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  • richardmitnick 7:22 am on June 6, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , EuroCirCol, , Particle Accelerators,   

    From CERN- “EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics” This Is Big News 

    CERN New Masthead

    Mon 08 Jun 2015
    Johannes Gutleber

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.

    1
    Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN.

    The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures.

    EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an accelerator infrastructure roadmap taking into account European and global interests by the time of the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics in 2018. It was the only one of 39 submissions to receive the maximum number of points from reviewers, a clear sign that high-energy physics remains a top priority for the European Commission.

    EuroCirCol is organised around four technical work packages: the first two relate to the development of the collider’s lattice and beam optics, including the experimental regions. A third is for the development of prototypes and will test a novel cryogenic beam vacuum system that can respond to the challenges of the high synchrotron radiation expected at such a collider. This work also pioneers collaboration between the particle physics light source communities, with opportunities to improve existing synchrotron radiation facilities and to reduce the cost and improve performance of fourth- or fifth-generation light sources. The last work package will study a viable design for a 16 Tesla accelerator magnet as part of a worldwide study of conductor R&D for the HL-LHC project and the FCC study.

    The EuroCirCol project creates opportunities for doctoral and post-doctoral assignments in the areas of beam optics and accelerator technologies in the participating institutes. It also provides excellent training opportunities for next-generation accelerator physicists under the guidance of world-renowned experts in the field.

    EuroCirCol is a building block in the globally coordinated strategy of the FCC study to produce a global design for a global machine. The main outcome of EuroCirCol will be the laying of foundations for subsequent research infrastructure development that will strengthen Europe as a leader in global research cooperation over the coming decades.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 6:41 am on June 6, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From ATLAS at CERN’s LHC: “Setting Off To New Energy Horizons” 

    CERN New Masthead

    June 4, 2015
    Andreas Hoecker & Marumi Kado, CERN

    1
    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed by the tracking detector are shown as light blue lines, and hits in the layers of the silicon tracking detector are shown as colored filled circles. The four inner layers are part of the silicon pixel detector and the four outer layers are part of the silicon strip detector. The layer closest to the beam, called IBL, is new for Run 2. In the view in the bottom right it is seen that this event has multiple pp collisions. The total number of reconstructed collision vertices is 17 but they are not all resolvable on the scale of this picture..

    After a shutdown of more than two years, Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is restarting at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV for proton–proton collisions and increased luminosity. This new phase will allow the LHC experiments to explore nature and probe the physical laws governing it at scales never reached before.

    In this first long shutdown, during which the LHC was consolidated, the ATLAS experiment saw a flurry of activity ranging from upgrades and repairs of the detector, its electronics and the trigger system, to a reappraisal of the computing and software used for the data reconstruction and analysis. ATLAS physicists have also used the time without beam to finalise and improve their analyses of the Run-1 data. In spite of the small relative amount of data collected, only 1% of the total dataset expected for the entire LHC programme, the data recorded by ATLAS with collision energies up to 8 TeV have provided a wealth of physics results and led to more than four hundred scientific publications.

    The expectations were high for this unique experimental endeavour represented by the LHC and its ultra-sophisticated particle detectors of which ATLAS is the largest one. The tera (1012) electron-Volt energy scale to which the LHC collisions of high-energetic protons are sensitive was sought to reveal new particles or phenomenon related to the mechanism that gives mass to elementary particles. The most anticipated and acclaimed scenario, and key prediction of the Standard Model, was the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism that predicted a spin-zero Higgs boson with a mass in reach of the LHC. Such a boson was discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments successfully culminating decades of experimental and theoretical effort. This discovery, and a plethora of other important results pushing the frontier of our knowledge, made the LHC Run-1 an astounding success.

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    Standard Model of Particle Physics. The diagram shows the elementary particles of the Standard Model (the Higgs boson, the three generations of quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons), including their names, masses, spins, charges, chiralities, and interactions with the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. It also depicts the crucial role of the Higgs boson in electroweak symmetry breaking, and shows how the properties of the various particles differ in the (high-energy) symmetric phase (top) and the (low-energy) broken-symmetry phase (bottom).

    What’s next? It doesn’t take long, when ambling the corridors along the ATLAS offices at CERN, to realise the suspense that reigns among the physicists running the experiment and preparing the analysis of the first Run-2 collisions. The new data, initially produced at 60% higher collision energy and promising to be several times more abundant than before, have the potential to dramatically extend the results from Run-1. The Higgs boson properties will be measured to much better precision, and new production and decay channels may be observed, further revealing the nature of this particle. Higgs physics will continue to be at the heart of Run-2, but the new data will also allow ATLAS to measure Standard Model processes at unprecedented energies and level of accuracy at hadron colliders, and detect yet unobserved rare processes. High-precision measurements of the masses and couplings of the heaviest known particles, are particularly important as they are indirectly sensitive to new phenomena entering the observed particle reactions through so-called virtual processes.

    These measurements, however, are challenging and will take time to complete. Yet the excitement felt in the ATLAS offices is due to another virtue of the higher collision energy in Run-2: the possibility of directly creating new, heavy particles in the most energetic proton–proton collisions owing to the proportionality relation between energy and mass. There are several reasons to conjecture the existence of such particles. Among these is dark matter, a phenomenon believed to involve physics beyond the Standard Model. Dark matter, if it couples to the known particles, could be produced at the LHC and detected by ATLAS in events with an apparent energy imbalance due to energy taken away by invisible (dark matter) particles. These particles could have any mass and couplings, and we neither know whether the LHC can produce them, nor whether the experiments can detect them, even if they existed. Another motivation for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model lies in an apparent shortcoming of the Higgs mechanism itself. Unlike matter particles, which by virtue of an underlying symmetry appear naturally light with respect to the extremely high energies that are thought to have existed during the earliest moments of the big bang, spin-zero particles such as the Higgs boson in the Standard Model do not have such a protective symmetry. It thus appears unnatural that the Higgs boson is so much lighter than these early energy scales where new phenomena are expected to govern physical laws. A new symmetry, such as the co-called “supersymmetry”, could solve that problem.

    Supersymmetry standard model
    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    Other mechanisms exist; all have in common to introduce new particles of which some may be observable at the LHC, and these new particles could potentially play the role of dark matter as well. ATLAS physicists will therefore mine the new data to deeply and comprehensively search for new physics. The higher collision energy will help to rapidly surpass the sensitivity of the searches conducted during Run-1.

    Ample opportunities but also significant challenges are facing the experimentalists. Critical attention and patience are required for a precise understanding of the new data before drawing conclusions. ATLAS is ready for it.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 6:11 am on June 5, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From LC Newsline: “Future large colliders in Asia – a personal perspective” 

    Linear Collider Collaboration header
    Linear Collider Collaboration

    28 May 2015
    Prof. Jie Gao, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, China

    1
    Qinghuada is the potential site for the Chinese collider.

    With the discovery of the Higgs particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in July 2012, after more than 50 years of searching, particle physics has finally entered the era of the Higgs, and the door for human beings to understand the unknown part of the Universe is wide open!

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    The Standard Model theory of particle physics is now gloriously complete: all particles that it has predicted have been found through experimental discovery with particle colliders.

    2
    Standard Model of Particle Physics. The diagram shows the elementary particles of the Standard Model (the Higgs boson, the three generations of quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons), including their names, masses, spins, charges, chiralities, and interactions with the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. It also depicts the crucial role of the Higgs boson in electroweak symmetry breaking, and shows how the properties of the various particles differ in the (high-energy) symmetric phase (top) and the (low-energy) broken-symmetry phase (bottom).

    Now is the time to nail it down with precision and to match to new theories to cover the unknown components of the Universe, such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy, through Higgs with its field stretched out to the whole Universe space. The Higgs couples not only to known fundamental particles in the Standard Model but might also couple to unknown parts of the Universe. To understand the whole Universe, with 5% of known Standard Model particles, 27% of Dark Matter and 68% Dark Energy, on the basis of the fundamental principles, the key of keys is to understand the 125-GeV Higgs with great precision. In fact, this task has great importance in science in terms of the fundamental understanding the Universe as a whole, including its beginning, its current status and its evolution. It is in this sense that studying the Higgs with great precision becomes one of the top subjects of big science.

    Different from a hundreds years ago, big science requires big instruments, a big scientific community, and big collaborations, especially in particle physics, which is becoming one of the precious cultures in human beings’ scientific activities. Different from a hundreds years ago, big science requires big investment in terms of both finance and human resources. However, just like a hundred years ago, big science rewards human beings in all aspects of life and activities on this planet and in space, such as electricity, nuclear power, and the World Wide Web as a (big!) byproduct out of big science research activity. And who knows, maybe (in at least philosophical point of view) human beings might one day be able to collide Dark Matter with the Higgs to release energy just like what we have done to hit atomic nucleus with neutrons to release nuclear energy.

    Concerning precise Higgs studies and beyond, the International Linear Collider (ILC), baptised by the International Committee of Future Accelerators (ICFA) in 2004, is one of such future big instruments. It is an electron-positron linear collider based on superconducting linear accelerator technology, with a potential of exploring centre-of-mass energies up to 1 TeV. In 2013, the ILC team finished its Technical Design Report (TDR), and Japan is considering to become its hosting country.

    In September 2012, right after the Higgs was found at the LHC, Chinese scientists proposed a circular electron-positron collider in China at 240 GeV centre of mass for Higgs studies with two detectors situated in a very long tunnel at least twice the size of the LHC at CERN. It could later be used to host a proton-proton collider well beyond LHC energy potential to reach a new energy frontier.

    From 12 to 14 June 2013, the 464th Fragrant Hill Meeting was held in Beijing about the strategy of Chinese high energy physics development after Higgs discovery, and the following consensuses were reached: 1) support ILC and participate to ILC construction with in-kind contributions, and request R&D fund from Chinese government; 2) as the next collider after BEPCII in China, a circular electron-positron Higgs factory(CEPC) and a Super proton-proton Collier (SppC) afterwards in the same tunnel is an important option and a historical opportunity, and corresponding R&D is needed.

    BEPII Beijing Electron Positron Collider
    BEPII Beijing Electron Positron Collider interior
    BEPII

    The vision of the 464th Fragrant Hill Meeting consensuses is that firstly, ILC is the right machine to be built globally in the world with its centre- of-mass energy potential up to 1 TeV, and China will be one of its important participants and contributors, and secondly, China should contribute not only through ILC collaboration and participation, but also make contributions to precise Higgs measurement through CEPC jointly with ILC for a period of time as a combined instrument with three detectors taking data during ILC and CEPC operation to ensure the excellent joint precision, and thirdly, shifts from CEPC operation to SppC construction and operation to explore physics in energy frontier as long term contribution.

    In fact, ILC and CEPC are complementary, and the complementarity between ILC and CEPC manifests itself not only through more detectors to increase joint measurement precision, but also through their energy region running scenarios. The ILC and CEPC are planning starting times that are almost the same. The ILC runs only at 500 and 350 GeV in the first five years, while CEPC during this time is running at 240GeV. After 5 to 7 years running, CEPC will start its shift to SppC, while the ILC continues a 20-year programme running at 500GeV, with possible upgrades to 1TeV and beyond.

    Finally, the fact that Japan and China, both Asian countries, having strong willingness to contribute to the high-energy physics community and science in general with world participation, one for hosting ILC and another for CEPC, is really excellent, it responds well to the fact that we have entered the era of the Higgs, and ILC and CEPC are a needed united big instrument to have excellent joint precision for Higgs study and beyond.

    See the full article here.

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    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists – particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers – are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner

     
  • richardmitnick 9:05 am on June 4, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From DOE via FNAL: “U.S. joins the world in a new era of research at the Large Hadron Collider” 

    FNAL Home

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    The following news release about the restart of the Large Hadron Collider is being issued by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. scientists working on the LHC. Fermilab serves as the U.S. hub for the CMS experiment at the LHC and the roughly 1,000 U.S. scientists who work on that experiment, including about 100 Fermilab employees. Fermilab is a Tier 1 computing center for LHC data and hosts a Remote Operations Center to process and analyze that data. Read more information about Fermilab’s role in the CMS experiment and the LHC. See a list of Fermilab scientists who can speak about the LHC.

    1
    One of the first collisions in the CMS detector at the record-high energy of 13 TeV, taken during testing for the second run of the Large Hadron Collider in late May. Image: CMS/CERN

    New LHC data gives researchers from around the world their best chance yet to study the Higgs boson and search for dark matter and new particles.

    Today scientists at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European research facility, started recording data from the highest-energy particle collisions ever achieved on Earth.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    This new proton collision data, the first recorded since 2012, will enable an international collaboration of researchers that includes more than 1,700 U.S. physicists to study the Higgs boson, search for dark matter and develop a more complete understanding of the laws of nature.

    “Together with collaborators from around the world, scientists from roughly 100 U.S. universities and laboratories are exploring a previously unreachable realm of nature,” said James Siegrist, the U.S. Department of Energy’s associate director of science for high-energy physics. “We are very excited to be part of the international community that is pushing the boundaries of our knowledge of the universe.”

    The Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, reproduces conditions similar to those that existed immediately after the big bang. In 2012, during the LHC’s first run, scientists discovered the Higgs boson—a fundamental particle that helps explain why certain elementary particles have mass. U.S. scientists represent about 20 percent and 30 percent, respectively, of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, the two international teams that co-discovered the Higgs boson. Hundreds of U.S. scientists played vital roles in the Higgs discovery and will continue to study its remarkable properties.

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    Scientists will use this new LHC data to pin down properties of the Higgs boson and search for new physics and phenomena such as dark matter particles—an invisible form of matter that makes up 25 percent of the entire mass and energy of the universe. Physicists will also endeavor to answer questions such as: Why is there more matter than antimatter? Why is the Higgs boson so light? Are there additional types of Higgs particles? What did matter look like immediately after the big bang?

    NSF-funded researchers at ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are investigating some of nature’s most fundamental properties at collision energies never before explored.

    CERN LHCb New II
    LHCb

    The potential for transformative discoveries is profound,” said Denise Caldwell, NSF’s division director for physics. “We eagerly look forward to LHC operation at almost twice the energy of any other particle accelerator on Earth.”

    The LHC was turned off in early 2013, and engineers spent two years preparing the machine to collide particles at a much higher energy and intensity. During the shutdown, U.S. scientists and their international collaborators installed several new components in the four LHC detectors. These components, together with other upgrades, will allow physicists to record more information about the particles produced during the high-energy collisions.

    These upgrades included a new detector in the heart of the ATLAS experiment, several new muon detectors on the outer shell of the CMS experiment, a new calorimeter inside the ALICE experiment and an innovative new data sorting system for the LHCb experiment.

    CERN ALICE New II
    ALICE

    U.S. scientists played vital roles in the design and instrumentation of these new systems and will operate several of the detector components throughout the next three years of data collection.

    Once collected at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, the new LHC data travels the globe. New fiber optic cables recently installed by the U.S. Department of Energy bring the data to computers and data centers at 18 U.S. institutions, which provide 35 percent of the worldwide computing power for the CMS experiment and 23 percent for the ATLAS experiment.

    The upgraded LHC will also generate data at a much faster rate. Scientists predict they will match the amount of data generated throughout the collider’s first three-year run within the next five months, eventually accumulating 10 times more data by the end of 2017. These collisions will also produce Higgs bosons 25 percent faster and will increase the chances of seeing other theoretical particles, such as those predicted for supersymmetry, by over 40 percent.

    “The first three-year run of the LHC, which culminated with major discovery in July 2012, was only the start of our journey. It is time for new physics!” said CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. “We have seen first data beginning to flow. Let’s see what they will reveal to us about how our universe works.”

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. It has its headquarters in Geneva. At present, its Member States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Romania is a Candidate for Accession. Serbia is an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Union, JINR and UNESCO have Observer Status.

    The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, its budget is $7.3 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 11,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

    See the full article here.

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:03 am on June 2, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From ATLAS at CERN: Fast Forward tp Physics 

    CERN New Masthead

    As ATLAS gears up to record data from proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at an unprecedented energy level, here are glimpses from the last two years of preparations. For more information about the ATLAS Experiment please visit the official outreach page at http://www.atlas.ch

    Watch, enjoy, learn.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 9:55 am on May 29, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From CERN: “Major work to ready the LHC experiments for Run 2″ 

    CERN New Masthead

    29 May 2015
    Corinne Pralavorio

    1
    A magnet is lowered through the ALICE cavern for work on the Large Hadron Collider during Long Shutdown 1 (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    2
    Installation of a new layer of pixels in the ATLAS tracker (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN)

    3
    The installation of the new pixel luminosity telescope in the CMS detector (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    4
    The reinstallation of the beam pipe in the LHCb detector (Image: LHCb)

    Next week, the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be back in action, taking data for the accelerator’s second run. The experiments were shut down two years ago for maintenance and refurbishment in preparation for collisions at the higher energy of 13 teraelectronvolts (TeV).

    Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) saw hundreds of collaboration members working in and around the experiment caverns on improvements to the detectors. Four of these detectors – ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb – are enormous, sophisticated machines measuring up to 40 metres long and 20 metres long and made up of dozens of subdetectors, themselves composed of millions of sensitive sensors. Each subdetector is designed to determine the characteristics of one or more types of particle emerging from the particle collisions. These subdetectors include trackers, which reveal the paths of charged particles, and calorimeters, which measure the energy of some particles. All the data collected is grouped and analysed with a view to understanding what happened at the moment of collision. During the second run, up to one billion proton collisions could occur every second in the detectors. Most of the collisions do not yield interesting results and given the enormous quantities of data generated, it can’t all be logged. The trigger system therefore sorts the collisions, keeping just the most interesting events – several hundred per second. The data-acquisition system then records the data and sends it to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid to be analysed by physicists. During the long shutdown, all these systems were verified and some were renovated or upgraded. Below is an overview of the main work projects that took place in the detector caverns ahead of the big restart.

    ALICE

    This experiment, which studies quark-gluon plasma – the matter present in the first moments of the universe’s existence – made improvements to most of its 19 subdetectors. One of these was the electromagnetic calorimeter, which measures the energy of the electrons, positrons and photons produced by the collisions. Its range of detection was extended with the addition of the new di-jet calorimeter. Modules were also added to other subdetectors, and tens of kilometres of cables were replaced as part of a complete overhaul of the electrical infrastructure. In terms of computing, ALICE doubled its data-logging capacity with improvements to the trigger and data-acquisition systems carried out by the collaboration’s IT experts.

    ATLAS

    The ATLAS detector can now see even better, thanks to a fourth layer of pixels in its pixel tracker, the subdetector closest to the collisions and whose function is to reconstruct the particle trajectories. Improvements were also made to the muon detectors and calorimeters, as well as to the entire basic infrastructure (including the electrical power supply and the cooling systems). Sections of the beam pipe, in which the protons circulate and collide, were replaced to reduce the background noise in the detector. With new, more efficient trigger and data-acquisition systems, ATLAS is ready to log more data than before: it will be capable of recording a thousand events every second – more than double its capacity during Run 1. In addition, an improvement plan to upgrade the simulation, reconstruction and data-analysis software used by physicists to conduct their research was carried out.

    CMS

    The CMS collaboration carried out important work on its tracker so that it can function at lower temperatures: it was fitted with a new leak-tightness system and a refurbished cooling system. The central section of the beam tube, where the collisions take place, was replaced with a tube of a smaller diameter to allow a new pixel tracker to be installed during the next long shutdown. A brand-new subdetector, the pixel luminosity telescope, was installed on either side of the detector and will enhance the experiment’s ability to measure luminosity (a measure of the number of collisions produced in the experiment). New muon chambers were installed and the hadron calorimeter, which measures the energy of particles containing quarks, was fitted with upgraded photodetectors. Last but not least, the trigger system was improved and the software and computing systems underwent a significant overhaul to reduce the time needed to produce analysis datasets.

    LHCb

    LHCb, the experiment that investigates beauty particles, added a HeRSChel detector along the beam line in order to identify rare processes in which particles are observed inside the detector but not along the beam line itself. The experiment’s beam pipe was also replaced, as was the pipe’s supporting structure, which is now lighter and more “transparent”. The experiments are constantly striving to achieve transparency as the detectors must detect without influencing the results, for example by intercepting particles that they’re not supposed to stop or by altering the trajectories.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 8:28 am on May 22, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From CERN: “First images of collisions at 13 TeV” 

    CERN New Masthead

    21 May 2015
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    1
    Test collisions continue today at 13 TeV in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to prepare the detectors ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, MOEDAL and TOTEM for data-taking, planned for early June (Image: LHC page 1)

    Last night, protons collided in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the record-breaking energy of 13 TeV for the first time. These test collisions were to set up systems that protect the machine and detectors from particles that stray from the edges of the beam.

    A key part of the process was the set-up of the collimators. These devices which absorb stray particles were adjusted in colliding-beam conditions. This set-up will give the accelerator team the data they need to ensure that the LHC magnets and detectors are fully protected.

    Today the tests continue. Colliding beams will stay in the LHC for several hours. The LHC Operations team will continue to monitor beam quality and optimisation of the set-up.

    This is an important part of the process that will allow the experimental teams running the detectors ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, MOEDAL and TOTEM to switch on their experiments fully. Data taking and the start of the LHC’s second run is planned for early June.

    2
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the ALICE detector (Image: ALICE)

    3
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the CMS detector (Image: CMS)

    4
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the ATLAS detector (Image: ATLAS)

    5
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the LHCb detector (Image: LHCb)

    6
    Protons collide at 13 TeV sending showers of particles through the TOTEM detector (Image: TOTEM)

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 4:11 pm on April 21, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Particle Accelerators   

    From NSF: “Smaller and cheaper particle accelerators?” 

    nsf
    National Science Foundation

    April 21, 2015
    Marlene Cimons

    1
    The figure shows images generated using data from a particle-in-cell simulation of a two bunch PWFA experiment. The electron bunches are moving from the top left towards the bottom right. The image shows isosurfaces of electron density (in bright green) and the parallel electric fields (in blue and red). The beam electrons are shown as dots and the dot colors represent the energy of the beam electrons. The simulations were done using the UCLA computer code called QuickPIC and the visualization was done using VisIt. Results from the experiment as well as simulation results were published in Nature, (Litos et al, Nature, vol. 515, pp. 512-515). Credit: This image was generated by Weiming An and Frank S. Tsung using VisIt. The simulation was performed on Blue Waters by Weiming An using the UCLA particle-in-cell code QuickPIC.

    Traditionally, particle accelerators have relied on electric fields generated by radio waves to drive electrons and other particles close to the speed of light. But in radio-frequency machines there is an upper limit on the electric field before the walls of the accelerator “break down,” causing it to not perform properly, and leading to equipment damage.

    In recent years, however, scientists experimenting with so-called “plasma wakefields” have found that accelerating electrons on waves of plasma, or ionized gas, is not only more efficient, but also allows for the use of an electric field a thousand or more times higher than those of a conventional accelerator.

    And most importantly, the technique, where electrons gain energy by “surfing” on a wave of electrons within the ionized gas, raises the potential for a new generation of smaller and less expensive particle accelerators.

    “The big picture application is a future high energy physics collider,” says Warren Mori, a professor of physics, astronomy and electrical engineering at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), who has been working on this project. “Typically, these cost tens of billions of dollars to build. The motivation is to try to develop a technology that would reduce the size and the cost of the next collider.”

    The National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded scientist and his collaborators believe the next generation of smaller and cheaper accelerators could enhance their value, expanding their use in medicine, national security, materials science, industry and high-energy physics research.

    “Accelerators are also used for sources of radiation. When a high energy particle wiggles up and down, it generates X-rays, so you could also use smaller accelerators to make smaller radiation sources to probe a container to see whether there is nuclear material inside, or to probe biological samples,” Mori says. “Short bursts of X-rays are currently being used to watch chemical bonds form and to study the inner structure of proteins, and viruses.”

    Just as important, albeit on a more abstract level, “the goal of the future of high-energy physics is to understand the fundamental particles of matter,” he says. “To have the field continue, we need these expensive, large, and complex tools for discovery.”

    NSF has supported basic research in a series of grants in recent years totaling $4 million, including computational resources. The Department of Energy (DOE) has provided the bulk of the funding for experimental facilities and experiments, and has contributed to theory and simulations support.

    “Mori’s work is the perfect example of an innovative approach to advancing the science and technology frontiers that can come about when the deep understanding of fundamental laws of nature, of the collective behavior of charged particles that we call a plasma, is combined with state-of-the-art numerical modeling algorithms and simulation tools,” says Vyacheslav (Slava) Lukin, program director in NSF’s physics division.

    Using DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, the scientists from SLAC and UCLA increased clusters of electrons to energies 400 to 500 times higher than what they could reach traveling the same distance in a conventional accelerator. Equally important, the energy transfer was much more efficient than that of earlier experiments, a first to show this combination of energy and efficiency using “plasma wakefields.”

    In the experiments, the scientists sent pairs of electron bunches containing 5 billion to 6 billion electrons each into a laser-generated column of plasma inside an oven of hot lithium gas. The first bunch in each pair was the “drive” bunch; it blasted all the free electrons away from the lithium atoms, leaving the positively charged lithium nuclei behind, a configuration known as the “blowout regime.” The blasted electrons then fell back in behind the second bunch of electrons, known as the “trailing” bunch to form a “plasma wake” that thrust the trailer electrons to higher energy.

    While earlier experiments had demonstrated high-field acceleration in plasma wakes, the SLAC/UCLA team was the first to demonstrate simultaneously high efficiency and high accelerating fields using a drive and trailer bunch combination in the strong “blowout” regime. Furthermore, the accelerated electrons ended up with a relatively small energy spread.

    “Because it’s a plasma, there is no breakdown field limit,” Mori says. “The medium itself is fully ionized, so you don’t have to worry about breakdown. Therefore, the electric field in a plasma device can be pushed to a thousand or more times higher amplitude than that in a conventional accelerator.”

    Chandrashekhar Joshi, UCLA professor of electrical engineering, led the team that developed the plasma source used in the experiment. Joshi, the director of the Neptune Facility for Advanced Accelerator Research at UCLA is the UCLA principal investigator for this research and is a long-time collaborator with the SLAC group. The team also is made up of SLAC accelerator physicists, including Mike Litos and Mark Hogan; Mori leads the group that developed the computer simulations used in the experiments. Their findings appeared last fall in the journal Nature.

    “The near term goal of this research is to produce compact accelerators for use in universities and industry, while a longer term goal remains developing a high energy collider operating at the energy frontier of particle physics,” Mori says.

    Investigators
    Warren Mori
    Frank Tsung
    Viktor Decyk
    Russel Caflisch
    Michail Tzoufras
    Philip Pritchett

    Related Institutions/Organizations
    University of California-Los Angeles

    Related Websites
    Plasma-Accelerator Group at UCLA: http://www.seas.ucla.edu/plasma/

    Visit a listing of past and present particle accelerators here.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…we are the funding source for approximately 24 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America’s colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.

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  • richardmitnick 10:37 am on April 16, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From FNAL: “Physics in a Nutshell Particle – beams and the scattering process” 

    FNAL Home

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 16, 2015
    Roger Dixon

    1
    The Main Injector is the flagship accelerator at Fermilab. Over the coming months, this column will review how machines such as this one achieve high-energy particle beams. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Much of the information we gather from the physical world comes to us by a scattering process. Scattering occurs when a beam consisting of light or charged particles strikes a target. The incident particle and target can simply recoil from the interaction, or other additional particles can materialize out of the energy of the collision. Information about the target and beam is carried away in the recoiling particles.

    Consider an everyday example: A beam of sunlight strikes a flower and scatters off the magnificent petals in the form of light particles at particular frequencies, which make their way to our eyes. From there the information is transmitted to the brain, which compares the data with existing data in the brain, and we recognize that we are looking at a beautiful flower.

    We gather information about much smaller, subatomic objects in the same way. A beam from a particle accelerator strikes a target, and a detector records information about the recoiling debris: angles, momentum, energy of the scattered particles. The detector (an eye) registers the raw information and processes it before sending it on to a computer (a brain), which seeks recognizable patterns in the data that reveal basic aspects of the beam and the target. Through the ensuing analysis, we can distinguish between particles and measure their properties, such as charge, mass and spin, among others.

    Order discerned in this manner is a fundamental basis for our knowledge of the physical world. A subtlety of the process is that the incident beam must have specific properties in order to reveal the type of information we want with the desired level of detail.

    To explore the details of very small particles, scientists need to create beams with high energies. Electric fields are used to accelerate charged particles. An electric field resides between the two poles of a battery. The unit of energy used for beams of charged particle is the electronvolt (eV). One eV is the energy gained by an electron when it is accelerated through a one-volt potential.

    One way to create such a potential is with a 1.5-volt flashlight battery. An electron passing between the poles would gain 1.5 eV. However, a battery is not the best way to accelerate charged particles. To achieve 1 trillion electronvolts (1 TeV) with flashlight batteries would require 667 billion batteries, and the battery string would be roughly 24 million miles long.

    The good news is that I found batteries on sale for $1.15 each if we act fast. However, a quick review of the numbers reveals that batteries simply won’t work due to both cost and environmental issues. We need a better solution for accelerating our beams.

    In future columns I will summarize more reasonable solutions for achieving high-energy beams. We will discover that modern accelerators use a combination of brute force and ingenuity. What could be more fun?

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:38 am on April 9, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From FNAL- “Frontier Science Result: CDF – Happy hunting grounds 

    FNAL Home

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 9, 2015
    Fabrizio Margaroli and Andy Beretvas

    1
    This artistic view of a Feynman diagram shows the process of proton colliding with an antiproton, producing a W’, which then decays into a top quark and an antibottom quark.

    We understand nature in terms of elementary particles interacting through a set of well-known forces, which are mediated by other particles. These are the graviton (mediator of gravity), the photon (mediator of electromagnetism), the gluon (mediator of the strong force), the W and Z bosons (mediators of the weak force) and the Higgs boson. We produce and detect these particles (except the graviton) in large numbers at colliders around the world.

    But is that all the universe is made of — a handful of different types of particles? We have good reasons to believe that this is not the case. New forces can exist, and the corresponding mediating particles could be seen at colliders. However, such particles have been hunted extensively at the Large Hadron Collider without success so far.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    If new forces are hiding so well from physicists’ determination to discover them, either they would have to be mediated by very massive bosons or these bosons would have to interact very weakly with ordinary stuff.

    The W and Z boson serve as a good model for this kind of exotic stuff: In fact they are both very heavy compared to their peers and interact weakly with ordinary matter. They live very shortly before decaying into more “mundane” particles, most of the time quarks. If new forces were to exist with such properties, then the LHC would not be the best hunting ground because of its enormous production rate of quarks from ordinary forces.

    A new analysis of Tevatron data performed by the CDF collaboration searches for the existence of new electrically charged, massive particles (a W’ boson) decaying into a top and a bottom quark. Top and bottom quarks leave striking signatures in the detector; W’ events would resemble ordinary production of such quarks if not for the extra energy provided by the decay of the parent particle.

    FNAL Tevatron
    FNAL Tevatron machine
    Tevatron

    FNAL CDF
    CDF part of the Tevatron

    The search for a W’ with data from the CDF experiment turns out to be the most sensitive for such a heavy particle with mass below 650 GeV (approximately 700 times the proton mass). Unfortunately, no surprise turned out from CDF data. The ball is now again in the hands of the LHC experiments!

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
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