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  • richardmitnick 5:08 pm on September 16, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , New Results for the Mass of Neutrinos, Particle Physics   

    From Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: “New Results for the Mass of Neutrinos” 

    1

    From Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    16.09.2019

    Dr. Joachim Hoffmann
    Redakteur/Pressereferent
    Tel.: +49 721 608-21151
    joachim hoffmann∂kit edu

    1
    The layout and major features of the KATRIN experimental facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Overview of the 70 m long KATRIN setup with its major components a) windowless gaseous tritium source, b) pumping section, and c) electrostatic spectrometers and focal plane detector. (Fig.: Michaela Meloni, KIT)

    Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment KATRIN limits Neutrino Masses to less than 1 eV.

    Neutrinos and their small non-zero masses play a key role in cosmology and particle physics. The allowed range of the mass scale has now been narrowed down by the initial results of the international Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). The analysis of a first four-week measurement run in spring 2019 limits neutrino masses to less than approximately 1 eV, which is smaller by a factor of 2 compared to previous laboratory results based on multi-year campaigns. This demonstrates the huge potential of KATRIN in elucidating novel properties of neutrinos over the coming years.

    Apart from photons, the fundamental quanta of light, neutrinos are the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. The observation of neutrino oscillations two decades ago proved that they possess a small non-zero mass, contrary to earlier expectations. Accordingly, the “light-weights of the universe” play a prominent role in the evolution of large-scale structures in the cosmos as well as in the world of elementary particles, where their small mass scale points to new physics beyond known theories. Over the coming years, the most precise scale of the world, the international KATRIN experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), is set to measure the mass of the fascinating neutrinos with unprecedented precision.

    In the past years, the KATRIN collaboration, formed by 20 institutions from 7 countries, successfully mastered many technological challenges in the commissioning of the 70 m long experimental setup (see Fig. 1). In mid-2018, KATRIN reached an important milestone with the
    official inauguration of the beamline. In spring this year, the big moment finally arrived: the 150-strong team (see Fig. 2) was able to “put neutrinos on the ultra-precise scale of KATRIN” for the first time. To that end, high-purity tritium gas was circulated over weeks through the source cryostat, and high statistics energy spectra of electrons were collected. Following this, the international analysis team went to work on extracting the first neutrino mass result from the spring 2019 measurement campaign.

    KATRIN’s current result builds upon years of effort, which established a data-processing framework, identified and constrained key backgrounds and sources of uncertainty, and constructed a comprehensive model of the instrumental response. Through simulations and test measurements, an international team of analysts gained a deep understanding of the experiment and its detailed behavior. In spring 2019, both hardware and analysis groups were ready for taking neutrino mass data. Thierry Lasserre (CEA, Frankreich, Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich), analysis coordinator for this first measurement campaign, described what happened as the data came in: “Our three international analysis teams deliberately worked separately from each other to guarantee truly independent results. In doing so, special emphasis was put on securing that no team member was able to prematurely deduce the neutrino mass result before completion of the final analysis step.”

    As is customary in today’s precision experiments, vital additional information required to complete the analysis was veiled, a process known to specialists as “blinding.” To coordinate their final steps, the analysts met for a one-week workshop at KIT in mid-July. By late evening on July 18, the uncertainties were finalized and the spectral models were unblinded. As a result, the analysis programs simultaneously performed overnight fits to search for the tell-tale signature of a massive neutrino. The following morning, all three groups announced identical results, which limit the absolute mass of neutrinos to a value of less than 1 electron-volt (eV) at 90% confidence. Thus, half a million of the neutrinos weigh less than one electron, the second lightest elementary particle.

    The two long-term co-spokespersons of the experiment, Guido Drexlin from KIT and Christian Weinheimer from Münster University, comment on this very first result with great joy: “The fact that it took KATRIN only a few weeks to provide a world-leading sensitivity and to improve on the multi-year campaigns of the predecessor experiments by a factor of 2 demonstrates the extraordinary high potential of our project”. The KIT Vice-President for Research, Oliver Kraft, congratulates the collaboration “on this fantastic achievement which builds on the many technological breakthroughs reached over the past years. These world-leading benchmarks would not have been possible without the close cooperation of all partners bundling their unique expertise.”

    Kathrin Valerius, leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group, is coordinating KATRIN analysis activities at KIT. During the commissioning phase, her team worked in particular on precision modeling of the tritium source as well as on dedicated calibration and test measurements leading up to neutrino mass data taking: “We are delighted that the intense preparations are now bearing fruit, and proud to be able to analyze the first neutrino mass data with this highly motivated team.”

    3
    Electron energy spectrum of tritium scanning together with fitted model, from which neutrino mass is derived. (Graphik: Lisa Schlüter, TU München)

    The analyses, which were presented at a recent scientific symposium in Toyama, Japan, and simultaneously have been submitted to a renowned science journal for publication, make use of a fundamental principle known for a long time in direct kinematic studies of neutrino mass: in the beta decay process of tritium, the electron and its neutral, undetected partner, the (electron) neutrino, statistically share the available decay energy of 18.6 keV. In extremely rare cases, the electron effectively obtains the entire decay energy, while the neutrino is left with almost no energy, the minimum amount being – following Einstein – its rest mass E = mc². It is this tiny spectral distortion due to the non-zero neutrino mass that the KATRIN team was looking for in an ensemble of more than 2 million electrons collected over a few tens of eV narrow energy interval close to the kinematic endpoint (see Fig. 3).

    This is only a tiny fraction of the total number of 25 billion electrons generated per second in the gaseous molecular tritium source of KATRIN. To maintain this huge number of decays, a closed tritium cycle at high throughput is mandatory. Operation of this unprecedented high-luminosity source requires the entire infrastructure of the Karlsruhe Tritium Laboratory, where the source cryostats are located. The adjacent huge electrostatic main spectrometer of 24 m length and 10 m diameter then acts as precision filter to transmit only the extremely tiny fraction of highest-energy electrons carrying information about the neutrino mass. Variation of the ultra-precise (on the ppm scale) retarding potential over tens of volts then gives unprecedented precision in the spectroscopy of electrons from tritium decay.

    With the now established world-leading upper limit of the neutrino mass, KATRIN has taken its first successful step in elucidating unknown properties of neutrinos, many more steps will follow in the co
    ming years. The two co-spokespersons look forward to further significant improvements of the neutrino mass sensitivity and in the search for novel effects beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. In the name of the entire collaboration, they would also like to thank the awarding authorities for their long-term support in the realization and operation of the experiment: “KATRIN is not only a shining beacon of fundamental research and an outstandingly reliable high-tech instrument, but also a motor of international cooperation which provides first-class training of young researchers.”

    Being „The Research University in the Helmholtz Association“, KIT creates and imparts knowledge for the society and the environment. It is the objective to make significant contributions to the global challenges in the fields of energy, mobility and information. For this, about 9,300 employees cooperate in a broad range of disciplines in natural sciences, engineering sciences, economics, and the humanities and social sciences. KIT prepares its 25,100 students for responsible tasks in society, industry, and science by offering research-based study programs. Innovation efforts at KIT build a bridge between important scientific findings and their application for the benefit of society, economic prosperity, and the preservation of our natural basis of life.

    See the full article here .

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    2

    Mission Statement of KIT

    Preamble

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, briefly referred to as KIT, was established by the merger of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH and the Universität Karlsruhe (TH) on October 01, 2009. KIT combines the tasks of a university of the state of Baden-Württemberg with those of a research center of the Helmholtz Association in the areas of research, teaching, and innovation.

    The KIT merger represents the consistent continuation of a long-standing close cooperation of two research and education institutions rich in tradition. The University of Karlsruhe was founded in 1825 as a Polytechnical School and has developed to a modern location of research and education in natural sciences, engineering, economics, social sciences, and the humanities, which is organized in eleven departments. The Karlsruhe Research Center was founded in 1956 as the Nuclear Reactor Construction and Operation Company and has turned into a multidisciplinary large-scale research center of the Helmholtz Association, which conducts research under eleven scientific and engineering programs.

    In 2014/15, the KIT concentrated on an overarching strategy process to further develop its corporate strategy. This mission statement as the result of a participative process was the first element to be incorporated in the strategy process.

    Mission Statement of KIT

    KIT combines the traditions of a renowned technical university and a major large-scale research institution in a very unique way. In research and education, KIT assumes responsibility for contributing to the sustainable solution of the grand challenges that face the society, industry, and the environment. For this purpose, KIT uses its financial and human resources with maximum efficiency. The scientists of KIT communicate the contents and results of their work to society.

    Engineering sciences, natural sciences, the humanities, and social sciences make up the scope of subjects covered by KIT. In high interdisciplinary interaction, scientists of these disciplines study topics extending from the fundamentals to application and from the development of new technologies to the reflection of the relationship between man and technology. For this to be accomplished in the best possible way, KIT’s research covers the complete range from fundamental research to close-to-industry, applied research and from small research partnerships to long-term large-scale research projects. Scientific sincerity and the striving for excellence are the basic principles of our activities.

    Worldwide exchange of knowledge, large-scale international research projects, numerous global cooperative ventures, and cultural diversity characterize and enrich the life and work at KIT. Academic education at KIT is guided by the principle of research-oriented teaching. Early integration into interdisciplinary research projects and international teams and the possibility of using unique research facilities open up exceptional development perspectives for our students.

    The development of viable technologies and their use in industry and the society are the cornerstones of KIT’s activities. KIT supports innovativeness and entrepreneurial culture in various ways. Moreover, KIT supports a culture of creativity, in which employees and students have time and space to develop new ideas.

    Cooperation of KIT employees, students, and members is characterized by mutual respect and trust. Achievements of every individual are highly appreciated. Employees and students of KIT are offered equal opportunities irrespective of the person. Family-friendliness is a major objective of KIT as an employer. KIT supports the compatibility of job and family. As a consequence, the leadership culture of KIT is also characterized by respect and cooperation. Personal responsibility and self-motivation of KIT employees and members are fostered by transparent and participative decisions, open communication, and various options for life-long learning.

    The structure of KIT is tailored to its objectives in research, education, and innovation. It supports flexible, synergy-based cooperation beyond disciplines, organizations, and hierarchies. Efficient services are rendered to support KIT employees and members in their work.

    Young people are our future. Reliable offers and career options excellently support KIT’s young scientists and professionals in their professional and personal development.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on September 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Particle Physics, The Proton’s Size, York University   

    From York University: “Physicists Finally Nail the Proton’s Size, and Hope Dies” 

    From York University

    09.15.2019
    Natalie Wolchover

    1
    A proton is made of a swarm of quarks and gluons, as imagined in this illustration. Illustration: CERN

    In 2010, physicists in Germany reported that they had made an exceptionally precise measurement of the size of the proton, the positively charged building block of atomic nuclei. The result was very puzzling.

    Randolf Pohl of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and collaborators had measured the proton using special hydrogen atoms in which the electron that normally orbits the proton was replaced by a muon, a particle that’s identical to the electron but 207 times heavier.

    Pohl’s team found the muon-orbited protons to be 0.84 femtometers in radius—4 percent smaller than those in regular hydrogen, according to the average of more than two dozen earlier measurements.

    If the discrepancy was real, meaning protons really shrink in the presence of muons, this would imply unknown physical interactions between protons and muons—a fundamental discovery. Hundreds of papers speculating about the possibility have been written in the years since.

    But hopes that the “proton radius puzzle” would upend particle physics and reveal new laws of nature have now been dashed by a new measurement reported on September 6 in Science.

    After Pohl’s muonic hydrogen result nine years ago, a team of physicists led by Eric Hessels of York University in Toronto set out to remeasure the proton in regular, “electronic” hydrogen. Finally, the results are in: Hessels and company have pegged the proton’s radius at 0.833 femtometers, give or take 0.01, a measurement exactly consistent with Pohl’s value. Both measurements are more precise than earlier attempts, and they suggest that the proton does not change size depending on context; rather, the old measurements using electronic hydrogen were wrong.

    Pohl, who first heard about Hessels’ preliminary finding at a workshop in the summer of 2018, called it “a fantastic result,” albeit one that “points to the most mundane explanation” of the proton radius puzzle.

    Similarly, Hessels said he and his colleagues were very pleased that their measurement “agreed with the very accurate measurement in muonic hydrogen,” even if the result is somewhat bittersweet. “We know that we don’t understand all the laws of physics yet,” he said, “so we have to chase down all of these things that might give us hints.”

    The proton’s radius was not trivial to chase down. To deduce its value, Hessels and colleagues had to measure the Lamb shift: the difference between hydrogen’s first and second excited energy levels, called the 2S and 2P states. Hessels said he has wanted to measure the Lamb shift since he was an undergraduate in the 1980s, but the proton radius puzzle finally gave him the impetus to do so. “It’s an extremely difficult measurement,” he said. “I needed a good reason.”

    3
    The 2S and 2P states of hydrogen show where the electron could be found at any given time. These images show the possible locations of the electron in each state; the proton, unmarked, is at the center of each image. In the 2S state, the electron overlaps the proton, and for a non-zero amount of time, the electron is inside of the proton itself. In the 2P state, the electron and the proton never overlap.
    Illustration: PoorLeno

    The Lamb shift, named for the American physicist Willis Lamb, who first attempted to measure it in 1947, reveals the proton’s radius in the following way: When an electron orbits the proton in the 2S state, it spends part of its time inside the proton (which is a constellation of elementary particles called quarks and gluons, with a lot of empty space). When the electron is inside the proton, the proton’s charge pulls the electron in opposing directions, partly canceling itself out. As a result, the amount of electrical attraction between the two decreases, reducing the energy that binds the atom together. The larger the proton, the more time the electron spends inside it, the less strongly bound the electron is, and the more easily it can hop away.

    By firing a laser into a cloud of hydrogen gas, Hessels and his team caused electrons to jump from the 2S state to the 2P state, where the electron never overlaps the proton. Pinpointing the energy required for the electron to make this jump revealed how weakly bound it was in the 2S state, when residing partly inside the proton. This directly revealed the proton’s size.

    Pohl followed the same logic to deduce the proton radius from the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen in 2010. But because muons are heavier, they huddle around protons more tightly in the 2S state than electrons do. This means they spend more time inside the proton, making the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen several million times more sensitive to the proton’s radius than it is in normal hydrogen.

    In the latter case, Hessels had to measure the energy difference between 2S and 2P to parts-per-million accuracy in order to deduce a precise value for the proton’s radius.

    The new result implies that earlier attempts to measure the proton’s radius in electronic hydrogen tended to overshoot the true value. It’s unclear why this would be so. Some researchers may continue to improve and verify measurements of the proton’s size in order to put the puzzle to rest, but Hessels’ work is done. “We are dismantling our apparatus,” he said.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    York University (French: Université York) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is Canada’s third-largest university, and it has approximately 55,700 students, 7,000 faculty and staff, and over 300,000 alumni worldwide. It has eleven faculties, including the Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies, Faculty of Science, Lassonde School of Engineering, Schulich School of Business, Osgoode Hall Law School, Glendon College, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Health, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of the Arts, Media, Performance and Design (formerly the Faculty of Fine Arts), and 28 research centres.

    York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year. Its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, and began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education. In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, within the neighbourhood community of York University Heights.

    Several of York’s programs have gained notable recognition both nationally and internationally. York houses Canada’s oldest film school,which has been ranked one of the best in Canada, with an acceptance rate comparable to that of USC School of Cinematic Arts and Tisch School of the Arts. York’s Osgoode Hall Law School was ranked fourth best in Canada, behind U of T, McGill, and UBC. In The Economist’s 2011 full-time MBA rankings, York’s Schulich School of Business ranked ninth in the world, and first in Canada, and in CNN Expansion’s ranking of MBA programs, Schulich ranked 18th in the world, placing first in Canada. York’s School of Kinesiology and Health Science ranked 4th in Canada and 24th best in the world in 2018.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on September 13, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CBETA-Cornell-Brookhaven “Energy-Recovery Linac” Test Accelerator or, , , Innovative particle accelerator, , Particle Physics,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab & Cornell University: “Innovative Accelerator Achieves Full Energy Recovery” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    September 10, 2019
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov

    Collaborative Cornell University/Brookhaven Lab project known as CBETA offers promise for future accelerator applications.

    1
    Brookhaven Lab members of the CBETA team with Laboratory Director Doon Gibbs, front row, right.

    An innovative particle accelerator designed and built by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cornell University has achieved a significant milestone that could greatly enhance the efficiency of future particle accelerators. After sending a particle beam for one pass through the accelerator, machine components recovered nearly all of the energy required for accelerating the particles. This recovered energy can then be used for the next stage of acceleration—to accelerate another batch of particles—thus greatly reducing the potential cost of accelerating particles to high energies.

    “No new power is required to maintain the radiofrequency (RF) fields in the RF cavities used for acceleration, because the accelerated beam deposits its energy in the RF cavities when it is decelerated,” said Brookhaven Lab accelerator physicist Dejan Trbojevic, who led the design and construction of key components for the project and serves as the Principal Investigator for Brookhaven’s contributions.

    The prototype accelerator—known as the Cornell-Brookhaven ERL Test Accelerator (CBETA), where ERL stands for “energy-recovery linac”—was built at Cornell with funding from Brookhaven Science Associates (the managing entity of Brookhaven Lab) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as a research and development project in support of a possible future nuclear physics facility, the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The energy-recovery approach could play an essential role in generating reusable electron beams for enhancing operations at a future EIC. The electrons would reduce the spread of ion beams in the EIC, thus increasing the number of particle collisions scientists can record to make physics discoveries.

    2
    Schematic of the CBETA energy recovery linac installed at Cornell University. Electrons produced by a direct-current (DC) photo-emitter electron source are transported by a high-power superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) injector linac into the high-current main linac cryomodule, where SRF cavities accelerate them to high energy before sending them around the racetrack-shaped accelerator. Each curved arc is made of a series of fixed field, alternating gradient (FFA) permanent magnets. After passing through the second FFA arc, the electrons re-enter the main linac cryomodule, which decelerates them and returns their energy to the RF cavities so it can be used again.

    In designing and executing this project, the Brookhaven team drew on its vast experience of improving the performance of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research.

    BNL/RHIC

    The accelerator technologies being developed for the EIC would push beyond the capabilities at RHIC and open up a new frontier in nuclear physics.

    3
    The injector and main linac cryomodule.

    Tech specs

    CBETA consists of a direct-current (DC) photo-emitter electron source that creates the electron beams to be accelerated. These electrons pass through a high-power superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) injector linac that transports them into a high-current main linac cryomodule (MLC). There, six SRF cavities accelerate the electrons to high energy, sending them around the racetrack-shaped accelerator. Each curved section of the racetrack is a single arc of permanent magnets designed with fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFA) optics that allow a single vacuum tube to accommodate beams at four different energies at the same time. After passing through the second FFA arc, the electrons re-enter the MLC, which has been uniquely optimized to decelerate the particles after a single pass and return their energy to the RF cavities so it can be used again.

    When completed, CBETA will accelerate particles through four complete turns, adding energy with each pass—all of which will be recovered during deceleration after the beams have been used. This will make it the world’s first four-turn superconducting radiofrequency ERL.

    Many scientists and engineers at Brookhaven Lab contributed to the design and construction of the magnets and other components of the accelerator, as well as the electronic devices that monitor the positions of the accelerated and decelerated beams: Francois Meot, Scott Berg, Stephen Brooks, and Nicholaos Tsoupas drove the design of the ERL’s optics; Brookhaven physicists led by Brooks and George Mahler designed, built, measured, and applied corrections to the permanent magnets; and Rob Michnoff led the design and construction of the beam position monitor system.

    “After building and successfully testing prototypes of the magnets, we established a very successful collaboration with Cornell, led by Principal Investigator Georg Hoffstaetter, to build the ERL using the refined fixed-field magnet designs,” Trbojevic said.

    Cornell provided the DC electron injector—the world’s record holder for producing high intensity, low emittance electron beams—which they recommissioned for the CBETA project. A team of young scientists and graduate students, including Adam Bartnik, Colwyn Gulliford, Kirsten Deitrick, and Nilanjan Banerjee, made other essential contributions: successfully commissioning the main linac cryomodule, and preparing the “command scripts”—computer-driven instructions—for running and commissioning the ERL in collaboration with Berg and other Brookhaven physicists.

    4
    Part of one of the fixed field, alternating gradient (FFA) permanent magnet arcs.

    “We hold weekly internet-based collaboration meetings and we had several visits and meetings at Cornell to ensure that the project was reaching the key milestones and that installation was proceeding according to the schedule,” said Michnoff, the Brookhaven Lab project manager.

    In May 2019, the team sent an electron beam with an energy of 42 million electron volts (MeV) through the FFA return loop for the first time. The beam made it through all 200 permanent magnets without the need for a single correction. In early June 2019, an energy scan in the FFA loop showed that the return beamline transported particles of different energies superbly, agreeing very well with the expectations for the design.

    Next, on June 13, the beam was accelerated to 42 MeV, transported through the FFA return loop back to the MLC, where the electrons were decelerated from 42 MeV back to the injection energy of 6 MeV, with the rest of their energy transferred back into the six SRF cavities of the main linac. And on June 24, the CBETA team achieved full energy recovery for the first time—demonstrating that each cavity could accelerate electrons on their second pass through the MLC without requiring additional external power.

    “Each cavity successfully regained the energy it expended in beam acceleration, eliminating or dramatically reducing the power needed to accelerate electrons,” Trbojevic said.

    “The successful demonstration of single-turn energy recovery shows that we are on the path toward creating this first-of-its-kind facility,” Trbojevic said. “The entire team is committed and excited to complete this four-turn energy-recovery linac—one of the most interesting and innovative accelerator physics project in the world today.”

    From Cornell University

    CORNELL LABORATORY FOR ACCELERATOR-BASED SCIENCES AND EDUCATION — CLASSE

    5

    Update on Beam Commissioning

    Cornell physicists, working with Brookhaven National Lab, are constructing a new type of particle accelerator called CBETA at Cornell’s Wilson Lab. This Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a test accelerator built with permanent magnets as well as electro magnets.

    How it works: CBETA will recirculate multiple beams of different energies around the accelerator at one time. The electrons will make four accelerating passes around the accelerator, while building up energy as they pass through a cryomodule with superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating structures. In four more passes, they will return to the superconducting cavities that accelerated them and return their energy back to these cavities – hence it is an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). While this method conserves energy, it also creates beams that are tightly bound and are a factor of 1,000 times brighter than other sources. For more details, please contact the Cornell PI Prof. Georg Hoffstaetter.

    Although linear accelerators (Linac) can have superior beam densities when compared to large circular accelerators, they are exceedingly wasteful due to the beam being discarded after use and can therefore only have an extremely low current compared to ring accelerators. This means that the amount of data collected in one hour in a circular accelerator may take several years to collect in a linear accelerator. In an ERL, the energy is recovered, and the beam current can therefore be as large as in a circular accelerator while its beam density remains as large as in a Linac.

    CBETA: the first multi-turn SRF ERL

    The lynchpin of CBETA’s design is to repeat the acceleration in a SRF cavities four times by recirculating multiple beams at four different energies. The beam with highest energy (150MeV) is to be used for experiments and is then decelerated in the same cavities four times to recapture the beam’s energies into the SRF cavities. Reusing the same cavity multiple times significantly reduces the construction and operational costs of the accelerator. It also means that an accelerator which would span roughly a foot ball field can fit into a single experimental Hall at Cornell’s Wilson Laboratory.

    However, beams of different energies require different amounts of bending, in the same way that it is hard for your car to navigate a sharp bend at 100 miles per hour. Traditional magnet designs are simply unable to keep different beams on the same “track”. Instead, the CBETA design relies on cutting edge Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) magnets to contain all of the beams in a single 3 inch beam pipe. CBETA will be the first SRF ERL with more than one turn and it is also the first project in the history of accelerator physics to implement this new magnet technology in an Energy Recovery Linac.

    The task of creating and controlling eight beams of four different energies in a single accelerating structure sounds daunting. But by leveraging the pre-existing infrastructure and experience of Cornell with the power and expertise of Brookhaven National Laboratory, it will soon become a reality.

    Cornell University has prototyped technology essential for CBETA, including a DC gun and an SRF injector Linac with world-record current and normalized brightness in a bunch train, a high-current CW cryomodule for 70 MeV energy gain, a high-power beam stop, and several diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams, e.g. a beamline for measuring 6-D phase-space densities, a fast wire scanner for beam profiles, and beam loss diagnostics. All these now being used in the contrition of CBETA.

    Within the next several years, CBETA will develop into a powerhouse of accelerator physics and technology, and will be one of the most advanced on the planet (earth). When this prototype ERL is complete and expanded upon, it will be a critical resource to New York State and the nation, propelling high-power accelerator science, enabling applications of many particle accelerators, from biomedical advancement to basic physics and from computer-chip lithography to material science, driving economic development.

    7

    CBETA is composed of 4 main parts:

    -The Photoinjector that creates and prepares high-current electron beams to be injected into the Main Linac Cryomodule (MLC). The photoinjector in turn consists of a laser system that illuminates a photo-emitter cathode to produce electrons within a high-current DC electron source. These electrons traverses an emittance-matching section to produce a high-brightness beam which is then sent thorough the high-power injector cryomodule (ICM) for acceleration to the ERL’s injection energy.

    -The Main Linac Cryomodule (MLC) that accelerates the beam through several passages and then decelerates the beam the same number of times to recapture its energy.

    -The high-power Beam Stop where the electron beam is discarded after most of its energy has been recaptured.
    4 Spreaders and 4 combiners with electro magnets that separate beams at 4 different energies after the MLC to match them into the FFAG return loop and then combine them again before re-entering the MLC.

    -FFAG Magnets residing in the return loop. These cause very strong focusing so that beams with energies that differ by up to a factor 4 can be transported simultaneously.

    Dominant funding for CBETA comes from NYSERDA (2016 to 2020). Important for this agency is that CBETA emphasizes energy savings by its use of energy recovery technology, its application of permanent magnets, and its particle acceleration by superconducting structures. Previous funding came from the NSF (2005 – 2015) for the development of the complete accelerator chain from the source to the main ERL accelerating module, from DOE supporting developments for the LCLS (2014-2015), and from the industrial company ASML (2015-2016) for applications in computer chip lithography.

    See the full article here .


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    BNL Campus


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 4:41 pm on September 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet", , , Designing for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009., , , , Particle Physics,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 9, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    To build the next generation of powerful proton accelerators, scientists need the strongest magnets possible to steer particles close to the speed of light around a ring. For a given ring size, the higher the beam’s energy, the stronger the accelerator’s magnets need to be to keep the beam on course.

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab have announced that they achieved the highest magnetic field strength ever recorded for an accelerator steering magnet, setting a world record of 14.1 teslas, with the magnet cooled to 4.5 kelvins or minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit. The previous record of 13.8 teslas, achieved at the same temperature, was held for 11 years by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    That’s more than a thousand times stronger magnet than the refrigerator magnet that’s holding your grocery list to your refrigerator.

    The achievement is a remarkable milestone for the particle physics community, which is studying designs for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009. Such a machine would need to accelerate protons to energies several times higher than those at the LHC.

    And that calls for steering magnets that are stronger than the LHC’s, about 15 teslas.

    “We’ve been working on breaking the 14-tesla wall for several years, so getting to this point is an important step,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Zlobin, who leads the project at Fermilab. “We got to 14.1 teslas with our 15-tesla demonstrator magnet in its first test. Now we’re working to draw one more tesla from it.”

    The success of a future high-energy hadron collider depends crucially on viable high-field magnets, and the international high-energy physics community is encouraging research toward the 15-tesla niobium-tin magnet.

    1
    Fermilab recently achieved a magnetic field strength of 14.1 teslas at 4.5 kelvins on an accelerator steering magnet — a world record. Photo: Thomas Strauss

    At the heart of the magnet’s design is an advanced superconducting material called niobium-tin.

    Electrical current flowing through the material generates a magnetic field. Because the current encounters no resistance when the material is cooled to very low temperature, it loses no energy and generates no heat. All of the current contributes to the creation of the magnetic field. In other words, you get lots of magnetic bang for the electrical buck.

    The strength of the magnetic field depends on the strength of the current that the material can handle. Unlike the niobium-titanium used in the current LHC magnets, niobium-tin can support the amount of current needed to make 15-tesla magnetic fields. But niobium-tin is brittle and susceptible to break when subject to the enormous forces at work inside an accelerator magnet.

    So the Fermilab team developed a magnet design that would shore up the coil against every stress and strain it could encounter during operation. Several dozen round wires were twisted into cables in a certain way, enabling it to meet the requisite electrical and mechanical specifications. These cables were wound into coils and heat-treated at high temperatures for approximately two weeks, with a peak temperature of about 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, to convert the niobium-tin wires into superconductor at operation temperatures. The team encased several coils in a strong innovative structure composed of an iron yoke with aluminum clamps and a stainless-steel skin to stabilize the coils against the huge electromagnetic forces that can deform the brittle coils, thus degrading the niobium-tin wires.

    The Fermilab group took every known design feature into consideration, and it paid off.

    “This is a tremendous achievement in a key enabling technology for circular colliders beyond the LHC,” said Soren Prestemon, a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and director of the multilaboratory U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes the Fermilab team. “This is an exceptional milestone for the international community that develops these magnets, and the result has been enthusiastically received by researchers who will use the beams from a future collider to push forward the frontiers of high-energy physics.”

    And the Fermilab team is geared up to make their mark in the 15-tesla territory.

    “There are so many variables to consider in designing a magnet like this: the field parameters, superconducting wire and cable, mechanical structure and its performance during assembly and operation, magnet technology, and magnet protection during operation,” Zlobin said. “All of these issues are even more important for magnets with record parameters.”

    Over the next few months, the group plans to reinforce the coil’s mechanical support and then retest the magnet this fall. They expect to achieve the 15-tesla design goal.

    And they’re setting their sights even higher for the further future.

    “Based on the success of this project and the lessons we learned, we’re planning to advance the field in niobium-tin magnets for future colliders to 17 teslas,” Zlobin said.

    It doesn’t stop there. Zlobin says they may be able to design steering magnets that reach a field of 20 teslas using special inserts made of new advanced superconducting materials.

    Call it a field goal.

    The project is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    It is a key part of the U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:31 pm on September 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Particle Physics, ,   

    From Techniche Universitat Munchen: “Closing in on elusive particles” 

    Techniche Universitat Munchen

    From Techniche Universitat Munchen

    1
    Working on the germanium detector array in the clean room of Gran Sasso underground laboratory.
    Image: J. Suvorov / GERDA

    05.09.2019
    Prof. Dr. Stefan Schönert
    Technical University of Munich
    Experimental Astroparticlephysics (E15)
    Tel.: +49 89 289 12511
    E-Mail: schoenert@ph.tum.de

    Major steps forward in understanding neutrino properties.

    In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. The experiment has the greatest sensitivity worldwide for detecting the decay in question. To further improve the chances of success, a follow-up project, LEGEND, uses an even more refined decay experiment.

    MPG GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Gran Sasso, Italy

    LEGEND Collaboration

    LEGEND experiment at Gran Sasso looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    While the Standard Model of Particle Physics has remained mostly unchanged since its initial conception, experimental observations for neutrinos have forced the neutrino part of the theory to be reconsidered in its entirety.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics

    Neutrino oscillation was the first observation inconsistent with the predictions and proves that neutrinos have non-zero masses, a property that contradicts the Standard Model. In 2015, this discovery was rewarded with the Nobel Prize.

    Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

    Additionally, there is the longstanding conjecture that neutrinos are so-called Majorana particles: Unlike all other constituents of matter, neutrinos might be their own antiparticles. This would also help explain why there is so much more matter than antimatter in the Universe.

    The GERDA experiment is designed to scrutinize the Majorana hypothesis by searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of the germanium isotope 76Ge: Two neutrons inside a 76Ge nucleus simultaneously transform into two protons with the emission of two electrons. This decay is forbidden in the Standard Model because the two antineutrinos – the balancing antimatter – are missing.

    The Technical University of Munich (TUM) has been a key partner of the GERDA project (GERmanium Detector Array) for many years. Prof. Stefan Schönert, who heads the TUM research group, is the speaker of the new LEGEND project.

    The GERDA experiment achieves extreme levels of sensitivity

    GERDA is the first experiment to reach exceptionally low levels of background noise and has now surpassed the half-life sensitivity for decay of 1026 years. In other words: GERDA proves that the process has a half-life of at least 1026 years, or 10,000,000,000,000,000 times the age of the Universe.

    Physicists know that neutrinos are at least 100,000 times lighter than electrons, the next heaviest particles. What mass they have exactly, however, is still unknown and another important research topic.

    In the standard interpretation, the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay is related to a special variant of the neutrino mass called the Majorana mass. Based the new GERDA limit and those from other experiments, this mass must be at least a million times smaller than that of an electron, or in the terms of physicists, less than 0.07 to 0.16 eV/c2 [1] SCIENCE.

    Consistent with other experiments

    Also other experiments limit the neutrino mass: the Planck mission provides a limit on another variant of the neutrino mass: The sum of the masses of all known neutrino types is less than 0.12 to 0.66 eV/c2.

    The tritium decay experiment KATRIN at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is set-up to measure the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2 eV/c2 in the coming years. These masses are not directly comparable, but they provide a cross check on the paradigm that neutrinos are Majorana particles. So far, no discrepancy has been observed.

    From GERDA to LEGEND

    During the reported data collection period, GERDA operated detectors with a total mass of 35.6 kg of 76Ge. Now, a newly formed international collaboration, LEGEND, will increase this mass to 200 kg of 76Ge until 2021 and further reduce the background noise. The aim is to achieve a sensitivity of 1027 years within the next five years.

    More information:

    GERDA is an international European collaboration of more than 100 physicists from Belgium, Germany, Italy, Russia, Poland and Switzerland. In Germany, GERDA is supported by the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden, the University of Tübingen and the Max Planck Institutes for Physics and for Nuclear Physics. German funding is provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the Excellence Cluster Universe and SFB1258, as well as the Max Planck Society.

    Prof. Schönert received an ERC Advanced Grant for preparatory work on the LEGEND project in 2018. A few days ago, Prof. Susanne Mertens received an ERC grant for her work on the KATRIN experiment. In the context of that experiment, she will search for so-called sterile neutrinos.

    KATRIN Experiment schematic

    +

    KIT Katrin experiment

    [1] In particle physics masses are specified not in kilograms, but rather in accordance with Einstein’s equation E=mc2: electron volts [eV] divided by the speed of light squared. Electron volts are a measure of energy. This convention is used to circumvent unfathomably small units of mass: 1 eV/c2 corresponds to 1.8 × 10-36 kilograms.

    See the full article here .

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    Techniche Universitat Munchin Campus

    Techniche Universitat Munchin is one of Europe’s top universities. It is committed to excellence in research and teaching, interdisciplinary education and the active promotion of promising young scientists. The university also forges strong links with companies and scientific institutions across the world. TUM was one of the first universities in Germany to be named a University of Excellence. Moreover, TUM regularly ranks among the best European universities in international rankings.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:49 pm on September 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Another major component of the Phase-1 upgrade for ATLAS is the improvement of the trigger selection for the operation at the future HL-LHC., ATLAS teams are also preparing for the following long shutdown (LS3 starting in 2024), “The installation of new electronics for the liquid-argon calorimeter is proceeding smoothly and we are advancing through the different stages of production for the TDAQ deliverables., , During LS3 an all-silicon inner tracker will replace the current one using state-of-the-art silicon technologies to keep pace with the HL-LHC rate of collisions., , In parallel, Located at the centre of the ATLAS detector the role of the inner tracker is to measure the direction; momentum; and charge of electrically charged particles produced in each proton–proton collision, New electronics to achieve a higher resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter’s trigger., , Particle Physics, , the consolidation of the detector system is progressing according to schedule., The first phase of our HL-LHC upgrade programme has started., The new muon small wheels-developed to trigger and measure muons precisely despite the increased rate of collisions expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the scintillators located between the central barrel and the extended barrels of the tile calorimeter are currently being installed., We have replaced cooling connectors connecting the modules of the tile calorimeter to the overall cooling infrastructure in almost all 256 modules of the calorimeter.   

    From CERN ATLAS: “LS2 Report: ATLAS upgrades are in full swing” 

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS another view Image Claudia Marcelloni ATLAS CERN


    CERN ATLAS New II Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY


    From CERN ATLAS

    3 September, 2019
    Anaïs Schaeffer

    The assembly of the new muon small wheels and the upgrades on the electronics and trigger systems are progressing well.

    1
    One of the new small wheels of ATLAS, which you can see at Building 191 during the CERN Open Days (Image: CERN)

    A few months ago, the ATLAS Collaboration presented its schedule for the second long shutdown 2 (LS2) concerning the detector’s repair, consolidation and upgrade activities. Since then, the experiment’s LS2 programme has been refined to best meet needs and constraints.

    Although ATLAS was originally supposed to install two new muon detectors in the forward regions (new small wheels) – measuring 9.3 metres in diameter and developed to trigger and measure muons precisely despite the increased rate of collisions expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) – only one will be installed during LS2. “While considerable progress has been made on the assembly, the second wheel will not be ready before the end of LS2. So we decided to aim for installing that one in the next year-end technical stop (YETS, at the end of 2021),” says Ludovico Pontecorvo, ATLAS Technical Coordinator. A replacement of the first small wheel (on side A of the detector) is foreseen for August 2020.

    Another major component of the Phase-1 upgrade for ATLAS is the improvement of the trigger selection for the operation at the future HL-LHC, which requires new electronics to achieve a higher resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter’s trigger. It also involves upgrading the level-1 trigger processors, and installing new electronic cards for the trigger and data-acquisition (TDAQ) system. “The installation of new electronics for the liquid-argon calorimeter is proceeding smoothly and we are advancing through the different stages of production for the TDAQ deliverables. The upgrade of the infrastructure and the necessary maintenance work is almost completed. The first phase of our HL-LHC upgrade programme has started,” says Ludovico Pontecorvo.

    In parallel, the consolidation of the detector system is progressing according to schedule. “We have replaced cooling connectors connecting the modules of the tile calorimeter to the overall cooling infrastructure in almost all 256 modules of the calorimeter and the standard maintenance of the read-out electronics is ongoing. In addition, the scintillators located between the central barrel and the extended barrels of the tile calorimeter are currently being installed,” adds Ludovico Pontecorvo.

    ATLAS teams are also preparing for the following long shutdown (LS3, starting in 2024), which will see the installation of an all-new inner tracker. Located at the centre of the ATLAS detector, the role of the inner tracker is to measure the direction, momentum and charge of electrically charged particles produced in each proton–proton collision. During LS3, an all-silicon inner tracker will replace the current one, using state-of-the-art silicon technologies to keep pace with the HL-LHC rate of collisions. The manoeuvre to lower and insert this new element (2 m in diameter, 7 m long) looks arduous, so, in March, the team in charge of its installation took advantage of the shutdown to practice the procedure in the cavern with a mock-up of the tracker. The two lowering options tested required a great meticulousness, given that, at the worst moment, the margin was only a few centimetres.

    See the full article here .


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    QuantumDiaries

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 8:35 pm on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Forget About Electrons And Protons; The Unstable Muon Could Be The Future Of Particle Physics", , , , , , , MICE collaboration — which stands for Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment — continues to push this technology to new heights and may make a muon collider a real possibility for the future., Particle Physics   

    From Ethan Siegel: “Forget About Electrons And Protons; The Unstable Muon Could Be The Future Of Particle Physics” 

    From Ethan Siegel
    Aug 29, 2019

    1
    The particle tracks emanating from a high energy collision at the LHC in 2014 show the creation of many new particles. It’s only because of the high-energy nature of this collision that new masses can be created. (WIKIMEDIA COMMONS USER PCHARITO)

    Electron-positron or proton-proton colliders are all the rage. But the unstable muon might be the key to unlocking the next frontier.

    If you want to probe the frontiers of fundamental physics, you have to collide particles at very high energies: with enough energy that you can create the unstable particles and states that don’t exist in our everyday, low-energy Universe. So long as you obey the Universe’s conservation laws and have enough free energy at your disposal, you can create any massive particle (and/or its antiparticle) from that energy via Einstein’s E = mc².

    Traditionally, there have been two strategies to do this.

    Collide electrons moving in one direction with positrons moving in the opposite direction, tuning your beams to whatever energy corresponds to the mass of particles you wish to produce.
    Collide protons in one direction with either other protons or anti-protons in the other, reaching higher energies but creating a much messier, less controllable signal to extract.

    One Nobel Laureate, Carlo Rubbia, has called for physicists to build something entirely novel: a muon collider.

    2
    Carlo Rubbia at the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting on July 4, 2012. Markus Pössel (user name: Mapos)

    It’s ambitious and presently impractical, but it just might be the future of particle physics.

    3
    The particles and antiparticles of the Standard Model have now all been directly detected, with the last holdout, the Higgs Boson, falling at the LHC earlier this decade.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    All of these particles can be created at LHC energies, and the masses of the particles lead to fundamental constants that are absolutely necessary to describe them fully. These particles can be well-described by the physics of the quantum field theories underlying the Standard Model, but they do not describe everything, like dark matter. (E. SIEGEL / BEYOND THE GALAXY)

    Above, you can see the particles and antiparticles of the Standard Model, which have now all been discovered. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN discovered the Higgs boson, the long-sought-after last holdout, earlier this decade.

    While there’s still much science left to be done at the LHC — it’s only taken 2% of all the data it will acquire by the end of the 2030s — particle physicists are already looking ahead to the next generation of future colliders.

    5
    A hypothetical new accelerator, either a long linear one or one inhabiting a large tunnel beneath the Earth, could dwarf the sensitivity to new particles that prior and current colliders can achieve. Even at that, there’s no guarantee we’ll find anything new, but we’re certain to find nothing new if we fail to try. ILC collaboration

    All of the plans put forth involve scaled-up version of existing technologies that have been used in past and/or current accelerators. We know how to accelerate electrons, positrons, and protons in a straight line. We know how to bend them into a circle, and maximize both the energy of the collisions and the number of particles colliding per second. Larger, more energetic versions of existing technologies are the simplest approach.

    FNAL/Tevatron map

    CERN map

    Future Circular Collider (FCC) Larger LHC

    CERN FCC Future Circular Collider map

    CERN Future Circular Collider

    The scale of the proposed Future Circular Collider (FCC), compared with the LHC presently at CERN and the Tevatron, formerly operational at Fermilab. The Future Circular Collider is perhaps the most ambitious proposal for a next-generation collider to date, including both lepton and proton options as various phases of its proposed scientific programme. (PCHARITO / WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)

    Of course, there are both benefits and drawbacks to each method we could use. You can build a linear collider, but the energy you can reach is going to be limited by how powerfully you can impart energy to these particles per-unit-distance as well as how long you build your accelerator. The drawback is that, without a continuous injection of circulating particles, linear colliders have lower collision rates and take longer amounts of time to collect the same amount of data.

    The other main style of collider is the style currently used at CERN: circular colliders. Instead of only getting one continuous shot to accelerate your particles before giving them the opportunity to collide, you speed them up while bending them in a circle, adding more and more particles to each clockwise and counterclockwise beam with every revolution. You set up your detectors at designated collision points, and measure what comes out.

    6
    A candidate Higgs event in the ATLAS detector. Note how even with the clear signatures and transverse tracks, there is a shower of other particles; this is due to the fact that protons are composite particles. This is only the case because the Higgs gives mass to the fundamental constituents that compose these particles. At high enough energies, the currently most-fundamental particles known may yet split apart themselves. (THE ATLAS COLLABORATION / CERN)

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni

    This is the preferred method, so long as your tunnel is long enough and your magnets are strong enough, for both electron/positron and proton/proton colliders. Compared to linear colliders, with a circular collider, you get

    greater numbers of particles inside the beam at any one time,
    second and third and thousandth chances for particles that missed one another on the prior pass through,
    and much greater collision rates overall, particularly for lower-energy heavy particles like the Z-boson.

    In general, electron/positron colliders are better for precision studies of known particles, while proton/proton colliders are better for probing the energy frontier.

    7
    A four-muon candidate event in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The muon/anti-muon tracks are highlighted in red, as the long-lived muons travel farther than any other unstable particle. The energies achieved by the LHC are sufficient for creating Higgs bosons; previous electron-positron colliders could not achieve the necessary energies. (ATLAS COLLABORATION/CERN)

    In fact, if you compare the LHC — which collides protons with protons — with the previous collider in the same tunnel (LEP, which collided electrons with positrons), you’d find something that surprises most people: the particles inside LEP went much, much faster than the ones inside the LHC!

    CERN LEP Collider


    CERN LEP Collider

    Everything in this Universe is limited by the speed of light in a vacuum: 299,792,458 m/s. It’s impossible to accelerate any massive particle to that speed, much less past it. At the LHC, particles get accelerated up to extremely high energies of 7 TeV per particle. Considering that a proton’s rest energy is only 938 MeV (or 0.000938 TeV), it’s easy to see how it reaches a speed of 299,792,455 m/s.

    But the electrons and positrons at LEP went even faster: 299,792,457.9964 m/s. Yet despite these enormous speeds, they only reached energies of ~110 GeV, or 1.6% the energies achieved at the LHC.

    Let’s understand how colliding particles create new ones. First, the energy available for creating new particles — the “E” in E = mc² — comes from the center-of-mass energy of the two colliding particles. In a proton-proton collision, it’s the internal structures that collide: quarks and gluons. The energy of each proton is divided up among many constituent particles, and these particles zip around inside the proton as well. When two of them collide, the energy available for creating new particles might still be large (up to 2 or 3 TeV), but isn’t the full-on 14 TeV.

    But the electron-positron idea is a lot cleaner: they’re not composite particles, and they don’t have internal structure or energy divided among constituents. Accelerate an electron and positron to the same speed in opposite directions, and 100% of that energy goes into creating new particles. But it won’t be anywhere near 14 TeV.

    8
    A number of the various lepton colliders, with their luminosity (a measure of the collision rate and the number of detections one can make) as a function of center-of-mass collision energy. Note that the red line, which is a circular collider option, offers many more collisions than the linear version, but gets less superior as energy increases. Beyond about 380 GeV, circular colliders cannot achieve those energies, and a linear collider like CLIC is the far superior option. (GRANADA STRATEGY MEETING SUMMARY SLIDES / LUCIE LINSSEN (PRIVATE COMMUNICATION))

    Even though electrons and positrons go much faster than protons do, the total amount of energy a particle possesses is determined by its speed and also its original mass. Even though the electrons and positrons are much closer to the speed of light, it takes nearly 2,000 of them to make up as much rest mass as a proton. They have a greater speed but a much lower rest mass, and hence, a lower energy overall.

    There’s a good physics reasons why, even with the same radius ring and the same strong magnetic fields to bend them into a circle, electrons won’t reach the same energy as protons: synchrotron radiation. When you accelerate a charged particle with a magnetic field, it gives off radiation, which means it carries energy away.

    9
    Relativistic electrons and positrons can be accelerated to very high speeds, but will emit synchrotron radiation (blue) at high enough energies, preventing them from moving faster. This synchrotron radiation is the relativistic analog of the radiation predicted by Rutherford so many years ago, and has a gravitational analogy if you replace the electromagnetic fields and charges with gravitational ones. (CHUNG-LI DONG, JINGHUA GUO, YANG-YUAN CHEN, AND CHANG CHING-LIN, ‘SOFT-X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY PROBES NANOMATERIAL-BASED DEVICES’)

    The amount of energy radiated away is dependent on the field strength (squared), the energy of the particle (squared), but also on the inherent charge-to-mass ratio of the particle (to the fourth power). Since electrons and positrons have the same charge as the proton, but just 1/1836th of a proton’s mass, that synchrotron radiation is the limiting factor for electron-positron systems in a circular collider. You’d need a circular collider 100 km around just to be able to create a pair of top-antitop quarks in a next-generation particle accelerator using electrons and positrons.

    This is where the big idea of using muons comes in. Muons (and anti-muons) are the cousins of electrons (and positrons), being:

    fundamental (and not composite) particles,
    being 206 times as massive as an electron (with a much smaller charge-to-mass ratio and much less synchrotron radiation),
    and also, unlike electrons or positrons, being fundamentally unstable.

    That last difference is the present dealbreaker: muons have a mean lifetime of just 2.2 microseconds before decaying away.

    10
    An earlier design plan (now defunct) for a full-scale muon-antimuon collider at Fermilab, the source of the world’s second-most powerful particle accelerator behind the LHC at CERN. (FERMILAB)

    In the future, however, we might be able to work around that anyway. You see, Einstein’s special relativity tells us that as particles move closer and closer to the speed of light, time dilates for that particle in the observer’s reference frame. In other words, if we make this muon move fast enough, we can dramatically increase the time it lives before decaying; this is the same physics behind why cosmic ray muons pass through us all the time!

    If we could accelerate a muon up to the same 6.5 TeV in energy that LHC protons achieved during their prior data-taking run, that muon would live for 135,000 microseconds instead of 2.2 microseconds: enough time to circle the LHC some 1,500 times before decaying away. If you could collide a muon/anti-muon pair at those speeds, you’d have 100% of that energy — all 13 TeV of it — available for particle creation.

    11
    The prototype MICE 201-megahertz RF module, with the copper cavity mounted, is shown during assembly at Fermilab. This apparatus could focus and collimate a muon beam, enabling the muons to be accelerated and survive for much longer than 2.2 microseconds. (Y. TORUN / IIT / FERMILAB TODAY)

    Humanity can always choose to build a bigger ring or invest in producing stronger-field magnets; those are easy ways to go to higher energies in particle physics. But there’s no cure for synchrotron radiation with electrons and positrons; you’d have to use heavier particles instead. There’s no cure for energy being distributed among multiple constituent particles inside a proton; you’d have to use fundamental particles instead.

    The muon is the one particle that could solve both of these issues. The only drawback is that they’re unstable, and difficult to keep alive for a long time. However, they’re easy to make: smash a proton beam into a piece of acrylic and you’ll produce pions, which will decay into both muons and anti-muons. Accelerate those muons to high energy and collimate them into beams, and you can put them in a circular collider.

    12
    While many unstable particles, both fundamental and composite, can be produced in particle physics, only protons, neutrons (bound in nuclei) and the electron are stable, along with their antimatter counterparts and the photon. Everything else is short-lived, but if muons can be kept at high enough speeds, they might live long enough to forge a next-generation particle collider out of. (CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS EDUCATION PROJECT (CPEP), U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY / NSF / LBNL)

    The MICE collaboration — which stands for Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment — continues to push this technology to new heights, and may make a muon collider a real possibility for the future. The goal is to reveal whatever secrets nature might have waiting in store for us, and these are secrets we cannot predict. As Carlo Rubbia himself said,

    “…these fundamental choices are coming from nature, not from individuals. Theorists can do what they like, but nature is the one deciding in the end….”

    See the full article here .

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    “Starts With A Bang! is a blog/video blog about cosmology, physics, astronomy, and anything else I find interesting enough to write about. I am a firm believer that the highest good in life is learning, and the greatest evil is willful ignorance. The goal of everything on this site is to help inform you about our world, how we came to be here, and to understand how it all works. As I write these pages for you, I hope to not only explain to you what we know, think, and believe, but how we know it, and why we draw the conclusions we do. It is my hope that you find this interesting, informative, and accessible,” says Ethan

     
  • richardmitnick 12:31 pm on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it., IOTA-The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator, Nonlinear integrable optics, , Particle Physics, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab’s newest accelerator delivers first results” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 14, 2019
    Bailey Bedford

    Fermilab’s newest particle accelerator is small but mighty. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator [IOTA], designed to be versatile and flexible, is enabling researchers to push the frontiers of accelerator science.

    Instead of smashing beams together to study subatomic particles like most high-energy physics research accelerators, IOTA is dedicated to exploring and improving the particle beams themselves.

    IOTA researchers say they are excited by the observation of single-electron beams near the speed of light and the first results on decreasing beam instabilities. They are eager to use their single-electron technique to probe aspects of quantum science and see future breakthroughs in accelerator science.

    “The scientists who designed the accelerator are also the scientists that use it,” said Vladimir Shiltsev, a Fermilab distinguished scientist and one of the founders of IOTA. “It’s an opportunity to get great insight into the physics of beams at relatively small cost.”

    1
    Scientists using the 40-meter-circumference Integrable Optics Test Accelerator saw their first results from IOTA this summer. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Versatility is the mother of innovation

    In the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology facility, a particle accelerator delivers intense bursts of electrons that are then stored in IOTA’s 40-meter-circumference ring, where they circulate about 7.5 million times every second at near the speed of light. The system’s design enables a small team to adjust or exchange components in the beamline to perform a variety of experiments on the frontier of accelerator science.

    “This machine was designed with a lot of flexibility in mind,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev, head of the team that developed and constructed IOTA.

    Consider the accelerator magnets, which are responsible for the size and shape of the particle beam’s profile. At IOTA, every magnet is powered separately so that researchers can reconfigure the machine for completely different experiments in a few minutes. At other accelerator facilities, a comparable change could require a lengthy shutdown of weeks or months.

    For research accelerators that serve researchers, the focus is typically on maximizing running time and maintaining well-understood, established beam parameters. In contrast, the IOTA team expects the accelerator to be routinely shut down, reconfigured and restarted. Its technical and operational flexibilities make it easier for outside teams to use IOTA to conduct their own experiments, exploring a variety of topics at the frontier of accelerator and beam physics.

    IOTA’s versatility has already attracted groups from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Northern Illinois University; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; University of California, Berkeley; University of Chicago and other institutions. Not only are they conducting exciting science, but early-career researchers are also receiving valuable practical training in accelerator and beam science that can be challenging to come by.

    “If you wanted to have a comparable scientific program at a more traditional facility, it would be very difficult, if not prohibitive. Typically, those facilities are designed for a narrow range of research, aren’t easily modified and require nearly continuous operation,” said Fermilab scientist Jonathan Jarvis, who works on IOTA. “But here at IOTA, we are a purpose-built facility for frontier topics in accelerator research and development, and we have those flexibilities by design.”

    2
    Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev inspects the specially designed nonlinear insert that produces the nonlinear magnetic fields for IOTA experiments. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    First results: Testing IOTA’s IO

    As part of the only dedicated ring-based accelerator R&D facility for high-intensity beam physics in the United States, IOTA is designed to develop technologies to increase the number of particles in a beam without increasing the beam’s size and thus the size and cost of the accelerator. Since all particles in the beam have an identical charge, they electrically repel each other, and as more particles are packed into the beam, it can become unstable. Particles may behave chaotically and escape. It takes expertise and innovative technology to tame a dense particle beam.

    To that end, IOTA researchers are investigating a novel technique called nonlinear integrable optics. The technique uses specially designed sets of magnets configured to prevent beam instabilities, significantly better than the configurations of magnets used over the past 50 years.

    To test the nonlinear integrable optics technique, IOTA researchers deliberately produced instability in the beam. They then measured how difficult it was to provoke unstable behavior in IOTA’s electron beam both with and without the influence of the magnetic fields

    The technique was a winner: Scientists observed that these specialized magnets significantly decreased the instability.

    During the next run of the system, the team plans to more rigorously study this effect.

    “The first result is merely a demonstration,” Valishev said. “But I think it’s already a big accomplishment.”

    3
    IOTA’s nonlinear magnets help prevent instabilities in high-intensity particle beams. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Watching a single electron near the speed of light

    In a first for Fermilab, the researchers have also observed the circulation of a single electron.

    The IOTA beam, when injected into the storage ring, can contain about a billion electrons. As the beam circulates, electrons tend to escape the beam due to collisions with one another or with stray gas molecules in the beam pipe. So if you want to see an electron fly solo around the ring, it is just a matter of waiting.

    The real trick is being able to observe the last electron left “standing.”

    The fast-moving electrons emit visible light as they travel along the curves of the ring. This light is synchrotron radiation, which is emitted when charged particles moving near the speed of light change direction. The light provides researchers with information about the beam, including how many electrons are in it.

    IOTA researchers used the synchrotron radiation to observe the loss of electrons, one by one, until they finally witnessed a solitary electron.

    4
    This plot illustrates the decrease in the amount of measured synchrotron light every time an electron was knocked out of the particle beam.

    On their next round, rather than play the waiting game to get down to a beam of one electron, the team tried a faster, more deliberate approach. They devised a way to instead inject single electrons into IOTA on demand. It worked. The method reliably saw lone particles traveling around the ring.

    The wait was over.

    This feat is more than just a novel curiosity. The ability to store and observe a single electron, or even a very small number of electrons moving around at high speeds, creates opportunities to probe interesting quantum science.

    “Everything we do is rather macroscopic, so you wouldn’t think of any of this facility, let alone a 40-meter ring, as a quantum instrument,” Jarvis said. “But we’ve got this situation where there’s an individual particle circulating in the ring at nearly the speed of light, and it gives us fascinating opportunities to do something that is very quantum in nature.”

    For instance, in its upcoming run, IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it.

    This capability opens the door to a wide variety of fundamental quantum experiments and will also enable Fermilab scientists to attempt the world’s first demonstration of a powerful technique called optical stochastic beam cooling. Generally, beam cooling methods sap accelerated particles of their chaotic or frenetic motion. Optical stochastic cooling is expected to be thousands of times stronger than the current state of the art and is a perfect example of the high-impact returns that IOTA is targeting.

    Accelerating into the future: proton beams, electron lenses and more

    IOTA is currently set up to circulate electrons, and this work sets the stage for future, more challenging experiments with protons.

    The high-energy electron beam naturally shrinks to a smaller size due to synchrotron radiation, which makes it a well-behaved system for IOTA researchers to confirm important parts of beam physics theories.

    In contrast to IOTA’s electron beam, its forthcoming experiments with protons will see beam circulate at low velocity, be significantly larger and be strongly affected by the repulsive forces between beam particles. Research into the behavior of such proton beams will be integral to understanding how nonlinear integrable optics can be effectively applied in the high-power accelerators of the future.

    And with both electrons and protons in the mix, scientists can also advance to another exciting phase in IOTA’s research program: electron lenses. Electron lenses are yet another technique that researchers are investigating in their quest to create stable particle beams. This technique uses the negative charge of electrons to oppose the positive charges of protons to pull the protons into a compact, stable beam. The electron lens will also allow IOTA scientists to demonstrate the nonlinear integrable optics concept using special charge distributions rather than the specialized nonlinear magnets.

    With its breadth of unique capabilities, IOTA and its team are ready for several years of exciting research.

    “Frontier science requires frontier research and development, and at IOTA, we are focused on realizing those major innovations that could invigorate accelerator-based high-energy physics for the next several decades,” Jarvis said.

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:36 am on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "From capturing collisions to avoiding them", , , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From CERN: “From capturing collisions to avoiding them” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    29 August, 2019
    Kate Kahle

    1
    Around 100 simultaneous proton–proton collisions in an event recorded by the CMS experiment (Image: Thomas McCauley/CMS/CERN)

    With about one billion proton–proton collisions per second at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC experiments need to sift quickly through the wealth of data to choose which collisions to analyse. To cope with an even higher number of collisions per second in the future, scientists are investigating computing methods such as machine-learning techniques. A new collaboration is now looking at how these techniques deployed on chips known as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) could apply to autonomous driving, so that the fast decision-making used for particle collisions could help prevent collisions on the road.

    FPGAs have been used at CERN for many years and for many applications. Unlike the central processing unit of a laptop, these chips follow simple instructions and process many parallel tasks at once. With up to 100 high-speed serial links, they are able to support high-bandwidth inputs and outputs. Their parallel processing and re-programmability make them suitable for machine-learning applications.

    2
    An FPGA-based readout card for the CMS tracker (Image: John Coughlan/CMS/CERN)

    The challenge, however, has been to fit complex deep-learning algorithms – a particular class of machine-learning algorithms – in chips of limited capacity. This required software developed for the CERN-based experiments, called “hls4ml”, which reduces the algorithms and produces FPGA-ready code without loss of accuracy or performance, allowing the chips to execute decision-making algorithms in micro-seconds.

    A new collaboration between CERN and Zenuity, the autonomous driving software company headquartered in Sweden, plans to use the techniques and software developed for the experiments at CERN to research their use in deploying deep learning on FPGAs, a particular class of machine-learning algorithms, for autonomous driving. Instead of particle-physics data, the FPGAs will be used to interpret huge quantities of data generated by normal driving conditions, using readouts from car sensors to identify pedestrians and vehicles. The technology should enable automated drive cars to make faster and better decisions and predictions, thus avoiding traffic collisions.

    To find out more about CERN technologies and their potential applications, visit kt.cern/technologies.

    See the full article here.


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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 11:35 am on August 27, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Particle Physics,   

    From Lawrence Berkeley National Lab: “Particle Accelerators Drive Decades of Discoveries at Berkeley Lab and Beyond” 

    Berkeley Logo

    From Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

    August 27, 2019
    Glenn Roberts Jr.
    geroberts@lbl.gov
    (510) 486-5582


    This video and accompanying article highlight the decades of discoveries, achievements and progress in particle accelerator R&D at Berkeley Lab. Lab accelerators have enabled new explorations of the atomic nucleus; the production and discovery of new elements and isotopes, and of subatomic particles and their properties; created new types of medical imaging and treatments; and provided new insight into the nature of matter and energy, and new methods to advance industry and security, among other wide-ranging applications. The Lab also pioneered a framework for designing, building, and operating these machines of big science with multidisciplinary teams. Its longstanding expertise is now driving a new generation of innovations in advanced accelerators and their components. (Credit: Marilyn Chung/Berkeley Lab)

    Accelerators have been at the heart of the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) since its inception in 1931, and are still a driving force in the Laboratory’s mission and its R&D program.

    2
    27 inch cyclotron built by Ernest O. Lawrence at U.C. Berkeley

    3
    Lawrence and the Cyclotron: the Birth of Big Science. https://blogs.plos.org

    Ernest O. Lawrence’s invention of the cyclotron, the first circular particle accelerator – and the development of progressively larger versions – led him to build on the hillside overlooking the UC Berkeley campus that is now Berkeley Lab’s home. A variety of large cyclotrons are in use today around the world, and new accelerator technologies continue to drive progress.

    “Our work in accelerators and related technologies has shaped the growth and diversification of Berkeley Lab over its long history, and remains a vital core competency today,” said James Symons, associate laboratory director for Berkeley Lab’s Physical Sciences Area.

    Cyclotrons and their successors

    Cyclotrons are “atom smashers” that accelerate charged particles along spiral paths with strong electric fields. Powerful magnetic fields guide them as they move outward from the device’s center.

    They can be used to create different elements by bombarding a target material with a beam of protons, for example, or to explore the structures of atomic nuclei. Cyclotrons played a key role in the production and discovery of several elements, and Berkeley Lab scientists participated in the discovery of 16 elements and in the rearrangement of the periodic table.

    Periodic Table from IUPAC 2019

    Cyclotrons can also be used to create special isotopes – atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons packed into their nuclei – that can be used for medical treatments and imaging and for other research purposes. As an example, technetium-99, which was created by Berkeley’s 37-inch cyclotron and discovered by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè, is used for millions of medical imaging scans a year worldwide.

    4
    37-inch cyclotron, general view. Photo taken 4/29/1947. 37″-333. Principal Investigator/Project: S. Harris

    The first facility built on the Berkeley Lab site was a massive 184-inch cyclotron. The iconic dome over the cyclotron now houses another accelerator: the Advanced Light Source.

    6
    184” (184 inch) Cyclotron taken in 1942. Credit: Lawrence Berkeley Nat’l Lab

    LBNL ALS

    Berkeley Lab scientists led the design and development of other new concepts in accelerators. After initial tests on an old cyclotron, the 184-Inch Cyclotron was rebuilt into a “synchro-cyclotron.”

    Edward McMillan then led the construction of a powerful ring-shaped electron accelerator, which he dubbed the “synchrotron,” that was based on a principle he co-discovered called “phase stability.” Within just a few years of its inception, construction began on an ambitious synchrotron, called the Bevatron for its 6 billion electron volts of energy, that reigned for several years as the most powerful in the world.

    LBNL Bevatron

    The Bevatron enabled the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of the antiproton, and two other Nobel Prizes were awarded based on research conducted at the Bevatron. Almost every accelerator built today operates using this same principle.

    Accelerator R&D and experiments at the Lab – and Lab scientists’ participation in experiments at other sites – have enabled discoveries of many subatomic particles and their properties, including the Higgs boson.

    Berkeley Lab scientists have also driven many innovations in linear accelerators, which accelerate particles along a straight path and offer some different capabilities than ring-shaped accelerators.

    Using a linear accelerator called the HILAC – and its SuperHILAC upgrade – to accelerate heavy charged particles (ions), scientists added several more new elements to the periodic table.

    7
    Inside the Super HILAC | Department of Energy

    The eventual use of the SuperHILAC to produce beams of charged particles for Bevatron experiments – the coupling led to the Bevatron’s rebranding as the Bevalac – gave rise to the study of nuclear matter at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    Lab accelerators also launched pioneering programs in biomedical research, including the use of accelerator beam-based cancer therapies and the production of medical isotopes. Lawrence’s brother John, a medical doctor, was a pioneer in this early nuclear medicine research, which spawned new pathways in medical treatments that have since developed into well-established fields.

    Berkeley Lab’s 88-Inch Cyclotron still supports cutting-edge nuclear science, including heavy-element research and tests that show how electronic components stand up to the effects of simulated space radiation.

    8
    88-Inch Cyclotron. LBNL

    Staff at the 88-Inch Cyclotron have also played a central role in the development of ion sources that achieve high-charge states. A new Ion Source Group at the Lab works on the machines that create beams driving this field of research.

    Accelerators that produce light

    Synchrotron light sources accelerate and bend particle beams using a magnetic field, causing them to give off light with special qualities. Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS) [above] that launched in 1993, generates intense, focused beams of X-rays to support a wide range of experiments. Most earlier light sources had been converted from accelerators built for high-energy physics experiments.

    The ALS is considered to be the first “third-generation” light source, a synchrotron designed specifically to support many simultaneous experiments and that features advanced magnetic devices such as wigglers and undulators to greatly increase the brightness of the X-ray beams. The late Berkeley Lab scientist Klaus Halbach pioneered the use of permanent magnets to create powerful, compact devices for use in accelerators.

    Berkeley Lab is now preparing for a major upgrade of the ALS, known as the ALS Upgrade or ALS-U, that will increase the brightness of its low-energy X-ray beams a hundredfold and focus them down to a few billionths of a meter. ALS-U will enable explorations of more-complex materials and phenomena.

    Light that produces acceleration

    Light can also be used as a driver to accelerate particles. The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center features four high-power laser systems that support an intense R&D effort in laser plasma acceleration. This technique uses lasers to drive the acceleration of electrons over a much shorter distance than is possible with conventional technology.

    A view of BELLA, the Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator. (Credit Roy Kaltschmidt-Berkeley Lab)

    The BELLA petawatt laser is driving research toward the high energies required for a next-generation particle collider while reducing the size and cost of such a machine compared to those of conventional large-scale accelerators. Other laser systems are aiming for new light sources driven by powerful beams from portable and centimeter-sized accelerators.

    Innovating locally, participating globally

    The revolutionary accelerators first developed at Berkeley Lab were large, complex machines that required innovations and expertise in science and engineering, and close coordination among specialists from many different disciplines.

    Lawrence and his lab championed a “team science” approach as the means to realize the vision for large accelerators pushing the boundaries of discovery. The global scientific community still embraces this approach, and the world’s most powerful accelerators and colliders require large teams of scientists, engineers, technicians, and others that can number into the thousands.

    In addition to Berkeley Lab’s own accelerators, its scientists and engineers have been instrumental in bringing their expertise to bear in the design and construction of accelerators and their components for accelerator projects across the U.S. and globally.

    Berkeley Lab researchers are building powerful superconducting magnets for an upgrade of CERN’s Large Hadron Collider in Europe, which is the world’s largest particle collider, as just one example.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan


    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    They are also contributing an ion beam source magnet for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University, and in designing and overseeing the construction and delivery of major components for an upgrade of the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams]

    SLAC/LCLS II projected view

    The Lab also has rich experience in developing control systems and instrumentation to precisely tune beam performance. Modeling and simulation of particle beams enable researchers to use “virtual accelerators” to better understand, efficiently optimize, and predict beam properties in the design of advanced particle accelerators.

    “We are thrilled to contribute to this continuing wave of innovation and progress that is ‘accelerating the future,’” said Thomas Schenkel, interim director of the Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division at Berkeley Lab. “The rich history of excellence in accelerator technologies here is the foundation upon which we are building the next generation of these powerful tools for scientific discoveries and industrial applications.”

    The Advanced Light Source and Linac Coherent Light Source are DOE Office of Science User Facilities, and the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, now under construction, will also be a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    See the full article here .

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    LBNL campus

    Bringing Science Solutions to the World
    In the world of science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

    Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California (UC) and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 202-acre site in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 3,232 scientists, engineers and support staff. The Lab’s total costs for FY 2014 were $785 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

    Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a UC Berkeley physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California.

    University of California Seal

     
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