed to play a part. Beyond that, possible technological applications of excitonium are purely speculative.

    See the full article here .

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    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign community of students, scholars, and alumni is changing the world.

    With our land-grant heritage as a foundation, we pioneer innovative research that tackles global problems and expands the human experience. Our transformative learning experiences, in and out of the classroom, are designed to produce alumni who desire to make a significant, societal impact.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:33 pm on November 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
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    From phys.org: “Machine learning used to predict earthquakes in a lab setting” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    October 23, 2017

    1
    Aerial photo of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain, northwest of Los Angeles. Credit: Wikipedia.

    A group of researchers from the UK and the US have used machine learning techniques to successfully predict earthquakes. Although their work was performed in a laboratory setting, the experiment closely mimics real-life conditions, and the results could be used to predict the timing of a real earthquake.

    The team, from the University of Cambridge, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Boston University, identified a hidden signal leading up to earthquakes, and used this ‘fingerprint’ to train a machine learning algorithm to predict future earthquakes. Their results, which could also be applied to avalanches, landslides and more, are reported in the journal Geophysical Review Letters.

    For geoscientists, predicting the timing and magnitude of an earthquake is a fundamental goal. Generally speaking, pinpointing where an earthquake will occur is fairly straightforward: if an earthquake has struck a particular place before, the chances are it will strike there again. The questions that have challenged scientists for decades are how to pinpoint when an earthquake will occur, and how severe it will be. Over the past 15 years, advances in instrument precision have been made, but a reliable earthquake prediction technique has not yet been developed.

    As part of a project searching for ways to use machine learning techniques to make gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs more efficient, the study’s first author, Bertrand Rouet-Leduc, who was then a PhD student at Cambridge, moved to Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to start a collaboration on machine learning in materials science between Cambridge University and Los Alamos. From there the team started helping the Los Alamos Geophysics group on machine learning questions.

    The team at Los Alamos, led by Paul Johnson, studies the interactions among earthquakes, precursor quakes (often very small earth movements) and faults, with the hope of developing a method to predict earthquakes. Using a lab-based system that mimics real earthquakes, the researchers used machine learning techniques to analyse the acoustic signals coming from the ‘fault’ as it moved and search for patterns.

    The laboratory apparatus uses steel blocks to closely mimic the physical forces at work in a real earthquake, and also records the seismic signals and sounds that are emitted. Machine learning is then used to find the relationship between the acoustic signal coming from the fault and how close it is to failing.

    The machine learning algorithm was able to identify a particular pattern in the sound, previously thought to be nothing more than noise, which occurs long before an earthquake. The characteristics of this sound pattern can be used to give a precise estimate (within a few percent) of the stress on the fault (that is, how much force is it under) and to estimate the time remaining before failure, which gets more and more precise as failure approaches. The team now thinks that this sound pattern is a direct measure of the elastic energy that is in the system at a given time.

    “This is the first time that machine learning has been used to analyse acoustic data to predict when an earthquake will occur, long before it does, so that plenty of warning time can be given – it’s incredible what machine learning can do,” said co-author Professor Sir Colin Humphreys of Cambridge’s Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, whose main area of research is energy-efficient and cost-effective LEDs. Humphreys was Rouet-Leduc’s supervisor when he was a PhD student at Cambridge.

    “Machine learning enables the analysis of datasets too large to handle manually and looks at data in an unbiased way that enables discoveries to be made,” said Rouet-Leduc.

    Although the researchers caution that there are multiple differences between a lab-based experiment and a real earthquake, they hope to progressively scale up their approach by applying it to real systems which most resemble their lab system. One such site is in California along the San Andreas Fault, where characteristic small repeating earthquakes are similar to those in the lab-based earthquake simulator. Progress is also being made on the Cascadia fault in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, where repeating slow earthquakes that occur over weeks or months are also very similar to laboratory earthquakes.

    “We’re at a point where huge advances in instrumentation, machine learning, faster computers and our ability to handle massive data sets could bring about huge advances in earthquake science,” said Rouet-Leduc.

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:37 pm on November 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Milky Way Dark Matter Halo, phys.org,   

    From phys.org: “One step closer to defining dark matter, GPS satellite atomic clocks on the hunt” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    November 1, 2017

    1
    Physics professors Andrei Derevianko, left, and Geoff Blewitt of the University of Nevada, Reno College of Science, explain their research to discover how to detect dark matter, and ultimately to define more accurately what kind of particle it is. Credit: Mike Wolterbeek, University of Nevada, Reno

    One professor who studies the earth and one who studies space came together in the pursuit to detect and define dark matter. They are one step closer. Using 16 years of archival data from GPS satellites that that orbit the earth, the University of Nevada, Reno team, Andrei Derevianko and Geoff Blewitt in the College of Science, looked for dark matter clumps in the shape of walls or bubbles and which would extend far out beyond the GPS orbits, the solar system and beyond.

    A scientific article of the team’s work was just published in the journal Nature Communications and just in time for Dark Matter Day, Oct. 31. Dark matter makes up 85 percent of all matter in the universe. While there are multiple astrophysical evidences for dark matter, its nature remains a great mystery. Many forms for dark matter have been hypothesized, theirs is that this form of dark matter, arising from ultralight quantum fields, would form macroscopic objects.

    “We are another step closer to discovering how to detect dark matter, and ultimately to define more accurately what it is, what kind of particle it is” Derevianko said. “Mining these archival data, we found no evidence for domain walls of ultralight dark matter at our current sensitivity level. However, this search rules out a vast region of possibilities for this type of dark matter models.”

    The team focused on ultralight fields that might cause variations in the fundamental constants of nature – such as masses of electrons and quarks and electric charges. The variations could lead to shifts in atomic energy levels, which may be measurable by monitoring atomic frequencies. That’s where the GPS satellites come in. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks.

    “Geoff has been using the atomic clocks on the GPS satellites in his geodetic work – measuring uplift of tectonic plates, the shape of the earth, earthquakes, global sea levels, so is familiar with the precision of the system,” Derevianko said. “I’ve worked on devising more accurate atomic clocks. We realized the GPS system could be used to detect listen to the dark matter sweeping through us.

    “Instead of spending billions of dollars to eliminate some plausible dark mater models, we repurposed these common tools (GPS atomic clocks) we use every day to do basic, fundamental science to look for the answers to this great mystery – to devise our own planet-sized dark matter detector.”

    Speeding through the galaxy

    The Earth is speeding through the Milky Way dark matter halo at 300 kilometers per second or one-one thousandth the speed of light. And dark matter clumps are estimated to take 3 minutes to cross the GPS constellation.

    2
    Milky Way Dark Matter Halo – CERN

    “It’s like a wall moving through a network of clocks causing a wave of atomic clock glitches propagating through the GPS system at galactic speeds,” Derevianko, a professor of quantum physics, said. “The idea is that when the clump overlaps with us, it pulls on the particle masses and forces acting between the particles. Mind you this pull is really weak, otherwise we would have noticed it. However, ultra-sensitive devices like atomic clocks could be sensitive to such pulls.”

    They looked for the predicted patterns of clock glitches, as the earth, and the satellites, moved through the halo of dark matter in the galaxy. The data came from the 32 satellites in the 31,000-mile-wide GPS network and ground-based GPS equipment, every 30-seconds for 16 years. The team used data from sources around the world and in particular from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    “What we looked for was clumps of dark matter in the shape of walls, using a model that – if it exists – would have collisions that are evidenced in irregularities in the atomic clock signals,” Benjamin Roberts, post-doctoral associate and lead author for the Nature paper, said. “While there is no definitive evidence after looking at 16 years of data, it could be that the interaction is weaker or that the defects cross paths with the Earth less often. Some markers indicate it could possibly be a smaller defect.”

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:23 am on October 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , phys.org   

    From phys.org: “Artificial intelligence finds 56 new gravitational lens candidates” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    October 23, 2017

    1
    This picture shows a sample of the handmade photos of gravitational lenses that the astronomers used to train their neural network. Credit: Enrico Petrillo, University of Groningen

    A group of astronomers from the universities of Groningen, Naples and Bonn has developed a method that finds gravitational lenses in enormous piles of observations. The method is based on the same artificial intelligence algorithm that Google, Facebook and Tesla have been using in the last years. The researchers published their method and 56 new gravitational lens candidates in the November issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    When a galaxy is hidden behind another galaxy, we can sometimes see the hidden one around the front system. This phenomenon is called a gravitational lens, because it emerges from Einstein’s general relativity theory which says that mass can bend light. Astronomers search for gravitational lenses because they help in the research of dark matter.

    The hunt for gravitational lenses is painstaking. Astronomers have to sort thousands of images. They are assisted by enthusiastic volunteers around the world. So far, the search was more or less in line with the availability of new images. But thanks to new observations with special telescopes that reflect large sections of the sky, millions of images are added. Humans cannot keep up with that pace.

    Google, Facebook, Tesla

    To tackle the growing amount of images, the astronomers have used so-called ‘convolutional neural networks’. Google employed such neural networks to win a match of Go against the world champion. Facebook uses them to recognize what is in the images of your timeline. And Tesla has been developing self-driving cars thanks to neural networks.

    The astronomers trained the neural network using millions of homemade images of gravitational lenses. Then they confronted the network with millions of images from a small patch of the sky. That patch had a surface area of 255 square degrees. That’s just over half a percent of the sky.

    Gravitational lens candidates

    Initially, the neural network found 761 gravitational lens candidates. After a visual inspection by the astronomers the sample was downsized to 56. The 56 new lenses still need to be confirmed by telescopes as the Hubble space telescope.

    In addition, the neural network rediscovered two known lenses. Unfortunately, it did not see a third known lens. That is a small lens and the neural network was not trained for that size yet.

    In the future, the researchers want to train their neural network even better so that it notices smaller lenses and rejects false ones. The final goal is to completely remove any visual inspection.

    Kilo-Degree Survey

    Carlo Enrico Petrillo (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), first author of the scientific publication: “This is the first time a convolutional neural network has been used to find peculiar objects in an astronomical survey. I think it will become the norm since future astronomical surveys will produce an enormous quantity of data which will be necessary to inspect. We don’t have enough astronomers to cope with this.”

    The data that the neuronal network processed, came from the Kilo-Degree Survey. The project uses the VLT Survey Telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Mount Paranal (Chile). The accompanying panoramic camera, OmegaCAM, was developed under Dutch leadership.


    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO Omegacam on VST at ESO’s Cerro Paranal observatory,with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:20 pm on October 9, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol detected around Sagittarius B2, phys.org, , TMRT   

    From phys.org: “Glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol detected around Sagittarius B2” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    October 9, 2017
    Tomasz Nowakowski

    1
    Color-composite image of the Galactic center and Sagittarius B2 as seen by the ATLASGAL survey. Sagittarius B2 is the bright orange-red region to the middle left of the image, which is centered on the Galactic centre. Credit: ESO/APEX & MSX/IPAC/NASA

    ESO/APEX high on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama region, at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft)

    Using the Shanghai Tianma 65m Radio Telescope (TMRT), a team of Chinese astronomers has detected a widespread presence of glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol around the giant molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. The finding, presented Sept. 29 in a paper published on arXiv.org, could be important for studies of prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium.

    Sagittarius B2 is a giant molecular cloud of gas and dust with a mass of approximately three million solar masses spanning across 150 light years. It is located some 390 light years from the center of the Milky Way and about 25,000 light years away from the Earth. Its enormous size makes it one of the largest molecular clouds in our galaxy.

    Sagittarius B2 contains various kinds of complex molecules, including alcohols like ethanol and methanol. Previous studies revealed that this cloud exhibits a weak concentration of emission of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH). However, the exact extent of this emission remained unclear. Thus, a team of researchers led by Juan Li of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, recently conducted new observations of Sagittarius B2 that independently detected the emission of these two molecules, and provided more detailed information about this process.

    The astronomers observed Sagittarius B2 with TMRT in March and November 2016.

    2
    TMRT

    For these observations, they employed the telescope’s digital backend system (DIBAS) with a total bandwidth of 1.2 GHz, and a velocity resolution of 2.0 km/s at a frequency of 13.5 GHz. The team detected widespread glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol emission, also determining the spatial distribution of these molecules.

    “We report the detection of widespread CH2OHCHO and HOCH2CH2OH emission in galactic center giant molecular cloud Sagittarius B2 using the Shanghai Tianma 65m Radio Telescope,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

    Glycolaldehyde is a sugar-related molecule that can react with propenal to form ribose—a central constituent of RNA. Ethylene glycol is a dialcohol, a molecule chemically related to ethanol. New observations made by Chinese scientists show that the spatial distribution of these two prebiotic molecules around Sagittarius B2 extends over 117 light years. Notably, this extension is about 700 times greater than usually observed in clouds located in the Milky Way’s spiral arms.

    Furthermore, the study revealed that the abundance of glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol decreases from the cold outer region to the central region of the cloud associated with star formation activity. According to the authors, this suggests that most of the emission is not associated with star formation and that the two studied molecules are likely to form through a low temperature process.

    In concluding remarks, the researchers emphasize the necessity of additional observations of other molecules in order to determine whether some other process are also engaged in the formation of complex organic molecules in the center of the Milky Way. “Future observations of methyl formate are expected to investigate whether energetic processes also play a role in producing complex organic molecules in the Galactic center,” the astronomers concluded.

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:39 am on September 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Majorana fermions as the basis for quantum computers, phys.org, Quantum detectives in the hunt for the world's first quantum computer, Station Q Sydney, Topological quantum computers,   

    From U Sidney via phys.org: “Quantum detectives in the hunt for the world’s first quantum computer” 

    U Sidney bloc

    University of Sidney

    phys.org

    September 7, 2017

    2
    Launch of the University of Sydney partnership with Microsoft.Front row: Ph.D. candidate Alice Mahoney with Microsoft’s David Pritchard. Back row (R-L): Station Q Sydney director Professor David Reilly; Microsoft’s Douglas Carmean; Station Q Sydney senior research scientist Dr. Maja Cassidy; University of Sydney Chancellor Belinda Hutchinson, postdoctoral researcher Dr. John Hornibrook and University of Sydney Vice-Chancellor Dr. Michael Spence. Credit: Jayne Ion/University of Sydney

    Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices.

    These devices will form the heart of the first practical topological quantum computers.

    A study released today in Nature Communications confirms one of the prerequisites for building these devices.

    An author of that paper, Dr Maja Cassidy, said: “Here at Station Q Sydney we are building the next generation of devices that will use quasiparticles known as Majorana fermions as the basis for quantum computers.”

    Dr Cassidy said the $150 million Sydney Nanoscience Hub provides a world-class environment in which to build the next generation of devices.

    Microsoft’s Station Q will move scientific equipment into the Nanoscience Hub’s clean rooms – controlled environments with low levels of pollutants and steady temperatures – over the next few months as it increases capacity to develop quantum machines.

    Detective hunt

    Dr Cassidy said that building these quantum devices is a “bit like going on a detective hunt”.

    “When Majorana fermions were first shown to exist in 2012, there were many who said there could be other explanations for the findings,” she said.

    A challenge to show the findings were caused by Majoranas was put to the research team led by Professor Leo Kouwenhoven, who now leads Microsoft’s Station Q in the Netherlands.

    The paper published today meets an essential part of that challenge.

    In essence, it proves that electrons on a one-dimensional semiconducting nanowire will have a quantum spin opposite to its momentum in a finite magnetic field.

    “This information is consistent with previous reports observing Majorana fermions in these nanowires,” Dr Cassidy said.

    She said the findings are not just applicable to quantum computers but will be useful in spintronic systems, where the quantum spin and not the charge is used for information in classical systems.

    Dr Cassidy conducted the research while at the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands, where she held a post-doctorate position. She has since returned to Australia and is based at the University of Sydney Station Q partnership with Microsoft.

    University of Sydney Professor David Reilly is the director of Station Q Sydney.

    “This is practical science at the cutting-edge,” Professor Reilly said. “We have hired Dr Cassidy because her ability to fabricate next-generation quantum devices is second to none.”

    He said Dr Cassidy was one of many great minds attracted to work at Station Q Sydney already this year. “And there are more people joining us soon at Sydney as we build our capacity.”

    Professor Reilly last week won the Australian Financial Review award for Emerging Leadership in Higher Education.

    See the full article here .

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

    U Sidney campus

    Our founding principle as Australia’s first university was that we would be a modern and progressive institution. It’s an ideal we still hold dear today.

    When Charles William Wentworth proposed the idea of Australia’s first university in 1850, he imagined “the opportunity for the child of every class to become great and useful in the destinies of this country”.

    We’ve stayed true to that original value and purpose by promoting inclusion and diversity for the past 160 years.

    It’s the reason that, as early as 1881, we admitted women on an equal footing to male students. Oxford University didn’t follow suit until 30 years later, and Jesus College at Cambridge University did not begin admitting female students until 1974.

    It’s also why, from the very start, talented students of all backgrounds were given the chance to access further education through bursaries and scholarships.

    Today we offer hundreds of scholarships to support and encourage talented students, and a range of grants and bursaries to those who need a financial helping hand.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:46 pm on September 6, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A scintillating fiber tracker dubbed SciFi, , , , , , , phys.org   

    From EPFL via phys.org: “Particle physicists on a quest for ‘new physics'” 

    EPFL bloc

    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL

    phys.org

    Contacts

    Sandy Evangelista Press
    sandy.evangelista@epfl.ch
    +41 79 502 81 06

    Aurelio Bay High Energy Physics Laboratory 1
    aurelio.bay@epfl.ch
    +41 21 693 04 74

    Olivier Schneider High Energy Physics Laboratory 2
    olivier.schneider@epfl.ch
    +41 21 693 05 07

    Tatsuya Nakada High Energy Physics Laboratory 3
    tatsuya.nakada@epfl.ch
    +41 21 693 04 75

    1
    After five years of work, EPFL’s physicists, together with some 800 international researchers involved in the CERN’s LHCb project, have just taken an important step by building a new detector — a scintillating fiber tracker dubbed SciFi — to harvest more data from the collider. Credit: CERN

    3
    Construction of the tracker, which incorporates 10,000 kilometers of scintillating fibers each with a diameter of 0.25mm, has already begun. When particles travel through them, the fibers will give off light signals that will be picked up by light-amplifying diodes. The scintillating fibers will be arranged in three panels measuring five by six meters, installed behind a magnet, where the particles exit the LHC accelerator collision point. The particles will pass through several of these fiber ‘mats’ and deposit part of their energy along the way, producing some photons of light that will then be turned into an electric signal.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, produces hundreds of millions of proton collisions per second. But researchers working on the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment, which involves physicists from EPFL, can only record 2,000 of those collisions, using one of the detectors installed on the accelerator. So in the end, this technological marvel leaves the physicists wanting more. They are convinced that the vast volume of uncaptured data holds the answers to several unresolved questions.

    In elementary particle physics, the Standard Model – the theory that best describes phenomena in this field – has been well and truly tried and tested, yet the researchers know that the puzzle is not complete. That’s why they are studying phenomena that are not accounted for by the Standard Model. This quest for “new physics” seeks to explain the disappearance of antimatter after the Big Bang and the nature of the dark matter that, although it represents around 30% of the universe, can only be detected by astronomical measurements at this point.

    “To extract more information from the LHC data, we need new technologies for our LHCb detector,” says Aurelio Bay from EPFL’s Laboratory for High Energy Physics. EPFL has teamed up with several research institutes to develop the new equipment that will upgrade the experiment in 2020.

    Using scintillating fiber to detect particles

    Data on how the particles traverse the fibers will be enough to reconstruct their trajectory. The physicists will then use this information to restore their primitive physical state. “What we will essentially be doing is tracing these particles’ journey back to their starting point. This should give us some insight into what happened 14 billion years ago, before antimatter disappeared, leaving us with the matter we have today,” says Bay.

    Huge data flows

    SciFi is a key component for acquiring data at the highest speed, as it includes filters that are designed to preserve only useful data. In an ideal world, the physicists would collect and analyze all of the data without needing to use too many filters. But that would involve a massive amount of data.

    “We may already be at the limit, because we of course have to save the data somewhere. First we use magnetic storage and then we distribute the data on the LHC GRID, which includes machines in Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, at CERN, and in France and the UK. Many countries are taking part, and numerous studies on this data are being run simultaneously,” adds Bay. He points to his computer screen: red is used to denote programs that are not working well or those that have been trying for several days to be included among the priorities.

    Bay neatly puts this initiative into a physicist’s perspective: “If the LHC doesn’t have enough power to uncover new physics, it’s all over for my generation of physicists! We will have to come up with a new machine, for the next generation.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    About Phys.org in 100 Words

    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

    EPFL campus

    EPFL is Europe’s most cosmopolitan technical university with students, professors and staff from over 120 nations. A dynamic environment, open to Switzerland and the world, EPFL is centered on its three missions: teaching, research and technology transfer. EPFL works together with an extensive network of partners including other universities and institutes of technology, developing and emerging countries, secondary schools and colleges, industry and economy, political circles and the general public, to bring about real impact for society.

     
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