Tagged: Particle Physics Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 8:36 am on October 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Clash of the Titans", , , , , Particle Physics, ,   

    From “Science Magazine” : “Clash of the Titans” 

    From “Science Magazine”

    9.29.22
    Adrian Cho

    The United States and Japan are embarking on ambitious efforts to wring a key secret of the universe from the subatomic phantoms known as neutrinos.

    Among physicists, those studying elusive particles called neutrinos may set the standard for dogged determination—or obdurate stubbornness. For 12 years, scientists in Japan have fired trillions of neutrinos hundreds of kilometers through Earth to a gigantic subterranean detector called Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) to study their shifting properties.

    Yet the nearly massless particles interact with other matter so feebly that the experiment, known as T2K, has captured fewer than 600 of them.

    Nevertheless, so alluring are neutrinos that physicists are not just persisting, they are planning to vastly scale up efforts to make and trap them. At stake may be insight into one of the most profound questions in physics: how the newborn universe generated more matter than antimatter, so that it is filled with something instead of nothing.

    That prospect, among others, has sparked a race to build two massive subterranean detectors, at costs ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars. In an old zinc mine near the former town of Kamioka in Japan, physicists are gearing up to build Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K), a gargantuan successor to Super-K, which will scrutinize neutrinos fired from a particle accelerator at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai 295 kilometers away.

    Hyper-Kamiokande [(神岡宇宙素粒子研究施設](JP) a neutrino physics laboratory to be located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    In the United States, scientists are developing the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in a former gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, which will snare neutrinos from The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) 1300 kilometers away in Batavia, Illinois.

    Researchers with both experiments acknowledge they’re in competition—and that Hyper-K may have an advantage because it will likely start to take data a year or two before DUNE. Yet aside from their goals, “Hyper-K and DUNE are vastly different,” says Chang Kee Jung, a neutrino physicist at Stony Brook University and a T2K member who now also works on DUNE.

    Hyper-K, which will be bigger but cheaper than DUNE, represents the next in a series of ever larger neutrino detectors of the same basic design developed over 40 years by Japanese physicists. It is all but certain to work as expected, says Masato Shiozawa, a particle physicist at the University of Tokyo and co-spokesperson for the 500-member Hyper-K collaboration. “Hyper-K is a more established technology than DUNE,” he says. “That is why I proposed it.”

    DUNE will employ a relatively new technology that promises to reveal neutrino interactions in stunning detail and allow physicists to test their understanding of the particles with unprecedented rigor. “Without bragging too much, we are best in class,” says Sergio Bertolucci, a particle physicist at the University of Bologna and Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics and co-spokesperson for the 1300-member DUNE collaboration. However, that technological edge comes with a hefty price tag and, Bertolucci acknowledges, more risk.

    How the rivalry plays out will depend on factors as mundane as the cost of underground excavation and as exciting as the possibility that neutrinos, always quirky, hold some surprise that will transform physicists’ understanding of nature.

    The most common particles in the universe besides photons, neutrinos exert no effect on the everyday objects around us. Yet they could carry clues to deep mysteries. Neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts both come in three types or flavors—electron, muon, and tau—depending on how they’re generated. For example, electron neutrinos emerge from the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. Muon neutrinos fly from the decays of fleeting particles called pi-plus mesons, which can be produced by smashing a beam of protons into a target. These identities aren’t fixed: A neutrino of one type can change into another, chameleonlike, as it zips along at near–light-speed.

    Weirdly, a neutrino of a definite flavor has no definite mass. Rather, it is a quantum mechanical combination of three different “mass states.” For example, a decaying pi-plus spits out the combination of mass states that makes a muon neutrino. However, like gears turning at different speeds, the mass states evolve at different rates, changing that combination. So, a particle that began as an electron neutrino might later appear as a tau neutrino—a phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation.

    Theorists can explain all of this with a mathematical clockwork known as the three-flavor model. It has just a handful of parameters: roughly speaking, the probabilities with which one flavor will oscillate into another and the differences among the three mass states. The picture has gaps. Experiments show two mass states are close, but not whether the two similar states are lighter or heavier than the third—a puzzle known as the hierarchy problem.

    Moreover, neutrinos and antineutrinos might oscillate by different amounts, an asymmetry called charge-parity (CP) violation. Measuring that asymmetry is the prize physicists seek, as it could help explain how the soup of fundamental particles in the early universe generated more matter than antimatter.

    1

    2

    The wispy neutrinos themselves did not tilt the matter-antimatter balance. Rather, according to some theories, the familiar neutrinos are mirrored by vastly heavier “sterile” neutrinos that would interact with nothing except neutrinos. If sterile neutrinos and antineutrinos also behave asymmetrically, then in the early universe their decays could have generated more electrons than antielectrons (also called positrons), seeding the dominance of matter.

    Seeing CP violation in ordinary neutrinos wouldn’t prove this scenario played out, notes Patrick Huber, a theorist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. But not seeing CP violation among ordinary neutrinos would render it much less likely that the hypothetical heavyweights possess the key asymmetry, Huber says. “It’s not impossible, but it’s implausible,” he says.

    But, first, scientists must determine whether neutrinos really exhibit this asymmetry. The teams in Japan and the United States will both employ a well-established technique to probe neutrino behavior. By smashing energetic protons from a particle accelerator into a target to produce pipluses, they will generate a beam of muon neutrinos and shoot it toward a distant underground detector. There, researchers will count the surviving muon neutrinos and the electron neutrinos that have emerged along the way. Then they will switch to producing a beam of muon antineutrinos, by collecting pi-minuses instead of pi-pluses from the target. They’ll repeat the measurements, looking for any differences.

    The experiment is much harder than it sounds, as several other factors could create a spurious asymmetry. For example, the neutrino and antineutrino beams will inevitably differ slightly, both in intensity and in their energy spectrum. To account for such differences, the researchers must sample the particles as they start their journey by placing a small detector, preferably with a design as similar as possible to the distant detector, in front of the beam source.

    The physics of neutrinos themselves could also skew the results. For example, either neutrinos or antineutrinos will be absorbed more strongly by the matter they traverse on their flight to the detector. The direction of that effect depends on the solution to the hierarchy problem. So, to spot CP violation, physicists will most likely have to solve the hierarchy problem, too.

    The biggest barrier to sorting all of this out, however, has been the measly harvest of neutrinos from even the biggest experiments. Like their counterparts in Japan, U.S. physicists already have a neutrino-oscillation experiment, NOνA, which shoots neutrinos from Fermilab to a detector 810 kilometers north in Minnesota. Like T2K, it has netted just several hundred neutrinos.

    Hyper-K will tackle the scarcity primarily by providing a much bigger target for the neutrinos to hit. Proposed a decade ago, it’s a scaled-up version of the storied Super-K detector and will consist of a cylindrical stainless steel tank 78 meters tall and 74 meters wide, holding 260,000 tons of ultrapure water—five times as much as Super-K.

    To spot neutrinos, the detector will rely on the optical equivalent of a sonic boom. Rarely, a muon neutrino zipping through the water will knock a neutron out of an oxygen atom and change it into a proton, while the neutrino itself morphs into a high-energy muon. The fleeing muon will actually exceed the speed of light in water, which is 25% slower than in a vacuum, and generate a shock wave of so-called Cherenkov light, just as a supersonic jet creates a shock wave of sound. That conelike shock wave will cast a ring of light on the tank’s side, which is lined with photodetectors.

    Similarly, an electron neutrino can strike a neutron to produce a high-speed electron, which is lighter than a muon and will be buffeted more by the water molecules. The result will be a fuzzier light ring. Muon and electron antineutrinos can spawn detectable antimuons and antielectrons by striking protons, although with about half the efficiency of the neutrino interactions.

    4
    5
    In Super-K, a muon neutrino turns into a muon, which radiates a tidy light ring (upper image). An electron neutrino spawns an electron and a fuzzier ring (lower image). Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    Hyper-K will be Japan’s third great detector, all in the same mining area. From 1983 to 1995, the Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment (Kamiokande), a 3000-ton detector, tried to spot the ultrarare decays of protons that some theories predict. Instead, in 1987, it glimpsed neutrinos from a supernova—an advance that won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002. In 1996, Super-K came online. It proved neutrinos oscillate by studying muon neutrinos generated when cosmic rays strike the atmosphere. Fewer come up from the ground than down from the sky, showing that those traversing Earth change flavor along the way. The discovery shared the Nobel in 2015. “It’s spectacular what [Japanese physicists] have done,” says Erin O’Sullivan, a neutrino astrophysicist at Uppsala University and a Hyper-K member who was drawn by “the dynasty of Super-K.”

    Hyper-K will reuse J-PARC’s neutrino beam, which is now being upgraded to increase its power by a factor of 2.5. Overall, it should collect data at 20 times the rate of T2K, says Stephen Playfer, a particle physicist at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Tokyo and the project’s lead technical coordinator. Before joining Hyper-K in 2014, he and his Edinburgh colleagues also considered joining DUNE. “When it came to comparing who was going to be first to see something, we thought Hyper-K was in a good position, just because it would have the statistics and it had a well-known technology,” he says.

    Hyper-K will have limitations. In particular, it won’t measure the neutrinos’ energies precisely. That matters because the rate at which a neutrino oscillates depends on its energy, and a beam contains neutrinos with a range or spectrum of energies. Without a way to pinpoint each neutrino’s energy, the experiment would be unable to make sense of the oscillation rates.

    To avoid this problem, Hyper-K, like current experiments, will rely on a trick. A neutrino beam naturally diverges, with lower energy neutrinos spreading more than higher energy ones. Thus, if a detector sits slightly to the side of the beam’s path, it will see neutrinos with a narrower range of energies that should oscillate at roughly the same rate. So, like Super-K, Hyper-K will sit off the beam axis by an angle of 2.5°.

    Physicists can then tune the energy of the beam so the neutrinos reach the detector when the oscillation is at its maximum. With the neutrinos’ energy constrained, physicists basically count the number of arriving muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos, and their antimatter counterparts. Hyper-K’s CP measurement comes down to comparing two ratios: electron neutrinos with muon neutrinos and electron antineutrinos with muon antineutrinos.

    Workers have already begun the excavation for Hyper-K, which should take 2 years, Shiozawa says. The whole project will cost Japan about $600 million, with international partners chipping in an additional $100 million to $200 million, he says. The detector will be complete in 2027, Shiozawa says, and will start taking data a year later. So confident are Hyper-K researchers in their technology that they say the trickiest part of the project is the digging. “We need to construct probably the largest underground cavern” in the world, Shiozawa says. “In terms of technology and also cost, this is the biggest challenge.”

    If, technologically, Hyper-K amounts to much more of the same, DUNE aims to be something almost completely different. It will employ a technology that, until recently, was used in only one other large experiment but that should enable physicists to see neutrino interactions as never before. “To me, the draw of DUNE is its precision,” says Chris Marshall, a particle physicist at the University of Rochester and DUNE’s physics coordinator. “This is an experiment that will be world leading in just about everything that it measures.”

    6
    Since 2015, DUNE researchers have built prototypes at the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, which have performed even better than expected. Brice Maximillien/CERN

    Hunkering 1480 meters deep in a repurposed gold mine, DUNE will consist of two rectangular tanks 66 meters long, 19 meters wide, and 18 meters tall. Each will contain 17,000 tons of frigid liquid argon cooled to below –186°C. Just as in a water-filled detector, a neutrino can blast a neutron—in this case in an argon nucleus—to create a muon or an electron. But the neutrinos reaching DUNE from Fermilab will pack up to 10 times more energy than those flowing to Hyper-K. So, in addition to the muon or electron, a collision will typically produce a spurt of other particles such as pions, kaons, protons, and neutrons.

    DUNE aims to track all those particles—or at least the charged ones—with a technology called a liquid argon time projection chamber. As a charged particle streaks through the argon, it will ionize some of the atoms, freeing their electrons. A strong electric field will push the electrons sideways until they hit three closely spaced planes of parallel wires, each plane oriented in a different direction. By noting when the electrons strike the wires, physicists can reconstruct with millimeter precision the original particle’s 3D trajectory. And from the amount of ionization it produces, they can determine its type and energy.

    The details are mind-boggling. The electrons will have to drift as far as 3.5 meters, driven by a voltage of 180 kilovolts. And unlike Hyper-K, DUNE will sit directly in the beam from Fermilab. So, it will capture a bigger but messier harvest of neutrinos, with energies ranging from less than 1 giga-electron volt to more than 5 GeV.

    DUNE’s ability to precisely track all the particles should enable it to do something unprecedented in neutrino physics: Measure the energy of each incoming neutrino to construct energy spectra for each flavor of neutrino and antineutrino. Because of the flavor changing, a plot of each spectrum should itself exhibit a distinct wiggle or oscillation. By analyzing all of the spectra, physicists should be able to nail down the entire three-flavor model, including the amount of CP violation and the hierarchy, in one fell swoop, Bertolucci says. “It can measure all the parameters in the same experiment,” he says.

    Until now, the technology has never been fully developed. Italian Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia dreamed up the liquid argon detector in 1977. But it wasn’t until 2010 that one called ICARUS in Italy’s subterranean Gran Sasso National Laboratory snared a few neutrinos shot from the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Researchers at Fermilab and CERN have embarked on a crash program to build prototypes, which have worked even better than expected, says Kate Scholberg, a neutrino physicist and a DUNE team member at Duke University. “It’s kind of an entrancing thing to look at the event displays” coming in, she says. “It’s just incredible detail.”

    That precision comes at a price. For accounting purposes, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) splits the project in two. One piece, the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), includes the new neutrino beam at Fermilab and all the infrastructure. The second, DUNE, is an international collaboration that will build just the guts of the detectors. In 2015, DOE estimated LBNF/DUNE would cost $1.5 billion and come online in 2027. Last year, however, DOE reported that unexpected construction costs had raised the bill to $3.1 billion. The detector should be completed in 2028, says Christopher Mossey, project director for LBNF/DUNE-U.S. But the beam will lag until early 2031, potentially giving Hyper-K a head start of more than 2 years.

    With contracts in hand and construction underway, DUNE developers are confident that the new cost and timeline will hold. Excavation has passed 40% and should be completed in May 2023, Mossey says. “We really are accomplishing big, tangible things.” Still, DUNE physicists acknowledge that the project is riskier than Hyper-K. “It’s a leap into the unknown, and that’s the trade-off you make,” Scholberg says. “Something that is more transformative is going to certainly entail more scariness.”

    Both experiments have other scientific goals, such as searching for proton decay. There, Hyper-K has an advantage, Huber says, as it is simply bigger and contains lots of lone protons in the hearts of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules. Another tantalizing payoff could come if a giant star collapses and explodes as a supernova near our Galaxy, as one did in 1987. The experiments would provide complementary observations, Scholberg says, as DUNE would see the electron neutrinos produced just as the core implodes and Hyper-K would see mainly electron antineutrinos released later in the explosion.

    Nevertheless, the raison d’être for both experiments remains deciphering neutrino oscillations and searching for CP violation. So, how would a gambler handicap this race?

    Given their head start, Hyper-K physicists could score major discoveries before DUNE even finds its feet. If CP violation is as big as it can possibly be, “then we may discover it in 3 years,” Shiozawa says. “And also, we may discover proton decay in 3 years.” But, he says, “It really depends on nature.”

    Hyper-K is optimized to measure CP violation assuming it’s big and the three-flavor model is the final word on neutrino oscillations, Huber notes. Neither assumption may hold. And with its simpler counting technique and shorter baseline, the experiment may struggle to distinguish CP violation from the matter effect unless some other experiment independently solves the hierarchy problem. “Hyper-K certainly requires more external inputs,” Huber says.

    8
    Hyper-Kamiokande will deploy new and improved phototubes, which must withstand pressures up to six atmospheres at the bottom of the tank.Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    DUNE, in contrast, should be able to disentangle the whole mess on its own. Shiozawa, for one, is not counting out his rival. The Japanese project has experienced growing pains of its own, he notes, including being scaled back from an initial 1-million-ton design. And the Japanese government won’t countenance any cost increase, putting project leaders in constant tension with contractors, he says. “The situation is not so different between the two projects.”

    Ultimately, the rivalry between Hyper-K and DUNE may be less a dash for glory than a decadeslong slog through uncertainty. If so, the two teams could end up collaborating as much as they compete, at least informally. “We’ll have a long time where the most accurate results will come from a combination of the two [experiments],” Huber predicts.

    Most tantalizing, instead of completing the current theory, the results could upend it. They might reveal deviations from the three-flavor model that could hint at new particles and phenomena lurking in the vacuum. After all, neutrinos have repeatedly surprised physicists, who once assumed that the particles came in only one type and were completely massless and inert. “Previously, neutrino experiments have taught us that we very rarely take data in a neutrino beam and get exactly what we expect,” Marshall says.

    The unexpected may be a long shot worth betting on.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on September 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What it’s like to be stationed at a particle accelerator", , , , , Particle Physics, ,   

    From “Penn Today” : “What it’s like to be stationed at a particle accelerator” 

    From “Penn Today”

    at

    U Penn bloc

    University of Pennsylvania

    9.29.22
    Blake Cole

    Gwen Gardner and Lauren Osojnak, Ph.D. candidates in physics, describe their work as part of the Penn ATLAS team at the Large Hadron Collider.

    ATLAS

    On July 5, 2022, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, more commonly referred to as CERN, brought all LHC systems online for its third run. This came after a three-year-long maintenance and upgrade phase, and on the tail of the 10th anniversary of one of the most significant discoveries associated with CERN: the Higgs boson, “the fundamental particle associated with the Higgs field, a field that gives mass to other fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks.”

    2
    Gwen Gardner (third from right) and Lauren Osojnak (second from right) below the detector, standing in front of one of the access points they use to climb up to our electronics. (Image: Courtesy of Gwen Gardner and Lauren Osojnak)

    The LHC, located in Geneva on the Franco-Swiss border, is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, a 27-kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. It speeds up and increases the energy of a beam of particles by generating electric fields that accelerate the particles, and magnetic fields that steer and focus them, which gives researchers a rare glimpse into the basic constituents of matter.

    Over 600 institutes and universities around the world use CERN’s facilities. Gardner and Osojnak describe their work as part of Penn’s team.

    “What I do right now is mostly instrumentation work. It’s hands on, dealing with electronics and writing what we call low-level code, which just means that the code that we write is meant to interact with electronics and hardware,” says Gardner. “This is more along the lines of the kind of stuff you might study in electrical engineering. Most of us here learn enough of it to get by from research experience.”

    “I work on the transition radiation tracker of ATLAS,” says Osojnak. “That involves a lot of time in the control room, which is really exciting, especially since the start of run three last week. I didn’t get to be in the actual control room for the first beams of Run Three, but I got to be in one of the other ATLAS buildings with a bunch of people watching it occur and cheering with everyone, which was really fun. The other half of my time is dedicated to working on a supersymmetry analysis.”

    “I always say that what I’m doing is kind of like looking for a needle in a haystack, but not even knowing if there is a needle at all,” explains Osojnak. “Not everything matches up exactly as we think that it should if the standard model was the end of the story. So, one way that it could make sense is if every particle had basically a mirror image particle of itself and the standard model was doubled. That’s what super symmetry is. But there are other options. It could be that instead of having this mirror image super symmetry, there could be a mirror image with a little crack in the mirror, and that might be the missing piece. But then that begs the question, ‘How specific do we go?’ If it’s a broken symmetry, maybe it’s just chaos and there is a multiverse theory and this super symmetry is just a garbage theory. The philosophical implications of it are interesting.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Penn campus

    Academic life at University of Pennsylvania is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

    The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered prior to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn’s founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

    Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Schools enrolling undergraduates include the College of Arts and Sciences; the School of Engineering and Applied Science; the Wharton School; and the School of Nursing. Penn’s “One University Policy” allows students to enroll in classes in any of Penn’s twelve schools. Among its highly ranked graduate and professional schools are a law school whose first professor wrote the first draft of the United States Constitution, the first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), and the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881).

    Penn is also home to the first “student union” building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896), the first Catholic student club in North America (Newman Center, 1893), the first double-decker college football stadium (Franklin Field, 1924 when second deck was constructed), and Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was developed at Penn and formally dedicated in 1946. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the sixth-largest endowment of all universities in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university’s athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.

    As of 2018, distinguished alumni and/or Trustees include three U.S. Supreme Court justices; 32 U.S. senators; 46 U.S. governors; 163 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and seven signers of the U.S. Constitution (four of whom signed both representing two-thirds of the six people who signed both); 24 members of the Continental Congress; 14 foreign heads of state and two presidents of the United States, including Donald Trump. As of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates; 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 64 billionaires; 29 Rhodes Scholars; 15 Marshall Scholars and 16 Pulitzer Prize winners have been affiliated with the university.

    History

    The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton University and Columbia University. The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

    In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin’s autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, “thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution”. However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, his vision for what he called a “Public Academy of Philadelphia”. Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard University, William & Mary, Yale Unversity, and The College of New Jersey—Franklin’s new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation’s first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith (1727-1803), who became the first provost, and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.

    Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the board of trustees on November 13, 1749, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as “Independence Hall”), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin’s group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the “Academy of Philadelphia”, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered on July 13, 1753 by the intentions of the original “New Building” donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the “College of Philadelphia” was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same board of trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution. The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.

    The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith’s “Loyalist” tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania. The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.

    Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).

    After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year that appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of “the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself”. The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn’s General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university’s founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.

    Research, innovations and discoveries

    Penn is classified as an “R1” doctoral university: “Highest research activity.” Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion. Penn’s research expenditures in the 2018 fiscal year were $1.442 billion, the fourth largest in the U.S. In fiscal year 2019 Penn received $582.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health.

    In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn’s research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing; the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School; the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center; the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton; and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees. To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the “Penn Integrates Knowledge” title awarded to selected Penn professors “whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge”. These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn’s schools.

    Penn is also among the most prolific producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia University and Cornell University (Harvard University did not report data). It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale University) and tenth nationally.

    In most disciplines Penn professors’ productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of epidemiology, business, communication studies, comparative literature, languages, information science, criminal justice and criminology, social sciences and sociology. According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top five rankings in these fields.

    Penn’s research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school; the first university teaching hospital; the first business school; and the first student union Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world). Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973 and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, “Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education”.

    Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.

    ENIAC UPenn

    It was here also where the world’s first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL programming language. Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med; the Rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn; the discovery of cancer’s link with genes; cognitive therapy; Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), Resistin; the Philadelphia gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers. More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.

    Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then-faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research; Simon Kuznets’s method of measuring Gross National Product; the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the “Wharton Model” developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then-President Nixon’s health reform in the 1970s.

    International partnerships

    Students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the London School of Economics(UK), University of Barcelona [Universitat de Barcelona](ES), Paris Institute of Political Studies [Institut d’études politiques de Paris](FR), University of Queensland(AU), University College London(UK), King’s College London(UK), Hebrew University of Jerusalem(IL) and University of Warwick(UK).

     
  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on September 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Optimizing CLIC for reducing the electricity consumption at machine and laboratory level", , , , Electron-positron linear colliders are currently being studied as potential future Higgs-factories., , International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, , Particle Physics, , The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN   

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News : “Optimizing CLIC for reducing the electricity consumption at machine and laboratory level” 

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News

    9.19.22
    Steinar Stapnes
    Alexej Grudiev

    Optimized system designs for power efficiency, high efficiency klystrons, permanent magnets, renewable power… The linear collider projects are working to address power efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the facilities.

    1
    CLIC accelerator structures optimised for RF power efficiency under test (Image: CERN)

    Electron-positron linear colliders are currently being studied as potential future Higgs-factories. The two most mature studies are for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN, Switzerland.

    Linear colliders rely on low emittance high intensity beams created in damping rings and ultimately being focussed to the nano-meter level at the collision point.

    The current volatility in energy prices underlines the importance of reducing the power needed for operating future facilities. Both linear collider projects, collaborating in many areas, have extensively studied novel design and technology solutions to address power efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the facilities. The sustainability considerations, in addition to the more traditional cost concern and need for developing core technologies, are today primary R&D drivers for the projects. These studies have recently been summarized in a contribution [1] to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “Conference on Accelerators for Research and Development: from good practices towards socioeconomics impact”.

    This article briefly summarized the studies performed and on-going within the CLIC collaboration. The CLIC RF technology is based on normal conducting 12 GHz accelerating structures. The initial 11.5 km stage provides collisions at 380 GeV at a luminosity of 2.3 x 1034 cm-2s-1. CLIC can be upgraded in energy and luminosity as part of a longer-term electron-positron collider programme.

    Concerning energy consumption, the CLIC power consumption has been estimated to 110 MW at 380 GeV [2]. Turning these power numbers into yearly energy consumption gives estimates around 600 GWh. As a reference CERN uses around 1.2 TWh of electricity yearly. The initial stage CLIC numbers are considerably lower than earlier estimates, which were largely based on scaling from the 3 TeV machine studied for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2012. The reduction is around a factor two, out of which a fraction is a trivial scaling going from 500 GeV in the CDR, to 380 GeV adapted for Higgs and top physics.

    To achieve the reduced numbers several dedicated studies have been conducted to control and optimise the power consumption, in parallel with studies considering the environmental impact of the facilities in a wider sense. Many of these studies are widely applicable and generally relevant for future accelerator facilities. Among the studies carried out are:

    The designs of CLIC, including key performance parameters as accelerating gradients, pulse lengths, bunch-charges and luminosities, have been optimised for cost but also increasingly focussing on reducing power consumption. The parameter sets giving the lowest cost and power for a given luminosity have been identified and retained as baseline.
    Technical developments and studies targeting reduced power consumptions at system level, primary examples are RF system design optimisation, developments of high efficiency klystrons [3], and studies of permanent magnets for damping rings and linacs [4].
    The possibility of making use of the fact that the linear colliders are single pass, i.e. the beams and hence power are needed “shot by shot”, possibly allowing to operate in daily or weekly time-windows when power is available in abundance from suppliers and costs are reduced [5]. Seasonal operation is already being used for energy cost reasons.
    Estimating the renewable power that can be made available for running the colliders by investing for example 10% of the overall construction costs in solar and wind energy capabilities [5], again profiting from the fact that single pass colliders can quickly adapt to changes in energy output from such sources.
    Technical solutions for recovering energy losses in all parts of the accelerator, to be reused for acceleration and/or for use in the local area (homes, industry) near the facility.

    In many cases the studies mentioned are still on-going and further work is needed. For CLIC these studies will be included in the planned Project Readiness Report for the next European Strategy Update. Among the studies planned is an analysis of the start to end environmental impact including carbon footprints for CLIC. While one can expect that energy production in a decade or two are largely carbon free reducing the operational impact, the evaluation of raw materials, and their processing, being used for the civil engineering and accelerator will need to be carefully analysed. Decommission will also be considered. The power and energy use of CLIC at 1.5 and 3 TeV will be revised, including the saving mentioned above. Current estimates date back to the CDR in 2012 and are by now outdated and too high.

    As mentioned initially many of these studies are equally applicable to ILC and many will be done together with ILC. As ILC is a green field installation there are interesting possibilities to address sustainability from the very start for the facility.
    ___________________________________________________________
    [1] List B. et al, Sustainability studies for Linear Colliders: https://conferences.iaea.org/event/264/contributions/21011/.

    [2] The CLIC project, Snowmass White Paper, https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.09186.

    [3] Cai J. and Syratchev I., Modelling and Technical Design Study of Two-Stage Multibeam Klystron for CLIC, doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.3000191.

    [4] Shepherd B., Permanent Magnets for Accelerators, https://jacow.org/ipac2020/papers/moviro05.pdf.

    [5] Fraunhofer CLIC power/energy study: https://edms.cern.ch/document/2065162/1.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN (CH) Accelerating News is a quarterly online publication for the accelerator community.
    ISSN: 2296-6536

    The publication showcases news and results from the biggest accelerator research and development projects such as ARIES, HL-LHC, TIARA, FCC study, EuroCirCol, EUPRAXIA, EASITrain as well as interesting stories on other accelerator applications. The newsletter also collects upcoming accelerator research conferences and events.

    Accelerating News is published 4 times a year, in mid March, mid June, mid September and mid December.

    You can read Accelerating News via the homepage http://www.acceleratingnews.eu or by email.

    To subscribe to Accelerating News, enter your email in the “Subscribe to our newsletter” box in the footer.

    History

    Accelerating News evolved from the EuCARD quarterly project newsletter (see past issues), which was first published in June 2009 to a subscription list of approximately 200. Initiated by EuCARD and in collaboration with additional FP7 co-funded projects, the first edition of Accelerating News was published in April 2012 to an initial distribution list of about 800 subscribers. Currently more than 1750 members receive the quarterly issues.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:38 am on September 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The miniature accelerator:: dream or reality?", , , , , , Particle Physics, , To look into the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells future industry will need ever-smaller accelerators.   

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News : “The miniature accelerator:: dream or reality?” 

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News

    9.26.22
    Maurizio Vretenar

    To look into the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells future industry will need ever-smaller accelerators.

    1
    The radio-frequency quadrupole of the MACHINA project under development (Image: CERN)

    Already now the large majority of the almost 40,000 particle accelerators in operation worldwide are used in industry and medicine, and this number is rapidly increasing [1]. Accelerator applications are progressing fast, and particle accelerators have the potential to become a crucial tool in the ongoing 4th industrial revolution, making accessible to industry and medicine processes that allow a direct interaction with the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells. But to succeed, this “industrial revolution” needs small accelerators that can easily fit in a medical or industrial environment, easy to operate with moderate energy requirements and minimum radiation concerns. In short, what is needed are “miniature accelerators”, for the moment still a technological dream although several accelerator teams are heading in this direction. Every technology starts from a dream, but how far are we from realizing it?

    The first important consideration is that size is not all. The basic parameters of an accelerator can be divided in two categories, those defining the “performance” for the final users (type of particle, energy, beam current, beam brightness, reliability) and those defining the “impact” on the operating environment (mains power, power efficiency, radiation emission and activation, dimensions, weight, construction and operation costs). The real challenge for the miniature accelerator consists in maximizing the first set of parameters, minimising the second one. Every “miniature” device must provide a minimum performance that will make the system attractive to its potential users.

    Lighter, smaller, cheaper: Compacting the convention

    2
    Close-up of the Compact Linear Collider prototype, on which the electron FLASH design is based (Image: CERN)

    The first direction to reduce the size of our accelerators is “incremental” innovation, pushing to its limits the good old concept of radiofrequency (RF) acceleration that since almost 100 years drives the particles within our accelerators.

    In the field of proton acceleration, this translates into miniaturising the traditional “workhorses” of low-energy acceleration: the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and the cyclotron. Several developments are going on towards high-frequency compact RFQ’s [2]; while the RFQ gradient can reach some 2-3 MeV/m, the main limitation comes from the small aperture and limited cooling capability that set a limit to the average beam current. Very compact cyclotrons in most cases superconducting are also a popular trend [3]. Here the average current can be higher, and the final energy is of the order of 5 MeV/m2 – taking the surface of the accelerator as a reference instead of its length! In terms of cost, for both cases the driver is the ancillary equipment: the RF generator for the RFQ, and the cryogenic system for the superconducting cyclotron.

    For electrons instead, the driving incremental development has been the decade long R&D work done by the CLIC team to push the gradient of X-band structures. Reaching some 100 MeV/m (corresponding to some 20 MeV/m2…), X-band technology is now proposed for compact Free Electron Lasers, X-ray source, FLASH cancer treatment, etc [4].

    3
    The CompactLight planned facility allows the production of X-rays up to 16 keV within about 400 m of length, including the experimental hall: half the length of equivalent facilities (Image: CompactLight).

    Accelerators in a shoe-box?

    An alternative very popular avenue to miniaturize accelerators comes from “disruptive” innovation that might eventually completely replace RF technology with lasers that provide energy to the particles using either plasmas or dielectric structures for the energy conversion. Here the technological landscape is very wide, but the challenges to face are still huge. Much experimental work is going in the direction of proton and ion laser-based acceleration to some MeV of energy, but critical issues that remain to be solved are beam quality and reproducibility. The energy is there, but the beam is still very far from what users need. Progress with electron acceleration is more promising, with the advantage for compact accelerators of being easily single-stage, free from the difficult problem of multi-stage acceleration that has still to be solved for high-energy acceleration.

    4
    Three “accelerators on a chip” made of silicon are mounted on a clear base. A shoebox-sized particle accelerator being developed under a $13.5 million Moore Foundation grant would use a series of these “accelerators on a chip” to boost the energy of electrons (The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory).​​​

    The way to communicate these projects is also very attractive, as for the “accelerator in a shoe-box”, aiming at accelerating electrons through a ridged silicon glass chip fed by a laser [4]. The project is producing its first results, but again the challenge is to push enough particles to be of some use through such a miniaturised structured. These developments often aim at medical application as first goal (as an accelerator in a catheter!), but if it is true that medical applications don’t need high currents, it is also true that this is the domain with the most stringent requirements in terms of beam quality and stability.

    In conclusion, accelerator science is progressing, but we are still far from having an accelerator that can fit in every small workshop and every medical ward. For the moment, dreams remain dreams, but there is some rapidly progressing reality in them. While the real “miniature” is still faraway, compact accelerators tailored to specific usages are at reach, and may benefit from some targeted R&D (additive manufacturing, high RF frequencies, solid-state RF technology) in the incremental direction, and from the fast development of powerful lasers and miniaturised chips in the disruptive direction. New accelerator applications are appearing, in particular in medicine, industry, and environment, opening new potential users and commercial markets for the new technologies that will come out of the quest for the miniature accelerator!
    __________________________________________________________________________
    [1] See for example the comprehensive study “Applications of Particle Accelerators in Europe” published by the EuCARD2 project, available at http://apae.ific.uv.es/apae/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/EuCARD_Applications-of-Accelerators-2017.pdf

    [2] See for example for small-scale accelerators for cancer treatment and to study heritage artworks.

    [3] AMIT project of CIEMAT.

    [4] See for example this project to mount “accelerators on a chip” to boost the energy of electrons.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN (CH) Accelerating News is a quarterly online publication for the accelerator community.
    ISSN: 2296-6536

    The publication showcases news and results from the biggest accelerator research and development projects such as ARIES, HL-LHC, TIARA, FCC study, EuroCirCol, EUPRAXIA, EASITrain as well as interesting stories on other accelerator applications. The newsletter also collects upcoming accelerator research conferences and events.

    Accelerating News is published 4 times a year, in mid March, mid June, mid September and mid December.

    You can read Accelerating News via the homepage http://www.acceleratingnews.eu or by email.

    To subscribe to Accelerating News, enter your email in the “Subscribe to our newsletter” box in the footer.

    History

    Accelerating News evolved from the EuCARD quarterly project newsletter (see past issues), which was first published in June 2009 to a subscription list of approximately 200. Initiated by EuCARD and in collaboration with additional FP7 co-funded projects, the first edition of Accelerating News was published in April 2012 to an initial distribution list of about 800 subscribers. Currently more than 1750 members receive the quarterly issues.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:47 pm on September 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Exploring a new algorithm for reconstructing particles", , , , , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Via phys.org : “Exploring a new algorithm for reconstructing particles” 


    Cern New Particle Event

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN]

    Via

    phys.org

    9.28.22

    Fig. 1
    1
    Schematic representation of the right-handed Cartesian coordinate system adopted to describe the detector. Credit: The European Physical Journal C (2022).

    Fig. 2
    2
    Left: schematic representation of the detector longitudinal sampling structure. Right: transverse view of the last active layer. Different colors represent different materials: copper (orange), stainless steel and lead (gray), air (white) and active sensors made of silicon (black)

    There are more instructive images in the science paper.

    A team of researchers from CERN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Staffordshire University have implemented a new algorithm for reconstructing particles at the Large Hadron Collider.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built which sits in a tunnel 100 meters underground at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, near Geneva in Switzerland. It is the site of long-running experiments which enable physicists worldwide to learn more about the nature of the universe.

    The project is part of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment [below] —one of seven installed experiments which uses detectors to analyze the particles produced by collisions in the accelerator.

    The subject of a new academic paper published in European Physical Journal C [below], the project has been carried out ahead of the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider.

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project aims to crank up the performance of the LHC in order to increase the potential for discoveries after 2029. The HL-LHC will increase the number of proton-proton interactions in an event from 40 to 200.

    Professor Raheel Nawaz, Pro Vice-Chancellor for Digital Transformation, at Staffordshire University, has supervised the research. He explained that “limiting the increase of computing resource consumption at large pileups is a necessary step for the success of the HL-LHC physics program and we are advocating the use of modern machine learning techniques to perform particle reconstruction as a possible solution to this problem.”

    He added that “this project has been both a joy and a privilege to work on and is likely to dictate the future direction of research on particle reconstruction by using a more advanced AI-based solution.”

    Dr. Jan Kieseler from the Experimental Physics Department at CERN added that “this is the first single-shot reconstruction of about 1,000 particles from and in an unprecedentedly challenging environment with 200 simultaneous interactions each proton-proton collision. Showing that this novel approach, combining dedicated graph neural network layers (GravNet) and training methods (Object Condensation), can be extended to such challenging tasks while staying within resource constraints represents an important milestone towards future particle reconstruction.”

    Shah Rukh Qasim, leading this project as part of his Ph.D. at CERN and Manchester Metropolitan University, says that “the amount of progress we have made on this project in the last three years is truly remarkable. It was hard to imagine we would reach this milestone when we started.”

    Professor Martin Jones, Vice-Chancellor and Chief Executive at Staffordshire University, added that “CERN is one of the world’s most respected centers for scientific research and I congratulate the researchers on this project which is effectively paving the way for even greater discoveries in years to come.”

    “Artificial Intelligence is continuously evolving to benefit many different industries and to know that academics at Staffordshire University and elsewhere are contributing to the research behind such advancements is both exciting and significant.”

    Science paper:
    European Physical Journal C

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier


    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    ALICE

    CMS

    LHCb

    LHC

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    3D cut of the LHC dipole CERN LHC underground tunnel and tube.

    CERN SixTrack LHC particles.

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AEGIS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA Antimatter Factory.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA-g Detector.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AMS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ASACUSA.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ATRAP.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Antiproton Decelerator.


    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE instrument.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] [CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CAST Axion Solar Telescope.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CLOUD.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] COMPASS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CRIS experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] DIRAC.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] FASER experiment schematic.

    CERN FASER is designed to study the interactions of high-energy neutrinos and search for new as-yet-undiscovered light and weakly interacting particles. Such particles are dominantly produced along the beam collision axis and may be long-lived particles, travelling hundreds of metres before decaying. The existence of such new particles is predicted by many models beyond the Standard Model that attempt to solve some of the biggest puzzles in physics, such as the nature of dark matter and the origin of neutrino masses.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] GBAR.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ISOLDE Looking down into the ISOLDE experimental hall.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] LHCf.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The MoEDAL experiment- a new light on the high-energy frontier.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA62.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA64.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] n_TOF.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] TOTEM.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] UA9.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The SPS’s new RF system.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Proto Dune.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] HiRadMat-High Radiation to Materials.

    1
    The SND@LHC experiment consists of an emulsion/tungsten target for neutrinos (yellow) interleaved with electronic tracking devices (grey), followed downstream by a detector (brown) to identify muons and measure the energy of the neutrinos. (Image: Antonio Crupano/SND@LHC)

     
  • richardmitnick 1:33 pm on September 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "LHCf continues to investigate cosmic rays", , , , , Particle Physics, ,   

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN]: “LHCf continues to investigate cosmic rays” 


    Cern New Particle Event

    From The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN]

    9.28.22
    Naomi Dinmore

    LHCf [below] has completed its first data-taking period during LHC Run 3, taking advantage of the record 13.6 TeV collision energy. This coincides with the machine’s record fill time of 57 hours.

    1
    One of the LHCf detectors (Image: CERN)

    Millions of cosmic rays bombard the Earth’s atmosphere every second. These are naturally-occurring particles from outer space, which are extremely difficult to detect and measure. When they collide with nuclei in the upper atmosphere, these so-called primary cosmic rays produce showers of secondary cosmic rays that go on to reach the ground. The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment, one of the smallest of the LHC experiments, was set up to thoroughly investigate these elusive particles when LHC operation first began. This week, it resumed its studies of the properties of cosmic rays, in a five-day data-taking run, following the completion of upgrades to the detector during the second long shutdown of the machine.

    “When page one of the LHC showed that the LHC was being filled for the LHCf data taking, we were very excited,” says Oscar Adriani, deputy spokesperson for LHCf.

    This is LHCf’s first data-taking run at the LHC’s record collision energy of 13.6 TeV. The run also coincided with the record time that the LHC has been able to keep a fill without restarting, namely a total period of 57 hours. Running for longer means more efficient periods of data-taking for the experiments.

    Primary cosmic rays can have very high energies – above 1017 eV – similar to those of the high-energy collisions that are produced in the LHC. Located 140 m from the ATLAS collision point of the LHC and measuring only 20cm by 40cm by 10cm, LHCf analyses neutral particles that have been thrown forward by collisions, mimicking the production of secondary cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmosphere. The experiment is able to analyse neutral particles because they are not deflected by the LHC’s strong magnetic field, and can measure their properties with extremely high precision.

    This five-day run is likely to be the final LHCf run involving proton-proton collisions, because in the next data-taking period of Run 3 the collaboration hopes to study proton-oxygen collisions that better emulate the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere.

    With the higher energy and higher statistics that Run 3 provides, LHCf is particularly looking out for particles called neutral kaons and neutral eta mesons. These are made up of a quark and an antiquark pair, including a strange quark. “The models that predict interaction with the atmosphere predict a certain number of secondary muons, but there is a mismatch between the expected and the detected numbers of muons,” explains Adriani. “By measuring the strange component produced at the LHC, we may be able to solve this muon puzzle.”

    The LHC, with its high energy and controlled environment, provides the perfect place to simulate and study the hadronic interactions of cosmic rays. “High energy cosmic rays are still a mystery. They are very difficult to measure. You need huge detectors, and you cannot perform direct measurements while they are in orbit because the flux is too small,” continues Adriani. “So, LHCf is really the only experiment in the world that can shed some light on these interactions at very, very high energy. This is a critical element for cosmic ray physicists.”

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier


    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    CMS

    LHC

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    3D cut of the LHC dipole CERN LHC underground tunnel and tube.

    CERN SixTrack LHC particles.

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AEGIS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA Antimatter Factory.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ALPHA-g Detector.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] AMS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ASACUSA.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ATRAP.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Antiproton Decelerator.


    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] BASE instrument.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] [CERN] BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CAST Axion Solar Telescope.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CLOUD.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] COMPASS.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] CRIS experiment.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] DIRAC.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] FASER experiment schematic.

    CERN FASER is designed to study the interactions of high-energy neutrinos and search for new as-yet-undiscovered light and weakly interacting particles. Such particles are dominantly produced along the beam collision axis and may be long-lived particles, travelling hundreds of metres before decaying. The existence of such new particles is predicted by many models beyond the Standard Model that attempt to solve some of the biggest puzzles in physics, such as the nature of dark matter and the origin of neutrino masses.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] GBAR.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] ISOLDE Looking down into the ISOLDE experimental hall.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] LHCf.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The MoEDAL experiment- a new light on the high-energy frontier.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA62.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] NA64.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] n_TOF.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] TOTEM.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] UA9.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] The SPS’s new RF system.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Proto Dune.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][ Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] HiRadMat-High Radiation to Materials.

    1
    The SND@LHC experiment consists of an emulsion/tungsten target for neutrinos (yellow) interleaved with electronic tracking devices (grey), followed downstream by a detector (brown) to identify muons and measure the energy of the neutrinos. (Image: Antonio Crupano/SND@LHC)

     
  • richardmitnick 3:51 pm on September 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NSF and Department of Energy Grants Enable Physicists to Continue Cutting-Edge Research in Neutrino Discovery", , Particle Physics, ,   

    From Syracuse University: “NSF and Department of Energy Grants Enable Physicists to Continue Cutting-Edge Research in Neutrino Discovery” 

    From Syracuse University

    9.18.22
    Dan Bernardi

    You may not know it, but every second 100 billion extremely tiny, invisible subatomic particles called neutrinos pass through every square centimeter of your hand.

    Physicist Mitch Soderberg says the reason you didn’t notice is because they rarely interact with matter, so most of those neutrinos moving through your palm, and the entire Earth, come and go without a trace before zooming back off into the universe.

    2
    A&S physicists Mitch Soderberg, left, and Denver Whittington have been awarded grants from the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy to fund their neutrino research.

    Neutrinos are produced by nuclear reactions and radioactive decay from sources all around us, including the sun, the atmosphere, nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.

    “We know neutrinos and their antimatter versions, antineutrinos, would have been around in the early universe, and we want to know if subtle differences in the way they interact could have led to matter coming to be dominant over antimatter in the universe,” says Soderberg, professor and associate chair of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences (A&S).

    Nearly 14 billion years ago a tiny, dense, fiery region of space expanded and cooled to become the universe we know today, an event known as the Big Bang. The Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which are particles identical in almost every way except for their electrical charge. If that happened, the particles of matter and antimatter would have annihilated one another resulting in a universe containing nothing but leftover energy. Instead, a tiny portion of matter—about one particle per billion—managed to survive.

    Understanding how neutrinos—one of the most fundamental, abundant and lightest subatomic particles with mass—interact may be the key to determining why our universe exists. By studying those interactions, Syracuse researchers hope to understand the answers to really big questions, such as why all of the “stuff” in the universe, including stars, planets and people, are made out of matter and not antimatter.

    Enhancing Neutrino Detection

    In collaboration with physicists around the world, Soderberg and members of his research group have played a key role in historic neutrino discoveries, including a groundbreaking study last year confirming no sign of a theorized fourth kind of neutrino (the Standard Model states there are three kinds of neutrinos—no more, no less).

    Now, Soderberg will serve as principal investigator along with physics Professor Denver Whittington on two new grants: one from the National Science Foundation and another from the Department of Energy (DOE) to study neutrinos and enhance future detection technology. Their DOE grant is part of the federal government’s $78 million investment funding 58 research projects that will spur new discoveries in high energy physics.

    Physicists analyze neutrinos using detectors such as MicroBooNE, a 170-ton experiment at the DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois.

    These detectors use cutting-edge technology to record 3D images of neutrino events. Inside Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPC), liquid argon serves as both the neutrinos’ target and the medium that transports the picture of the interaction to custom sensors and electronics that record the data.

    “You get beautiful images of the aftermath of a neutrino smacking into an argon atom, which we use as the basis to reconstruct all the details of the interaction and learn about the properties of the instigating neutrino,” Soderberg says.

    The support from the NSF and DOE will allow Soderberg and Whittington’s group members to collaborate on neutrino experiments at Fermilab, which is one of the few places on Earth where a focused beam of neutrinos can be created and aimed at a detector.

    A group of researchers from Syracuse University are currently at Fermilab working directly on experiments with another team on the Syracuse University campus performing analysis and laboratory work.

    Whittington, whose neutrino research is also supported by an NSF CAREER award, will use this round of NSF funding for his ongoing work with an experiment called “NOvA.”

    That project, which includes more than 260 scientists and engineers from 49 institutions in eight countries, is working to capture precision measurements on the behavior of neutrinos by sending a neutrino beam from Fermilab to a location in Minnesota.

    “NOvA has already made world-leading measurements and is poised to make the first inroads into neutrino mysteries such as the fundamental differences between neutrinos and antineutrinos, which the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will ultimately investigate with next-generation precision,” says Whittington.

    The research and development from these grants will play a crucial role in the DUNE project, which is expected to feature multiple LArTPCs each the size of the Physics Building, says Soderberg.

    The flagship international experiment hosted by Fermilab already has more than 1,000 researchers, including physicists from Syracuse University. DUNE will be located 1 mile underground in a former gold mine in South Dakota right in the path of a neutrino beam originating from Fermilab in Illinois.

    By sending neutrinos from Fermilab 800 miles (1,300 km) through the earth to detectors at the mile-deep Sanford Underground Research Facility, researchers will be able to make definitive determinations of neutrino properties, giving researchers insights into the workings of these fundamental particles.

    According to Whittington, the funding will support their investigation of DUNE’s sensitivity to astrophysical neutrino sources like core-collapse supernovae, which are violent explosions that result from the rapid collapse of a star at the end of its life, giving birth to neutron stars and black holes.

    “Should one occur in our half of the galaxy while the detectors are operating, collecting data on neutrinos from such an event would shed light onto the processes happening during neutron star and black hole formation,” says Whittington.

    Sparking Student Discovery

    Through the educational component of these grants, graduate and undergraduate students will work on everything from detector construction and operation at Fermilab and Syracuse, to the final data analysis and software development.

    “Neutrino experiments at Fermilab tend to operate 24/7 for years at a time, and our group members will take turns with collaborators from around the globe in monitoring the experiments, which nowadays we can do here at Syracuse even if the experiment is in Chicago,” says Soderberg. The team will also create an exhibition about particle physics to be displayed at the Museum of Science and Technology in downtown Syracuse.

    In addition, the coming year will also usher in a new era of discovery at Syracuse University, as campus will now be home to a prototype “pixel” LArTPC detector, developed by colleagues at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Bern. Faculty and students will use the sophisticated detector to study cosmic rays, which like neutrinos, constantly pass through Earth going largely unnoticed.

    While harmless to humans or any other life on the planet, researchers have been unable to locate the source of these mysterious atom fragments that constantly rain down on the planet.

    Students interested in engaging in hands-on, international research and exploring the secrets of neutrinos can learn more by visiting the Experimental Neutrino Physics group website.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Syracuse University is a private research university in Syracuse, New York. Established in 1870 with roots in the Methodist Episcopal Church, the university has been nonsectarian since 1920. Located in the city’s University Hill neighborhood, east and southeast of downtown Syracuse, the large campus features an eclectic mix of architecture, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival to contemporary buildings.

    Syracuse University is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in architecture, public administration, journalism and communications, business administration, information studies, inclusive education, sport management, engineering, law, and the arts. The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. Alumni and affiliates include three Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 36 Olympic Medalists, 13 Pulitzer Prize recipients, numerous Academy Award winners, two Rhodes Scholars, four Marshall Scholars, the 46th president of the United States Joe Biden, and various governors and members of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

    Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. Syracuse University is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference, for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the men’s rowing and women’s ice hockey teams. Syracuse University is also a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference.

    After World War II, Syracuse University transformed into a major research institution. Enrollment increased in the four years after the war due to the G.I. Bill, which paid tuition, room, board, and a small allowance for veterans returning from World War II. In 1946, the University admitted 9,464 freshmen, nearly four times greater than the previous incoming class. Branch campuses were established in Endicott, New York, and Utica, New York, which became Binghamton University-SUNY and Utica College [now Utica University] respectively.

    The velocity with which the University sped through its change into a major research institution was astounding. By the end of the 1950s, Syracuse ranked twelfth nationally in terms of the amount of its sponsored research, and it had over four hundred professors and graduate students engaging in that investigation.

    From the early 1950s through the 1960s, Syracuse University added programs and staff that continued the transformation of the school into a research university. In 1954, Arthur Phillips was recruited from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and started the first pathogen-free animal research laboratory. The lab focused on studying medical problems using animal models. The School of Social Work, which eventually merged into the College of Human Ecology, was founded in 1956. Syracuse’s College of Engineering also founded the nation’s second-oldest computer engineering and bioengineering programs. In 1962, Samuel Irving Newhouse Sr. donated $15 million to begin construction of a school of communications, eventually known as the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. In 1966, Syracuse University was admitted to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a robust system of academic research and education.

    Rankings and reputation

    In its 2021 ranking of U.S. colleges, U.S. News & World Report ranked Syracuse tied for 58th among undergraduate national universities. A 2019 survey in the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Syracuse University in the top 100 world universities in social sciences. In 2019, Syracuse University was ranked 22nd in New York State by average professor salaries. Syracuse was ranked 1st in The Princeton Review’s 2015 and 2019 list of top party schools.[149][150] Syracuse University was named as one of top Fulbright Award producing institutions for 2020-21.

    The School of Architecture Bachelor of Architecture program was ranked 5th nationally in both the most Hired from and most admired categories by the journal Design Intelligence in its 2019-20 rankings.

    The S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications is one of the university’s most notable schools. Ranked as one of the top schools in the country for journalism, it provides the school’s most visible alumni. The school has around 2,000 undergraduates and is considered one of the most selective on campus.

    The School of Information Studies offers information management and technology courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels at Syracuse University. Within the School of Information Studies, U.S. News & World Report has ranked the graduate program as the 6th best Library and Information Studies graduate school in the United States for 2022, with the graduate program in School Library Media ranked 3rd, the graduate program in Digital Librarianship ranked 4th, and the graduate Information Systems program tied at No. 5.

    The School of Management was renamed the Martin J. Whitman School of Management in 2003, in honor of Syracuse alumnus and benefactor Martin J. Whitman. The school is home to about 2,000 undergraduate and graduate students. The graduate program is ranked tied at No. 84 among business schools nationwide by U.S. News & World Report for 2022. Also, the Joseph I. Lubin School of Accounting was named No. 10 in the nation by The Chronicle of Higher Education.

    The College of Law is ranked tied for 102nd nationally by U.S. News & World Report for 2022. It is an emerging leader in the relatively novel field of National Security Law. In 2007, the law school started the Cold Case Justice Initiative, investigating cold cases from the civil rights era in the South. Its professors and students have identified 196 cases, of which more than 100 are in Georgia, and will give information to the US Department of Justice to have cases prosecuted. The FBI has identified 122 cold cases that it is trying to resolve. President Joe Biden is a graduate of the College of Law.

    The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs combines social sciences with public administration and international relations. It is ranked as the No. 1 graduate school for public affairs in the U.S. by U.S. News & World Report for 2022.

    Military Times ranks Syracuse University the top “Private School for Vets” and 5th overall in the “Best for Vets” in 2020. Syracuse University is ranked tied for 30th in “Best Colleges for Veterans” by U.S. News & World Report for 2022. To position Syracuse University as the center of veteran life on the school’s campus, in the local community, across Central New York and the nation’s hub of research and programming connected to the veteran and military sectors, the school completed the $63 million state-of-the-art National Veterans Resource Center (NVRC) in 2020, the first-of-its kind facility in the United States.

    The graduate program of the College of Visual and Performing Art (VPA) is considered one of the top 50 programs in the US. VPA ranked No. 14 in multimedia/visual communications, a specialty that includes disciplines found in the college’s Department of Transmedia, which offers M.F.A. programs in art photography, art video, computer art, and film. VPA also ranked No. 16 in ceramics, No. 19 in printmaking, and No. 20 in sculpture, which are M.F.A. programs based in the Department of Art. Project Advance (or SUPA) is a nationally recognized concurrent enrollment program honored by the American Association for Higher Education, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, the National Commission on Excellence in Education, and the National Institute of Education.

    Civil liberties organization FIRE gave Syracuse its 2021 “Lifetime Censorship Award”, “[f]or its unashamed assault on expressive freedoms”.

    Research

    Syracuse University is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”. According to the National Science Foundation, Syracuse University spent $154.3 million on research and development in FY 2019, ranking it 136th in the nation. Through the university’s Office of Research, which promotes research, technology transfer, and scholarship, and its Office of Sponsored Programs, which assists faculty in seeking and obtaining external research support, Syracuse University supports research in the fields of management and business, sciences, engineering, education, information studies, energy, environment, communications, computer science, public and international affairs, and other specialized areas. Syracuse became a member of the Association of American Universities in 1966, an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of research and education. In 2011, however, the university’s board of trustees voted to pull out of the research consortium due to dispute over the counting of non-Federal research dollars.

    Syracuse University has established 29 research centers and institutes that focuses research, often across disciplines, in a variety of areas. The Burton Blatt Institute advances research in economic and social issues for individuals with disabilities, and it has international projects in the field. The Martin J Whitman School of Management supports the largest number of research centers, including The Ballentine Investment Institute, the George E. Bennett Center for Accounting and Tax Research, the Robert H. Brethen Operations Management Institute, Michael J. Falcone Center for Entrepreneurship, The H. H. Franklin Center for Supply Chain Management, Olivia and Walter Kiebach Center for International Business Studies, and the Earl V. Snyder Innovation Management Program. In 2010, the university launched SURFACE, an online, open-access institutional repository for research, which is run by the Syracuse University Library System.

    Other research programs include The Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, the Alan K. Campbell Public Affairs Institute through the Maxwell School, and the Center for the Study of Popular Television through the Newhouse School of Public Communications.

    Syracuse University also has collaborations with The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] and The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, among other institutes. Syracuse also has a comparatively large number of collaborators on the LIGO Scientific project and is actively involved with the search for gravitational waves.

    In June 2022, Syracuse University announced the launch of the Center for Democracy, Journalism and Citizenship, a collaborative initiative between the Newhouse School and Maxwell School, in Washington D.C. The center aims to address the loss of trust in journalism and democracy, political polarization, and the deterioration of civil discourse. It will host prominent speakers at public events, sponsor scholarly and applied research, and provide students with an opportunity to spend a semester in Washington D.C.

    Syracuse University Press

    Syracuse University Press is a university press that is part of Syracuse University. The areas of focus for the Press include Middle East studies, Native American studies, peace and conflict resolution, Irish studies and Jewish studies, New York State, television and popular culture, sports and entertainment. The Press was founded on August 2, 1943, by Chancellor William Pearson Tolley and benefactor Thomas J. Watson. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:43 pm on September 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Catching neutrinos at the LHC", , , , , , Particle Physics, , Scattering and Neutrino Detector or SND@LHC,   

    From “Symmetry”: “Catching neutrinos at the LHC” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From “Symmetry”

    9.20.22
    Chetna Krishna

    After the successful initiation of two new detectors, scientists have begun to envision an expanded suite of neutrino experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

    CERN physicist Jamie Boyd enters a tunnel close to the ATLAS detector, an experiment at the largest particle accelerator in the world. From there, he turns into an underground space labeled TI12.

    “This is a very special tunnel,” Boyd says, “because this is where the old transfer line used to exist for the Large Electron-Positron Collider, before the Large Hadron Collider.” After the LHC was built, a new transfer line was added, “and this tunnel was then abandoned.”

    The tunnel is abandoned no more. Its new resident is an experiment much humbler in size than the neighboring ATLAS detector. Five meters in length, the ForwArd Search ExpeRiment, or FASER, detector sits in a shallow excavated trench in the floor, surrounded by low railings and cables.

    Scientists—including Boyd, who serves as co-spokesperson for FASER—installed the relatively small detector in 2021. Just in time before restarting the LHC in April, physicists nestled another small experiment, called Scattering and Neutrino Detector or SND@LHC, on the other side of ATLAS.

    2
    The SND@LHC experiment consists of an emulsion/tungsten target for neutrinos (yellow) interleaved with electronic tracking devices (grey), followed downstream by a detector (brown) to identify muons and measure the energy of the neutrinos. (Image: Antonio Crupano/SND@LHC)

    Both of the detectors are now running and have started collecting data. Scientists say they hope the two detectors represent the beginning of a new effort to catch and study particles that the LHC’s four main detectors can’t see.

    Hiding in plain sight

    Both FASER and SND@LHC detect particles called neutrinos. Not to be confused with neutrons—particles in the nuclei of atoms that are made up of quarks—neutrinos cannot be broken down into smaller constituents. Along with quarks, electrons, muons and taus, neutrinos are fundamental particles of matter in the Standard Model of physics.

    These light, neutral particles are abundant across the galaxy. Some have been around since the Big Bang; others are produced in particle collisions, such as those that happen when cosmic rays strike the atoms that make up Earth’s atmosphere. Every second, neutrinos pass through us in the trillions without leaving a trace—because they only rarely interact with other matter.

    Neutrinos are also produced in collisions at the LHC. Scientists are aware of their presence, but for more than a decade of LHC physics, neutrinos went undetected, as the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE detectors were designed with other types of particles in mind.

    The four biggest LHC experiments cannot detect neutrinos directly, says Milind Diwan, a senior scientist at the US Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. Diwan was an original proponent of and spokesperson for what is now the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment hosted by The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    In 2021, FASER became the first detector to catch neutrinos at the LHC—or any particle collider.

    A new way of looking at neutrinos

    Neutrinos are the chameleons of the particle world. They come in three flavors, called muon, electron and tau neutrinos [above] for the particles associated with them. As they travel through the universe at nearly the speed of light, neutrinos shift between the three flavors. Both FASER and SND@LHC can detect all three flavors of neutrinos.

    The detectors will catch only a small fraction of the neutrinos that pass through them, but the high-energy collisions of the LHC should produce a staggering number of the particles. For example, during the current run of the LHC, which will last until the end of 2025, physicists estimate FASER and its new subdetector, called FASERv (pronounced FASERnu), will experience a flux of 200 billion electron neutrinos, 6 trillion muon neutrinos, and 4 billion tau neutrinos, along with a comparable number of anti-neutrinos of each flavor.

    “We are now guaranteed to see thousands of neutrinos at the LHC for the first time,” says Jonathan Feng, co-spokesperson for the FASER collaboration.

    Those neutrinos will be at the highest energies ever seen from a human-made source, says Tomoko Ariga, project leader for FASERv, who previously worked on the DONUT neutrino experiment. “At such extreme energies, FASERv will be able to probe neutrino properties in new ways.”

    The experiments will provide a new way of studying other particles as well, says Giovanni De Lellis, spokesperson for both SND@LHC and the OPERA neutrino experiment.

    Because a large fraction of the neutrinos produced in the range accessible to SND@LHC will come from the decays of particles made of charm quarks, SND@LHC can be used to study charm-quark particle production in a region that other LHC experiments cannot explore. This will help both physicists studying collisions at future colliders and physicists studying neutrinos from astrophysical sources.

    FASER and SND@LHC could also be used to detect dark matter, Diwan says. If dark-matter particles are produced in collisions at the LHC, they could slip away from the ATLAS detector alongside the beamline—right into FASER and SND@LHC.

    A proposal for the future

    These experiments could be just the beginning. Physicists have proposed five more experiments—including advanced versions of the FASER and SND@LHC detectors—to be built near the ATLAS detector. The experiments—FASERv2, Advanced SND, FASER2, FORMOSA and FLArE—could sit at a proposed Forward Physics Facility during the next phase of the LHC, the High-Luminosity LHC.

    The advanced FASERv and SND@LHC detectors would boost the experiments’ detection of neutrinos by a factor of 100, Feng says. “This means, for example, that instead of tens of tau neutrinos, they will detect thousands, allowing us to separate tau neutrinos from anti-tau neutrinos and do precision studies of these two independently for the first time.”

    The FLArE experiment, which would detect neutrinos in a different way from FASER and SND@LHC, could also be sensitive to light dark matter.

    Even without the proposed future experiments, scientists are poised to learn more about neutrinos from their studies at the LHC. FASERv and SND@LHC have already began taking physics data and are expected to present new results in 2023.

    “Neutrinos are amazing,” Feng says. “Every time we look at them from a new source, whether it is a nuclear reactor or the sun or the atmosphere, we learn something new. I am looking forward to seeing what surprises nature has in store.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 12:21 pm on September 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ALICE pins down hypermatter properties", , , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From ALICE at CERN(CH): “ALICE pins down hypermatter properties” 

    From ALICE at CERN(CH)

    9.20.22

    The collaboration’s latest study of a “strange” and unstable nucleus known as the hypertriton offers new insight into the particle interactions that may take place at the hearts of neutron stars.

    The international ALICE collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has just released the most precise measurements to date of two properties of a hypernucleus that may exist in the cores of neutron stars.

    Atomic nuclei and their antimatter counterparts, known as antinuclei, are frequently produced at the LHC in high-energy collisions between heavy ions or protons. On a less frequent but still regular basis, unstable nuclei called hypernuclei are also formed. In contrast to normal nuclei, which comprise just protons and neutrons (that is, nucleons), hypernuclei are also made up of hyperons – unstable particles containing quarks of the strange type.

    Almost 70 years since they were first observed in cosmic rays, hypernuclei continue to fascinate physicists because they are rarely produced in the natural world and, although they are traditionally made and studied in low-energy nuclear-physics experiments, it’s extremely challenging to measure their properties.

    At the LHC, hypernuclei are created in significant quantities in heavy-ion collisions, but the only hypernucleus observed at the collider so far is the lightest hypernucleus, the hypertriton, which is composed of a proton, a neutron and a Lambda – a hyperon containing one strange quark.

    In their new study, the ALICE team examined a sample of about one thousand hypertritons produced in lead–lead collisions that occurred in the LHC during its second run. Once formed in these collisions, the hypertritons fly for a few centimetres inside the ALICE experiment before decaying into two particles, a helium-3 nucleus and a charged pion, which the ALICE detectors can catch and identify. The ALICE team investigated these daughter particles and the tracks they leave in the detectors.

    By analysing this sample of hypertritons, one of the largest available for these “strange” nuclei, the ALICE researchers were able to obtain the most precise measurements yet of two of the hypertriton’s properties: its lifetime (how long it takes to decay) and the energy required to separate its hyperon, the Lambda, from the remaining constituents.

    These two properties are fundamental to understanding the internal structure of this hypernucleus and, as a consequence, the nature of the strong force that binds nucleons and hyperons together. The study of this force is not only interesting in its own right but can also offer valuable insight into the particle interactions that may take place in the inner cores of neutron stars. These cores, which are very dense, are predicted to favour the creation of hyperons over purely nucleonic matter.

    3
    Measurements of the hypertriton’s lifetime performed with different techniques over time, including ALICE’s new measurement (red). The horizontal lines and boxes denote the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The dashed-dotted lines represent different theoretical predictions. (Image: ALICE collaboration)

    The new ALICE measurements indicate that the interaction between the hypertriton’s hyperon and its two nucleons is extremely weak: the Lambda separation energy is just a few tens of kiloelectronvolts, similar to the energy of X-rays used in medical imaging, and the hypertriton’s lifetime is compatible with that of the free Lambda.

    In addition, since matter and antimatter are produced in nearly equal amounts at the LHC, the ALICE collaboration was also able to study antihypertritons and determine their lifetime. The team found that, within the experimental uncertainty of the measurements, antihypertriton and hypertriton have the same lifetime. Finding even a slight difference between the two lifetimes could signal the breaking of a fundamental symmetry of nature, CPT symmetry.

    With data from the third run of the LHC, which started in earnest this July, ALICE will not only further investigate the properties of the hypetriton but will also extend its studies to include heavier hypernuclei.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN CH in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier (CH)

    LHC

    CERN LHC underground tunnel and tube.

    CERN SixTrack LHC particles.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:15 pm on September 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New method for measuring high energy density plasmas and facilitating inertial confinement fusion", , , Particle Physics, ,   

    From The DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory: “New method for measuring high energy density plasmas and facilitating inertial confinement fusion” 

    From The DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    at

    Princeton University

    Princeton University

    9.19.22
    John Greenwald

    3
    Scheme of the experimental setup for each shot: (i) selection of a 500 keV energy proton beam from an initial broadband TNSA spectrum generated by the main beam, (ii) WDM sample generation by the heater beam, (iii) measurement of the downshifted proton energy spectrum of the selected beam after passing through the WDM target and (iv) characterization of the WDM sample by the SOP and the XPHG diagnostics. Typical raw experimental data acquired for each shot are shown for the magnet spectrometer as well as for the SOP and the XPHG diagnostics.

    5
    Target profiles along the plasma central axis for t = 0–500 ps after the beginning of the laser heating. a Mass-density. b Electron temperature. c Electron coupling Γ. d Electron degeneracy Θ. e Velocity ratio vp/vth for 500 keV energy projectiles. f Mean ionization calculated with the FLYCHK code at LTE. Discontinuities at early time are a calculation artefact. The x-axis is reported in areal-density units (μg/cm2). Sharp edges located at the target rear face (areal density ≈ 130 μg/cm2) are an isolated numerical simulation artefact.

    6
    a Streaked Optical Pyrometry (SOP) measurement. Temperature evolution as a function of time (red curve) averaged within the 50 μm diameter proton probing area compared with the temperatures extracted from the 2D RALEF2D (blue curve) and the 1D MULTI-fs (dashed grey curve) hydrodynamic codes, determined at the critical density for a 532 nm wavelength. b X-ray pinhole grating camera (XPHG) measurement. Experimental time-integrated X-ray emission (red curve) compared with the prediction obtained with the PrismSPECT code by post-processing the hydrodynamic profiles obtained with the RALEF2D (blue curve) and MULTI-fs (dashed grey curve) hydrodynamic codes. The simulation curves are convoluted with the respective resolutions of 10 ps for the SOP diagnostic and 15 nm for the XPHG diagnostic.

    More results graphics are available in the science paper.

    1
    Physicist Sophia Malko with figures from her ion-stopping paper. (Photo by Valeria Ospina-Bohorquez; collage by Kiran Sudarsanan)

    2
    Experiments displayed in the parameter space of the velocity ratio vp/vth of the beam-plasma interaction and the target electron coupling Γ. The grey symbols mark the plasma generation method used. The shaded blue zone represents the approximate range of vp/vth and Γ values corresponding to the α-particle emission in an igniting ICF experiment, ranging from the cold fuel to the hot spot conditions. The experiment described in this work, indicated by the shaded green zone, lies in an unexplored parameter range that is relevant for α-particle stopping conditions in the cold fuel.

    An international team of scientists has uncovered a new method for advancing the development of fusion energy through increased understanding of the properties of warm dense matter, an extreme state of matter similar to that found at the heart of giant planets like Jupiter. The findings, led by Sophia Malko of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), detail a new technique to measure the “stopping power” of nuclear particles in plasma using high repetition-rate ultraintense lasers. The understanding of proton stopping power is particularly important for inertial confinement fusion (ICF).

    Powering the sun and stars

    This process contrasts with the creation of fusion at PPPL, which heats plasma to million-degree temperatures in magnetic confinement facilities. Plasma, the hot, charged state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions, fuels fusion reactions in both types of research, which aim to reproduce on Earth the fusion that powers the sun and stars as a source of safe, clean and virtually limitless energy to generate the world’s electricity.

    “Stopping power” is a force acting on charged particles due to collisions with electrons in the matter that result in energy loss. “For example, if you don’t know the proton stopping power you cannot calculate the amount of energy deposited in the plasma and hence design lasers with the right energy level to create fusion ignition,” said Malko, lead author of a paper that outlines the findings in Nature Communications [below]. “Theoretical descriptions of the stopping power in high-energy density matter and particularly in warm dense matter are difficult, and measurements are largely missing,” she said. “Our paper compares experimental data of the loss of proton energy in warm dense matter with theoretical models of stopping power.”

    The Nature Communications research investigated proton stopping power in a largely unexplored regime by using low-energy ion beams and laser-produced warm dense plasmas. To produce the low-energy ions, researchers used a special magnet-based device that selects the low-energy fixed energy system from a broad proton spectrum generated by the interaction of lasers and plasma. The selected beam then passes through laser-driven warm dense matter and its energy loss is measured. Theoretical comparison with experimental data showed that the closest match sharply disagreed with classical models.

    Instead, the closest agreement came from recently developed first-principle simulations based on a many-body, or interacting, quantum mechanical approach, Malko said.

    Precise stopping measurements

    Precise stopping measurements can also advance understanding of how protons produce what is known as fast ignition, an advanced scheme of inertial confinement fusion. “In proton-driven fast ignition, where protons must heat compressed fuel from very low temperature states to high temperature, the proton stopping power and the material state are tightly coupled,” Malko said.

    “The stopping power depends on the density and temperature of the material state,” she explained, and both are in turn affected by the energy deposited by the proton beam. “Thus, uncertainties in the stopping power lead directly to uncertainties in the total proton energy and laser energy needed for ignition,” she said.

    Malko and her team are performing new experiments at the DOE LaserNetUS facilities at Colorado State University to extend their measurements to the so-called Bragg peak region, where the maximum energy loss occurs and where theoretical predictions are most uncertain.

    Coauthors of this paper included 27 researchers from the U.S., Spain, France, Germany, Canada and Italy.

    Support for this work comes from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration together with the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from European and Spanish ministries. Experiments were conducted on the VEGA II laser facility in Spain with the German GSI Target Laboratory preparing and delivering sample targets. Computing was provided by the LANL Institutional Computing and Advanced Scientific Computing programs.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition


    PPPL campus

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory managed by Princeton University. PPPL, on Princeton University’s Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro, N.J., is devoted to creating new knowledge about the physics of plasmas — ultra-hot, charged gases — and to developing practical solutions for the creation of fusion energy. Results of PPPL research have ranged from a portable nuclear materials detector for anti-terrorist use to universally employed computer codes for analyzing and predicting the outcome of fusion experiments. The Laboratory is managed by the University for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the largest single supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://energy.gov/science.

    Princeton University

    Princeton University

    See the full article here .

    <

    About Princeton: Overview

    Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later. It was renamed Princeton University in 1896.

    Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university also manages the DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States.

    As of October 2020, 69 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 14 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Two U.S. Presidents, twelve U.S. Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton’s alumni body. Princeton has also graduated many prominent members of the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    Princeton University, founded as the College of New Jersey, was considered the successor of the “Log College” founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy, PA in about 1726. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Its purpose was to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. Unlike Harvard University, which was originally “intensely English” with graduates taking the side of the crown during the American Revolution, Princeton was founded to meet the religious needs of the period and many of its graduates took the American side in the war. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher’s interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Belcher replied: “What a name that would be!” In 1756, the college moved its campus to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England.

    Following the untimely deaths of Princeton’s first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college’s focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon’s presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it.

    In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with “enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey.” Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access.

    Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college’s sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country’s capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall’s role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall’s bell rang after the hall’s construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855.

    James McCosh became the college’s president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor.

    In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877.

    In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established.

    In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.

    In 1906, the reservoir Carnegie Lake was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton’s campus. On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. In 1919 the School of Architecture was established. In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until its own campus was finished and opened in 1939.

    Coeducation

    In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women’s college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school’s operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study “critical languages” in which Princeton’s offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.

    As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton’s eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn’s appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied. In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of “Old Nassau” to reflect the school’s co-educational student body. From 2009 to 2011, Princeton professor Nannerl O. Keohane chaired a committee on undergraduate women’s leadership at the university, appointed by President Shirley M. Tilghman.

    The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km^2) in Princeton. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia.

    The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street. The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton’s architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St Louis and University of Pennsylvania) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today. Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter and later enforced by the University’s supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960. A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).

    A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Richard Serra’s The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.

    At the southern edge of the campus is Carnegie Lake, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake’s construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus. Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered “not gentlemanly.” The Shea Rowing Center on the lake’s shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.

    Cannon Green

    Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the “Big Cannon,” which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.

    A second “Little Cannon” is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.

    In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. The next bonfire happened on November 24, 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet.

    Landscape

    Princeton’s grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for the campus. Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton’s consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus.

    Buildings

    Nassau Hall

    Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus. The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879. Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather. In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

    Residential colleges

    Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, First College and Forbes College (formerly Woodrow Wilson College and Princeton Inn College, respectively), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university’s sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.

    Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton’s Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories.

    First and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. First served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the “New New Quad”) before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including “waffle ceilings,” the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen.

    Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years. Forbes currently houses nearly 500 undergraduates in its residential halls.

    In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton’s sixth residential college that same year.

    The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at University of Cambridge (UK) andUniversity of Oxford (UK). Wilson’s model was much closer to Yale University’s present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alumnus, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale.

    Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed. The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style.

    McCarter Theatre

    The Tony-award-winning McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States.

    Art Museum

    The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.

    Numbering over 92,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol’s Blue Marilyn.

    One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture.

    University Chapel

    The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of $2.3 million [approximately $34.2 million in 2020 dollars]. Ralph Adams Cram, the University’s supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King’s College Chapel, Cambridge. It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.

    Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages. The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.

    The Chapel seats almost 2,000. It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services, daily Roman Catholic mass, and several annual special events.

    Murray-Dodge Hall

    Murray-Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray-Dodge Café, the Muslim Prayer Room and the Interfaith Prayer Room. The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden, and a number of university chaplains, including the country’s first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country’s first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan.

    Sustainability

    Published in 2008, Princeton’s Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University’s Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement. Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020: Energy without the purchase of offsets. The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009. The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics. Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 75% sustainable food products by 2015. The student organization “Greening Princeton” seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.

    Organization

    The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University’s endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.

    With an endowment of $26.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university had the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over $2 million for undergraduates) in 2011. Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers. Some of Princeton’s wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists.

    Academics

    Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.).

    The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in most disciplines. It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master’s degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice.

    The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.

    Undergraduate

    Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a “precept.” To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as “junior papers.” Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements (which include, for example, classes in ethics, literature and the arts, and historical analysis) with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.

    Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student’s suspension or expulsion. The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students’ academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall. Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.

    Graduate

    The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences; engineering; natural sciences; and humanities. These departments include the Department of Psychology; Department of History; and Department of Economics.

    In 2017–2018, it received nearly 11,000 applications for admission and accepted around 1,000 applicants. The University also awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final master’s degrees. Princeton has no medical school, law school, business school, or school of education. (A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture; engineering; finance and public policy- the last through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and U.S. president) Woodrow Wilson, and most recently renamed in 2020.

    Libraries

    The Princeton University Library system houses over eleven million holdings including seven million bound volumes. The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world. Additionally, it is among the largest “open stack” libraries in existence. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan’s Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources.

    Institutes

    High Meadows Environmental Institute

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute is an “interdisciplinary center of environmental research, education, and outreach” at the university. The institute was started in 1994. About 90 faculty members at Princeton University are affiliated with it.

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute has the following research centers:

    Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI): This is a 15-year-long partnership between PEI and British Petroleum with the goal of finding solutions to problems related to climate change. The Stabilization Wedge Game has been created as part of this initiative.
    Center for BioComplexity (CBC)
    Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS): This is a collaboration with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.
    Energy Systems Analysis Group
    Grand Challenges

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, was founded in 1951 as Project Matterhorn, a top secret cold war project aimed at achieving controlled nuclear fusion. Princeton astrophysics professor Lyman Spitzer became the first director of the project and remained director until the lab’s declassification in 1961 when it received its current name.

    PPPL currently houses approximately half of the graduate astrophysics department, the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics. The lab is also home to the Harold P. Furth Plasma Physics Library. The library contains all declassified Project Matterhorn documents, included the first design sketch of a stellarator by Lyman Spitzer.

    Princeton is one of five US universities to have and to operate a Department of Energy national laboratory.

    Student life and culture

    University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years. More than 98% of students live on campus in dormitories. Freshmen and sophomores must live in residential colleges, while juniors and seniors typically live in designated upperclassman dormitories. The actual dormitories are comparable, but only residential colleges have dining halls. Nonetheless, any undergraduate may purchase a meal plan and eat in a residential college dining hall. Recently, upperclassmen have been given the option of remaining in their college for all four years. Juniors and seniors also have the option of living off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in university housing. Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational eating clubs, which students may choose to join in the spring of their sophomore year. Eating clubs, which are not officially affiliated with the university, serve as dining halls and communal spaces for their members and also host social events throughout the academic year.

    Princeton’s six residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, guest speakers, and trips. The residential colleges also sponsor trips to New York for undergraduates to see ballets, operas, Broadway shows, sports events, and other activities. The eating clubs, located on Prospect Avenue, are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen. Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the eleven eating clubs. Additionally, the clubs serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests. The eleven clubs are Cannon; Cap and Gown; Charter; Cloister; Colonial; Cottage; Ivy; Quadrangle; Terrace; Tiger; and Tower.

    Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC in the fall for high school students and PDI in the spring for college students. It also hosts the Princeton Invitational Speech and Debate tournament each year at the end of November. Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, an event that is held once a year in mid-November. The four-day conference has high school students from around the country as participants.

    Although the school’s admissions policy is need-blind, Princeton, based on the proportion of students who receive Pell Grants, was ranked as a school with little economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report. While Pell figures are widely used as a gauge of the number of low-income undergraduates on a given campus, the rankings article cautions “the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn’t a perfect measure of an institution’s efforts to achieve economic diversity,” but goes on to say that “still, many experts say that Pell figures are the best available gauge of how many low-income undergrads there are on a given campus.”

    TigerTrends is a university-based student run fashion, arts, and lifestyle magazine.

    Demographics

    Princeton has made significant progress in expanding the diversity of its student body in recent years. The 2019 freshman class was one of the most diverse in the school’s history, with 61% of students identifying as students of color. Undergraduate and master’s students were 51% male and 49% female for the 2018–19 academic year.

    The median family income of Princeton students is $186,100, with 57% of students coming from the top 10% highest-earning families and 14% from the bottom 60%.

    In 1999, 10% of the student body was Jewish, a percentage lower than those at other Ivy League schools. Sixteen percent of the student body was Jewish in 1985; the number decreased by 40% from 1985 to 1999. This decline prompted The Daily Princetonian to write a series of articles on the decline and its reasons. Caroline C. Pam of The New York Observer wrote that Princeton was “long dogged by a reputation for anti-Semitism” and that this history as well as Princeton’s elite status caused the university and its community to feel sensitivity towards the decrease of Jewish students. At the time many Jewish students at Princeton dated Jewish students at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia because they perceived Princeton as an environment where it was difficult to find romantic prospects; Pam stated that there was a theory that the dating issues were a cause of the decline in Jewish students.

    In 1981, the population of African Americans at Princeton University made up less than 10%. Bruce M. Wright was admitted into the university in 1936 as the first African American, however, his admission was a mistake and when he got to campus he was asked to leave. Three years later Wright asked the dean for an explanation on his dismissal and the dean suggested to him that “a member of your race might feel very much alone” at Princeton University.

    Traditions

    Princeton enjoys a wide variety of campus traditions, some of which, like the Clapper Theft and Nude Olympics, have faded into history:

    Arch Sings – Late-night concerts that feature one or several of Princeton’s undergraduate a cappella groups, such as the Princeton Nassoons; Princeton Tigertones; Princeton Footnotes; Princeton Roaring 20; and The Princeton Wildcats. The free concerts take place in one of the larger arches on campus. Most are held in Blair Arch or Class of 1879 Arch.

    Bonfire – Ceremonial bonfire that takes place in Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall. It is held only if Princeton beats both Harvard University and Yale University at football in the same season. The most recent bonfire was lighted on November 18, 2018.

    Bicker – Selection process for new members that is employed by selective eating clubs. Prospective members, or bickerees, are required to perform a variety of activities at the request of current members.

    Cane Spree – An athletic competition between freshmen and sophomores that is held in the fall. The event centers on cane wrestling, where a freshman and a sophomore will grapple for control of a cane. This commemorates a time in the 1870s when sophomores, angry with the freshmen who strutted around with fancy canes, stole all of the canes from the freshmen, hitting them with their own canes in the process.

    The Clapper or Clapper Theft – The act of climbing to the top of Nassau Hall to steal the bell clapper, which rings to signal the start of classes on the first day of the school year. For safety reasons, the clapper has been removed permanently.

    Class Jackets (Beer Jackets) – Each graduating class designs a Class Jacket that features its class year. The artwork is almost invariably dominated by the school colors and tiger motifs.

    Communiversity – An annual street fair with performances, arts and crafts, and other activities that attempts to foster interaction between the university community and the residents of Princeton.

    Dean’s Date – The Tuesday at the end of each semester when all written work is due. This day signals the end of reading period and the beginning of final examinations. Traditionally, undergraduates gather outside McCosh Hall before the 5:00 PM deadline to cheer on fellow students who have left their work to the very last minute.

    FitzRandolph Gates – At the end of Princeton’s graduation ceremony, the new graduates process out through the main gate of the university as a symbol of the fact that they are leaving college. According to tradition, anyone who exits campus through the FitzRandolph Gates before his or her own graduation date will not graduate.

    Holder Howl – The midnight before Dean’s Date, students from Holder Hall and elsewhere gather in the Holder courtyard and take part in a minute-long, communal primal scream to vent frustration from studying with impromptu, late night noise making.

    Houseparties – Formal parties that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the end of the spring term.

    Ivy stones – Class memorial stones placed on the exterior walls of academic buildings around the campus.

    Lawnparties – Parties that feature live bands that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the start of classes and at the conclusion of the academic year.

    Princeton Locomotive – Traditional cheer in use since the 1890s. It is commonly heard at Opening Exercises in the fall as alumni and current students welcome the freshman class, as well as the P-rade in the spring at Princeton Reunions. The cheer starts slowly and picks up speed, and includes the sounds heard at a fireworks show.

    Hip! Hip!
    Rah, Rah, Rah,
    Tiger, Tiger, Tiger,
    Sis, Sis, Sis,
    Boom, Boom, Boom, Ah!
    Princeton! Princeton! Princeton!

    Or if a class is being celebrated, the last line consists of the class year repeated three times, e.g. “Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight!”

    Newman’s Day – Students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24. According to The New York Times, “the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Paul Newman: ’24 beers in a case, 24 hours in a day. Coincidence? I think not.'” Newman had spoken out against the tradition, however.

    Nude Olympics – Annual nude and partially nude frolic in Holder Courtyard that takes place during the first snow of the winter. Started in the early 1970s, the Nude Olympics went co-educational in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press. For safety reasons, the administration banned the Olympics in 2000 to the chagrin of students.

    Prospect 11 – The act of drinking a beer at all 11 eating clubs in a single night.
    P-rade – Traditional parade of alumni and their families. They process through campus by class year during Reunions.
    Reunions – Massive annual gathering of alumni held the weekend before graduation.

    Athletics
    Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels: varsity intercollegiate, club intercollegiate, and intramural. It also provides “a variety of physical education and recreational programs” for members of the Princeton community. According to the athletics program’s mission statement, Princeton aims for its students who participate in athletics to be “‘student athletes’ in the fullest sense of the phrase. Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level.

    Princeton’s colors are orange and black. The school’s athletes are known as Tigers, and the mascot is a tiger. The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007, but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition.

    Varsity

    Princeton is an NCAA Division I school. Its athletic conference is the Ivy League. Princeton hosts 38 men’s and women’s varsity sports. The largest varsity sport is rowing, with almost 150 athletes.

    Princeton’s football team has a long and storied history. Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on Nov 6, 1869. By a score of 6–4, Rutgers won the game, which was played by rules similar to modern rugby. Today Princeton is a member of the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I. As of the end of the 2010 season, Princeton had won 26 national football championships, more than any other school.

    Club and intramural

    In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts about 35 club sports teams. Princeton’s rugby team is organized as a club sport. Princeton’s sailing team is also a club sport, though it competes at the varsity level in the MAISA conference of the Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association.

    Each year, nearly 300 teams participate in intramural sports at Princeton. Intramurals are open to members of Princeton’s faculty, staff, and students, though a team representing a residential college or eating club must consist only of members of that college or club. Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available.

    Songs

    Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic games is Princeton Cannon Song, the Princeton University fight song.

    Bob Dylan wrote Day of The Locusts (for his 1970 album New Morning) about his experience of receiving an honorary doctorate from the University. It is a reference to the negative experience he had and it mentions the Brood X cicada infestation Princeton experienced that June 1970.

    “Old Nassau”

    Old Nassau has been Princeton University’s anthem since 1859. Its words were written that year by a freshman, Harlan Page Peck, and published in the March issue of the Nassau Literary Review (the oldest student publication at Princeton and also the second oldest undergraduate literary magazine in the country). The words and music appeared together for the first time in Songs of Old Nassau, published in April 1859. Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to Auld Lang Syne’s melody, which also fits.

    However, Old Nassau does not only refer to the university’s anthem. It can also refer to Nassau Hall, the building that was built in 1756 and named after William III of the House of Orange-Nassau. When built, it was the largest college building in North America. It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783. By metonymy, the term can refer to the university as a whole. Finally, it can also refer to a chemical reaction that is dubbed “Old Nassau reaction” because the solution turns orange and then black.
    Princeton Shield

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: