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  • richardmitnick 4:19 pm on February 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , In a recent multimessenger partnership IceCube researchers have joined efforts with Pan-STARRS1 astronomers to follow up high-energy neutrino alerts, Pann-STARS 1 Telescope U Hawaii situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii USA altitude 3052 m (10013 ft),   

    From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration: “Pan-STARRS1 far vision at the service of neutrino sources” 

    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    From From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration

    04 Feb 2019
    Sílvia Bravo

    Pan-STARSS1, a 1.8-meter-diameter optical telescope on the island of Maui is the world’s leading near-Earth object discovery telescope. However, its large digital camera, with almost 1.4 billion pixels, can also detect galactic and extragalactic transient phenomena and has a great potential for the discovery of supernovas, some of which could be sources of high-energy neutrinos.

    Pann-STARS 1 Telescope, U Hawaii, situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii, USA, altitude 3,052 m (10,013 ft)

    In a recent publication submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics, the IceCube Collaboration and Pan-STARRS1 scientists have searched for counterpart transient optical emission associated with IceCube high-energy neutrino alerts. When following five alerts sent during 2016-17, researchers found one supernova worth studying, SN PS16cgx. However, a more detailed analysis showed that it is most likely a Type Ia supernova, i.e., the result of a white dwarf explosion, which is not expected to produce neutrinos.

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    Pan-STARRS1 riz-band false-colour 1′ × 1′subsection of the field of PS16cgx. North is up, east is left.

    Neutrino emission is expected in large amounts from supernovas, but in many cases these neutrinos have typical energies in the MeV range and are not associated with high-energy cosmic rays.

    Very high energy neutrinos, which point to cosmic-ray sources, can be produced in some types of supernovas and usually only during a very short time. Astronomers have detected more than ten thousand extragalactic supernovas, and a few more in the Milky Way––if we take into account early observations by the naked eye or with the first telescopes––but to date none of them has proven to be a source of astrophysical TeV-and-above neutrinos.

    In a recent multimessenger partnership, IceCube researchers have joined efforts with Pan-STARRS1 astronomers to follow up high-energy neutrino alerts, looking for counterpart electromagnetic emission. For small flares of neutrinos, such as the case of individual IceCube alerts, the associated electromagnetic emission can be the only way to single out a potential neutrino source. This was the case, for example, in the identification of the first likely source of high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays following a 290-TeV neutrino detected in IceCube in September 2017.

    Moreover, only a detailed understanding of mulimessenger and multiwavelength emission can reveal the processes that power the most extreme environments in the universe.

    In fact, IceCube’s high-energy realtime alerts program was launched in 2016 to boost these types of follow-ups, trying to catch transient phenomena that would otherwise be only serendipitously observed by several telescopes at the same time.

    Pan-STARRS1 followed five of the IceCube alerts sent during the first two years of operation of the realtime program. The first alert was sent on April 27, 2016, and turned out to be the only one with a prospective counterpart emission from Pan-STARRS1 observations.

    Transient PS16cgx showed a rising light curve over two days, which is a typical signature of a young supernova, possibly undergoing a potential explosion epoch where very high energy neutrinos could be produced.

    Initial spectral observations were not able to clarify whether this was a Type Ia supernova, which is not expected to emit high-energy neutrinos, or a Type Ic supernova, a stripped core-collapse supernova that could be a cosmic-ray generator and, thus, an emitter of high-energy neutrinos.

    After further inspection, looking for more detailed features of the electromagnetic emission spectrum, researchers concluded that the observations are in reasonable agreement with emission expected from a Type Ia supernova and that, at the same time, there is no specific argument to support a classification as a Type Ic supernova. Therefore, scientists think that the IceCube neutrino and PS16cgx are not related.

    Looking at the rate of high-energy alerts with good pointing resolution in IceCube––currently, fewer than ten per year––researchers estimate that one could expect a true association of a supernova and a high-energy neutrino once every two years, assuming that all IceCube alerts can be followed up. These results also support expanding the redshift range, i.e., the distance of the transient sources, of these joint searches, which would increase the number of transient phenomena observed and, thus, the discovery potential of neutrino and cosmic-ray sources.

    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube DeepCore annotated

    IceCube PINGU annotated


    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:03 am on January 28, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Pan-STARRS releases 1.6 petabytes of data from its four-year survey, Pann-STARS 1 Telescope U Hawaii situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii USA altitude 3052 m (10013 ft), The survey data resides in the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) which serves as NASA's repository for all of its optical and ultraviolet-light observations, University of Hawai’i Institute for Astronomy in Honolulu Hawaii USA, World's Largest Digital Sky Survey Issues Biggest Astronomical Data Release Ever   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope: “World’s Largest Digital Sky Survey Issues Biggest Astronomical Data Release Ever” 

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Jan 28, 2019

    Media Contact:
    Christine Pulliam
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4366
    cpulliam@stsci.edu

    Science Contacts:
    Marc Postman
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4340
    postman@stsci.edu

    Armin Rest
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4358
    arest@stsci.edu

    Pann-STARS 1 Telescope, U Hawaii, situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii, USA altitude 3,052 m (10,013 ft)

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    Pan-STARRS releases 1.6 petabytes of data from its four-year survey

    Data from the world’s largest digital sky survey is being publicly released today by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, in conjunction with the University of Hawai’i Institute for Astronomy in Honolulu, Hawaii. Data from the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will allow anyone to access millions of images and use the database and catalogs containing precision measurements of billions of stars and galaxies. This data release contains over 1.6 petabytes of data (a petabyte is one million gigabytes), making it the largest volume of astronomical information ever released. The survey data resides in the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), which serves as NASA’s repository for all of its optical and ultraviolet-light observations.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, in conjunction with the University of Hawai’i Institute for Astronomy (IfA), is releasing the second edition of data from Pan-STARRS — the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System — the world’s largest digital sky survey. This second release contains over 1.6 petabytes of data (a petabyte is 1015 bytes or one million gigabytes), making it the largest volume of astronomical information ever released. The amount of imaging data is equivalent to two billion selfies, or 30,000 times the total text content of Wikipedia. The catalog data is 15 times the volume of the Library of Congress.

    The Pan-STARRS observatory consists of a 1.8-meter telescope equipped with a 1.4-billion-pixel digital camera, located at the summit of Haleakalā, on Maui. Conceived and developed by the IfA, it embarked on a digital survey of the sky in visible and near-infrared light in May 2010. Pan-STARRS was the first survey to observe the entire sky visible from Hawai’i multiple times in many colors of light. One of the survey’s goals was to identify moving, transient, and variable objects, including asteroids that could potentially threaten the Earth. The survey took approximately four years to complete, scanning the sky 12 times in five filters. This second data release provides, for the first time, access to all of the individual exposures at each epoch of time. This will allow astronomers and public users of the archive to search the full survey for high-energy explosive events in the cosmos, discover moving objects in our own solar system, and explore the time domain of the universe.

    Dr. Heather Flewelling, a researcher at the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai’i, and a key designer of the PS1 database, stated that “Pan-STARRS DR2 represents a vast quantity of astronomical data, with many great discoveries already unveiled. These discoveries just barely scratch the surface of what is possible, however, and the astronomy community will now be able to dig deep, mine the data, and find the astronomical treasures within that we have not even begun to imagine.”

    “We put the universe in a box and everyone can take a peek,” said database engineer Conrad Holmberg.

    The four years of data comprise 3 billion separate sources, including stars, galaxies, and various other objects. This research program was undertaken by the PS1 Science Consortium — a collaboration among 10 research institutions in four countries, with support from NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Consortium observations for the sky survey were completed in April 2014. The initial Pan-STARRS public data release occurred in December 2016, but included only the combined data and not the individual exposures at each epoch of time.

    “The Pan-STARRS1 Survey allows anyone access to millions of images and catalogs containing precision measurements of billions of stars, galaxies, and moving objects,” said Dr Ken Chambers, Director of the Pan-STARRS Observatories. “While searching for Near Earth Objects, Pan-STARRS has made many discoveries from ‘Oumuamua passing through our solar system to lonely planets between the stars; it has mapped the dust in three dimensions in our galaxy and found new streams of stars; and it has found new kinds of exploding stars and distant quasars in the early universe. We hope people will discover all kinds of things we missed in this incredibly large and rich dataset.”

    The Space Telescope Science Institute hosts the storage hardware, the computers that handle the database queries, and the user-friendly interfaces to access the data. The survey data resides in the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), which serves as NASA’s repository for all of its optical and ultraviolet-light observations, some of which date to the early 1970s. It includes all of the observational data from such space astrophysics missions as Hubble, Kepler, GALEX, and a wide variety of other telescopes, as well as several all-sky surveys. Pan-STARRS marks the nineteenth mission to be archived in MAST.

    The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys and its science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawai’i, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, the Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian (CfA), the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eōtvōs Loránd University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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