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  • richardmitnick 10:14 pm on June 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , ALMA [The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array], , , , , PHANGS (Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS) project,   

    From ALMA [The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array] (CL) : Women in STEM-Eva Schinnerer; Annie Hughes “Cosmic cartographers map nearby Universe revealing the diversity of star-forming galaxies” 

    From ALMA [The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array] (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Masaaki Hiramatsu
    Education and Public Outreach Officer, NAOJ Chile
    Observatory
, Tokyo – Japan
    Phone: +81 422 34 3630
    Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    9 June, 2021

    1
    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), scientists completed a census of nearly 100 galaxies in the nearby Universe, showcasing their behaviors and appearances. The scientists compared ALMA data to that of the Hubble Space Telescope, shown in composite here. The survey concluded that contrary to popular scientific opinion, stellar nurseries do not all look and act the same. In fact, as shown here, they are as different as the neighborhoods, cities, regions, and countries that make up our own world. Credit: S. Dagnello (National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)), ALMA (ESO [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) (CL)/National Astronomy Observatory of Japan (JP)/PHANGS.

    2
    Shown here as an ALMA (orange/red) composite with NASA/ESA Hubble (US) data, NGC4254 was among the nearly 100 galaxies included in the recent PHANGS project census of galaxies in the nearby Universe. The survey found that stellar nurseries within these galaxies vary widely in appearance and behavior, and that these characteristics heavily depend on where the stellar nurseries are located. NGC4254 is an example of a galaxy featuring M type morphology. Credit: S. Dagnello (NRAO) ALMA (ESO/NAOJ)/PHANGS.

    3
    NGC4535 is a galaxy in the nearby Universe featuring grand-design spiral plus stellar bar morphology. It was catalogued along with nearly 100 other galaxies during a recent census by the PHANGS project. The census revealed that contrary to commonly accepted scientific theory, not all stellar nurseries look or act the same way. In fact, they’re quite diverse. NGC4535 is shown here as an ALMA (orange/red) composite with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. Credit: S. Dagnello (NRAO) ALMA (ESO/NAOJ)/PHANGS.

    A team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has completed the first census of molecular clouds in the nearby Universe, revealing that contrary to previous scientific opinion, these stellar nurseries do not all look and act the same. In fact, they’re as diverse as the people, homes, neighborhoods, and regions that make up our own world.

    Stars are formed out of clouds of dust and gas called molecular clouds, or stellar nurseries. Each stellar nursery in the Universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime. Between 2013 and 2019, astronomers on the PHANGS— Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS— project conducted the first systematic survey of 100,000 stellar nurseries across 90 galaxies in the nearby Universe to get a better understanding of how they connect back to their parent galaxies.

    “We used to think that all stellar nurseries across every galaxy must look more or less the same, but this survey has revealed that this is not the case, and stellar nurseries change from place to place,” said Adam Leroy, Associate Professor of Astronomy at Ohio State University (US), and lead author of the paper presenting the PHANGS ALMA survey [Astrophysical Journal Supplement series]. “This is the first time that we have ever taken millimeter-wave images of many nearby galaxies that have the same sharpness and quality as optical pictures. And while optical pictures show us light from stars, these ground-breaking new images show us the molecular clouds that form those stars.”

    The scientists compared these changes to the way that people, houses, neighborhoods, and cities exhibit like-characteristics but change from region to region and country to country.

    “To understand how stars form, we need to link the birth of a single star back to its place in the Universe. It’s like linking a person to their home, neighborhood, city, and region. If a galaxy represents a city, then the neighborhood is the spiral arm, the house the star-forming unit, and nearby galaxies are neighboring cities in the region,” said Eva Schinnerer, an astronomer at the MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie](DE) and principal investigator for the PHANGS collaboration “These observations have taught us that the “neighborhood” has small but pronounced effects on where and how many stars are born.”

    To better understand star formation in different types of galaxies, the team observed similarities and differences in the molecular gas properties and star formation processes of galaxy disks, stellar bars, spiral arms, and galaxy centers. They confirmed that the location, or neighborhood, plays a critical role in star formation.

    “By mapping different types of galaxies and the diverse range of environments that exist within galaxies, we are tracing the whole range of conditions under which star-forming clouds of gas live in the present-day Universe. This allows us to measure the impact that many different variables have on the way star formation happens,” said Guillermo Blanc, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution for Science (US), and a co-author on the paper.

    “How stars form, and how their galaxy affects that process, are fundamental aspects of astrophysics,” said Joseph Pesce, National Science Foundation’s (US) program officer for NRAO/ALMA. “The PHANGS project utilizes the exquisite observational power of the ALMA observatory and has provided remarkable insight into the story of star formation in a new and different way.”

    Annie Hughes, an astronomer at Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie ] (FR), added that this is the first time scientists have a snapshot of what star-forming clouds are really like across such a broad range of different galaxies. “We found that the properties of star-forming clouds depend on where they are located: clouds in the dense central regions of galaxies tend to be more massive, denser, and more turbulent than clouds that reside in the quiet outskirts of a galaxy. The lifecycle of clouds also depends on their environment. How fast a cloud forms stars and the process that ultimately destroys the cloud both seem to depend on where the cloud lives.”

    This is not the first time that stellar nurseries have been observed in other galaxies using ALMA, but nearly all previous studies focused on individual galaxies or part of one. Over a five-year period, PHANGS assembled a full view of the nearby population of galaxies. “The PHANGS project is a new form of cosmic cartography that allows us to see the diversity of galaxies in a new light, literally. We are finally seeing the diversity of star-forming gas across many galaxies and are able to understand how they are changing over time. It was impossible to make these detailed maps before ALMA,” said Erik Rosolowsky, Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta (CA), and a co-author on the research. “This new atlas contains 90 of the best maps ever made that reveal where the next generation of stars is going to form.”

    For the team, the new atlas doesn’t mean the end of the road. While the survey has answered questions about what and where, it has raised others. “This is the first time we have gotten a clear view of the population of stellar nurseries across the whole nearby Universe. In that sense, it’s a big step towards understanding where we come from,” said Leroy. “While we now know that stellar nurseries vary from place to place, we still do not know why or how these variations affect the stars and planets formed. These are questions that we hope to answer in the near future.”

    Ten papers detailing the outcomes of the PHANGS survey are presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (US).

    AAS Press Conference

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 8:05 pm on June 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , A team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array has completed the first census of molecular clouds., Each stellar nursery in the Universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime., , PHANGS (Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS) project, Ten papers detailing the outcomes of the PHANGS survey are presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : Women in STEM-Annie Hughes”Cosmic cartographers map nearby Universe revealing the diversity of star-forming galaxies” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    June 8, 2021

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information Officer, ALMA
    Public Information & News Manager, NRAO
    +1 434 242 9584
    aoliver@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: PHANGS, S. Dagnello (NRAO), Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(CL) (ESO [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan [国立天文台](JP)/National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)).

    A team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)[below] has completed the first census of molecular clouds.

    In the nearby Universe, revealing that contrary to previous scientific opinion, these stellar nurseries do not all look and act the same. In fact, they’re as diverse as the people, homes, neighborhoods, and regions that make up our own world.

    Stars are formed out of clouds of dust and gas called molecular clouds, or stellar nurseries. Each stellar nursery in the Universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime. Between 2013 and 2019, astronomers on the PHANGS— Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS— project conducted the first systematic survey of 100,000 stellar nurseries across 90 galaxies in the nearby Universe to get a better understanding of how they connect back to their parent galaxies.

    ““We used to think that all stellar nurseries across every galaxy must look more or less the same, but this survey has revealed that this is not the case, and stellar nurseries change from place to place,” said Adam Leroy, Associate Professor of Astronomy at Ohio State University (US), and lead author of the paper presenting the PHANGS ALMA survey. “This is the first time that we have ever taken millimeter-wave images of many nearby galaxies that have the same sharpness and quality as optical pictures. And while optical pictures show us light from stars, these ground-breaking new images show us the molecular clouds that form those stars.”

    The scientists compared these changes to the way that people, houses, neighborhoods, and cities exhibit like-characteristics but change from region to region and country to country.

    “To understand how stars form, we need to link the birth of a single star back to its place in the Universe. It’s like linking a person to their home, neighborhood, city, and region. If a galaxy represents a city, then the neighborhood is the spiral arm, the house the star-forming unit, and nearby galaxies are neighboring cities in the region,” said Eva Schinnerer, an astronomer at the MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie](DE) and principal investigator for the PHANGS collaboration “These observations have taught us that the “neighborhood” has small but pronounced effects on where and how many stars are born.”

    To better understand star formation in different types of galaxies, the team observed similarities and differences in the molecular gas properties and star formation processes of galaxy disks, stellar bars, spiral arms, and galaxy centers. They confirmed that the location, or neighborhood, plays a critical role in star formation.

    “By mapping different types of galaxies and the diverse range of environments that exist within galaxies, we are tracing the whole range of conditions under which star-forming clouds of gas live in the present-day Universe. This allows us to measure the impact that many different variables have on the way star formation happens,” said Guillermo Blanc, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution for Science (US), and a co-author on the paper.

    “How stars form, and how their galaxy affects that process, are fundamental aspects of astrophysics,” said Joseph Pesce, National Science Foundation’s program officer for NRAO/ALMA. “The PHANGS project utilizes the exquisite observational power of the ALMA observatory and has provided remarkable insight into the story of star formation in a new and different way.”

    Annie Hughes, an astronomer at Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie ] (FR), added that this is the first time scientists have a snapshot of what star-forming clouds are really like across such a broad range of different galaxies. “We found that the properties of star-forming clouds depend on where they are located: clouds in the dense central regions of galaxies tend to be more massive, denser, and more turbulent than clouds that reside in the quiet outskirts of a galaxy. The lifecycle of clouds also depends on their environment. How fast a cloud forms stars and the process that ultimately destroys the cloud both seem to depend on where the cloud lives.”

    This is not the first time that stellar nurseries have been observed in other galaxies using ALMA, but nearly all previous studies focused on individual galaxies or part of one. Over a five-year period, PHANGS assembled a full view of the nearby population of galaxies. “The PHANGS project is a new form of cosmic cartography that allows us to see the diversity of galaxies in a new light, literally. We are finally seeing the diversity of star-forming gas across many galaxies and are able to understand how they are changing over time. It was impossible to make these detailed maps before ALMA,” said Erik Rosolowsky, Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta, and a co-author on the research. “This new atlas contains 90 of the best maps ever made that reveal where the next generation of stars is going to form.”

    For the team, the new atlas doesn’t mean the end of the road. While the survey has answered questions about what and where, it has raised others. “This is the first time we have gotten a clear view of the population of stellar nurseries across the whole nearby Universe. In that sense, it’s a big step towards understanding where we come from,” said Leroy. “While we now know that stellar nurseries vary from place to place, we still do not know why or how these variations affect the stars and planets formed. These are questions that we hope to answer in the near future.”

    Ten papers detailing the outcomes of the PHANGS survey are presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

    Resource:
    PHANGS-ALMA: Arcsecond CO(2-1) Imaging of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies, Leroy et al, Astrophysical Journal Supplement series accepted.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:15 am on June 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Where a star is born", A planetary nebula is created when certain stars reach the end of their life cycle., , Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(CL), , , , , PHANGS (Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS) project, , The properties of star-forming clouds depends on where they are located., The team compared the molecular properties and star formation processes at different galactic regions., To understand how stars form we need to link the birth of a single star back to its place in the Universe., Women in STEM-Eva Schinnerer; Annie Hughes   

    From COSMOS (AU) : Women in STEM-Eva Schinnerer; Annie Hughes “Where a star is born” 

    Cosmos Magazine bloc

    From COSMOS (AU)

    9 June 2021
    Amalyah Hart

    Fascinating new insights from the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (US).

    1
    Galaxies. Credit: S. Dagnello (NRAO) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(CL) (ESO [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) (CL)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan [国立天文台](JP)/National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US))/

    Stars like our Sun are born in stellar nurseries – cosmic clouds of dust and gas that churn out thousands of astral progeny in their lifetimes.

    In two new papers [Astrophysical Journal Supplement series] [only one presented here] due to be presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society, scientists have for the first time charted the stellar nurseries in the nearby Universe, challenging the prevailing notion that all clouds look and act the same.

    For six years between 2013 and 2019, the international team of astronomers used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array (ALMA) in the Atacama desert of northern Chile to survey 100,000 stellar nurseries across 90 galaxies, with the aim of understanding how they connect to their parent galaxies.

    This was part of the PHANGS (Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS) project.

    “To understand how stars form we need to link the birth of a single star back to its place in the Universe,” says Eva Schinnerer, an astronomer at the MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie](DE), Germany, and principal investigator of PHANGS.

    “It’s like linking a person to their home, neighbourhood, city, and region. If a galaxy represents a city, then the neighbourhood is the spiral arm, the house the star-forming unit, and nearby galaxies are neighbouring cities in the region.

    These observations have taught us that the ‘neighbourhood’ has small but pronounced effects on where and how many stars are born.”

    The team compared the molecular properties and star formation processes at different galactic regions, including galaxy discs, stellar bars, spiral arms and galaxy centres, and confirmed that location plays a key role in star formation.

    Annie Hughes, an astronomer at Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie ](FR), France, says that this is the first time scientists have a snapshot of what star-forming clouds are really like across such a broad range of different galaxies.

    “We found that the properties of star-forming clouds depend on where they are located: clouds in the dense central regions of galaxies tend to be more massive, denser, and more turbulent than clouds that reside in the quiet outskirts of a galaxy.

    “The lifecycle of clouds also depends on their environment. How fast a cloud forms stars and the process that ultimately destroys the cloud both seem to depend on where the cloud lives.”

    Co-author Erik Rosolowsky, a physicist at the University of Alberta (CA) says this complex mapping would not have been possible without ALMA.

    “We are finally seeing the diversity of star-forming gas across many galaxies and are able to understand how they are changing over time. It was impossible to make these detailed maps before ALMA,” says Rosolowsky. “This new atlas contains 90 of the best maps ever made that reveal where the next generation of stars is going to form.”

    This epic cosmic chart is just one of the crowning achievements of ALMA. Another paper, also due for presentation at the AAS meeting, details findings from radio astronomy observations of organic molecules in planetary nebulae.

    A planetary nebula is created when certain stars reach the end of their life cycle: as the dying star sheds its mass into space and becomes a white dwarf, it emits strong UV radiation, which was traditionally believed to break up any molecules into their constituent atoms.

    The team behind the paper, led by Lucy Ziurys at the University of Arizona, used ALMA to observe radio emissions from hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formyl ion (HCO+) and carbon monoxide (CO) in five planetary nebulae: M2-48, M1-7, M3-28, K3-45 and K3-58. They found that organic molecules manage to escape being torn apart, and these nebulae may in fact seed space with the molecules key for the formation of new stars and planets.

    “It was thought that molecular clouds which would give rise to new stellar systems would have to start from scratch and form these molecules from atoms,” says Ziurys. “But if the process starts with molecules instead, it could dramatically accelerate chemical evolution in nascent star systems.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
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