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  • richardmitnick 12:58 pm on January 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Particle Physics   

    From CERN: “International collaboration publishes concept design for a post-LHC future circular collider at CERN” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

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    From CERN

    15 January, 2019

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    The proposed layout of the future circular collider (Image: CERN)

    Today, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) collaboration submitted its Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for publication, a four-volume document that presents the different options for a large circular collider of the future. It showcases the great physics opportunities offered by machines of unprecedented energy and intensity and describes the technical challenges, cost and schedule for realisation.

    Over the next two years, the particle physics community will be updating the European Strategy for Particle Physics, outlining the future of the discipline beyond the horizon of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The roadmap for the future should, in particular, lead to crucial choices for research and development in the coming years, ultimately with a view to building the particle accelerator that will succeed the LHC and will be able to significantly expand our knowledge of matter and the universe. The new CDR contributes to the European Strategy. The possibility of a future circular collider will be examined during the strategy process, together with the other post-LHC collider option at CERN, the CLIC linear collider.

    The FCC study started in 2014 and stems directly from the previous update of the European Strategy, approved in May 2013, which recommended that design and feasibility studies be conducted in order for Europe “to be in a position to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN by the time of the next Strategy update”. The FCC would provide electron-positron, proton-proton and ion-ion collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities, with the possibility of electron-proton and electron-ion collisions.

    “The FCC conceptual design report is a remarkable accomplishment. It shows the tremendous potential of the FCC to improve our knowledge of fundamental physics and to advance many technologies with a broad impact on society”, said CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. “While presenting new, daunting challenges, the FCC would greatly benefit from CERN’s expertise, accelerator complex and infrastructures, which have been developed over more than half a century.”

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC opened a new path for research, as the Higgs boson could be a door into new physics. Detailed studies of its properties are therefore a priority for any future high-energy physics accelerator. The different options explored by the FCC study offer unique opportunities to study the nature of the Higgs boson. In addition, experimental evidence requires physics beyond the Standard Model to account for observations such as dark matter and the domination of matter over antimatter. The search for new physics, for which a future circular collider would have a vast discovery potential, is therefore of paramount importance to making significant progress in our understanding of the universe.

    The FCC design study was a huge effort, possible only thanks to a large international collaboration. Over five years and with the strong support of the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 programme, the FCC collaboration involved more than 1300 contributors from 150 universities, research institutes and industrial partners who actively participated in the design effort and the R&D of new technologies to prepare for the sustainable deployment and efficient operation of a possible future circular collider.


    (Video: CERN)

    “The FCC’s ultimate goal is to provide a 100-kilometre superconducting proton accelerator ring, with an energy of up to 100 TeV, meaning an order of magnitude more powerful than the LHC”, said CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry. “The FCC timeline foresees starting with an electron-positron machine, just as LEP preceded the LHC. This would enable a rich programme to benefit the particle physics community throughout the twenty-first century.”

    Using new-generation high-field superconducting magnets, the FCC proton collider would offer a wide range of new physics opportunities. Reaching energies of 100 TeV and beyond would allow precise studies of how a Higgs particle interacts with another Higgs particle, and thorough exploration of the role of the electroweak-symmetry breaking in the history of our universe. It would also allow us to access unprecedented energy scales, looking for new massive particles, with multiple opportunities for great discoveries. In addition, it would also collide heavy ions, sustaining a rich heavy-ion physics programme to study the state of matter in the early universe.

    “Proton colliders have been the tool-of-choice for generations to venture new physics at the smallest scale. A large proton collider would present a leap forward in this exploration and decisively extend the physics programme beyond results provided by the LHC and a possible electron-positron collider.” said CERN Director for Research and Computing, Eckhard Elsen.

    A 90-to-365-GeV electron-positron machine with high luminosity could be a first step. Such a collider would be a very powerful “Higgs factory”, making it possible to detect new, rare processes and measure the known particles with precisions never achieved before. These precise measurements would provide great sensitivity to possible tiny deviations from the Standard Model expectations, which would be a sign of new physics.

    The cost of a large circular electron-positron collider would be in the 9-billion-euro range, including 5 billion euros for the civil engineering work for a 100-kilometre tunnel. This collider would serve the worldwide physics community for 15 to 20 years. The physics programme could start by 2040 at the end of the High-Luminosity LHC. The cost estimate for a superconducting proton machine that would afterwards use the same tunnel is around 15 billion euros. This machine could start operation in the late 2050s.

    The complex instruments required for particle physics inspire new concepts, innovation and groundbreaking technologies, which benefit other research disciplines and eventually find their way into many applications that have a significant impact on the knowledge economy and society. A future circular collider would offer extraordinary opportunities for industry, helping to push the limits of technology further. It would also provide exceptional training for a new generation of researchers and engineers.

    CDR to be publicly available here: https://cern.ch/fcc-cdr
    Photos: https://cds.cern.ch/ record/2653532
    Background information: https://cern.ch/fcc-cdr/webkit
    More information: https://cern.ch/fcc

    See the full article here.


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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

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  • richardmitnick 12:29 pm on January 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , NPDGamma Experiment, , Particle Physics, , Precision experiment first to isolate measure weak force between protons and neutrons,   

    From Oak Ridge National Laboratory: “Precision experiment first to isolate, measure weak force between protons, neutrons” 

    i1

    From Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    December 19, 2018
    Sara Shoemaker, Communications
    shoemakerms@ornl.gov
    865.576.9219

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    Scientists analyzed the gamma rays emitted during the NPDGamma Experiment and found parity-violating asymmetry, which is a specific change in behavior in the force between a neutron and a proton.

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    They measured a 30 parts per billion preference for gamma rays to be emitted antiparallel to the neutron spin when neutrons are captured by protons in liquid hydrogen. After observing that more gammas go down than up, the experiment resolved for the first time a mirror-asymmetric component or handedness of the weak force. Credit: Andy Sproles/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy.

    A team of scientists has for the first time measured the elusive weak interaction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. They had chosen the simplest nucleus consisting of one neutron and one proton for the study.

    Through a unique neutron experiment at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, experimental physicists resolved the weak force between the particles at the atom’s core, predicted in the Standard Model that describes the elementary particles and their interactions.

    Their result is sensitive to subtle aspects of the strong force between nuclear particles, which is still poorly understood.

    The team’s observation, described in Physical Review Letters, culminates decades of work performed with an apparatus known as NPDGamma. The first phase of the experiment took place at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building on the knowledge gained at LANL, the team moved the project to ORNL to take advantage of the high neutron beam intensity produced at the lab’s Spallation Neutron Source.

    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source


    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source

    Protons and neutrons are made of smaller particles called quarks that are bound together by the strong interaction, which is one of the four known forces of nature: strong force, electromagnetism, weak force and gravity. The weak force exists in the tiny distance within and between protons and neutrons; the strong interaction confines quarks in neutrons and protons.

    The weak force also connects the axial spin and direction of motion of the nuclear particles, revealing subtle aspects of how quarks move inside protons and neutrons.

    “The goal of the experiment was to isolate and measure one component of this weak interaction, which manifested as gamma rays that could be counted and verified with high statistical accuracy,” said David Bowman, co-author and team leader for neutron physics at ORNL. “You have to detect a lot of gammas to see this tiny effect.”

    The NPDGamma Experiment, the first to be carried out at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at SNS, channeled cold neutrons toward a target of liquid hydrogen. The apparatus was designed to control the spin direction of the slow-moving neutrons, “flipping” them from spin-up to spin-down positions as desired. When the manipulated neutrons smashed into the target, they interacted with the protons within the liquid hydrogen’s atoms, sending out gamma rays that were measured by special sensors.

    After analyzing the gamma rays, the scientists found parity-violating asymmetry, which is a specific change in behavior in the force between a neutron and a proton. “If parity were conserved, a nucleus spinning in the righthanded way and one spinning in the lefthanded way—as if they were mirrored images—would result in an equal number of gammas emitting up as emitting down,” Bowman explained.

    “But, in fact, we observed that more gammas go down than go up, which lead to successfully isolating and measuring a mirror-asymmetric component of the weak force.”

    The scientists ran the experiment numerous times for about two decades, counting and characterizing the gamma rays and collecting data from these events based on neutron spin direction and other factors.

    The high intensity of the SNS, along with other improvements, allowed a count rate that is nearly 100 times higher compared with previous operation at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

    Results of the NPDGamma Experiment filled in a vital piece of information, yet there are still theories to be tested.

    “There is a theory for the weak force between the quarks inside the proton and neutron, but the way that the strong force between the quarks translates into the force between the proton and the neutron is not fully understood,” said W. Michael Snow, co-author and professor of experimental nuclear physics at Indiana University. “That’s still an unsolved problem.”

    He compared the measurement of the weak force in relation with the strong force as a kind of tracer, similar to a tracer in biology that reveals a process of interest in a system without disturbing it.

    “The weak interaction allows us to reveal some unique features of the dynamics of the quarks within the nucleus of an atom,” Snow added.

    Co-authors of the study titled, “First Observation of P-odd γ Asymmetry in Polarized Neutron Capture on Hydrogen,” included co-principal investigators James David Bowman of ORNL and William Michael Snow of Indiana University (IU). The lead co-authors were David Blyth of Arizona State University and Argonne National Laboratory; Jason Fry of the University of Virginia and IU; and Nadia Fomin of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. In total, 64 individuals from 28 institutions worldwide contributed to this research, and it produced more than 15 Ph.D. theses.

    The research was supported by DOE’s Office of Science and used resources of the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL, a DOE Office of Science User Facility. It was also supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the PAPIIT-UNAM and CONACYT agencies in Mexico, the German Academic Exchange Service and the Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries.

    See the full article here .


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    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

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  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on January 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Next-gen particle accelerator is aim of Bright Beams work” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    January 10, 2019
    Rick Ryan

    1
    Professor James Sethna, left, and postdoctoral theorist Danilo Liarte, both members of the Center for Bright Beams, are working toward more efficient particle accelerators. Provided.

    Particle accelerators have been used for decades to answer questions regarding the nuclei of atoms, the smallest forms of matter. New research is helping address current challenges and develop more efficient accelerators.

    Currently, particles get accelerated thanks to metallic chambers known as superconducting radio-frequency cavities. These chambers, also known as RF cavities, are spaced along a particle accelerator. As a beam of particles passes through a cavity, it is hit with energy from radio waves, causing it to accelerate. However, in order for the RF cavity to be superconducting, it must be cooled with liquid helium to near zero kelvins – approximately minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit – an expensive proposition.

    Another problem is dissipation of energy, in the form of heat, from the radio waves. Experimentalists traditionally have been able to bypass some of the negative impacts by carefully reducing the temperature of the RF cavity to well below the superconducting threshold. While this approach works, researchers are seeking a more efficient and lasting solution.

    Recently, theorists and experimentalists from the Center for Bright Beams (CBB) – a multi-institution National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center led by Cornell – published research that may help enhance the theoretical framework used to model future accelerators. The ultimate goal is to simplify the refrigeration needs for RF cavities while reducing RF power losses.

    Postdoctoral theorist Danilo Liarte is lead author of “Vortex Dynamics and Losses Due to Pinning: Dissipation from Trapped Magnetic Flux in Resonant Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities,” published Nov. 27 in Physical Review Applied. Senior authors are Cornell physics professors James Sethna and Matthias Liepe, both CBB members.

    The material of choice for today’s accelerating cavities is niobium, which becomes superconducting at a higher temperature than any other pure metal. “Higher” is relative, though: The operating temperature is minus 456 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2 kelvins, and requires costly cryogenic equipment to cool the cavity in a bath of liquid helium.

    “A current challenge in accelerator physics is to maximize the accelerating field, and minimize the dissipation (heat) within the superconducting cavity,” said Liarte, a member of the Sethna lab. “By understanding the power losses from having these theoretical models, we can better understand the material properties of the cavities.”

    Future accelerators, Liarte said, are likely to be compound superconductors such as triniobium-tin (Nb3Sn). These compounds have better intrinsic properties than niobium and could operate at a higher superconducting temperature – minus 452 degrees Fahrenheit, or 4.2 kelvins.

    While this jump in temperature may seem negligible, it can drastically reduce the costs of operating SRF cavities by eliminating the need for superfluid helium refrigeration.

    While understanding of Nb3Sn cavities is still limited, there are certain properties that can be better understood by looking at multiple types of superconductors.

    For their most recent study, the group collected data from three separate cavity treatments: niobium sprayed onto copper, Nb3Sn and niobium with impurities.

    Each of these materials provided insight into one of the most sought-after pieces of evidence for the negative impacts on accelerating cavities: vortex lines. Considered the “smoking gun” of superconducting cavities, these lines of errant magnetic fields within the cavity are surrounded by vortices of electrons that interfere with the desired radio waves.

    “Pretty much all of the superconducting materials that we use will have at least some vortex lines in them,” said contributor Peter Koufalis, a doctoral student in the Liepe group and a member of the Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE). “It is very hard to completely get rid of them.”

    These vortices can get trapped within the active layer of the superconductor, creating magnetic fields that cause disarray within what should be a finely ordered system of acceleration. The vortex lines get trapped in the inevitable impurities of the cavity, the group found, and can dissipate RF power more quickly than earlier theorized.

    “What we have now is basically a model that explains this behavior in a quantitative and qualitative manner,” Liarte said.

    Other contributors to the study included Daniel Hall, Ph.D. ’17, from the Liepe group; doctoral student Alen Senanian from the Sethna group; and Akira Miyazaki of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the University of Manchester, England.

    This work, conducted at Cornell and CERN, was supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

    See the full article here .


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    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:40 pm on January 10, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ArgoNeuT, , Liquid-argon detectors, , Particle Physics   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Identifying lower-energy neutrinos with a liquid-argon particle detector” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    An experiment at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab has made a significant advance in the detection of neutrinos that hide themselves at lower energies.

    The ArgoNeuT experiment recently demonstrated for the first time that a particular class of particle detector — those that use liquid argon ­— can identify signals in an energy range that particle physicists call the “MeV range.”

    Fermilab ArgoNeuT

    It’s the first substantive step in confirming that researchers will be able to detect a wide energy range of neutrinos — even those at the harder-to-catch, lower energies — with the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, hosted by Fermilab. DUNE is scheduled to start up in the mid-2020s.

    Neutrinos are lightweight, elusive and subtle particles that travel close to the speed of light and hold clues about the universe’s evolution. They are produced in radioactive decays and other nuclear reactions, and the lower their energy, the harder they are to detect.

    In general, when a neutrino strikes an argon nucleus, the interaction generates other particles that then leave detectable trails in the argon sea. These particles vary in energy.

    2
    This is a visual display of an ArgoNeuT event showing a long trail left behind by a high energy particle traveling through the liquid argon accompanied by small blips, indicated by the arrows, caused by low energy particles.

    Scientists are fairly adept at teasing out higher-energy particles — those with more than 100 MeV (or megaelectronvolts) — from their liquid-argon detector data. These particles zip through the argon, leaving behind what look like long trails in visual displays of the data.

    Sifting out particles in the lower, single-digit-MeV range is tougher, like trying to extract the better hidden needles in the proverbial haystack. That’s because lower-energy particles don’t leave as much of a trace in the liquid argon. They don’t so much zip as blip.

    Indeed, after simulating neutrino interactions with liquid argon, ArgoNeuT scientists predicted that MeV-energy particles would be produced and would be visible as tiny blips in the visual data. Where higher-energy particles show as streaks in the argon, the MeV particles’ telltale signature would be small dots.

    And this was the challenge ArgoNeuT researchers faced: How do you locate the tiny blips and dots in the data? And how do you check that they signify actual particle interactions and are not merely noise? The typical techniques, the methods for identifying long tracks in liquid argon, wouldn’t apply here. Researchers would have to come up with something different.

    And so they did: ArgoNeuT developed a method to identify and reveal blip-like signals from MeV particles. They started by comparing two different categories: blips accompanied by known neutrino events and blips unaccompanied by neutrino events. Finally, they developed a new low-energy-specific reconstruction technique to analyze ArgoNeuT’s actual experimental data to look for them.

    And they found them. They observed the blip signals, which matched the simulated results. Not only that, but the signals came through loud and clear: ArgoNeuT identified MeV signals as a 15 sigma excess, far higher than the standard for claiming an observation in particle physics, which is 5 sigma (which means that there’s a 1 in 3.5 million chance that the signal is a fluke.)

    ArgoNeuT’s result demonstrates a capacity of crucial importance for measuring MeV neutrino events in liquid argon.

    Intriguingly, neutrinos born inside a supernova also fall into MeV range. ArgoNeuT’s result gives DUNE scientists a leg up in one of its research goals: to improve our understanding of supernovae by studying the torrent of neutrinos that escape from inside the exploding star as it collapses.

    The enormous DUNE particle detector, to be located underground at Sanford Lab in South Dakota, will be filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon. When neutrinos from a supernova traverse the massive volume of argon below Earth’s surface, some will bump into the argon atoms, producing signals collected by the DUNE detector. Scientists will use the data amassed by DUNE to measure supernova neutrino properties and fill in the picture of the star that produced them, and even potentially witness the birth of a black hole.

    Particle detectors picked up a handful of neutrino signals from a supernova in 1987, but none of them were liquid-argon detectors. (Other neutrino experiments use, for example, water, oil, carbon or plastic as their detection material of choice.) DUNE scientists need to understand what the lower-energy signals from a supernova would look like in argon.

    The ArgoNeuT collaboration is the first experiment to help answer that question, providing a kind of first chapter in the guidebook on what to look for when a supernova neutrino meets argon. Its achievement could bring us a little closer to learning what these messengers from outer space will have to tell us.

    Learn more.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 11:38 am on January 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Anthony Badea, , , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From MIT News: “Achieving goals in the lab and on the pitch” Anthony Badea 

    MIT News
    MIT Widget

    From MIT News

    1
    Anthony Badea. Image: Ian MacLellan

    January 9, 2019
    Gina Vitale

    Senior Anthony Badea, a physics major and varsity soccer player, investigates the beginnings of the universe.

    Anthony Badea got hooked on physics during his senior of high school in Irvine, California. He used to fall asleep watching interviews and speeches by public figures in science like astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and string theorist Michio Kaku. The questions they asked about the universe fascinated him.

    When he came to MIT, Badea found himself in awe of another scientist — the one who taught 8.03 (Waves and Vibrations). That was Yen-Jie Lee, the Class of 1958 Career Development Associate Professor of Physics and a researcher in the Laboratory for Nuclear Science.

    “I just thought he was the coolest person I’ve ever met,” Badea says. “He comes in front of the class, and he’s super energetic about everything. Everyone in the class loves him.”

    Badea, now majoring in both physics and mathematics and minoring in statistics, reached out to Lee inquiring about his research with CERN. When Lee explained his work, it was so advanced that Badea understood almost nothing — but he was thrilled to have the chance to learn. He’s been a part of the MIT Relativistic Heavy Ion Group ever since.

    “There’s a graduate student area, and he gave me a desk there,” he says. “Yen-Jie is almost like a father figure to me now.”

    A smashing lab

    One aim of Badea’s close-knit research group is to examine what happens after two particles are smashed together. The idea is that when researchers collide two heavy ions, the events that follow closely resemble what happened right after the Big Bang, potentially giving insight into the beginnings of the universe.

    “These are little bangs … but the Big Bang you only have one of,” he says. “And we can do many, many, many of [these little bangs].”

    Specifically, the lab is interested in a material that existed just moments after the Big Bang, called quark-gluon plasma — Badea describes it as melting a proton down into a soup. When researchers take two heavy nuclei and smash them together, they are confident that they are recreating that same kind of plasma. If they go a step smaller, colliding two protons instead of two nuclei, they observe an enhancement that looks like the presence of the plasma, but they’re not certain. Badea’s research takes it one step smaller — he looks at the tiniest known possible collision, between electrons and positrons, which are pieces of protons themselves.

    Most of the data for the lab’s research come from CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, where Badea worked for the last two summers.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    However, the LHC isn’t capable of colliding electrons and positrons. The only collider that did run electron-positron collisions closed several years ago.

    CERN Electron Positron Collider no longer operating

    Badea and Lee knew that if they wanted to study those collisions, they needed the archived data from that retired collider. It took months, but Lee finally got access to it around December 2016.

    “When we actually got the data, it was a moment of, ‘Okay, we can do this. We can actually make this happen,’” he recalls.

    A copious amount of data-cleaning and a few million lines of code later, Badea and his labmates began to make sense of the data. The whole project took two years, the first of which was spent replicating and confirming the calculations of the original researchers. They also found something interesting: When they looked at the particles after their collision, they did not see a signal like the one produced by the big particle collisions. In other words, smashing together these tiniest of particles does not create the proton-soup plasma, meaning that there is a set of conditions that were necessary to produce the plasma after the Big Bang and are now necessary to produce it at CERN. The team is submitting a short paper reporting their findings to Physical Review Letters and a longer one detailing the new techniques created for this analysis to the Journal of High Energy Physics.

    Game changer

    Before Badea discovered physics, his entire life was devoted to soccer. He was 14 when he was chosen for the U.S. Soccer Developmental Academy, which can act as a feeder program for the U.S. national team. After a year and a half, he became a starter. In his senior year, he felt like he was really flourishing — but he had a pretty big choice to make.

    “This was kind of around the time where I was deciding, do I want to go to a Division I school with … lesser academics, or do I want to try for something else?” he says.

    When Badea was offered a place in MIT’s class of 2019, he says, there was no question.

    “When I got in here, there was just some feeling where I thought, I can’t turn this down,” he says. “This is a once-in-a-lifetime.”

    During his time on MIT’s Division III soccer team, he’s had some major injuries, including a torn ACL, a torn adductor, a torn hamstring, and a strained IT band, that put him on the sidelines for months at a time. But this year, spending less time on the field gave him a chance to serve in a mentorship role for younger players.

    “It was a big maturing moment for me, to be a leader without being the focal point of a team,” he says.

    And, as his final season at MIT came to a close in October, he was healthy enough to finish his collegiate career on the field.

    Physics and future

    In his spare time, Badea has worked as a grader for the Department of Physics. He has developed his own method of giving feedback in which he focuses on errors in students’ thinking rather than their calculations. He has also gotten involved with peer tutoring and mentoring within his research group, and values the role he plays for younger students his lab.

    “Now that I’m a senior member in the group, there’s new undergrads that are coming up, so I get to be the mentors to them,” he says. “And so what Yen-Jie was to me, I get to be to them.”

    This year, he moved in to the house of his fraternity Phi Beta Epsilon, where he has “three really cool roommates.” Though he liked the quiet of his single room in Maseeh Hall, he enjoys living with people who have diverse interests. And he makes a point to exercise an hour and a half to two hours every day — he doesn’t think he’s missed a day since he’s been at MIT.

    Badea has just submitted his applications for PhD programs in physics. But he’s also taken up a humanities concentration in political science and is interested in how science can be used to support policymaking. For instance, the wildfires in his home state of California strike him as an issue that researchers in many disciplines could play a role in addressing.

    “In the physics department, you have some of the smartest people in the entire world,” he says. “If some of them put in some time into other things, a lot of change could happen.”

    See the full article here .


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    MIT Seal

    The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the twenty-first century. We seek to develop in each member of the MIT community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.

    MIT Campus

     
  • richardmitnick 12:58 pm on January 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Particle Physics, , Plasma is an electrically conductive mix of electrons and ions, , Rice University physicists are first to laser cool neutral plasma, Ultracold simulators of super-dense stars   

    From Rice University: ” Ultracold simulators of super-dense stars” 

    Rice U bloc

    From Rice University

    January 3, 2019
    Jade Boyd

    Rice University physicists are first to laser cool neutral plasma.

    Rice University physicists have created the world’s first laser-cooled neutral plasma, completing a 20-year quest that sets the stage for simulators that re-create exotic states of matter found inside Jupiter and white dwarf stars.

    The findings are detailed this week in the journal Science and involve new techniques for laser cooling clouds of rapidly expanding plasma to temperatures about 50 times colder than deep space.

    “We don’t know the practical payoff yet, but every time physicists have laser cooled a new kind of thing, it has opened a whole world of possibilities,” said lead scientist Tom Killian, professor of physics and astronomy at Rice. “Nobody predicted that laser cooling atoms and ions would lead to the world’s most accurate clocks or breakthroughs in quantum computing. We do this because it’s a frontier.”

    Killian and graduate students Tom Langin and Grant Gorman used 10 lasers of varying wavelengths to create and cool the neutral plasma. They started by vaporizing strontium metal and using one set of intersecting laser beams to trap and cool a puff of strontium atoms about the size of a child’s fingertip. Next, they ionized the ultracold gas with a 10-nanosecond blast from a pulsed laser. By stripping one electron from each atom, the pulse converted the gas to a plasma of ions and electrons.

    1
    Rice University physicists reported the first laser-cooled neutral plasma, a breakthrough that could lead to simulators for exotic states of matter that occur at the center of Jupiter or white dwarf stars. (Photo by Brandon Martin/Rice University)

    Energy from the ionizing blast causes the newly formed plasma to expand rapidly and dissipate in less than one thousandth of a second. This week’s key finding is that the expanding ions can be cooled with another set of lasers after the plasma is created. Killian, Langin and Gorman describe their techniques in the new paper, clearing the way for their lab and others to make even colder plasmas that behave in strange, unexplained ways.

    Plasma is an electrically conductive mix of electrons and ions. It is one of four fundamental states of matter; but unlike solids, liquids and gases, which are familiar in daily life, plasmas tend to occur in very hot places like the surface of the sun or a lightning bolt. By studying ultracold plasmas, Killian’s team hopes to answer fundamental questions about how matter behaves under extreme conditions of high density and low temperature.

    To make its plasmas, the group starts with laser cooling, a method for trapping and slowing particles with intersecting laser beams. The less energy an atom or ion has, the colder it is, and the slower it moves about randomly. Laser cooling was developed in the 1990s to slow atoms until they are almost motionless, or just a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero.

    2
    Rice University graduate student Tom Langin makes an adjustment to an experiment that uses dozens of lasers of varying wavelengths to laser-cool ions in a neutral plasma that is made by first laser-cooling strontium atoms and then ionizing them with a high-power laser. (Photo by Brandon Martin/Rice University)

    “If an atom or ion is moving, and I have a laser beam opposing its motion, as it scatters photons from the beam it gets momentum kicks that slow it,” Killian said. “The trick is to make sure that light is always scattered from a laser that opposes the particle’s motion. If you do that, the particle slows and slows and slows.”

    During a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Bethesda, Md., in 1999, Killian pioneered the ionization method for creating neutral plasma from a laser-cooled gas. When he joined Rice’s faculty the following year, he started a quest for a way to make the plasmas even colder. One motivation was to achieve “strong coupling,” a phenomenon that happens naturally in plasmas only in exotic places like white dwarf stars and the center of Jupiter.

    “We can’t study strongly coupled plasmas in places where they naturally occur,” Killian said. “Laser cooling neutral plasmas allows us to make strongly coupled plasmas in a lab, so that we can study their properties.

    “In strongly coupled plasmas, there is more energy in the electrical interactions between particles than in the kinetic energy of their random motion,” Killian said. “We mostly focus on the ions, which feel each other, and rearrange themselves in response to their neighbors’ positions. That’s what strong coupling means.”

    3
    To laser-cool a neutral plasma, Rice University physicists start by vaporizing billions of strontium atoms, which are laser-cooled and laser-ionized to create a rapidly expanding cloud of neutral ions. Another set of lasers cools the ions. (Photo by Brandon Martin/Rice University)

    Because the ions have positive electric charges, they repel one another through the same force that makes your hair stand up straight if it gets charged with static electricity.

    “Strongly coupled ions can’t be near one another, so they try to find equilibrium, an arrangement where the repulsion from all of their neighbors is balanced,” he said. “This can lead to strange phenomena like liquid or even solid plasmas, which are far outside our normal experience.”

    In normal, weakly coupled plasmas, these repulsive forces only have a small influence on ion motion because they’re far outweighed by the effects of kinetic energy, or heat.

    “Repulsive forces are normally like a whisper at a rock concert,” Killian said. “They’re drowned out by all the kinetic noise in the system.”

    In the center of Jupiter or a white dwarf star, however, intense gravity squeezes ions together so closely that repulsive forces, which grow much stronger at shorter distances, win out. Even though the temperature is quite high, ions become strongly coupled.

    4
    Rice University graduate student Tom Langin at the laser-table where beams of various wavelengths were used to make the world’s first ultracold neutral plasma. (Photo by Brandon Martin/Rice University)

    Killian’s team creates plasmas that are orders of magnitude lower in density than those inside planets or dead stars, but by lowering the temperature they raise the ratio of electric-to-kinetic energies. At temperatures as low as one-tenth of a Kelvin above absolute zero, Killian’s team has seen repulsive forces take over.

    “Laser cooling is well developed in gases of neutral atoms, for example, but the challenges are very different in plasmas,” he said.

    “We are just at the beginning of exploring the implications of strong coupling in ultracold plasmas,” Killian said. “For example, it changes the way that heat and ions diffuse through the plasma. We can study those processes now. I hope this will improve our models of exotic, strongly coupled astrophysical plasmas, but I am sure we will also make discoveries that we haven’t dreamt of yet. This is the way science works.”

    The research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    stem

    Stem Education Coalition

    Rice U campus

    In his 1912 inaugural address, Rice University president Edgar Odell Lovett set forth an ambitious vision for a great research university in Houston, Texas; one dedicated to excellence across the range of human endeavor. With this bold beginning in mind, and with Rice’s centennial approaching, it is time to ask again what we aspire to in a dynamic and shrinking world in which education and the production of knowledge will play an even greater role. What shall our vision be for Rice as we prepare for its second century, and how ought we to advance over the next decade?

    This was the fundamental question posed in the Call to Conversation, a document released to the Rice community in summer 2005. The Call to Conversation asked us to reexamine many aspects of our enterprise, from our fundamental mission and aspirations to the manner in which we define and achieve excellence. It identified the pressures of a constantly changing and increasingly competitive landscape; it asked us to assess honestly Rice’s comparative strengths and weaknesses; and it called on us to define strategic priorities for the future, an effort that will be a focus of the next phase of this process.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:23 pm on January 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Cornell-Brookhaven “Energy-Recovery Linac” Test Accelerator or CBETA, Particle Physics, , When it comes to particle accelerators magnets are one key to success   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “Brookhaven Delivers Innovative Magnets for New Energy-Recovery Accelerator” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    January 2, 2019
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov

    Test accelerator under construction at Cornell will reuse energy, running beams through multi-pass magnets that help keep size and costs down.

    1
    Members of the Brookhaven National Laboratory team with the completed magnet assemblies for the CBETA project.

    When it comes to particle accelerators, magnets are one key to success. Powerful magnetic fields keep particle beams “on track” as they’re ramped up to higher energy, crashed into collisions for physics experiments, or delivered to patients to zap tumors. Innovative magnets have the potential to improve all these applications.

    That’s one aim of the Cornell-Brookhaven “Energy-Recovery Linac” Test Accelerator, or CBETA, under construction at Cornell University and funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). CBETA relies on a beamline made of cutting-edge magnets designed by physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory that can carry four beams at very different energies at the same time.

    Cornell BNL ERL test accelerator

    “Scientists and engineers in Brookhaven’s Collider-Accelerator Department (C-AD) just completed the production and assembly of 216 exceptional quality fixed-field, alternating gradient, permanent magnets for this project—an important milestone,” said C-AD Chair Thomas Roser, who oversees the Lab’s contributions to CBETA.

    The novel magnet design, developed by Brookhaven physicist Stephen Brooks and C-AD engineer George Mahler, has a fixed magnetic field that varies in strength at different points within each circular magnet’s aperture. “Instead of having to ramp up the magnetic field to accommodate beams of different energies, beams with different energies simply find their own ‘sweet spot’ within the aperture,” said Brooks. The result: Beams at four different energies can pass through a single beamline simultaneously.

    In CBETA, a chain of these magnets strung together like beads on a necklace will form what’s called a return loop that repeatedly delivers bunches of electrons to a linear accelerator (linac). Four trips through the superconducting radiofrequency cavities of the linac will ramp up the electrons’ energy, and another four will ramp them down so the energy stored in the beam can be recovered and reused for the next round of acceleration.

    “The bunches at different energies are all together in the return loop, with alternating magnetic fields keeping them oscillating along their individual paths, but then they merge and enter the linac sequentially,” explained C-AD chief mechanical engineer Joseph Tuozzolo. “As one bunch goes through and gets accelerated, another bunch gets decelerated and the energy recovered from the deceleration can accelerate the next bunch.”

    Even when the beams are used for experiments, the energy recovery is expected to be close to 99.9 percent, making this “superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL)” a potential game changer in terms of efficiency. New bunches of near-light-speed electrons are brought up to the maximum energy every microsecond, so fresh beams are always available for experiments.

    That’s one of the big advantages of using permanent magnets. Electromagnets, which require electricity to change the strength of the magnetic field, would never be able to ramp up fast enough, he explained. Using permanent fixed field magnets that require no electricity—like the magnets that stick to your refrigerator, only much stronger—avoids that problem and reduces the energy/cost required to run the accelerator.

    To prepare the magnets for CBETA, the Brookhaven team started with high-quality permanent magnet assemblies produced by KYMA, a magnet manufacturing company, based on the design developed by Brooks and Mahler. C-AD’s Tuozzolo organized and led the procurement effort with KYMA and the acquisition of the other components for the return loop.

    Engineers in Brookhaven’s Superconducting Magnet Division took precise measurements of each magnet’s field strength and used a magnetic field correction system developed and built by Brooks to fine-tune the fields to achieve the precision needed for CBETA. Mahler then led the assembly of the finished magnets onto girder plates that will hold them in perfect alignment in the finished accelerator, while C-AD engineer Robert Michnoff led the effort to build and test electronics for beam position monitors that will track particle paths through the beamline.

    “Brookhaven’s CBETA team reached the goals of this milestone nine days earlier than scheduled thanks to the work of extremely dedicated people performing multiple magnetic measurements and magnet surveys over many long work days,” Roser said.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on January 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Nuclear phase diagram, , Particle Physics, , , Star detector,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “Startup Time for Ion Collisions Exploring the Phases of Nuclear Matter” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    January 4, 2019
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350 or

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    1
    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is actually two accelerators in one. Beams of ions travel around its 2.4-mile-circumference rings in opposite directions at nearly the speed of light, coming into collision at points where the rings cross.

    BNL RHIC Campus

    January 2 marked the startup of the 19th year of physics operations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Physicists will conduct a series of experiments to explore innovative beam-cooling technologies and further map out the conditions created by collisions at various energies. The ultimate goal of nuclear physics is to fully understand the behavior of nuclear matter—the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei and those particles’ constituent building blocks, known as quarks and gluons.

    BNL RHIC Star detector

    2
    The STAR collaboration’s exploration of the “nuclear phase diagram” so far shows signs of a sharp border—a first-order phase transition—between the hadrons that make up ordinary atomic nuclei and the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) of the early universe when the QGP is produced at relatively low energies/temperatures. The data may also suggest a possible critical point, where the type of transition changes from the abrupt, first-order kind to a continuous crossover at higher energies. New data collected during this year’s run will add details to this map of nuclear matter’s phases.

    Many earlier experiments colliding gold ions at different energies at RHIC have provided evidence that energetic collisions create extreme temperatures (trillions of degrees Celsius). These collisions liberate quarks and gluons from their confinement with individual protons and neutrons, creating a hot soup of quarks and gluons that mimics what the early universe looked like before protons, neutrons, or atoms ever formed.

    “The main goal of this run is to turn the collision energy down to explore the low-energy part of the nuclear phase diagram to help pin down the conditions needed to create this quark-gluon plasma,” said Daniel Cebra, a collaborator on the STAR experiment at RHIC. Cebra is taking a sabbatical leave from his position as a professor at the University of California, Davis, to be at Brookhaven to help coordinate the experiments this year.

    STAR is essentially a house-sized digital camera with many different detector systems for tracking the particles created in collisions. Nuclear physicists analyze the mix of particles and characteristics such as their energies and trajectories to learn about the conditions created when ions collide.

    By colliding gold ions at various low energies, including collisions where one beam of gold ions smashes into a fixed target instead of a counter-circulating beam, RHIC physicists will be looking for signs of a so-called “critical point.” This point marks a spot on the nuclear phase diagram—a map of the phases of quarks and gluons under different conditions—where the transition from ordinary matter to free quarks and gluons switches from a smooth one to a sudden phase shift, where both states of matter can coexist.

    STAR gets a wider view

    STAR will have new components in place that will increase its ability to capture the action in these collisions. These include new inner sectors of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC)—the gas-filled chamber particles traverse from their point of origin in the quark-gluon plasma to the sensitive electronics that line the inner and outer walls of a large cylindrical magnet. There will also be a “time of flight” (ToF) wall placed on one of the STAR endcaps, behind the new sectors.

    “The main purpose of these is to enhance STAR’s sensitivity to signatures of the critical point by increasing the acceptance of STAR—essentially the field of view captured in the pictures of the collisions—by about 50 percent,” said James Dunlop, Associate Chair for Nuclear Physics in Brookhaven Lab’s Physics Department.

    “Both of these components have large international contributions,” Dunlop noted. “A large part of the construction of the iTPC sectors was done by STAR’s collaborating institutions in China. The endcap ToF is a prototype of a detector being built for an experiment called Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Germany. The early tests at RHIC will allow CBM to see how well the detector components behave in realistic conditions before it is installed at FAIR while providing both collaborations with necessary equipment for a mutual-benefit physics program,” he said.

    Tests of electron cooling

    3
    A schematic of low-energy electron cooling at RHIC, from right: 1) a section of the existing accelerator that houses the beam pipe carrying heavy ion beams in opposite directions; 2) the direct current (DC) electron gun and other components that will produce and accelerate the bright beams of electrons; 3) the line that will transport and inject cool electrons into the ion beams; and 4) the cooling sections where ions will mix and scatter with electrons, giving up some of their heat, thus leaving the ion beam cooler and more tightly packed.

    Before the collision experiments begin in mid-February, RHIC physicists will be testing a new component of the accelerator designed to maximize collision rates at low energies.

    “RHIC operation at low energies faces multiple challenges, as we know from past experience,” said Chuyu Liu, the RHIC Run Coordinator for Run 19. “The most difficult one is that the tightly bunched ions tend to heat up and spread out as they circulate in the accelerator rings.”

    That makes it less likely that an ion in one beam will strike an ion in the other.

    To counteract this heating/spreading, accelerator physicists at RHIC have added a beamline that brings accelerated “cool” electrons into a section of each RHIC ring to extract heat from the circulating ions. This is very similar to the way the liquid running through your home refrigerator extracts heat to keep your food cool. But instead of chilled ice cream or cold cuts, the result is more tightly packed ion bunches that should result in more collisions when the counter-circulating beams cross.

    Last year, a team led by Alexei Fedotov demonstrated that the electron beam has the basic properties needed for cooling. After a number of upgrades to increase the beam quality and stability further, this year’s goal is to demonstrate that the electron beam can actually cool the gold-ion beam. The aim is to finish fine-tuning the technique so it can be used for the physics program next year.

    Berndt Mueller, Brookhaven’s Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear and Particle Physics, noted, “This 19th year of operations demonstrates once again how the RHIC team — both accelerator physicists and experimentalists — is continuing to explore innovative technologies and ways to stretch the physics capabilities of the most versatile particle accelerator in the world.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 11:54 am on December 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astroparticle physics to become research division at DESY, , , , , Multimessenger astronomy, Particle Physics,   

    From DESY: “Astroparticle physics to become research division at DESY” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    1
    Cosmic particle accelerators like blazars (artist’s impression) are typical objects for multimessenger astronomy. Credit: DESY, Science Communication Lab

    Key focus on multimessenger astronomy

    DESY is expanding its activities for the exploration of the universe. As the new year begins, the research centre, which is a member of the Helmholtz Association, is setting up a new research division for astroparticle physics. The director in charge of astroparticle physics will be Christian Stegmann, who is also the head of DESY’s Zeuthen site. This means that in future DESY will have four research divisions: Accelerators, Photon Science, Particle Physics and Astroparticle Physics.

    “Astroparticle physics has developed extremely rapidly in recent years, both at an international level and at DESY. With the establishment of the new research division, we are driving this development further forward,” explains Helmut Dosch, the chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors. “Over the coming years, DESY’s site in Zeuthen is going to be expanded to become an international centre for astroparticle physics. These steps will be a boost for astroparticle physics throughout Germany.”

    Astroparticle physics studies high-energy particles from outer space that originate in high-energy phenomena such as supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei. It aims to gain a fundamental understanding of the role of high-energy particles and processes involved in the evolution of the universe, thereby providing important foundations for the search for dark matter and physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. It is now possible, for the first time, to measure all the different cosmic messengers – from cosmic rays, through gamma radiation and cosmic neutrinos, to gravitational waves – and to combine this information with observations made in classical astronomy, to paint a new picture of the high-energy universe. The emerging field of such combined observations of different “messengers” is called multimessenger astronomy.

    Within astroparticle physics, DESY is currently concentrating on the study of cosmic gamma radiation and high-energy neutrinos from outer space. Neutrinos are lightweight elementary particles that can easily penetrate entire stars and therefore offer a glimpse of regions that are opaque to light and other types of electromagnetic radiation. Both gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy are exceedingly dynamic fields of research, and DESY is one of the leading institutes involved in large international observatories such as the future Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, and in upgrading the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. Theoretical astroparticle physics is responsible for the important task of interpreting the data provided by the various different cosmic messengers, and to describe how they are connected.

    Cherenkov Telescope Array, http://www.isdc.unige.ch/cta/ at Cerro Paranal, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile searches for cosmic rayson Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m (8,645 ft) altitude, 120 km (70 mi) south of Antofagasta; and at at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma, Spain

    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    Within the new astroparticle physics research division, a particular scientific focus lies with the multimessenger programme. Apart from the scientific activities, DESY is setting up an international graduate school for promoting young talents in multimessenger astronomy, sponsored by the Helmholtz Association, in collaboration with partners which include the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Potsdam and Israel’s Weizmann Institute.

    Stegmann is convinced that, “We are on the threshold of a golden age in multimessenger astronomy. And the breath-taking speed with which spectacular findings have been made in recent years means that launching the new research division of astroparticle physics is a step into the future for DESY. I am very pleased to be in charge of this very active division and to be supervising the next results as its director, results that will contribute to our understanding of the structure of matter, from the universe down to the tiniest elementary particles, and to continuing to develop science in Germany.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 1:01 pm on December 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "United States and France express interest to collaborate on construction of superconducting particle accelerator at Fermilab and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, , , , , , , Particle Physics   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “United States and France express interest to collaborate on construction of superconducting particle accelerator at Fermilab and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    December 19, 2018

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) have signed statements this month expressing interest to collaborate on high-tech international particle physics projects that are planned to be hosted at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The three agencies indicated plans to work together on the development and production of technical components for PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan-II), a major DOE particle accelerator project with substantial international contributions. In addition, CNRS and CEA also plan to collaborate on the construction of the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), an international flagship science project that will unlock the mysteries of neutrinos — subatomic particles that travel close to the speed of light and have almost no mass.

    1
    DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar (left) and Vincent Berger, Director of Fundamental Research at the CEA, at the signing ceremony in France on Dec. 11. The signing with CNRS took place on Dec. 19.

    The construction of a 176-meter-long superconducting particle accelerator is the centerpiece of the PIP-II project. The new accelerator upgrade will become the heart of the Fermilab accelerator complex and provide the proton beam to power a broad program of accelerator-based particle physics research for many decades to come. In particular, PIP-II will enable the world’s most powerful high-energy neutrino beam to power DUNE. The experiment requires enormous quantities of neutrinos to discover the role these particles played in the formation of the early universe. The first delivery of particle beams to DUNE is scheduled for 2026.

    “The collaboration on PIP-II and DUNE is a win-win situation for France and the U.S. Department of Energy,” said DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “Scientists in France and the United States have a wealth of experience building components for superconducting particle accelerators and are contributing substantially to developing key technologies for DUNE. France’s expression of interest brings into the fold for the projects a partnership that has already seen great interest and contributions from across the globe.”

    Two French institutions — the departments of the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (Irfu), part of the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CNRS IN2P3 laboratories: Institute of Nuclear Physics (IPN) and Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) — are expected to build components for PIP-II. They both have extensive experience in the development of superconducting radio-frequency acceleration, which is the enabling technology for PIP-II, and are contributors to two major superconducting particle accelerator projects in Europe: the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and the (ESS).


    European XFEL campus

    ESS European Spallation Source, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden.

    “For IN2P3, the DUNE experiment is of major scientific interest for the next decade, and this interest naturally extends to the PIP-II project, which actually aligns perfectly well with our experience on superconducting linac technologies,” said IN2P3 Director Reynald Pain. “Our scientific and technical teams are very excited to start this collaboration.”

    At the heart of the PIP-II project is the construction of an 800-million-electronvolt superconducting linear accelerator. The new accelerator will feature acceleration cavities made of niobium and double the beam energy of its predecessor. That boost will enable the Fermilab accelerator complex to achieve megawatt-scale proton beam power.

    “Irfu physicists are strongly involved in neutrino physics,” said Vincent Berger, Director of Fundamental Research at the CEA. “In this field, the DUNE experiment is particularly promising. In that context, contributing to the PIP-II project would be very interesting for our accelerator teams, who have strong experience in superconducting linacs. Our first discussions with Fermilab staff have been very stimulating.”

    In addition to France, other international partners are making significant contributions to PIP-II: India, the United Kingdom and Italy. DOE’s Argonne and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories are also contributing key components to the project.

    France brings world-leading expertise and capabilities to the PIP-II project,” said PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga. “It is a tremendous opportunity and honor to work with them and apply their demonstrated excellence to our project.”

    French scientists also plan to contribute to building the DUNE detector, a massive stadium-sized neutrino detector that will be located 1.5 kilometers underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Construction of prototype detectors are currently under way at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the European particle physics laboratory located near the French-Swiss border. These prototypes include key contributions from French institutions in developing the dual-phase technology for one of the two ProtoDUNE detectors.

    “French scientists were among the founders of the DUNE experiment,” said Ed Blucher, DUNE collaboration co-spokesperson and professor at the University of Chicago. “Their enormous experience in detector and electronics development will be crucial to successful construction of the DUNE detectors.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
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