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  • richardmitnick 10:07 am on September 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Are you quantum or not? Wits PhD student cracks the high-dimensional quantum code", A new and fast tool for quantum computing and communication., ‘Bell measurement’- a famous test to tell if what you have in front of you is entangled like asking it “are you quantum or not?”, Harnessing structured patterns of light for high dimensional information encoding and decoding for use in quantum communication., More dimensions mean a higher quantum bandwidth (faster) and better resilience to noise (security)., , Photonics, , Quantum states that are entangled in many dimensions are key to our emerging quantum technologies., Reducing the measurement time from decades to minutes., University of the Witwatersrand (SA)   

    From University of the Witwatersrand (SA): “Are you quantum or not? Wits PhD student cracks the high-dimensional quantum code” 


    From University of the Witwatersrand (SA)

    31 August 2021

    A new and fast tool for quantum computing and communication.

    Isaac Nape, an emerging South African talent in the study of quantum optics, is part of a crack team of Wits physicists who led an international study that revealed the hidden structures of quantum entangled states. The study was published in the renowned scientific journal Nature Communications on Friday, 27 August 2021.

    Nape is pursuing his PhD at Wits University and focuses on harnessing structured patterns of light for high dimensional information encoding and decoding for use in quantum communication.

    Earlier this year he scooped up two awards at the South African Institute of Physics (SAIP) conference to add to his growing collection of accolades in the field of optics and photonics. He won the award for ‘Best PhD oral presentation in applied physics’, and jointly won the award for ‘Best PhD oral presentation in photonics’.

    In May, he was also awarded the prestigious 2021 Optics and Photonics Education Scholarship from the SPIE – the international society for optics and photonics (US) (EU), for his potential contributions to the field of optics, photonics or related field.

    Faster and more secure computing

    Now Nape and his colleagues at Wits, together with collaborators from Scotland and Taiwan offer a new and fast tool for quantum computing and communication. “Quantum states that are entangled in many dimensions are key to our emerging quantum technologies, where more dimensions mean a higher quantum bandwidth (faster) and better resilience to noise (security), crucial for both fast and secure communication and speed up in error-free quantum computing.

    “What we have done here is to invent a new approach to probing these ‘high-dimensional’ quantum states, reducing the measurement time from decades to minutes,” Nape explains.

    Nape worked with Distinguished Professor Andrew Forbes, lead investigator on this study and Director of the Structured Light Laboratory in the School of Physics at Wits, as well as postdoctoral fellow Dr Valeria Rodriguez-Fajardo, visiting Taiwanese researcher Dr Hasiao-Chih Huang, and Dr Jonathan Leach and Dr Feng Zhu from Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh (SCT).

    Are you quantum or not?

    In their paper the team outlined a new approach to quantum measurement, testing it on a 100 dimensional quantum entangled state.

    With traditional approaches, the time of measurement increases unfavourably with dimension, so that to unravel a 100 dimensional state by a full ‘quantum state tomography’ would take decades. Instead, the team showed that the salient information of the quantum system – how many dimensions are entangled and to what level of purity? – could be deduced in just minutes. The new approach requires only simple ‘projections’ that could easily be done in most laboratories with conventional tools. Using light as an example, the team using an all-digital approach to perform the measurements.

    The problem, explains Nape, is that while high-dimensional states are easily made, particularly with entangled particles of light (photons) they are not easy to measure – our toolbox for measuring and controlling them is almost empty.

    You can think of a high-dimensional quantum state like faces of a dice. A conventional dice has 6 faces, numbered 1 through 6, for a six-dimensional alphabet that can be used for computing, or for transferring information in communication. To make a ‘high-dimensional dice’ means a dice with many more faces: 100 dimensions equals 100 faces – a rather complicated polygon.

    “In our everyday world it would be easy to count the faces to know what sort of resource we had available to us, but not so in the quantum world. In the quantum world, you can never see the whole dice, so counting the faces is very difficult. The way we get around this is to do a tomography, as they do in the medical world, building up a picture from many, many slices of the object,” explains Nape.

    But the information in quantum objects can be enormous, so the time for this process is prohibitive. A faster approach is a ‘Bell measurement’- a famous test to tell if what you have in front of you is entangled like asking it “are you quantum or not?”. But while this confirms quantum correlations of the dice, it doesn’t say much about the number of faces it has.

    Chance discovery

    “Our work circumvented the problem by a chance discovery, that there is a set of measurements that is not a tomography and not a Bell measurement, but that holds important information of both,” says Nape. “In technical parlance, we blended these two measurement approaches to do multiple projections that look like a tomography but measuring the vizibilities of the outcome, as if they were Bell measurements. This revealed the hidden information that could be extracted from the strength of the quantum correlations across many dimensions”.

    First and fast

    The combination of speed from the Bell-like approach and information from the tomography-like approach meant that key quantum parameters such as dimensionality and the purity of the quantum state could be determined quickly and quantitatively, the first approach to do so.

    “We are not suggesting that our approach replace other techniques,” says Forbes. “Rather, we see it as a fast probe to reveal what you are dealing with, and then use this information to make an informed decision on what to do next. A case of horses-for-courses”.

    For example, the team see their approach as changing the game in real-world quantum communication links, where a fast measurement of how noisy that quantum state has become and what this has done to the useful dimensions is crucial.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    The The University of the Witwatersrand (SA) is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. The university has its roots in the mining industry, as do Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand in general. Founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines in Kimberley, it is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation.

    The university has an enrollment of 40,259 students as of 2018, of which approximately 20 percent live on campus in the university’s 17 residences. 63 percent of the university’s total enrollment is for undergraduate study, with 35 percent being postgraduate and the remaining 2 percent being Occasional Students.

    The 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) places Wits University, with its overall score, as the highest ranked university in Africa. Wits was ranked as the top university in South Africa in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) in 2016. According to the CWUR rankings, Wits occupies this ranking position since 2014.

  • richardmitnick 10:41 am on August 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers discover new limit of trapping light at the nanoscale", , , , Photonics, ,   

    From University of Southampton (UK) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH): “Researchers discover new limit of trapping light at the nanoscale” 

    U Southampton bloc

    From University of Southampton (UK)


    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH)

    10 August 2021

    Light focussed by nano-antennas on a gold surface leaks out by generating propagating plasmons.

    Physicists from the University of Southampton and ETH Zürich have reached a new threshold of light-matter coupling at the nanoscale.

    The international research, published this week in Nature Photonics, combined theoretical and experimental findings to establish a fundamental limitation of our ability to confine and exploit light.

    The collaboration focused on photonic nano-antennas fabricated in ever reducing sizes on the top of a two-dimensional electron gas. The setup is commonly used in laboratories all over the world to explore the effect of intense electromagnetic coupling, taking advantage of the antennas’ ability to trap and focus light close to electrons.

    Professor Simone De Liberato, Director of the Quantum Theory and Technology group at the University of Southampton, says: “The fabrication of photonic resonators able to focus light in extremely small volumes is proving a key technology which is presently enabling advances in fields as different as material science, optoelectronics, chemistry, quantum technologies, and many others.

    “In particular, the focussed light can be made to interact extremely strongly with matter, making electromagnetism non-perturbative. Light can then be used to modify the properties of the materials it interacts with, thus becoming a powerful tool for material science. Light can be effectively woven into novel materials.”

    Scientists discovered that light could no longer be confined in the system below a critical dimension, of the order of 250nm in the sample under study, when the experiment started exciting propagating plasmons. This caused waves of electrons to move away from the resonator and spill the energy of the photon.

    Experiments performed in the group of Professors Jérôme Faist and Giacomo Scalari at ETH Zürich had obtained results that could not be interpreted with state-of-the-art understanding of light-matter coupling. The physicists approached Southampton’s School of Physics and Astronomy, where researchers led theoretical analysis and built a novel theory able to quantitatively reproduce the results.

    Professor De Liberato believes the newfound limits could yet be exceeded by future experiments, unlocking dramatic technological advances that hinge on ultra-confined electromagnetic fields.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ETH Zurich campus
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich] (CH) is a public research university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, the school focuses exclusively on science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Like its sister institution Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne](CH) , it is part of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain (ETH Domain)) , part of the Swiss Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research [EAER][Eidgenössisches Departement für Wirtschaft, Bildung und Forschung] [Département fédéral de l’économie, de la formation et de la recherche] (CH).

    The university is an attractive destination for international students thanks to low tuition fees of 809 CHF per semester, PhD and graduate salaries that are amongst the world’s highest, and a world-class reputation in academia and industry. There are currently 22,200 students from over 120 countries, of which 4,180 are pursuing doctoral degrees. In the 2021 edition of the QS World University Rankings ETH Zürich is ranked 6th in the world and 8th by the Times Higher Education World Rankings 2020. In the 2020 QS World University Rankings by subject it is ranked 4th in the world for engineering and technology (2nd in Europe) and 1st for earth & marine science.

    As of November 2019, 21 Nobel laureates, 2 Fields Medalists, 2 Pritzker Prize winners, and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein. Other notable alumni include John von Neumann and Santiago Calatrava. It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) and a member of the CESAER network.

    ETH Zürich was founded on 7 February 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and began giving its first lectures on 16 October 1855 as a polytechnic institute (eidgenössische polytechnische Schule) at various sites throughout the city of Zurich. It was initially composed of six faculties: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry, forestry, and an integrated department for the fields of mathematics, natural sciences, literature, and social and political sciences.

    It is locally still known as Polytechnikum, or simply as Poly, derived from the original name eidgenössische polytechnische Schule, which translates to “federal polytechnic school”.

    ETH Zürich is a federal institute (i.e., under direct administration by the Swiss government), whereas the University of Zürich [Universität Zürich ] (CH) is a cantonal institution. The decision for a new federal university was heavily disputed at the time; the liberals pressed for a “federal university”, while the conservative forces wanted all universities to remain under cantonal control, worried that the liberals would gain more political power than they already had. In the beginning, both universities were co-located in the buildings of the University of Zürich.

    From 1905 to 1908, under the presidency of Jérôme Franel, the course program of ETH Zürich was restructured to that of a real university and ETH Zürich was granted the right to award doctorates. In 1909 the first doctorates were awarded. In 1911, it was given its current name, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments.

    ETH Zürich, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne](CH), and four associated research institutes form the Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles polytechniques fédérales] (CH) with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects.

    Reputation and ranking

    ETH Zürich is ranked among the top universities in the world. Typically, popular rankings place the institution as the best university in continental Europe and ETH Zürich is consistently ranked among the top 1-5 universities in Europe, and among the top 3-10 best universities of the world.

    Historically, ETH Zürich has achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics. There are 32 Nobel laureates who are associated with ETH Zürich, the most recent of whom is Richard F. Heck, awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is perhaps its most famous alumnus.

    In 2018, the QS World University Rankings placed ETH Zürich at 7th overall in the world. In 2015, ETH Zürich was ranked 5th in the world in Engineering, Science and Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Stanford University(US) and University of Cambridge(UK). In 2015, ETH Zürich also ranked 6th in the world in Natural Sciences, and in 2016 ranked 1st in the world for Earth & Marine Sciences for the second consecutive year.

    In 2016, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked ETH Zürich 9th overall in the world and 8th in the world in the field of Engineering & Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Stanford University(US), California Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Cambridge(UK), Imperial College London(UK) and University of Oxford(UK) .

    In a comparison of Swiss universities by swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zürich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences.

    In the survey CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programs in the fields of biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics, ETH Zürich was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent programs in all the considered fields, the other two being Imperial College London(UK) and the University of Cambridge(UK), respectively.

    U Southampton campus

    The University of Southampton (UK) is a world-class university built on the quality and diversity of our community. Our staff place a high value on excellence and creativity, supporting independence of thought, and the freedom to challenge existing knowledge and beliefs through critical research and scholarship. Through our education and research we transform people’s lives and change the world for the better.

    Vision 2020 is the basis of our strategy.

    Since publication of the previous University Strategy in 2010 we have achieved much of what we set out to do against a backdrop of a major economic downturn and radical change in higher education in the UK.

    Vision 2020 builds on these foundations, describing our future ambition and priorities. It presents a vision of the University as a confident, growing, outwardly-focused institution that has global impact. It describes a connected institution equally committed to education and research, providing a distinctive educational experience for its students, and confident in its place as a leading international research university, achieving world-wide impact.

  • richardmitnick 9:53 am on July 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Bringing light into computers to accelerate AI and machine learning", , HCU: hybrid co-processing unit”, , , , Photonics, University of Washington (US) Electrical and Computer En gineering   

    From University of Washington (US) : “Bringing light into computers to accelerate AI and machine learning” 

    From University of Washington (US)


    Wayne Gillam | UW ECE News

    A simplified illustration showing a novel computer chip being developed by a multi-institutional research team led by UW ECE faculty members Sajjad Moazeni and Mo Li. The chip is called a “hybrid co-processing unit,” or HCU. The HCU combines traditional electronics with photonics, using light generated by lasers instead of electricity for data processing and phase-change material (a substance similar to what is in CD-ROMs and DVDs) to record information. The computational power of the HCU will be over ten times greater than today’s most advanced silicon-based microprocessors of comparable size. The device promises to greatly accelerate the computing speed and efficiency of artificial intelligence and machine learning applications, while at the same time, reduce energy consumption. Illustration by Seokhyeong Lee, UW

    It might not be commonly known, but artificial intelligence and machine learning applications are commonplace today, performing a multitude of tasks for us behind the scenes. For example, AI and machine learning helps to interpret voice commands given to our phones and devices such as Alexa, recommends movies and music we might enjoy through services such as Netflix and Spotify, and is even driving autonomous vehicles. In the near future, the reach of AI and machine learning applications is expected to extend even further, to more complex tasks such as supporting space missions and defense operations, and developing new drugs to treat disease.

    But the growing sophistication of AI and machine learning applications, as well as their implementation at such a large scale, demands a need for computing power which roughly doubles every three to four months. That’s much faster than Moore’s law (the observation that the number of transistors in a dense, integrated circuit doubles about every two years). Conventional computing paradigms and hardware platforms are having trouble keeping up. Also, cloud computing data centers used by AI and machine learning applications around the world currently gobble up an estimated 200-terawatt hours per year. That’s more than a small country. It’s easy to see that this energy consumption will come hand-in-hand with serious environmental consequences.

    To help address these challenges, UW ECE faculty members Sajjad Moazeni and Mo Li are leading a multi-institutional research team that recently received a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation (US) to develop a new type of computer chip that uses laser light for AI and machine learning computation. This chip, called a “hybrid co-processing unit,” or HCU, stands to greatly accelerate the computing speed and efficiency of AI and machine learning applications, while at the same time reducing energy consumption. The computational power of the HCU will be over ten times greater than today’s most advanced silicon-based microprocessors of comparable size.

    “There is a need to shift the computing paradigm to something new,” said Moazeni, who is lead principal investigator of the project. “One of the most important and distinctive novelties in the work we are doing is that what we are proposing can very tightly get integrated with existing silicon-based microprocessors in today’s data centers. That is something very unique.”

    A new, scalable optical computing paradigm

    The HCU combines traditional electronics with photonics, using light generated by lasers instead of electricity for data processing. The device does this by way of an optical computing core that includes phase-change material (a substance similar to what is in CD-ROMs and DVDs) to record information. This computing core can realize an optical neural network on the chip to accelerate computational speed in an ultracompact footprint, storing data on-chip using the phase-change material at essentially zero-power.

    “The HCU is a single-chip solution that can be integrated with today’s silicon-based microprocessors,” Moazeni said. “We call it ‘hybrid’ because we are co-optimizing the benefits of electronics, photonics and phase-change materials, all within one system.”

    The project builds on research by Moazeni, who is an expert in large-scale integrated photonics and microelectronics, as well as Li, who has been developing optical computing systems using phase-change materials at UW ECE. According to Moazeni and Li, this is the first time photonics and electronics have been so tightly integrated together in a single chip for the purpose of accelerating AI and machine learning computations.

    “Optical computing is best for data movement and linear computation, while traditional electronics are really good at digital computation and also implementing nonlinear algorithms, which optical computing cannot easily do,” Li said. “Our strategy combines the best of the two.”

    Other members of the research team are Nathan Youngblood, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Pittsburgh (US), and Lei Jiang, an assistant professor of intelligent systems engineering at Indiana University-Bloomington (US). Youngblood will work on designing electrically programmable, high density optical memory arrays for ultrafast optical computation, and Jiang will be focusing on optimizing the device for accelerating emerging AI and machine learning applications.

    What’s next?

    The research team is working toward combining the phase-change material with microelectronics circuitry at the Washington Nanofabrication Facility. This will be achieved through integrating the phase-change material with an advanced silicon photonic process fabricated at a commercial foundry. The method allows thousands of photonic elements and millions of transistors to be fabricated together in a cost-effective and scalable manner. The team will also be building computer models to simulate every aspect of the device.

    “We’ll start by modeling and putting together the full end-to-end model of the HCU, model the phase-change material, model the photonics and construct a new, unique framework on which we can simulate all of them together,” Moazeni said.

    By the end of the NSF grant in 2025, the research team expects to have a working, physical prototype. Then, the group will be poised to manufacture the device in larger quantities and at a scale capable of moving into the marketplace.

    What does that mean for the rest of us? Eventually, the work promises to translate into quicker response times and improved performance for any computer application that involves AI or machine learning (such as our phones, Alexa, Netflix and Spotify). It also will help make possible a significant reduction in energy consumption, making technology driven by AI and machine learning more environmentally friendly.

    “This is the first time that we’ll be bringing a non-traditional computing chip into the real world for practical applications, and I’m really excited about that,” Moazeni said. “It’s a realization of Moore’s law, which stated that eventually new materials would need to be brought into chip development in order to increase computing capacity and speed.”

    “Our technology will improve speed, performance and power consumption,” Li added. “And perhaps most importantly, it will help to put AI computing on a sustainable energy path.”

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    The University of Washington (US) is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.

    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

    The University of Washington (US) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington, United States. Founded in 1861, University of Washington is one of the oldest universities on the West Coast; it was established in downtown Seattle approximately a decade after the city’s founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university’s 703-acre main Seattle campus is in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest. The university has additional campuses in Tacoma and Bothell. Overall, University of Washington encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with more than 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, museums, laboratories, stadiums, and conference centers. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees a total student enrollment of roughly 46,000 annually, and functions on a quarter system.

    University of Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities(US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation(US), UW spent $1.41 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 5th in the nation. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington state, it is known for its medical, engineering and scientific research as well as its highly competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, University of Washington continues to benefit from its deep historic ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing, Nintendo, and particularly Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a startup venture before founding Microsoft and other ventures. The University of Washington’s 22 varsity sports teams are also highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, and other major competitions.

    The university has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 21 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars and Marshall Scholars.

    In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city’s potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, one of the founders of Seattle and a member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city’s importance by moving the territory’s capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley eventually convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle’s economy. Two universities were initially chartered, but later the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available. When no site emerged, Denny successfully petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858.

    In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres (4 ha) site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, and Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny’s Knoll in downtown Seattle. More specifically, this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, and Seneca Streets to the south.

    John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named, was the university’s architect and builder. It was opened on November 4, 1861, as the Territorial University of Washington. The legislature passed articles incorporating the University, and establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school initially struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment, and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. University of Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor’s degree in science.

    19th century relocation

    By the time Washington state entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially. University of Washington’s total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, and the campus’s relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by University of Washington graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty. The committee eventually selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, which was the land of the Duwamish, and the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall. The University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus, eventually settling with leasing the area. This would later become one of the University’s most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract. The original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, and its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.

    The sole-surviving remnants of Washington’s first building are four 24-foot (7.3 m), white, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University’s first graduates and former head of its history department. Meany and his colleague, Dean Herbert T. Condon, dubbed the columns as “Loyalty,” “Industry,” “Faith”, and “Efficiency”, or “LIFE.” The columns now stand in the Sylvan Grove Theater.

    20th century expansion

    Organizers of the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition eyed the still largely undeveloped campus as a prime setting for their world’s fair. They came to an agreement with Washington’s Board of Regents that allowed them to use the campus grounds for the exposition, surrounding today’s Drumheller Fountain facing towards Mount Rainier. In exchange, organizers agreed Washington would take over the campus and its development after the fair’s conclusion. This arrangement led to a detailed site plan and several new buildings, prepared in part by John Charles Olmsted. The plan was later incorporated into the overall University of Washington campus master plan, permanently affecting the campus layout.

    Both World Wars brought the military to campus, with certain facilities temporarily lent to the federal government. In spite of this, subsequent post-war periods were times of dramatic growth for the University. The period between the wars saw a significant expansion of the upper campus. Construction of the Liberal Arts Quadrangle, known to students as “The Quad,” began in 1916 and continued to 1939. The University’s architectural centerpiece, Suzzallo Library, was built in 1926 and expanded in 1935.

    After World War II, further growth came with the G.I. Bill. Among the most important developments of this period was the opening of the School of Medicine in 1946, which is now consistently ranked as the top medical school in the United States. It would eventually lead to the University of Washington Medical Center, ranked by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top ten hospitals in the nation.

    In 1942, all persons of Japanese ancestry in the Seattle area were forced into inland internment camps as part of Executive Order 9066 following the attack on Pearl Harbor. During this difficult time, university president Lee Paul Sieg took an active and sympathetic leadership role in advocating for and facilitating the transfer of Japanese American students to universities and colleges away from the Pacific Coast to help them avoid the mass incarceration. Nevertheless many Japanese American students and “soon-to-be” graduates were unable to transfer successfully in the short time window or receive diplomas before being incarcerated. It was only many years later that they would be recognized for their accomplishments during the University of Washington’s Long Journey Home ceremonial event that was held in May 2008.

    From 1958 to 1973, the University of Washington saw a tremendous growth in student enrollment, its faculties and operating budget, and also its prestige under the leadership of Charles Odegaard. University of Washington student enrollment had more than doubled to 34,000 as the baby boom generation came of age. However, this era was also marked by high levels of student activism, as was the case at many American universities. Much of the unrest focused around civil rights and opposition to the Vietnam War. In response to anti-Vietnam War protests by the late 1960s, the University Safety and Security Division became the University of Washington Police Department.

    Odegaard instituted a vision of building a “community of scholars”, convincing the Washington State legislatures to increase investment in the University. Washington senators, such as Henry M. Jackson and Warren G. Magnuson, also used their political clout to gather research funds for the University of Washington. The results included an increase in the operating budget from $37 million in 1958 to over $400 million in 1973, solidifying University of Washington as a top recipient of federal research funds in the United States. The establishment of technology giants such as Microsoft, Boeing and Amazon in the local area also proved to be highly influential in the University of Washington’s fortunes, not only improving graduate prospects but also helping to attract millions of dollars in university and research funding through its distinguished faculty and extensive alumni network.

    21st century

    In 1990, the University of Washington opened its additional campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. Although originally intended for students who have already completed two years of higher education, both schools have since become four-year universities with the authority to grant degrees. The first freshman classes at these campuses started in fall 2006. Today both Bothell and Tacoma also offer a selection of master’s degree programs.

    In 2012, the University began exploring plans and governmental approval to expand the main Seattle campus, including significant increases in student housing, teaching facilities for the growing student body and faculty, as well as expanded public transit options. The University of Washington light rail station was completed in March 2015, connecting Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood to the University of Washington Husky Stadium within five minutes of rail travel time. It offers a previously unavailable option of transportation into and out of the campus, designed specifically to reduce dependence on private vehicles, bicycles and local King County buses.

    University of Washington has been listed as a “Public Ivy” in Greene’s Guides since 2001, and is an elected member of the American Association of Universities. Among the faculty by 2012, there have been 151 members of American Association for the Advancement of Science, 68 members of the National Academy of Sciences(US), 67 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 53 members of the National Academy of Medicine(US), 29 winners of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, 21 members of the National Academy of Engineering(US), 15 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, 15 MacArthur Fellows, 9 winners of the Gairdner Foundation International Award, 5 winners of the National Medal of Science, 7 Nobel Prize laureates, 5 winners of Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research, 4 members of the American Philosophical Society, 2 winners of the National Book Award, 2 winners of the National Medal of Arts, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 1 winner of the Fields Medal, and 1 member of the National Academy of Public Administration. Among UW students by 2012, there were 136 Fulbright Scholars, 35 Rhodes Scholars, 7 Marshall Scholars and 4 Gates Cambridge Scholars. UW is recognized as a top producer of Fulbright Scholars, ranking 2nd in the US in 2017.

    The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has consistently ranked University of Washington as one of the top 20 universities worldwide every year since its first release. In 2019, University of Washington ranked 14th worldwide out of 500 by the ARWU, 26th worldwide out of 981 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 28th worldwide out of 101 in the Times World Reputation Rankings. Meanwhile, QS World University Rankings ranked it 68th worldwide, out of over 900.

    U.S. News & World Report ranked University of Washington 8th out of nearly 1,500 universities worldwide for 2021, with University of Washington’s undergraduate program tied for 58th among 389 national universities in the U.S. and tied for 19th among 209 public universities.

    In 2019, it ranked 10th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings. In 2017, the Leiden Ranking, which focuses on science and the impact of scientific publications among the world’s 500 major universities, ranked University of Washington 12th globally and 5th in the U.S.

    In 2019, Kiplinger Magazine’s review of “top college values” named University of Washington 5th for in-state students and 10th for out-of-state students among U.S. public colleges, and 84th overall out of 500 schools. In the Washington Monthly National University Rankings University of Washington was ranked 15th domestically in 2018, based on its contribution to the public good as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.

  • richardmitnick 4:55 pm on May 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Shaped light waves penetrate further into photonic crystals", , , , Photonics,   

    From physicsworld.com (UK) : “Shaped light waves penetrate further into photonic crystals” 

    From physicsworld.com (UK)

    03 May 2021
    Isabelle Dumé

    Light propagation inside a photonic crystal with shaped and unshaped incident light waves. Courtesy: R Uppu.

    An international team of researchers has succeeded in steering light waves deep into “forbidden” regions of photonic crystals by manipulating the shape of the waves. The technique, which was developed by scientists at the University of Twente [ Universiteit Twente] (NL), the University of Iowa (US) and the University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet](DK), takes advantage of nanoscale channels created naturally when the crystals are fabricated, and could find use in a host of optoelectronics applications.

    Photonic crystals are made by etching patterned nanopores into a substrate such as a silicon wafer. These patterned structures are specially designed to make the crystal’s refractive index vary periodically on the length scale of visible light. This periodic variation, in turn, produces a photonic “band gap” that affects how photons propagate through the crystal – similar to the way a periodic potential in semiconductors affects the flow of electrons by defining allowed and forbidden energy bands.

    The presence of this band gap means that only light within certain wavelength ranges can pass through the crystal. Outside these ranges, the light is reflected due to an effect called Bragg interference. The prohibition on light travel at forbidden wavelengths is so restrictive that if a quantum dot that emits light at one of these wavelengths is placed inside the crystal, it stops emitting the forbidden colour of light.

    “Out of control”

    Photonic crystals were discovered 30 years ago, and they are now routinely integrated into devices such as light sources, lasers, efficient solar cells and so-called invisibility cloaks. They are also used to trap light in extremely small volumes and to process optical information. In addition, the ability to tightly control their emission properties makes them attractive for advanced applications such as nonlinear processors for quantum computing and memories that store information encoded as light.

    To date, all these applications have been static, because the structure of the crystals (and thus the path of the light transported within them) is fixed. New functionalities should be possible, however, if light can be controllably steered anywhere inside the crystals, beyond the depth set by Bragg interference.

    “This depth is known as the Bragg length and is determined by the intentionally introduced periodic structural order in the crystal when it is fabricated,” explains study lead author Ravitej Uppu. “Disorder arising from unavoidable imperfections in the nanofabrication process, however, produces channels that penetrate deep into the crystal and through which the trajectory of incoming light waves can be deviated. These channels are usually detrimental for applications because they allow a small fraction of waves to ‘get out of control’ and randomly scatter into the crystal.”

    Light-steering demonstration

    Led by Willem Vos of the University of Twente, Uppu and colleagues have now turned these channels and the fact that light waves can travel through them into an advantage. They did this by shaping the wavefronts of light waves so that they selectively couple to these channels, thus allowing the waves to travel much further into the crystal. What is more, by programming the wavefronts correctly, they could interfere the waves such that their intensity concentrates at a single location deep inside the crystals.

    In their work, published in Physical Review Letters, the researchers studied light propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of large periodic arrays of pores (about 6 microns deep) etched in a silicon wafer. They began by directing unstructured, random, plane light waves onto the crystals and imaging the light that leaks through the structures’ top surface. This leaked light revealed the energy density of light at any given position inside the crystals, and as the researchers expected, they saw hardly any sign that light had penetrated the crystal at all. They confirmed this result by showing that 95% of the incident light was reflected.

    Eight times the Bragg length

    The researchers then repeated their experiment using light waves with wavefronts shaped using a device known as a spatial light modulator. By programming the shapes, they managed to steer the waves into otherwise forbidden gaps in the crystal, travelling up to eight times the Bragg length. Focusing this light allowed them to create a bright spot that is up to 100 times more intense compared to that created by unshaped wavefronts.

    Members of the team say they now plan to extend their experiments to 3D photonic band gap crystals, where they “eagerly expect” to see additional phenomena such as Anderson localization of light. “Such 3D control of light transport could be exploited for exotic light hopping across a lattice of cavities inside these crystals,” Uppu tells Physics World. “The combination of reconfigurable light transport and cavities could potentially allow us to realize nonlinear quantum operations for quantum computing.”

    And that is not all. Since the observed phenomena are essentially exploiting wave interference, the team is confident that their results can be generalized to electron waves, magnetic spin waves or even sound waves. Indeed, Uppu notes that other researchers have recently made considerable advances in the latter two fields, so the required spatial shaping of these waves should be feasible.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    a href=”http://www.stemedcoalition.org/”>Stem Education Coalition

    PhysicsWorld(UK) is a publication of the Institute of Physics(UK). The Institute of Physics is a leading scientific society. We are a charitable organisation with a worldwide membership of more than 50,000, working together to advance physics education, research and application.

    We engage with policymakers and the general public to develop awareness and understanding of the value of physics and, through IOP Publishing, we are world leaders in professional scientific communications.
    IOP Institute of Physics

  • richardmitnick 4:28 pm on April 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CCNY team makes single photon switch advance", , College of New York (US), Photonics, , Rydberg states, The ability to turn on and off a physical process with just one photon is a fundamental building block for quantum photonic technologies.   

    From City College of New York (US) : “CCNY team makes single photon switch advance” 

    From City College of New York (US)

    April 28, 2021
    Jay Mwamba

    Schematic of the optical microcavity with 2D semiconductor. The nonlinear optical response arises from the larger Bohr radii Rydberg excitons allowing to push the limit to few photon nonlinear limit. Image credit: Rezlind Bushati.

    The ability to turn on and off a physical process with just one photon is a fundamental building block for quantum photonic technologies. Realizing this in a chip-scale architecture is important for scalability, which amplifies a breakthrough by City College of New York researchers led by physicist Vinod Menon. They’ve demonstrated for the first time the use of “Rydberg states” in solid state materials (previously shown in cold atom gases) to enhance nonlinear optical interactions to unprecedented levels in solid state systems. This feat is a first step towards realizing chip-scale scalable single photon switches.

    In solid state systems exciton-polaritons-half-light half-matter quasiparticles which result from the hybridization of electronic excitations (excitons) and photons, are an attractive candidate to realize nonlinearities at the quantum limit. “Here we realize these quasiparticles with Rydberg excitons (excited states of excitons) in atomically thin semiconductors (2D materials),” said Menon, chair of physics in City College’s Division of Science. “Excited states of excitons owing to their larger size, show enhanced interactions and therefore hold promise for accessing the quantum domain of single-photon nonlinearities, as demonstrated previously with Rydberg states in atomic systems.”

    According to Menon, the demonstration of Rydberg exciton-polaritons in two-dimensional semiconductors and their enhanced nonlinear response presents the first step towards the generation of strong photon interactions in solid state systems, a necessary building block for quantum photonic technologies.

    Jie Gu, a graduate student working under Menon’s supervision, was the first author of the study which appears in “Nature Communications.” The team also included scientists from Stanford University (US), Columbia University (US), Aarhus University [Aarhus Universitet] (DK) and Polytechnique Montréal [ ​[pɔlitɛknik mɔ̃ʁeal] (CA) universities.

    The research of Professor Menon and his co-workers could have a tremendous impact on Army goals for ultra-low energy information processing and computing for mobile Army platforms such as unmanned systems,” said Dr. Michael Gerhold, program manager at the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, known as DEVCOM, Army Research Laboratory. “Optical switching and nonlinearities used in future computing paradigms that use photonics would benefit from this advancement. Such strong coupling effects would reduce energy consumption and possibly aid computing performance.

    The research was supported by the Army Research Office, an element of DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory (US), through the MURI program and the National Science Foundation (US) through the MRSEC program.

    See the full article here.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    Since 1847, The City College of New York (US) has provided a high quality and affordable education to generations of New Yorkers in a wide variety of disciplines. CCNY embraces its role at the forefront of social change.

    Located in the heart of New York City, CCNY is home to such important ‘firsts’ as: The first college explicitly founded on the ideal of educating the ‘whole people’, the first documentary film program in the U.S., the first intercollegiate lacrosse game played in the U.S., first student government in the nation, and the longest running Alumni Association in the U.S.

    It is ranked #1 by The Chronicle of Higher Education out of 369 selective public colleges in the United States on the overall mobility index. This measure reflects both access and outcomes, representing the likelihood that a student at CCNY can move up two or more income quintiles. In addition, the Center for world University Rankings places CCNY in the top 1.2% of universities worldwide in terms of academic excellence. More than 16,000 students pursue undergraduate and graduate degrees in eight professional schools and divisions, driven by significant funded research, creativity and scholarship. CCNY is as diverse, dynamic and visionary as New York City itself.

    Outstanding programs in architecture, engineering, education and the liberal arts and sciences prepare our students for the future, and produce outstanding leaders in every field.Whether they are drawn to the traditional, like philosophy or sociology, or emerging fields like sonic arts or biomedical engineering, our baccalaureate graduates go on to graduate programs at Stanford, Columbia or MIT – or they stay right here in one of our 50 master’s programs or our doctoral programs in engineering, the laboratory sciences, and psychology.

    Nowhere else in the city do undergraduates have so many opportunities to conduct research with professors and publish and present their findings.In our science, engineering and social science programs, more than 300 undergrads work alongside senior researchers in funded projects. Leading CUNY in funded research, we house a number of research centers, and soon two new advanced research centers will rise on South Campus.Nearly all of our full-time faculty hold PhDs or – like our architecture faculty, maintain professional practices.Art professors exhibit their work, film professors make films, and music professors perform in venues around the country.

    The campus is alive with student activity. City College fields 16 varsity teams that compete in NCAA Division III – and students work out in an equipment rich fitness center and socialize in more than 100 student clubs. And our students come from around the corner and world, representing more than 150 nationalities. City College is an integral part of the civic, urban and artistic energy of New York and inseparable from its history. We are the City that built this city.

  • richardmitnick 9:57 am on April 28, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Photonics, , Supersymmetry is the theory that all elementary particles of the two main classes- bosons and fermions-have a yet undiscovered “superpartner” in the other class., Systems Engineering, Thanks to the math behind supersymmetry theory Penn Engineers have achieved single-mode lasing.   

    From University of Pennsylvania Engineering and Applied Science: “Penn Engineers’ Supersymmetry-inspired Microlaser Arrays Pave Way for Powering Chip-sized Optical Systems” 

    From University of Pennsylvania Engineering and Applied Science

    April 22, 2021
    Evan Lerner

    Ring microlasers are eyed as potential light sources for photonic applications, but they first must be made more powerful. Combining multiple microlasers into an array solves only half of the problem, as this adds noisy “modes” to the resulting laser light. Now, thanks to the math behind supersymmetry theory Penn Engineers have achieved single-mode lasing from such an array. By calculating the necessary properties for “superpartners” placed around the primary array, they can cancel out the unwanted extra modes.

    The field of photonics aims to transform all manner of electronic devices by storing and transmitting information in the form of light, rather than electricity. Beyond light’s raw speed, the way that information can be layered in its various physical properties makes devices like photonic computers and communication systems tantalizing prospects.

    Before such devices can go from theory to reality, however, engineers must find ways of making their light sources — lasers — smaller, stronger and more stable. Robots and autonomous vehicles that use LiDAR for optical sensing and ranging, manufacturing and material processing techniques that use lasers, and many other applications are also continually pushing the field of photonics for higher power and more efficient laser sources.

    Now, a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Engineering and Applied Science have drawn from concepts at the edge of theoretical physics to design and build two-dimensional arrays of closely packed microlasers that have the stability of a single microlaser but can collectively achieve power density orders of magnitude higher.

    They have now published a study demonstrating their supersymmetric microlaser array in the journal Science.

    The study was led by Liang Feng, associate professor in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Electrical and Systems Engineering, along with Xingdu Qiao, Bikashkali Midya and Zihe Gao, members of his lab. They collaborated with fellow Feng lab members Zhifeng Zhang, Haoqi Zhao, Tianwei Wu and Jieun Yim as well as Ritesh Agarwal, professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Natalia M. Litchinitser, professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University (US), also contributed to the research.

    In order to preserve the information manipulated by a photonic device, its lasers must be exceptionally stable and coherent. So-called “single-mode” lasers eliminate noisy variations within their beams and improve their coherence, but as a result, are dimmer and less powerful than lasers that contain multiple simultaneous modes.

    “One seemingly straightforward method to achieve a high-power, single-mode laser,” Feng says, “is to couple multiple identical single-mode lasers together to form a laser array. Intuitively, this laser array would have an enhanced emission power, but because of the nature of complexity associated with a coupled system, it will also have multiple ‘supermodes.’ Unfortunately, the competition between modes makes the laser array less coherent.”

    Feng and his colleagues used arrays of ring-shaped microlasers in their experiments. Using the math of supersymmetry theory, they developed “superpartner” laser arrays that enhanced the stability of the main array, marked in red.

    Coupling two lasers produces two supermodes, but that number increases quadratically as lasers are arrayed in the two-dimensional grids eyed for photonic sensing and LiDAR applications.

    “Single mode operation is critical,” Qiao says, “because the radiance and brightness of the laser array increase with number of lasers only if they are all phase-locked into a single supermode.”

    “Inspired by the concept of supersymmetry from physics,” he says, “we can achieve this kind of phase-locked single-mode lasing in a laser array by adding a dissipative ‘superpartner.’”

    In particle physics, supersymmetry is the theory that all elementary particles of the two main classes, bosons and fermions, have a yet undiscovered “superpartner” in the other class. The mathematical tools that predict the properties of each particle’s hypothetical superpartner can also be applied to the properties of lasers.

    Compared to elementary particles, fabricating a single microlaser’s superpartner is relatively simple. The complexity lies in adapting supersymmetry’s mathematical transformations to produce an entire superpartner array that has the correct energy levels to cancel out all but the desired single mode of the original.

    Prior to Feng and his colleagues’ work, superpartner laser arrays could only have been one-dimensional, with each of the laser elements aligned in a row. By solving the mathematical relationships that govern the directions in which the individual elements couple to one another, their new study demonstrates an array with five rows and five columns of microlasers.

    “When the lossy supersymmetric partner array and the original laser array are coupled together,” Gao says, “all of the supermodes except for the fundamental mode are dissipated, resulting in single-mode lasing with 25 times the power and more than 100 times the power density of the original array. We envision a much more dramatic power scaling by applying our generic scheme for a much larger array even in three dimensions. The engineering behind is the same.”

    The researchers’ study also shows that their technique is compatible with their earlier research on vortex lasers, which can precisely control orbital angular momentum, or how a laser beam spirals around its axis of travel. The ability to manipulate this property of light could enable photonic systems encoded at even higher densities than previously imagined.

    “Single-mode, high-power lasing is used in a wide range of important applications, including optical communications, optical sensing and LIDAR ranging,” says James Joseph, program manager, Army Research Office, an element of the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command’s Army Research Laboratory, which supported this study. “The research results out of Penn mark a significant step towards creating more efficient and fieldable laser sources.”

    The research was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under grants W911NF- 19-1-0249 and W911NF-18-1-0348, the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grants ECCS-1932803, ECCS-1842612, and OMA-1936276 and a Sloan Research Fellowship. It was also partially supported by NSF through the University of Pennsylvania Materials Research Science and Engineering Center under grant DMR-1720530 and carried out in part at the Singh Center for Nanotechnology, which is supported by the NSF National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program under grant NNCI-1542153.

    Bikashkali Midya is now an assistant professor of Physics at the Indian Institute of Science Education-Berhampur [इंडियन इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ साइंस एजुकेशन एंड रिसर्च] (IN) .

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Penn campus

    Academic life at University of Pennsylvania is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

    The University of Pennsylvania(US) is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered prior to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn’s founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

    Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Schools enrolling undergraduates include the College of Arts and Sciences; the School of Engineering and Applied Science; the Wharton School; and the School of Nursing. Penn’s “One University Policy” allows students to enroll in classes in any of Penn’s twelve schools. Among its highly ranked graduate and professional schools are a law school whose first professor wrote the first draft of the United States Constitution, the first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), and the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881).

    Penn is also home to the first “student union” building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896), the first Catholic student club in North America (Newman Center, 1893), the first double-decker college football stadium (Franklin Field, 1924 when second deck was constructed), and Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was developed at Penn and formally dedicated in 1946. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the sixth-largest endowment of all universities in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university’s athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.

    As of 2018, distinguished alumni and/or Trustees include three U.S. Supreme Court justices; 32 U.S. senators; 46 U.S. governors; 163 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and seven signers of the U.S. Constitution (four of whom signed both representing two-thirds of the six people who signed both); 24 members of the Continental Congress; 14 foreign heads of state and two presidents of the United States, including Donald Trump. As of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates; 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences(US); 64 billionaires; 29 Rhodes Scholars; 15 Marshall Scholars and 16 Pulitzer Prize winners have been affiliated with the university.


    The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton University(US) and Columbia(US) Universities. The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

    In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin’s autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, “thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution”. However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, his vision for what he called a “Public Academy of Philadelphia”. Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard University(US), William & Mary(US), Yale Unversity(US), and The College of New Jersey(US)—Franklin’s new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation’s first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith (1727-1803), who became the first provost, and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.

    Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the board of trustees on November 13, 1749, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as “Independence Hall”), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin’s group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the “Academy of Philadelphia”, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered on July 13, 1753 by the intentions of the original “New Building” donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the “College of Philadelphia” was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same board of trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution. The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.

    The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith’s “Loyalist” tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania. The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.

    Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).

    After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year that appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of “the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself”. The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn’s General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university’s founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.

    Research, innovations and discoveries

    Penn is classified as an “R1” doctoral university: “Highest research activity.” Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion. Penn’s research expenditures in the 2018 fiscal year were $1.442 billion, the fourth largest in the U.S. In fiscal year 2019 Penn received $582.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health(US).

    In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn’s research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing; the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School; the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center; the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton; and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees. To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the “Penn Integrates Knowledge” title awarded to selected Penn professors “whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge”. These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn’s schools.

    Penn is also among the most prolific producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia University(US) and Cornell University(US) (Harvard University(US) did not report data). It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale University(US)) and tenth nationally.

    In most disciplines Penn professors’ productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of epidemiology, business, communication studies, comparative literature, languages, information science, criminal justice and criminology, social sciences and sociology. According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top five rankings in these fields.

    Penn’s research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school; the first university teaching hospital; the first business school; and the first student union Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world). Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973 and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, “Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education”.

    Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. It was here also where the world’s first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL programming language. Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med; the Rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn; the discovery of cancer’s link with genes; cognitive therapy; Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), Resistin; the Philadelphia gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers. More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.

    Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then-faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research; Simon Kuznets’s method of measuring Gross National Product; the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the “Wharton Model” developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then-President Nixon’s health reform in the 1970s.

    International partnerships

    Students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the London School of Economics(UK), University of Barcelona [Universitat de Barcelona](ES), Paris Institute of Political Studies [Institut d’études politiques de Paris](FR), University of Queensland(AU), University College London(UK), King’s College London(UK), Hebrew University of Jerusalem(IL) and University of Warwick(UK).

  • richardmitnick 5:34 pm on April 20, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Combining Light and Superconductors Could Boost AI Capabilities", , , By operating at low temperature superconducting electronic circuits; single-photon detectors; silicon light sources we will open a path toward rich functionality and scalable fabrication., , Photonics, , The fabrication of silicon chips with electronic and photonic circuit elements is difficult for many physical and practical reasons related to the materials used for the components.   

    From American Institute of Physics-AIP (US) : “Combining Light and Superconductors Could Boost AI Capabilities” 

    From American Institute of Physics-AIP (US)

    April 20, 2021
    Larry Frum

    Spatial hierarchy. CREDIT: Jeffrey Michael Shainline.

    As artificial intelligence has attracted broad interest, researchers are focused on understanding how the brain accomplishes cognition so they can construct artificial systems with general intelligence comparable to humans’ intelligence.

    Many have approached this challenge by using conventional silicon microelectronics in conjunction with light. However, the fabrication of silicon chips with electronic and photonic circuit elements is difficult for many physical and practical reasons related to the materials used for the components.

    In Applied Physics Letters, by AIP Publishing, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (US) propose an approach to large-scale artificial intelligence that focuses on integrating photonic components with superconducting electronics rather than semiconducting electronics.

    “We argue that by operating at low temperature and using superconducting electronic circuits; single-photon detectors; and silicon light sources we will open a path toward rich computational functionality and scalable fabrication,” said author Jeffrey Shainline.

    Using light for communication in conjunction with complex electronic circuits for computation could enable artificial cognitive systems of scale and functionality beyond what can be achieved with either light or electronics alone.

    “What surprised me most was that optoelectronic integration may be much easier when working at low temperatures and using superconductors than when working at room temperatures and using semiconductors,” said Shainline.

    Superconducting photon detectors enable detection of a single photon, while semiconducting photon detectors require about 1,000 photons. So not only do silicon light sources work at 4 kelvins, but they also can be 1,000 times less bright than their room temperature counterparts and still communicate effectively.

    Some applications, such as chips in cellphones, require working at room temperature, but the proposed technology would still have wide reaching applicability for advanced computing systems.

    The researchers plan to explore more complex integration with other superconducting electronic circuits as well as demonstrate all the components that comprise artificial cognitive systems, including synapses and neurons.

    Showing that the hardware can be manufactured in a scalable manner, so large systems can be realized at a reasonable cost, will also be important. Superconducting optoelectronic integration could also help create scalable quantum technologies based on superconducting or photonic qubits. Such quantum-neural hybrid systems may also lead to new ways of leveraging the strengths of quantum entanglement with spiking neurons.

    See the full article here.


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science and the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies. Its corporate headquarters are at the American Center for Physics in College Park, Maryland, but the institute also has offices in Melville, New York, and Beijing.

    The focus of the AIP appears to be organized around a set of core activities. The first delineated activity is to support member societies regarding essential society functions. This is accomplished by annually convening the various society officers to discuss common areas of concern. A range of topics is discussed which includes scientific publishing, public policy issues, membership-base issues, philanthropic giving, science education, science careers for a diverse population, and a forum for sharing ideas.

    Another core activity is publishing the science of physics in research journals, magazines, and conference proceedings. Member societies continue nevertheless to publish their own journals.

    Other core activities are tracking employment and education trends with six decades of coverage, being a liaison between research science and industry, historical collections and physics outreach programs, and supporting science education initiatives and supporting undergraduate physics. One other core activity is as an advocate for science policy to the U.S. Congress and the general public.

    Member societies:
    Acoustical Society of America
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine
    American Association of Physics Teachers
    American Astronomical Society
    American Crystallographic Association
    American Meteorological Society
    American Physical Society
    American Vacuum Society

    Affiliated societies

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section on Physics
    American Chemical Society, Division of Physical Chemistry
    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
    American Nuclear Society
    American Society of Civil Engineers
    ASM International
    Astronomical Society of the Pacific
    Biomedical Engineering Society
    Council on Undergraduate Research, Physics & Astronomy Division
    Electrochemical Society
    Geological Society of America
    IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society
    International Association of Mathematical Physics
    International Union of Crystallography
    International Centre for Diffraction Data
    Health Physics Society

  • richardmitnick 11:50 am on April 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Picosecond electron transfer in peptides can help energy technologies", , Photonics, The researchers were surprised to observe picosecond electron transfer- a rate 1 million times faster than previously known for such systems.,   

    From UC Riverside (US): “Picosecond electron transfer in peptides can help energy technologies” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    From UC Riverside (US)

    April 13, 2021
    Holly Ober
    Senior Public Information Officer
    (951) 827-5893

    Hydrogen bonds reshape peptides to move electrons a million times faster than previously known.

    Biological energy flows, such as in photosynthesis and respiration, depend on the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. Despite its importance to sustaining life, factors governing the rate of electron transfer, especially over long distances, are not well understood because the systems that mediate such ultrafast processes are very complex. A better understanding of electron transfer rates would help scientists improve chemical transformations, energy conversion, electronic devices, and photonic technologies.

    Now, an international team of researchers led by UC Riverside has observed picosecond charge transfer mediated by hydrogen bonds in peptides. A picosecond is one trillionth of a second. As short-chain analogs of proteins, crucially important building blocks of living organisms, peptides are chains of chemically linked amino acids. The discovery shows the role of hydrogen bonds in electron transfer. The results are published in PNAS.

    Valentine Vullev, a professor of bioengineering at UC Riverside’s Marlan and Rosemary Bourns College of Engineering, along with Daniel Gryko from the Polish Academy of Sciences (PL), and Harry Gray from the California Institute of Technology (US), led a team that discovered unusually ultrafast electron transfer from a donor to an acceptor molecule connected with oligopeptide linkers stretching up to 20 covalent bonds. Electron transfer usually takes a microsecond, or one millionth of a second, in peptides with such long through-bond distances.

    The researchers were surprised to observe picosecond electron transfer- a rate 1 million times faster than previously known for such systems.

    “It shouldn’t work, but it does,” Vullev said. “The picosecond charge transfer we observed contradicts structural biology, assuming the expected random distribution of structures of the flexible peptide chains.”

    The extended peptide (top) does not mediate charge transfer (detectable charge transfer)/ The folded peptide (bottom) mediates picosecond charge transfer along the hydrogen bonds between the donor and the acceptor (the hydrogen bonds are indicated with thin red dotted lines). Credit: Valentine Vullev.

    The team chose donor and receptor molecules linked by short peptides they discovered actually assume well-defined structures stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further analysis revealed that hydrogen bonds within each molecule brought the donor and acceptor close to each other in a scorpion-shaped molecular architecture, enabling picosecond electron transfer.

    “This revolutionary design demonstrates short peptides can not only assume well-defined secondary conformations when templated by organic components but also provide a hydrogen-bonding network that can mediate electron transfer with unusually high efficiencies,” Vullev said. “Our work provides unprecedented paradigms for the design and development of charge-transfer pathways along flexible bridges, as well as insights into structural motifs for mediating electron transfer in proteins.”

    The findings could lead to advances in energy storage as well as spur development of organic electronics that use conducting polymers instead of conducting minerals.

    “One of the most exciting and fulfilling aspects about working in our group is being at the forefront of such discoveries and observing these spectacular results,” said co-author John Clark, a doctoral student in Vullev’s lab who did photochemical measurements for the research.

    Other authors include Rafał Orłowski, Olga Staszewska-Krajewska, Hanna Jedrzejewska, and Agnieszka Szumna at the Polish Academy of Sciences; John A. Clark, James B. Derr, Eli M. Espinoza, and Maximilian F. Mayther at UC Riverside; and Jay R. Winkler at the California Institute of Technology.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside (US) is a public land-grant research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (US) system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907, the predecessor to UC Riverside was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world’s most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

    UC Riverside’s undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UC Riverside a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC Riverside School of Medicine was granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.

    UC Riverside is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.” The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UC Riverside tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UC Riverside’s academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UC Riverside 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks UC Riverside as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UC Riverside students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. UC Riverside’s extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a “university of choice” for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option.UC Riverside’s sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UC Riverside women’s basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men’s baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.


    At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region’s primary agricultural export. The industry developed from the country’s first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station (CES) on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres (9 ha) of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside. The station conducted experiments in fertilization, irrigation and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to a larger site, 475 acres (192 ha) near Box Springs Mountain.

    The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many UC Berkeley(US) alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson S. Dilworth authored Senate Bill 512 (1949) which former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Assemblyman John Babbage (both of Riverside) were instrumental in shepherding through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction.

    Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at University of California at Los Angeles(US), became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions. He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, “Never have so few been taught by so many.”

    UC Riverside’s enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the University of California(US) system in 1958. Anticipating a “tidal wave” in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UC Riverside’s first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school’s transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UC Riverside’s second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971; subsequent student enrollment declined by up to 25% through 1979. Hinderaker’s development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at Riverside to keep the campus open.

    In the 1990s, the UC Riverside experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as “Tidal Wave II”. The Regents targeted UC Riverside for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in the UC system, and anticipated 19,900 students at UC Riverside by 2010. By 1995, African American, American Indian, and Latino student enrollments accounted for 30% of the UC Riverside student body, the highest proportion of any UC campus at the time. The 1997 implementation of Proposition 209—which banned the use of affirmative action by state agencies—reduced the ethnic diversity at the more selective UC campuses but further increased it at UC Riverside.

    With UC Riverside scheduled for dramatic population growth, efforts have been made to increase its popular and academic recognition. The students voted for a fee increase to move UC Riverside athletics into NCAA Division I standing in 1998. In the 1990s, proposals were made to establish a law school, a medical school, and a school of public policy at UC Riverside, with the UC Riverside School of Medicine and the School of Public Policy becoming reality in 2012. In June 2006, UC Riverside received its largest gift, 15.5 million from two local couples, in trust towards building its medical school. The Regents formally approved UC Riverside’s medical school proposal in 2006. Upon its completion in 2013, it was the first new medical school built in California in 40 years.


    As a campus of the University of California(US) system, UC Riverside is governed by a Board of Regents and administered by a president. The current president is Michael V. Drake, and the current chancellor of the university is Kim A. Wilcox. UC Riverside’s academic policies are set by its Academic Senate, a legislative body composed of all UC Riverside faculty members.

    UC Riverside is organized into three academic colleges, two professional schools, and two graduate schools. UC Riverside’s liberal arts college, the College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, was founded in 1954, and began accepting graduate students in 1960. The College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1960, incorporated the CES as part of the first research-oriented institution at UC Riverside; it eventually also incorporated the natural science departments formerly associated with the liberal arts college to form its present structure in 1974. UC Riverside’s newest academic unit, the Bourns College of Engineering, was founded in 1989. Comprising the professional schools are the Graduate School of Education, founded in 1968, and the UCR School of Business, founded in 1970. These units collectively provide 81 majors and 52 minors, 48 master’s degree programs, and 42 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs. UC Riverside is the only UC campus to offer undergraduate degrees in creative writing and public policy and one of three UCs (along with Berkeley and Irvine) to offer an undergraduate degree in business administration. Through its Division of Biomedical Sciences, founded in 1974, UC Riverside offers the Thomas Haider medical degree program in collaboration with UCLA.[29] UC Riverside’s doctoral program in the emerging field of dance theory, founded in 1992, was the first program of its kind in the United States, and UC Riverside’s minor in lesbian, gay and bisexual studies, established in 1996, was the first undergraduate program of its kind in the UC system. A new BA program in bagpipes was inaugurated in 2007.

    Research and economic impact

    UC Riverside operated under a $727 million budget in fiscal year 2014–15. The state government provided $214 million, student fees accounted for $224 million and $100 million came from contracts and grants. Private support and other sources accounted for the remaining $189 million. Overall, monies spent at UC Riverside have an economic impact of nearly $1 billion in California. UC Riverside research expenditure in FY 2018 totaled $167.8 million. Total research expenditures at UC Riverside are significantly concentrated in agricultural science, accounting for 53% of total research expenditures spent by the university in 2002. Top research centers by expenditure, as measured in 2002, include the Agricultural Experiment Station; the Center for Environmental Research and Technology; the Center for Bibliographical Studies; the Air Pollution Research Center; and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Throughout UC Riverside’s history, researchers have developed more than 40 new citrus varieties and invented new techniques to help the $960 million-a-year California citrus industry fight pests and diseases. In 1927, entomologists at the CES introduced two wasps from Australia as natural enemies of a major citrus pest, the citrophilus mealybug, saving growers in Orange County $1 million in annual losses. This event was pivotal in establishing biological control as a practical means of reducing pest populations. In 1963, plant physiologist Charles Coggins proved that application of gibberellic acid allows fruit to remain on citrus trees for extended periods. The ultimate result of his work, which continued through the 1980s, was the extension of the citrus-growing season in California from four to nine months. In 1980, UC Riverside released the Oroblanco grapefruit, its first patented citrus variety. Since then, the citrus breeding program has released other varieties such as the Melogold grapefruit, the Gold Nugget mandarin (or tangerine), and others that have yet to be given trademark names.

    To assist entrepreneurs in developing new products, UC Riverside is a primary partner in the Riverside Regional Technology Park, which includes the City of Riverside and the County of Riverside. It also administers six reserves of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC Riverside recently announced a partnership with China Agricultural University[中国农业大学](CN) to launch a new center in Beijing, which will study ways to respond to the country’s growing environmental issues. UC Riverside can also boast the birthplace of two name reactions in organic chemistry, the Castro-Stephens coupling and the Midland Alpine Borane Reduction..

  • richardmitnick 4:20 pm on April 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Using near-field optical microscopy to conduct real-time evanescent wave imaging", , Evanescent waves are oscillating electric or magnetic fields that do not propagate—their energy remains in the vicinity of the source that created them due to a quickly decaying amplitude., From Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IL), Guided waves leave a trace of their passing—an evanescent wave that decays so quickly that it is very difficult to see it with standard technology., , Photonics   

    From Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IL) via phys.org : “Using near-field optical microscopy to conduct real-time evanescent wave imaging” 

    Technion bloc

    From Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IL)



    April 13, 2021

    Credit: CC0 Public Domain

    A team of researchers at Technion—Israel Institute of Technology has developed a new technique for conducting real-time evanescent wave imaging using standard optical technology. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the group describes their new technology and ways they believe it can be used in photonic device characterization and other applications.

    Evanescent waves are oscillating electric or magnetic fields that do not propagate—their energy remains in the vicinity of the source that created them due to a quickly decaying amplitude. They play an important role in acoustic and optical applications. Guided waves on the other hand have certain frequencies and energy that can travel very quickly along a designated path—they also leave a trace of their passing—an evanescent wave that decays so quickly that it is very difficult to see it with standard technology. Past attempts to image them have run into trouble, such as perturbation in the field under study, long acquisition times or the need for complex and expensive equipment. In this new effort, the researchers have developed a technique for measuring and imaging evanescent waves that overcomes all these problems.

    The work involved studying evanescent waves of light by mixing them with a laser beam. Doing so resulted in the creation of a new frequency that could be both seen and studied. The method works, they note, because the laser changes the direction of the electric field. They found during experimentation that they could create different shapes using the laser. And further study showed that it was possible to both insert information into the evanescent waves and to take it out when desired. They also found that the shapes could be imaged using standard commercial cameras. The team calls the new technique nonlinear near-field optical microscopy and note that it does not require exotic equipment and can be done at very little cost.

    The researchers suggest their technique could allow scientists to study evanescent waves in ways that were not available before, possibly providing information about them that is currently unknown. They also suggest it could allow for studying photonic circuits to learn more about new ways to use them in photonic applications.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Technion Campus

    A science and technology research university, among the world’s top ten, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology [הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל](IL), is dedicated to the creation of knowledge and the development of human capital and leadership, for the advancement of the State of Israel and all humanity.

    The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology [הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל] is a public research university in Haifa, Israel. Established in 1912 under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire (and more than 35 years before the establishment of State of Israel), the Technion is the oldest university in the country.

    The Technion is ranked as the top university in both Israel and the Middle East, and in the top 100 universities in the world in the Academic Ranking of World Universities of 2019. The university offers degrees in science and engineering, and related fields such as architecture, medicine, industrial management, and education. It has 19 academic departments, 60 research centers, and 12 affiliated teaching hospitals. Since its founding, it has awarded more than 100,000 degrees and its graduates are cited for providing the skills and education behind the creation and protection of the State of Israel.

    Technion’s 565 faculty members currently include three Nobel Laureates in chemistry. Four Nobel Laureates have been associated with the university.

    The Technion has played a major role in the history of modern Israel. The selection of Hebrew as the language of instruction, defeating German in the War of the Languages, was an important milestone in Hebrew’s consolidation as Israel’s official language. The Technion is also a major factor behind the growth of Israel’s high-tech industry and innovation, including the country’s technical cluster in Silicon Wadi.


    The Technikum was conceived in the early 1900s by the German-Jewish fund Ezrah as a school of engineering and sciences. It was to be the only institution of higher learning in the then Ottoman Palestine, other than the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design [בצלאל, אקדמיה לאמנות ועיצוב‎] (IL) in Jerusalem (founded in 1907). In October 1913, the board of trustees selected German as the language of instruction, provoking a major controversy known as the War of the Languages. After opposition from American and Russian Jews to the use of German, the board of trustees reversed itself in February 1914 and selected Hebrew as the language of instruction. The German name Technikum was also replaced by the Hebrew name Technion.

    Technion’s cornerstone was laid in 1912, and studies began 12 years later in 1924. In 1923 Albert Einstein visited and planted the now-famous first palm tree, as an initiative of Nobel tradition. The first palm tree still stands today in front of the old Technion building, which is now the MadaTech museum, in the Hadar neighborhood. Einstein founded the first Technion Society, and served as its president upon his return to Germany.

    Research highlights

    In 1982, Dan Shechtman discovered a Quasicrystal structure. This is a structure with a Symmetry in the order of 5 – a phenomenon considered impossible until then by the then-current prevailing theories of Crystallography. In 2011 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this discovery.

    In 2004, two Technion professors, Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover, won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the biological system responsible for disassembling protein in the cell.

    Shulamit Levenberg, 37, was chosen by Scientific American magazine as one of the leading scientists in 2006 for the discovery of a method to transplant skin in a way the body does not reject.

    Moussa B.H. Youdim developed Rasagiline, a drug marketed by Teva Pharmaceuticals as Azilect (TM) for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, especially Parkinson’s disease.

    In 1998, Technion successfully launched the “Gurwin TechSat II” microsatellite, making Technion one of five universities with a student program that designs, builds, and launches its own satellite. The satellite stayed in orbit until 2010.

    In the 1970s, computer scientists Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv developed the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm for data compression. In 1995 and 2007 they won an IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal for pioneering work in data compression and especially for developing the algorithm.

    In 2019, a team of 12 students won a gold medal at iGEM for developing bee-free honey.

  • richardmitnick 1:40 pm on April 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Circularly polarized luminescence from organic micro-/nano-structures", , , Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications [南京邮电大学] (CN), Photonics,   

    From Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) and Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications [南京邮电大学] (CN) via phys.org : “Circularly polarized luminescence from organic micro-/nano-structures” 

    From Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN)


    Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications [南京邮电大学] (CN)



    a) Physical method. b) Circularly polarized luminescence. Credit: Yongjing Deng, Mengzhu Wang, Yanling Zhuang, Shujuan Liu, Wei Huang, Qiang Zhao.

    Circularly polarized light exhibits promising applications in future displays and photonic technologies. Traditionally, circularly polarized light is converted from unpolarized light by the linear polarizer and the quarter-wave plate. During this indirectly physical process, at least 50% of energy will be lost. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) from chiral luminophores provides an ideal approach to directly generate circularly polarized light, in which the energy loss induced by a polarized filter can be reduced. Among various chiral luminophores, organic micro-/nano-structures have attracted increasing attention owing to the high quantum efficiency and luminescence dissymmetry factor (glum).

    In a new paper published in Light: Science & Applications, Chinese scientists from Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications [南京邮电大学] (CN) have summarized the latest progress of CPL-active organic micro-/nano-structures.

    This review expounded the design principles of CPL-active organic micro-/nano-structures from the aspect of the construction of micro-/nano-structure and the introduction of chirality, and some typical organic micro-/nano-structures with CPL activity were introduced in detail, including self-assembly of small molecules and π-conjugated polymers, and self-assembly on micro-/nanoscale architectures.

    The formation of organic micro-/nano-structures is driven by intermolecular non-covalent interactions, which is dynamic and sensitive to external stimuli. In this review, they discussed the external stimuli that can regulate CPL performance, including solvents, pH value, metal ions, mechanical force, and temperature.

    a) Circularly polarized organic light-emitting diodes. b) Optical information processing. c) Chemical and biological sensing. Credit: Yongjing Deng, Mengzhu Wang, Yanling Zhuang, Shujuan Liu, Wei Huang, Qiang Zhao.

    The potential applications were also discussed:

    1. In a conventional organic light-emitting diode (OLED), it is usually necessary to use a circular polarizer to reduce the reflectivity of the surrounding environment. Thus, only half of the emitted light can reach the eyes, causing great loss of brightness and energy efficiency. The OLED based on CPL-active materials can directly emit circularly polarized light with the same handedness as the circular polarizer, reducing the energy loss.

    2. In the fields of optical information recording and encryption, materials with CPL activity can achieve higher storage density and security through both optical signals and chiral signals.

    3. Compared with other optical sensing technologies, sensing based on CPL-active materials can eliminate the interference of background fluorescence and unpolarized light, providing higher sensitivity and resolution.

    Furthermore, asymmetric quantum efficiency (φa), a new indicator, was proposed to evaluate the comprehensive performance of CPL-active materials, which was defined as the ratio of left- or right-CPL light intensity to incident light intensity. The φa can intuitively reflect the degree of energy loss, and the larger φa represents the lower energy loss.

    This review provides an understanding of the relationship among molecular designs, assembly structures, and chiroptical properties, and will provide a guide for the design of excellent CPL-active materials. It is hoped that this review will encourage more researchers to explore this emerging and rapidly developing research area.

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó]. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the “Two Academies (两院)” along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

    It is the world’s largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes, and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world.

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list’s inception in 2016 by Nature Research.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its “Innovation 2020” programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

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