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  • richardmitnick 2:34 pm on August 24, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From CERN: “LHC pushes limits of performance’ 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    19 Aug 2016
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    1

    The Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC) performance continued to surpass expectations, when this week it achieved 2220 proton bunches in each of its counter-rotating beams – the most it will achieve this year.

    This is not the maximum the machine is capable of holding (at full intensity the beam will have nearly 2800 bunches) but it is currently limited by a technical issue in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    CERN  Super Proton Synchrotron
    “CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    “Performance is excellent, given this limitation,” says Mike Lamont, head of the Operations team. “We’re 10% above design luminosity (which we surpassed in June), we have these really long fills (where the beam is circulating for up to 20 hours or so) and very good collision rates. 2220 bunches is just us squeezing as much in as we can, given the restrictions, to maximize delivery to the experiments.”

    As an example of the machine’s brilliant performance, with almost two months left in this year’s run it has already reached an integrated luminosity of 22fb-1 – very close to the goal for 2016 of 25fb-1 (up from 4fb-1 last year.)

    Luminosity is an essential indicator of the performance of an accelerator, measuring the potential number of collisions that can occur in a given amount of time, and integrated luminosity (measured in inverse femtobarns, fb-1) is the accumulated number of potential collisions. At its peak, the LHC’s proton-proton collision rate reaches about 1 billion collisions per second giving a chance that even the rarest processes at the highest energy could occur.

    The SPS is currently experiencing a small fault that could be exacerbated by high beam intensity – hence the number of proton bunches sent to the LHC per injection is limited to 96, compared to the normal 288.

    “Once this issue is fixed in the coming year-end technical stop, we’ll be able to push up the number of bunches even further. Next year we should be able to go to new record levels,” says Lamont with a wry grin.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on August 24, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From Nature- “China, Japan, CERN: Who will host the next LHC?” 

    Nature Mag
    Nature

    [The title is in error. There will possibly be another particle accelerator, or more than one. But none will be the LHC. It is what it is. They will want and need a new name. Might I suggest superconducting super collider, and might I suggest the United States?]

    19 August 2016
    Elizabeth Gibney

    Labs are vying to build ever-bigger colliders against a backdrop of uncertainty about how particle physicists will make the next big discoveries.

    1
    Whether the Large Hadron Collider will find phenomena outside the standard model of particle physics remains to be seen. Harold Cunningham/Getty

    CERN/LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    It was a triumph for particle physics — and many were keen for a piece of the action. The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 using the world’s largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), prompted a pitch from Japanese scientists to host its successor. The machine would build on the LHC’s success by measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and other known, or soon-to-be-discovered, particles in exquisite detail.

    But the next steps for particle physics now seem less certain, as discussions at the International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) in Chicago on 8 August suggest. Much hinges on whether the LHC unearths phenomena that fall outside the standard model of particle physics — something that it has not yet done but on which physicists are still counting — and whether China’s plans to build an LHC successor move forward.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    When Japanese scientists proposed hosting the International Linear Collider (ILC), a group of international scientists had already drafted its design. The ILC would collide electrons and positrons along a 31-kilometre-long track, in contrast to the 27-kilometre-long LHC, which collides protons in a circular track that is based at Europe’s particle-physics laboratory, CERN (See ‘World of colliders’).

    ILC schematic
    ILC schematic

    Because protons are composite particles made of quarks, collisions create a mess of debris. The ILC’s particles, by contrast, are fundamental and so provide the cleaner collisions more suited to precision measurements, which could reveal deviations from expected behaviour that point to physics beyond the standard model.

    Higgs study

    For physicists, the opportunity to carry out detailed study of the Higgs boson and the heaviest, ‘top’ quark, the second most recently discovered particle, is reason enough to build the facility. Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) was expected to make a call on whether to host the project — which could begin experiments around 2030 — in 2016. But the Japanese panel advising MEXT indicated last year that opportunities to study the Higgs boson and the top quark would not on their own justify building the ILC, and that it would wait until the end of the LHC’s first maximum-energy run – scheduled for 2018 – before making a decision.

    That means the panel is not yet convinced by the argument that the ILC should be built irrespective of what the LHC finds, says Masanori Yamauchi, director-general of Japan’s High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba who sat on an ICHEP panel at a session on future facilities. “That’s the statement hidden under their statement,” he says.

    If the LHC discovers new phenomena, these would be further fodder for ILC study — and would strengthen the case for building the high precision machine.

    US physicists have long backed building a linear collider. And a joint MEXT and US Department of Energy group is discussing ways to reduce the ILC’s costs, says Yamauchi, which are now estimated at US$10 billion. A reduction of around 15% is feasible — but Japan will need funding commitments from other countries before it formally agrees to host, he added.

    Chinese competitor

    Snapping at Japan’s heels is a Chinese team. In the months after the Higgs discovery, a team of physicists led by Wang Yifang, director of the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, floated a plan to host a collider in the 2030s, also partially funded by the international community and focused on precision measurements of the Higgs and other particles.

    2
    Circular rather than linear, this 50–100-kilometre-long electron–positron smasher would not reach the energies of the ILC. But it would require the creation of a tunnel that could allow a proton–proton collider — similar to the LHC, but much bigger — to be built at a hugely reduced cost.

    Wang and his team this year secured around 35 million yuan (US$5 million) in funding from China’s Ministry of Science and Technology to continue research and development for the project, Wang told the ICHEP session. Last month, China’s National Development and Reform Commission turned down a further request from the team for 800 million yuan, but other funding routes remain open, Wang said, and the team now plans to focus on raising international interest in the project.

    By affirming worldwide interest in Higgs physics, the Chinese proposal bolsters Japan’s case for building the ILC, says Yamauchi. But if it goes ahead, it could drain international funding from the ILC and put its future on shakier ground. “It may have a negative impact,” he says.

    Super-LHC

    In the future, the option to use China’s electron–positron collider as the basis for a giant proton–proton collider could interfere with CERN’s own plans for a 100-kilometre-circumference circular machine that would smash protons together at more than 7 times the energy of the LHC. Until the mid-2030s, CERN will be busy with an upgrade that will raise the intensity — but not the energy — of the LHC’s proton beam. And by that time, China might have a suitable tunnel that could make it harder to get backing for this ‘super-LHC’.

    At ICHEP, Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s director-general, floated an interim idea: souping up the energy of the LHC beyond its current design by installing a new generation of superconducting magnets by around 2035. This would provide a relatively modest boost in energy — from 14 teraelectronvolts (TeV) to 20 TeV — that would have a strong science case if the LHC finds new physics at 14 TeV, said Gianotti. Its $5-billion price tag could be paid for out of CERN’s regular budget.

    For decades, successive facilities have found particles predicted by the standard model, and neither the LHC nor any of its proposed successors is guaranteed to find new physics. Questions asked at the ICHEP session revealed some soul-searching among attendees, including a plea to reassure young high-energy physicists about the future of the field and contemplation of whether money would be better spent on other approaches rather than ever-bigger accelerators.

    Indeed, the US is betting on neutrinos, fundamental particles that could reveal physics beyond the standard model, not colliders. The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, hopes to become the world capital of neutrino physics by hosting the $1-billion Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, which will beam neutrinos to a range of detectors starting in 2026.

    FNAL LBNFFNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels
    LBMF/DUNE map from FNAL, Batavia, IL to SURF, SD, USA; DUNE’s Argon tank; SURF caverns for science

    Funding will require approval from US Congress in 2017. But at the ICHEP session, Fermilab director Nigel Lockyer was confident: “We are beyond the point of no return. It is happening.”

    See the full article here .

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    Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:45 pm on August 16, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Big PanDA, , , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From BNL: “Big PanDA Tackles Big Data for Physics and Other Future Extreme Scale Scientific Applications” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    August 16, 2016
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350
    Peter Genzer
    (631) 344-3174
    genzer@bnl.gov

    1
    A workload management system developed by a team including physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory taps into unused processing time on the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to tackle complex physics problems. New funding will help the group extend this approach, giving scientists in other data-intensive fields access to valuable supercomputing resources.

    A billion times per second, particles zooming through the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, smash into one another at nearly the speed of light, emitting subatomic debris that could help unravel the secrets of the universe.

    CERN/LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Collecting the data from those collisions and making it accessible to more than 6000 scientists in 45 countries, each potentially wanting to slice and analyze it in their own unique ways, is a monumental challenge that pushes the limits of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the current infrastructure for handling the LHC’s computing needs. With the move to higher collision energies at the LHC, the demand just keeps growing.

    To help meet this unprecedented demand and supplement the WLCG, a group of scientists working at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and collaborating universities has developed a way to fit some of the LHC simulations that demand high computing power into untapped pockets of available computing time on one of the nation’s most powerful supercomputers—similar to the way tiny pebbles can fill the empty spaces between larger rocks in a jar. The group—from DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), University of Texas at Arlington, Rutgers University, and University of Tennessee, Knoxville—just received $2.1 million in funding for 2016-2017 from DOE’s Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program to enhance this “workload management system,” known as Big PanDA, so it can help handle the LHC data demands and be used as a general workload management service at DOE’s Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a DOE Office of Science User Facility at ORNL.

    “The implementation of these ideas in an operational-scale demonstration project at OLCF could potentially increase the use of available resources at this Leadership Computing Facility by five to ten percent,” said Brookhaven physicist Alexei Klimentov, a leader on the project. “Mobilizing these previously unusable supercomputing capabilities, valued at millions of dollars per year, could quickly and effectively enable cutting-edge science in many data-intensive fields.”

    Proof-of-concept tests using the Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been highly successful. This Leadership Computing Facility typically handles large jobs that are fit together to maximize its use. But even when fully subscribed, some 10 percent of Titan’s computing capacity might be sitting idle—too small to take on another substantial “leadership class” job, but just right for handling smaller chunks of number crunching. The Big PanDA (for Production and Distributed Analysis) system takes advantage of these unused pockets by breaking up complex data analysis jobs and simulations for the LHC’s ATLAS and ALICE experiments and “feeding” them into the “spaces” between the leadership computing jobs.

    CERN/ATLAS detector
    CERN/ATLAS detector

    AliceDetectorLarge
    CERN/Alice Detector
    When enough capacity is available to run a new big job, the smaller chunks get kicked out and reinserted to fill in any remaining idle time.

    “Our team has managed to access opportunistic cycles available on Titan with no measurable negative effect on the supercomputer’s ability to handle its usual workload,” Klimentov said. He and his collaborators estimate that up to 30 million core hours or more per month may be harvested using the Big PanDA approach. From January through July of 2016, ATLAS detector simulation jobs ran for 32.7 million core hours on Titan, using only opportunistic, backfill resources. The results of the supercomputing calculations are shipped to and stored at the RHIC & ATLAS Computing Facility, a Tier 1 center for the WLCG located at Brookhaven Lab, so they can be made available to ATLAS researchers across the U.S. and around the globe.

    The goal now is to translate the success of the Big PanDA project into operational advances that will enhance how the OLCF handles all of its data-intensive computing jobs. This approach will provide an important model for future exascale computing, increasing the coherence between the technology base used for high-performance, scalable modeling and simulation and that used for data-analytic computing.

    “This is a novel and unique approach to workload management that could run on all current and future leadership computing facilities,” Klimentov said.

    Specifically, the new funding will help the team develop a production scale operational demonstration of the PanDA workflow within the OLCF computational and data resources; integrate OLCF and other leadership facilities with the Grid and Clouds; and help high-energy and nuclear physicists at ATLAS and ALICE—experiments that expect to collect 10 to 100 times more data during the next 3 to 5 years—achieve scientific breakthroughs at times of peak LHC demand.

    As a unifying workload management system, Big PanDA will also help integrate Grid, leadership-class supercomputers, and Cloud computing into a heterogeneous computing architecture accessible to scientists all over the world as a step toward a global cyberinfrastructure.

    “The integration of heterogeneous computing centers into a single federated distributed cyberinfrastructure will allow more efficient utilization of computing and disk resources for a wide range of scientific applications,” said Klimentov, noting how the idea mirrors Aristotle’s assertion that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

    This project is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .

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    BNL Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world.Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 7:17 am on August 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From Quanta: “What No New Particles Means for Physics” 

    Quanta Magazine
    Quanta Magazine

    August 9, 2016
    Natalie Wolchover

    1
    Olena Shmahalo/Quanta Magazine

    Physicists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe have explored the properties of nature at higher energies than ever before, and they have found something profound: nothing new.

    It’s perhaps the one thing that no one predicted 30 years ago when the project was first conceived.

    The infamous “diphoton bump” that arose in data plots in December has disappeared, indicating that it was a fleeting statistical fluctuation rather than a revolutionary new fundamental particle. And in fact, the machine’s collisions have so far conjured up no particles at all beyond those catalogued in the long-reigning but incomplete “Standard Model” of particle physics.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    In the collision debris, physicists have found no particles that could comprise dark matter, no siblings or cousins of the Higgs boson, no sign of extra dimensions, no leptoquarks — and above all, none of the desperately sought supersymmetry particles that would round out equations and satisfy “naturalness,” a deep principle about how the laws of nature ought to work.

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event
    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN CMS Higgs Event
    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    “It’s striking that we’ve thought about these things for 30 years and we have not made one correct prediction that they have seen,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.

    The news has emerged at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Chicago over the past few days in presentations by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, whose cathedral-like detectors sit at 6 and 12 o’clock on the LHC’s 17-mile ring.

    CERN/ATLAS detector
    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN/CMS Detector
    CERN/CMS Detector

    Both teams, each with over 3,000 members, have been working feverishly for the past three months analyzing a glut of data from a machine that is finally running at full throttle after being upgraded to nearly double its previous operating energy. It now collides protons with 13 trillion electron volts (TeV) of energy — more than 13,000 times the protons’ individual masses — providing enough raw material to beget gargantuan elementary particles, should any exist.

    2
    Lucy Reading-Ikkanda for Quanta Magazine

    So far, none have materialized. Especially heartbreaking for many is the loss of the diphoton bump, an excess of pairs of photons that cropped up in last year’s teaser batch of 13-TeV data, and whose origin has been the speculation of some 500 papers by theorists. Rumors about the bump’s disappearance in this year’s data began leaking in June, triggering a community-wide “diphoton hangover.”

    “It would have single-handedly pointed to a very exciting future for particle experiments,” said Raman Sundrum, a theoretical physicist at the University of Maryland. “Its absence puts us back to where we were.”

    The lack of new physics deepens a crisis that started in 2012 during the LHC’s first run, when it became clear that its 8-TeV collisions would not generate any new physics beyond the Standard Model. (The Higgs boson, discovered that year, was the Standard Model’s final puzzle piece, rather than an extension of it.) A white-knight particle could still show up later this year or next year, or, as statistics accrue over a longer time scale, subtle surprises in the behavior of the known particles could indirectly hint at new physics. But theorists are increasingly bracing themselves for their “nightmare scenario,” in which the LHC offers no path at all toward a more complete theory of nature.

    Some theorists argue that the time has already come for the whole field to start reckoning with the message of the null results. The absence of new particles almost certainly means that the laws of physics are not natural in the way physicists long assumed they are. “Naturalness is so well-motivated,” Sundrum said, “that its actual absence is a major discovery.”

    Missing Pieces

    The main reason physicists felt sure that the Standard Model could not be the whole story is that its linchpin, the Higgs boson, has a highly unnatural-seeming mass. In the equations of the Standard Model, the Higgs is coupled to many other particles. This coupling endows those particles with mass, allowing them in turn to drive the value of the Higgs mass to and fro, like competitors in a tug-of-war. Some of the competitors are extremely strong — hypothetical particles associated with gravity might contribute (or deduct) as much as 10 million billion TeV to the Higgs mass — yet somehow its mass ends up as 0.125 TeV, as if the competitors in the tug-of-war finish in a near-perfect tie. This seems absurd — unless there is some reasonable explanation for why the competing teams are so evenly matched.

    4
    Maria Spiropulu of the California Institute of Technology, pictured in the LHC’s CMS control room, brushed aside talk of a nightmare scenario, saying, “Experimentalists have no religion.” Courtesy of Maria Spiropulu

    Supersymmetry, as theorists realized in the early 1980s, does the trick. It says that for every “fermion” that exists in nature — a particle of matter, such as an electron or quark, that adds to the Higgs mass — there is a supersymmetric “boson,” or force-carrying particle, that subtracts from the Higgs mass. This way, every participant in the tug-of-war game has a rival of equal strength, and the Higgs is naturally stabilized. Theorists devised alternative proposals for how naturalness might be achieved, but supersymmetry had additional arguments in its favor: It caused the strengths of the three quantum forces to exactly converge at high energies, suggesting they were unified at the beginning of the universe. And it supplied an inert, stable particle of just the right mass to be dark matter.

    “We had figured it all out,” said Maria Spiropulu, a particle physicist at the California Institute of Technology and a member of CMS. “If you ask people of my generation, we were almost taught that supersymmetry is there even if we haven’t discovered it. We believed it.”

    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY
    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY

    Hence the surprise when the supersymmetric partners of the known particles didn’t show up — first at the Large Electron-Positron Collider in the 1990s, then at the Tevatron in the 1990s and early 2000s, and now at the LHC. As the colliders have searched ever-higher energies, the gap has widened between the known particles and their hypothetical superpartners, which must be much heavier in order to have avoided detection. Ultimately, supersymmetry becomes so “broken” that the effects of the particles and their superpartners on the Higgs mass no longer cancel out, and supersymmetry fails as a solution to the naturalness problem. Some experts argue that we’ve passed that point already. Others, allowing for more freedom in how certain factors are arranged, say it is happening right now, with ATLAS and CMS excluding the stop quark — the hypothetical superpartner of the 0.173-TeV top quark — up to a mass of 1 TeV. That’s already a nearly sixfold imbalance between the top and the stop in the Higgs tug-of-war. Even if a stop heavier than 1 TeV exists, it would be pulling too hard on the Higgs to solve the problem it was invented to address.

    “I think 1 TeV is a psychological limit,” said Albert de Roeck, a senior research scientist at CERN, the laboratory that houses the LHC, and a professor at the University of Antwerp in Belgium.

    Some will say that enough is enough, but for others there are still loopholes to cling to. Among the myriad supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, there are more complicated versions in which stop quarks heavier than 1 TeV conspire with additional supersymmetric particles to counterbalance the top quark, tuning the Higgs mass. The theory has so many variants, or individual “models,” that killing it outright is almost impossible. Joe Incandela, a physicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who announced the discovery of the Higgs boson on behalf of the CMS collaboration in 2012, and who now leads one of the stop-quark searches, said, “If you see something, you can make a model-independent statement that you see something. Seeing nothing is a little more complicated.”

    Particles can hide in nooks and crannies. If, for example, the stop quark and the lightest neutralino (supersymmetry’s candidate for dark matter) happen to have nearly the same mass, they might have stayed hidden so far. The reason for this is that, when a stop quark is created in a collision and decays, producing a neutralino, very little energy will be freed up to take the form of motion. “When the stop decays, there’s a dark-matter particle just kind of sitting there,” explained Kyle Cranmer of New York University, a member of ATLAS. “You don’t see it. So in those regions it’s very difficult to look for.” In that case, a stop quark with a mass as low as 0.6 TeV could still be hiding in the data.

    Experimentalists will strive to close these loopholes in the coming years, or to dig out the hidden particles. Meanwhile, theorists who are ready to move on face the fact that they have no signposts from nature about which way to go. “It’s a very muddled and uncertain situation,” Arkani-Hamed said.

    New Hope

    Many particle theorists now acknowledge a long-looming possibility: that the mass of the Higgs boson is simply unnatural — its small value resulting from an accidental, fine-tuned cancellation in a cosmic game of tug-of-war — and that we observe such a peculiar property because our lives depend on it. In this scenario, there are many, many universes, each shaped by different chance combinations of effects. Out of all these universes, only the ones with accidentally lightweight Higgs bosons will allow atoms to form and thus give rise to living beings. But this “anthropic” argument is widely disliked for being seemingly untestable.

    In the past two years, some theoretical physicists have started to devise totally new natural explanations for the Higgs mass that avoid the fatalism of anthropic reasoning and do not rely on new particles showing up at the LHC. Last week at CERN, while their experimental colleagues elsewhere in the building busily crunched data in search of such particles, theorists held a workshop to discuss nascent ideas such as the relaxion hypothesis — which supposes that the Higgs mass, rather than being shaped by symmetry, was sculpted dynamically by the birth of the cosmos — and possible ways to test these ideas. Nathaniel Craig of the University of California, Santa Barbara, who works on an idea called neutral naturalness, said in a phone call from the CERN workshop, “Now that everyone is past their diphoton hangover, we’re going back to these questions that are really aimed at coping with the lack of apparent new physics at the LHC.”

    Arkani-Hamed, who, along with several colleagues, recently proposed another new approach called Nnaturalness, said, “There are many theorists, myself included, who feel that we’re in a totally unique time, where the questions on the table are the really huge, structural ones, not the details of the next particle. We’re very lucky to get to live in a period like this — even if there may not be major, verified progress in our lifetimes.”

    As theorists return to their blackboards, the 6,000 experimentalists with CMS and ATLAS are reveling in their exploration of a previously uncharted realm. “Nightmare, what does it mean?” said Spiropulu, referring to theorists’ angst about the nightmare scenario. “We are exploring nature. Maybe we don’t have time to think about nightmares like that, because we are being flooded in data and we are extremely excited.”

    There’s still hope that new physics will show up. But discovering nothing, in Spiropulu’s view, is a discovery all the same — especially when it heralds the death of cherished ideas. “Experimentalists have no religion,” she said.

    Some theorists agree. Talk of disappointment is “crazy talk,” Arkani-Hamed said. “It’s actually nature! We’re learning the answer! These 6,000 people are busting their butts and you’re pouting like a little kid because you didn’t get the lollipop you wanted?”

    See the full article here .

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    Formerly known as Simons Science News, Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent online publication launched by the Simons Foundation to enhance public understanding of science. Why Quanta? Albert Einstein called photons “quanta of light.” Our goal is to “illuminate science.” At Quanta Magazine, scientific accuracy is every bit as important as telling a good story. All of our articles are meticulously researched, reported, edited, copy-edited and fact-checked.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:39 am on August 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From Nature: “Physicists need to make the case for high-energy experiments” 

    Nature Mag
    Nature

    10 August 2016
    No writer credit

    The disappearance of a tantalizing LHC signal is disappointing for those who want to build the next big accelerator.

    1
    LHCb Experiment/LHCb Collaboration

    Science thrives on discovery, so it’s natural for physicists to mourn this week. As the high-energy-physics community gathered in Chicago on Friday, hopes were high (if cautious) that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, had chalked up another finding to build on the discovery of the Higgs boson.

    CERN/LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Not so — the bump in the data that had caused such excitement was washed away with a flood of data that revealed it to be a mere statistical fluctuation.

    Ordinarily, physicists would be satisfied if the LHC continued its bread-and-butter existence of confirming with ever-greater precision the standard model — a remarkably successful theory that is known to be incomplete.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    But the excitement over the bump has left them hungry for more. As is evident from the 500 theory papers written about the bump, physics is ready for something new.

    That the LHC has not turned up anything beyond the standard model does not mean it never will. The machine has collected just one-tenth of the data that scientists hoped to amass by the end of 2022, and just 1% of those it could collect if a planned revamp to increase the intensity of collisions goes ahead.

    CERN HL-LHC bloc

    But the dry spell worries some. The idea of supersymmetry predicts that heavier counterparts to regular particles will become evident at higher collision energies.

    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY
    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY

    Before the LHC was switched on, fans of the theory would have gambled on being able to see something by now. And if the dry spell extends to a drought, high-energy physics could descend into what some call the nightmare scenario — the collider finds nothing beyond the Higgs boson. Without ‘new’ physics, there is no thread to pull to unravel the countless mysteries that the standard model fails to account for, including dark matter and gravity.

    3
    http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2014/aug/20/china-pursues-52-km-collider-project

    There remain strong reasons to build a successor machine. But without another discovery, the public’s delight in high-energy physics could fade: there comes a time when exploration alone no longer satisfies.

    Convincing funding agencies to cough up several billion dollars to continue the same approach will therefore be tough, especially when neutrino and lab-based precision experiments cost a fraction of the price.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF

    4
    Workers float on a raft in the Super-Kamiokande neutrino observatory which lies beneath Mount Kamioka in Hida, Japan. NPR, Wikipedia

    It will be physicists’ job to consider carefully the worth of pursuing that discovery strategy. And if high-energy colliders remain essential, they need to work on their sales pitch.

    See the full article here .

    See also here .

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    Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:02 am on August 12, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators,   

    From New Scientist: “LHC-style supercolliders are entering a make or break phase” 

    NewScientist

    New Scientist

    11 August 2016
    Gavin Hesketh

    As the Large Hadron Collider’s first sign of a superparticle melts away, physicists must contemplate their nightmare scenario.

    1
    ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN

    Particle physics finds itself in testing times. This branch of science aims to describe the universe by pulling it apart into its most fundamental building blocks, or particles, and putting them back together in a way that explains how everything works.

    Its most robust attempt to do this, the standard model, explains the subatomic world to incredible precision – but it falls short in some big ways, lacking the parts to explain gravity and the mysterious realms of dark matter and dark energy.

    Theories such as supersymmetry, and on extra dimensions and new forces of nature, seek to provide the missing pieces. Almost all of these predict new particles that mighty accelerator the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, is powerful enough to discover.

    The anticipation of finding such a particle probably explains what happened when a small bump showed up in LHC data at the end of 2015. This could have been the first sign of a particle 800 times heavier than a proton that could fit the predictions of supersymmetry. A flood of more than 500 theory papers followed in an attempt to explain it.

    But after adding the data taken at the LHC so far in 2016, the bump went away. The 2015 signal was just noise after all.

    Too early to call

    This prompted questions about the wisdom of pursuing proposals for even bigger and more expensive versions of the LHC. Some go as far as to call this no-show a nightmare scenario – but it is too early to make that call.

    We experimentalists will continue to search for these particles using the LHC, which it is hoped will deliver around 100 times more data than we have already collected. Admittedly, we will have to start wondering what to do if nothing new shows up at all.

    A machine bigger than the LHC would cast the net for new particles wider, and perhaps finally confirm or rule out theories such as supersymmetry. It would be a global initiative requiring significant upfront investment. CERN, China, Japan and the US are vying to host such a facility [It is pretty certain that the decision has been made to build the ILC in Japan].

    To undertake such a project would require thousands of people and billions of dollars over decades. But the economic case is strong: projects like this pay for themselves through spin-off technologies, and by inspiring and training future science, maths and engineering graduates.

    The main deciding factor, however, must be the scientific case. If we still have no clear sign that such a machine will really be able to discover or study the kind of particles predicted by supersymmetry, the investment may be better spent on many smaller facilities that can test the standard model in ways not possible at the LHC, searching for answers using different approaches.

    The next five years will be crucial to that decision. It is time for creativity, new ideas, lots of hard work, and some bumps along the way. At stake is a revolution in our understanding of the universe, and the future direction of global research in fundamental physics.

    See the full article here .

    And here .

    See China’s Supercollider Higgs Factory Will Be Twice The Size Of CERN’s Large Hadron Collider

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  • richardmitnick 7:29 am on August 11, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Particle Accelerators, , SixTrack   

    From SixTrack 

    BOINCLarge
    BOINC is a leader in the field(s) of Distributed Computing, Grid Computing and Citizen Cyberscience.BOINC is more properly the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, developed at UC Berkeley.

    26 Jul 2016

    LHC Sixtrack

    The members of the SixTrack project from LHC@Home would like to thank all the volunteers who made their CPUs available to us! Your contribution is precious, as in our studies we need to scan a rather large parameter space in order to find the best working points for our machines, and this would be hard to do without the computing power you all offer to us!

    Since 2012 we have started performing measurements with beam dedicated to probing what we call the “dynamic aperture” (DA). This is the region in phase space where particles can move without experiencing a large increase of the amplitude of their motion. For large machines like the LHC this is an essential parameter for granting beam stability and allowing long data taking at the giant LHC detectors. The measurements will be benchmarked against numerical simulations, and this is the point where you play an important role! Currently we are finalising a first simulation campaign and we are in the process of writing up the results in a final document. As a next step we are going to analyse the second half of the measured data, for which a new tracking campaign will be needed. …so, stay tuned!

    Magnets are the main components of an accelerator, and non-linearities in their fields have direct impact on the beam dynamics. The studies we are carrying out with your help are focussed not only on the current operation of the LHC but also on its upgrade, i.e. the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The design of the new components of the machine is at its final steps, and it is essential to make sure that the quality of the magnetic fields of the newly built components allow to reach the highly demanding goals of the project. Two aspects are mostly relevant:

    specifications for field quality of the new magnets. The criterion to assess whether the magnets’ filed quality is acceptable is based on the computation of the DA, which should larger than a pre-defined lower bound. The various magnet classes are included in the simulations one by one and the impact on DA is evaluated and the expected field quality is varied until the acceptance criterion of the DA is met.

    dynamic aperture under various optics conditions, analysis of non-linear correction system, and optics optimisation are essential steps to determine the field quality goals for the magnet designers, as well as evaluate and optimise the beam performance.

    The studies involve accelerator physicists from both CERN and SLAC.

    Long story made short, the tracking simulations we perform require significant computer resources, and BOINC is very helpful in carrying out the studies. Thanks a lot for your help!
    The SixTrack team

    Latest papers:

    R. de Maria, M. Giovannozzi, E. McIntosh (CERN), Y. Cai, Y. Nosochkov, M-H. Wang (SLAC), DYNAMIC APERTURE STUDIES FOR THE LHC HIGH LUMINOSITY LATTICE, Presented at IPAC 2015.
    Y. Nosochkov, Y. Cai, M-H. Wang (SLAC), S. Fartoukh, M. Giovannozzi, R. de Maria, E. McIntosh (CERN), SPECIFICATION OF FIELD QUALITY IN THE INTERACTION REGION MAGNETS OF THE HIGH LUMINOSITY LHC BASED ON DYNAMIC APERTURE, Presented at IPAC 2014

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    BOINC WallPaper

    Visit the BOINC web page, click on Choose projects and check out some of the very worthwhile studies you will find. Then click on Download and run BOINC software/ All Versons. Download and install the current software for your 32bit or 64bit system, for Windows, Mac or Linux. When you install BOINC, it will install its screen savers on your system as a default. You can choose to run the various project screen savers or you can turn them off. Once BOINC is installed, in BOINC Manager/Tools, click on “Add project or account manager” to attach to projects. Many BOINC projects are listed there, but not all, and, maybe not the one(s) in which you are interested. You can get the proper URL for attaching to the project at the projects’ web page(s) BOINC will never interfere with any other work on your computer.

    My BOINC
    MyBOINC

    MAJOR PROJECTS RUNNING ON BOINC SOFTWARE

    SETI@home The search for extraterrestrial intelligence. “SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) is a scientific area whose goal is to detect intelligent life outside Earth. One approach, known as radio SETI, uses radio telescopes to listen for narrow-bandwidth radio signals from space. Such signals are not known to occur naturally, so a detection would provide evidence of extraterrestrial technology.

    Radio telescope signals consist primarily of noise (from celestial sources and the receiver’s electronics) and man-made signals such as TV stations, radar, and satellites. Modern radio SETI projects analyze the data digitally. More computing power enables searches to cover greater frequency ranges with more sensitivity. Radio SETI, therefore, has an insatiable appetite for computing power.

    Previous radio SETI projects have used special-purpose supercomputers, located at the telescope, to do the bulk of the data analysis. In 1995, David Gedye proposed doing radio SETI using a virtual supercomputer composed of large numbers of Internet-connected computers, and he organized the SETI@home project to explore this idea. SETI@home was originally launched in May 1999.”


    SETI@home is the birthplace of BOINC software. Originally, it only ran in a screensaver when the computer on which it was installed was doing no other work. With the powerand memory available today, BOINC can run 24/7 without in any way interfering with other ongoing work.

    seti
    The famous SET@home screen saver, a beauteous thing to behold.

    einstein@home The search for pulsars. “Einstein@Home uses your computer’s idle time to search for weak astrophysical signals from spinning neutron stars (also called pulsars) using data from the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors, the Arecibo radio telescope, and the Fermi gamma-ray satellite. Einstein@Home volunteers have already discovered more than a dozen new neutron stars, and we hope to find many more in the future. Our long-term goal is to make the first direct detections of gravitational-wave emission from spinning neutron stars. Gravitational waves were predicted by Albert Einstein almost a century ago, but have never been directly detected. Such observations would open up a new window on the universe, and usher in a new era in astronomy.”

    MilkyWay@Home Milkyway@Home uses the BOINC platform to harness volunteered computing resources, creating a highly accurate three dimensional model of the Milky Way galaxy using data gathered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This project enables research in both astroinformatics and computer science.”

    Leiden Classical “Join in and help to build a Desktop Computer Grid dedicated to general Classical Dynamics for any scientist or science student!”

    World Community Grid (WCG) World Community Grid is a special case at BOINC. WCG is part of the social initiative of IBM Corporation and the Smarter Planet. WCG has under its umbrella currently eleven disparate projects at globally wide ranging institutions and universities. Most projects relate to biological and medical subject matter. There are also projects for Clean Water and Clean Renewable Energy. WCG projects are treated respectively and respectably on their own at this blog. Watch for news.

    Rosetta@home “Rosetta@home needs your help to determine the 3-dimensional shapes of proteins in research that may ultimately lead to finding cures for some major human diseases. By running the Rosetta program on your computer while you don’t need it you will help us speed up and extend our research in ways we couldn’t possibly attempt without your help. You will also be helping our efforts at designing new proteins to fight diseases such as HIV, Malaria, Cancer, and Alzheimer’s….”

    GPUGrid.net “GPUGRID.net is a distributed computing infrastructure devoted to biomedical research. Thanks to the contribution of volunteers, GPUGRID scientists can perform molecular simulations to understand the function of proteins in health and disease.” GPUGrid is a special case in that all processor work done by the volunteers is GPU processing. There is no CPU processing, which is the more common processing. Other projects (Einstein, SETI, Milky Way) also feature GPU processing, but they offer CPU processing for those not able to do work on GPU’s.

    gif

    These projects are just the oldest and most prominent projects. There are many others from which you can choose.

    There are currently some 300,000 users with about 480,000 computers working on BOINC projects That is in a world of over one billion computers. We sure could use your help.

    My BOINC

    graph

     
  • richardmitnick 6:04 pm on July 28, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Particle Accelerators, , SESAME   

    From Science: “Physics lab aims to bridge political divides in Middle East” 

    AAAS

    AAAS

    Jul. 28, 2016
    Erik Stokstad

    1
    Jordan is on the verge of opening the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East as workers enter homestretch of synchrotron’s construction. CERN.

    An experiment in science diplomacy is on the threshold of success. Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), an $80 million synchrotron lab in Allan, Jordan, announced this week its first call for research that will be conducted on two beamlines expected to switch on this autumn. Research should start in earnest early next year.

    “The news is that it’s working, against the odds,” says Chris Llewellyn Smith, a physicist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom and president of the SESAME Council. The project was behind schedule because of political complications—visa restrictions for scientists, for example, and sanctions against Iran, a partner—and a freak snowstorm that collapsed the main building’s roof in 2013. Now, “we are in the final stage,” Eliezer Rabinovici, a theoretical physicist at Hebrew University of Jerusalem said at a 27 July press conference here at the EuroScience Open Forum. “To see dreams become reality, this is a very special moment.”

    A synchrotron is an important tool for many fields, as it creates intense beams of light that are used to probe biological cells or materials. There are about 60 synchrotrons in the world; SESAME is the first in the Middle East. Projects envisioned for the synchrotron include analyzing breast cancer tissue samples, studying Red Sea corals and soil pollution, and probing archaeological remains.

    The initiative was conceived in the 1990s as a partnership among many countries. Germany donated a big-ticket component: the injector that sends particles into the main storage ring. That project has attracted about $30 million in donations from outside the region, supplementing the construction costs financed primarily by Israel, Jordan, and Turkey. Iran has also pledged $5 million, but its contributions have been delayed by sanctions. SESAME’s operating costs are paid for by its member states: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, the Palestinian National Authority, and Turkey.

    Smith says the facility is on track for commissioning in December. Two beamlines will be ready this year—for x-rays and infrared light—and two more will be built by 2019. Gihan Kamel, SESAME’s infrared beam line scientist, says researchers from the Middle East have already begun working at the facility, by hooking up detectors and microscopes to lower-power sources at the facility. Once the synchrotron fires up, the resolution and brightness will increase dramatically.

    In the conflict-riven Middle East, security at SESAME is a worry. “There are severe concerns,” Rabinovici says. The lab is building a guest house for visiting scientists inside its perimeter fence. Rabinovici hopes the physics oasis will help ease regional tensions. “We are offering light at the end of one tunnel.”

    See the full article here .

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an international non-profit organization dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of all people.

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  • richardmitnick 12:59 pm on July 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , inSPIRE - HEP High-Energy Physics Literature Database, Particle Accelerators, ,   

    From Symmetry: “The most important website in particle physics” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    07/26/16
    Matthew R. Francis

    The first website to be hosted in the US has grown to be an invaluable hub for open science.

    1
    Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Lexi Fodor

    With tens of thousands of particle physicists working in the world today, the biggest challenge a researcher can have is keeping track of what everyone else is doing. The articles they write, the collaborations they form, the experiments they run—all of those things are part of being current. After all, high-energy particle physics is a big enterprise, not the province of a few isolated people working out of basement laboratories.

    Particle physicists have a tool that helps them with that. The INSPIRE database allows scientists to search for published papers by topic, author, scholarly journal, what previous papers the authors cited and which newer papers have used it as a reference.

    2

    “I don’t know any other discipline with such a central tool as INSPIRE,” says Sünje Dallmeier-Tiessen, an information scientist at CERN who manages INSPIRE’s open-access initiative. If you’re a high-energy physicist, “everything that relates to your daily work-life, you can find there.”

    Researchers in high-energy physics and related fields use INSPIRE for their professional profiles, job-hunting and promotional materials. They use it to keep track of other people’s research in their disciplines and for finding good resources to cite in their own papers.

    INSPIRE has been around in one form or another since 1969, says Bernard Hecker, who is in charge of SLAC’s portion of INSPIRE. “So we have a high level of credibility with people who use the service.” It is the successor of the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) database, the main literature database for high energy physics since the 1970s.

    INSPIRE contains up-to-date information about over a million papers, including those published in the major journals. INSPIRE’s database also interacts with the arXiv, a free-access site that hosts papers independently of whether they’re published in journals or not. “We text-mine everything [on the arXiv], and then provide search to the content, and search based on specific algorithms we run,” Dallmeier-Tiessen says.

    In that way, INSPIRE is a powerful addition to the arXiv, which itself provides access to many articles that would otherwise require expensive journal subscriptions or exorbitant one-time fees.

    A lot of human labor is involved. The arXiv, for example, doesn’t distinguish between two people with the same last name and same first initial. “We have a strong interest in keeping dynamic profiles and disambiguating different researchers with similar names,” Hecker says.

    To that end, the INSPIRE team looks at author lists on published papers to match individual researchers with their correct institutions. This includes collaborating with the Institute of High Energy Physics in China, as well as cross-checking other databases.

    The goal, Hecker says, is “trying to find the stuff that’s directly relevant and not stuff that’s not relevant.” After all, researchers will only use the site if its useful, a complicated challenge that INSPIRE has met consistently. “We’re trying to optimize the time researchers spend on the site.”

    Now That’s What I Call Physics

    Every January, the INSPIRE team releases a list of the top 40 most cited articles in high-energy physics that year.

    Looking over the list for 2015, you might be forgiven for thinking it was a slow year. The most commonly referenced articles were papers from previous years, some just a few years old, a few going back several decades.

    But even in years without a blockbuster discovery such as the Higgs boson or gravitational waves, INSPIRE’s list is still useful a snapshot of where the minds of the research community are focused.

    In 2015, researchers prioritized studying the Higgs boson. The two most widely referenced articles of 2015 were the papers announcing its discovery by researchers at the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. The INSPIRE “top 40” for 2015 also includes the original 1964 theoretical papers by Peter Higgs, François Englert, and Robert Brout predicting the existence of the Higgs.

    Another topic that stood out in 2015 was the cosmic microwave background, a pattern of light that could tell us about conditions in the universe just after the Big Bang. Four highly cited papers, including the third most-referenced, came from the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment, with a fifth devoted to the final WMAP cosmic microwave background data.

    It seems that cosmology was on physicists’ minds. Two more top papers were the first measurements of dark energy from the late ’90s, while yet two more described results from the dark matter experiments LUX and XENON100.

    Open science, open data, open code

    INSPIRE grew out of the Stanford Public Information Retrieval System (SPIRES), a database started at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in 1969 when the internet was in its infancy.

    After Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web at CERN, SPIRES was the first US-hosted website.

    Like high-energy physics itself, the database is international and cooperative. SLAC joined with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States, DESY in Germany, and CERN in Switzerland, which now hosts the site, to create the modern version of INSPIRE. The newest member of the collaboration is IHEP Beijing in China. Institutions in France and Japan also collaborate on particular projects.

    INSPIRE has changed a lot since its inception, and a new version is coming out soon. The biggest change will extend INSPIRE’s database to include repositories for data and computer code.

    Starting later this year, INSPIRE will integrate with the HEPDATA open-data archive and the github code-collaboration system to increase visibility for both data and code that scientists write. The INSPIRE team will also roll out a new interface, so it looks “less like something from 1995,” Hecker says.

    From its inception as a way to share printed articles by mail, INSPIRE continues to be a valuable resource to the community. With more papers coming out every year and no sign of decrease in the number of particle physicists working, the need to build on past research—and construct collaborations—is more important than ever.

    See the full article here .

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 12:05 pm on July 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL Maintenance and upgrades: the 2016 summer shutdown, , Particle Accelerators,   

    From FNAL: “Maintenance and upgrades: the 2016 summer shutdown” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    July 22, 2016
    Sergei Nagaitsev

    Every year, the summer shutdown of the accelerator complex provides a short break in Fermilab accelerator operations. It allows for a brief time to reflect on the successful operation of the past year. With the achievement of performance metrics and internal goals fresh in our minds, the summer shutdown is the period where we look ahead to next year’s goals. The machine improvements and installation of new beamlines, components and systems look good on paper, but the real test follows during machine operation.

    The summer shutdown also provides a chance for some much needed system maintenance. Many systems have been running all year with minimal upkeep. Some systems have been patched up to keep them operational until the anticipated shutdown. Power supply, vacuum, sump, lighting, cooling, ventilation, water supply and many more systems – all need to be maintained.

    The accelerator operators have an opportunity to work on projects, training and procedures. Some operators will help out support groups with various tasks and expand their system knowledge. The addition of the new interlock region in the Main Injector could allow Booster Neutrino Beamline startup several weeks early. This will provide the operators with some time to focus on the Linac and Booster operation while work continues in Main Injector.

    For some operators, a multiweek break from shiftwork and a chance to renormalize to working days is a welcome change. In any case, the machine startup in November, with new challenges and goals, will test even the experienced operators.

    The 2016 summer shutdown will start Aug. 1 and will last 15 weeks. Here’s a brief summary of what we’ll be doing:

    Accelerator shutdown summary

    The Proton Source Group will install the first of five full (56-cell) Marx modulators, or high-voltage pulse generators. These solid-state modulators will replace the aging tube-driven system that was originally installed in the late 1960s.

    The Booster Group will focus on installing two new radio-frequency power stations. This work also involves substantial gallery modification to make space for the two new driver and modulator stations.

    Three major jobs in the Recycler Ring will take place during the shutdown. One is to upgrade Recycler vacuum pumps. It will span approximately one-third of the ring circumference. A second task is to install the Recycler collimator. This will be the cornerstone of providing regular 700-kilowatt-beam operations to the complex. The collimators are designed to absorb off-momentum beam in a controlled manner, thus containing losses in the machine in a designated area. Third, we are installing a new 2.5-megahertz RF cavity, which will rebunch the beam destined for the Muon Campus.

    The NuMI Group will replace the existing beam target and perform general, shutdown-period maintenance.

    A new beamline connection from the Recycler to the Muon Campus was installed in previous shutdowns. The remaining work in the Delivery Ring and new Muon Campus beamlines does not require a shutdown and will be ready to commission beam to the Muon g-2 experiment next spring.

    In one sector of the switchyard, we will rework the P3 line vacuum system and install some additional diagnostic equipment in the beamline.

    In the first few weeks of the shutdown, we will also test the new Booster Neutrino Beam horn in one of the service buildings. The testing needs to be done with the operational power supply since it’s the only supply that can generate the proper pulse form to commission the horn.

    With technical help from the Particle Physics Division, the Technical Division and ESH&Q, the 15-week shutdown will be a safe and productive one.Sergei Nagaitsev

    See the full article here .

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    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
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